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Trng i hc Bch Khoa H Ni

Vin k thut ha hc

GVHD: Ts.Bi Th Vn Anh


SVTH:
Nguyn Th Vn Anh
L c Anh
Th Chi
Thnh Cng
Vit Cng
Nguyn Vn Chin

Tm tt ni dung:
1

Photpho

Cc hp cht quan trng ca photpho

sn xut H3 PO4 theo phng php nhit

Gii php kim sot nc nhim

1. Photpho
V tr v cu hnh e nguyn t

1. Photpho

Dng
th hnh

P trng

P en

1. Photpho
1.1 Th hnh
Photpho trng

Photpho

Cu to

Cc tnh cht
vt l

Cu trc mng tinh th


Tonc : 44,1o C
Tobh : 280.8o C
d: 1,8g/cm3
Khng tan trong nc, tan trong dung
mi khng phn cc nh benzen,
toluen -> c bo qun bng cch
ngm trong nc

Cu trc polime
Tonc : 500-600o C
D: 2.1 2.2 g/cm3
Thng hoa p sut thp
Khng tan trong bt k dung mi no

Khng c

1. Photpho
1.1 th hnh
P en:
t ng dng trong thc t
C cu trc tng t nh graphit
C tnh dn in
P vng
Thc t ta thng gp photpho vng
Thc cht l hn hp P trng c ln P do 1 phn P
trng chuyn thnh P

1.1 Photpho
S chuyn ha gia photpho v photpho trng

Hi P4
to

Lm lnh

P trng
250o
Ym kh

Dng tn ti trong t nhin


Tn ti trong qung apatit, photphorit

Qung apatit Ca5(PO4 )3 F

Qung photphorit Ca3 (PO4 )2

Dng tn ti trong t nhin


Cn tn ti trong protein ng thc vt, v trong xng
ng vt

Sn xut
dim

Thnh phn
thuc dim

6P +5KClO3 -> 5KCl + 3P2 O5


P, thnh
phn trn v
dim

ng dng
Dng trong
qun s

iu ch
cc hp cht
photpho

Hin tng ma tri

Hp cht PH3 , P2 H4 hnh thnh nh hot ng ca vi khun, hn hp ny c


Kh nng bc chy k thng khi tip xc vi kk to ngon la mu xanh
2PH3 + 4O2 -> P2 O5 +3 H2 O
P2 H4 + 3O2 -> P2 O5 +H2 O

2. Cc hp cht quan trng ca photpho


2.1 P2 O5
L tinh th mu trng ht m mnh
B thng hoa 359o C, hi bay ln to thnh phn t kp

P4 O10
L thnh phn dinh dng ch yu trong phn ln
t P to ra P2 O5 : 4P + 5O2 -> 2P2 O5

2. Cc hp cht quan trng ca photpho


2.2 axit photphoric
Cu trc v tnh cht vt l
L tinh th rn khng mu
Tonc : 42,35o C
Dng H3PO4.2H2O c
tnc : 29.32o C
Tan v hn trong nc v trong etanol, dung dch m c
snh nh nc ng

2.2 axit Photphoric


Axit photphoric l mt ax bc 3 c cc hng s phn ly
H3PO4 H+ + H2PO4- K1 = 7,11.10-3
H2PO-4 H++ HPO42- K2 = 6,32.10-8
HPO42- H+ + PO43- K3 = 4.5.10-13
( S liu tr42 Ha phn tch, tg: Trn Th Thy-Trn Thu QunhV Anh Tun)

nht

nht

Khi lng ring

Gin lng-hi

Gin pha h H3PO4 H2O

dn in

2.2 axit photphoric


Tnh cht ha hc
Tnh oxh-kh:
H3 PO4 kh b kh nhit thng, c tnh oxh yu
nhit cao
Tc dng bi nhit: di tc dng ca nhit axit
photphoric b mt nc to ra cc dng axit khc
260o C: 2H3 PO4 -> H4P2O7 + H2O ( axit diphotphoric)
300o C : H3 PO4 -> HPO3 + H2O ( axit metaphotphoric)
Tnh axit: L mt a axit, c tnh axit trung bnh, lm
qu, tc dng vi bazo, oxit bazo, mui

ng dng ca H3PO4
Nguyn liu sn xut phn bn, thu tinh gch men,
x l nc, xi mng, sn xut cht git ty.

ng dng ca H3 PO4
Axit Phosphoric c s dng lm nc ngt, mt,

thch rau cu, pho mt hoc to hng thm cho thc


phm.

ng dng
Cc mui natri ca axit photphoric, natri phosphat

(NaH2PO4) l axt yu, v c s dng vi natri


bicarbonate lm cho bt n.

ng dng
X l b mt kim loi, lm cht ty ra cng nghip

2. Cc hp cht quan trng ca photpho


2.3 Cc mui ca axit photphoric
Axit photphoric c th to ra thnh 3 dy mui

ng dng ca cc mui
ng dng

Dng lm phn
bn cho nng
nghip

Lm cht ty
ra, lm mm
nc chng mt

Lm cc mui
kim loi bo
v kim loi

3. Sn xut H3 PO4 theo phng php nhit


Nguyn liu.

