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Topic Introduction Chemistry in medicines Chemistry in food Chemistry in soaps and detergents Chemistry in dyes Chemistry in cosmetics Other important uses of chemistry Summary
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This topic deals with the use of chemistry in daily life activities i.e. how the results and chemicals obtained by chemical reactions and chemical analysis can be utilized for the welfare of humankind. The stress has also been given on the fact that the chemicals to be utilized should affect the environment and surroundings in the least possible way.this is my attempt to provide all the information as a zest.
Chemistry plays an important role in our daily lives. we severely use chemicals now and then for our benefit. her are some important applications of chemistry in different fields-
CHEMISTRY IN MEDICINESAt first ayurvedic and unani methods were used for the treatment of deseases,but they took a long time to cure the disease. As a result allopathy replaced them as it provides relief from the disease in a time relatively small as compared to other methods. let us first know what a medicine is. The chemical substances of natural or synthetic origin which provide relief from pain or which are used for curing diseases are called medicines and this process is known as chemotherapy. to understand the topic we must be aware of the difference between term drug and medicine. as such there is no difference between drug and medicine from chemical point of view but our society makes a clearcut distinction between the two as follows- A medicine is a chemical substance which cures diseases,is safe to use,has negligible toxicity and does not cause addiction. in contrast, a drug is a chemical substance which also cures the disease but is habit forming,causes addiction and has serious side effects. TYPES OF DRUGS• Antacids-the substances which neuitralise the excess acid and raise the pH to an appropriate level in stomach are called antacids. most commonly used antacids are weak bases such as sodium bicarbonate,magnesium trisilicate etc. Antihistamines- histamine is a potent vasodilator. It is responsible for allergy such as skin rashes,inflammation of tissues and itching of hives etc. the drug which interferes with the natural actin of histamine by competing with histamine for binding site of receptor where histamine exers its effect arw called antihistamines. example of antihistamine drugs are brompheniramine and terfenadine. Neurologically active drugs(a)-Tranquilisers-drugs which are used for the treatment of stress,fatigue,mild and severe mental diseases are called tranquilisers.they relieve anxiety, stress ,irritability by inducing a sense of well being. examples are equanil,veronal, seconal etc. (b)-Analgesics- drugs which reduce or