Qung Apatit

Photphorit

Apatit
Cng thc tng qut: Ca10R2(PO4)6 (hay Ca5R(PO4)3)

Trong R l gc F-, Cl-, Ba, Mg, Mn, Fe, OHMu ca qung ph thuc vo gc R
Gm 4 loi
Loi 1: floapatit (P2 O5 : 25%)
Loi 2: floapatit c n thm dolomit v CaCO3 (P2O5 :
21-24%)
Loi 3: Hm lng P2O5 tng t nh loi 2, ngoi
floapatit cn cha thm khong silicat c ng dng
sn xut ax Photphoric nhit
Loi 4: C hm lng P2O5 thp hn

Tr lng
Qung apatit vng Lo Cai c thm d c xc

nh tr lng l 778 triu tn


Trong qung loi I l 31 triu tn.
Qung loi II l 234 triu tn.
Qung loi III l 222 triu tn.
Qung loi IV l 291 triu tn.

Photphorit
Photphorit l khong trm tch do kt ta ca canxi
pht pht t nc bin v mt s tp cht khc ca Si,
Cu, Al, Mg, Fe.

3. Sn xut axit photphoric theo phng


php nhit
Cng ngh sn xut photpho vng
Phng php:
Dng than kh Ca3 (PO4)2
Nhit : 1400-1600oC
Nu c mt SiO2 th nhit nung gim xung: 1000-1300o C
Photpho to thnh thng hoa cng vi CO
Ptpu:
Ca3 (PO4 )2 +5C -> 3CaO+ 2P +5CO -413kcal
2Ca3 (PO4 )2 + 10C + 6SiO2 -> 4P + 10CO +6 CaSiO3 -348,8kcal

Cng ngh sn xut photpho vng

3. Sn xut H3 PO4 theo phng php nhit

Phng
php nhit

Mt cp

Hai cp

Hoechst

3. Sn xut H3 PO4 theo phng php nhit


Phng php 1 cp

Phng php 2 cp

Qu trnh oxh P v

Qu trnh oxh P v

hydrat ha xy ra

hydrat ha xy ra

trong cng 1 thp

2 thp ring bit

Nguyn l qu trnh sn xut


1. T P ch to P2O5 theo phn ng
P4O10
P4
+ 5 O2
Theo phng php 1 cp th c P v CO b oxy ha

P4 + 10 CO + 10 O2
P4O10 + 10 CO2
2. Hydrat ha P2O5
khong 800oC 1000oC to thnh anhydrit
photphoric
P2O5
+ 2 H2O
4 HPO3
Sau HPO3 b hydrat ha thnh H3PO4

HPO3

+ H2O

H3PO4

Ch
trnh s to thnh hypophotphoro th khi t chy

photpho phi tin hnh vi lng khng kh gp 2 ln


Vi nhit 450oC 540oC trong v cung cp 120
130% khng kh so vi l thuyt th c th oxy ha gn
nh hon ton P
Nh vy thc cht ca qu trnh l :

+O2

P2O5

+H2O

HPO3

+H2O

H3PO4

S cng ngh sn xut theo


phng php tun hon 1 thp
Hi Photpho

1: Ming phun; 2: Thp t chy; 3: Thit b lc in; 4: Qut; 5: B cha axit; 6: My bm; 7:
Thit b lm mt

S cng ngh sn xut theo phng php


tun hon 2 thp ring bit

Phng php hoechst

Ghi ch:
a_ b cha
b_ sy kh
c_ Ngi t
d_ Bung t
e_ Ni hi

S khc bit phng php hoechst


v phng php 2 cp
Phng php hoechts: tn dng nhit ti a t bung

t
Thnh bung t c lm bng ng dng cun
bm nc ct vo, ly nhit t qu trnh t P

u - Nhc im
Tun hon 2 thp ring bit Tun hon 1 thp
Chi ph thit b thp hn

Thit b cng knh, tn nhiu

Tn hao nc v nng lng

chi ph
Tn hao nhiu nng lng
Axit to ra c tinh khit
km

thp hn
To ra axit tinh khit hn
Khi cn thit c th ch to
photpho vng

Tnh hnh sn xut


Phng php ngy cng t s dng trn th gii do tn rt

nhiu nng lng


Tuy nhin khi s dng H3 PO4 cho ph gia thc phm,
dc phm th vn dng H3 PO4 nhit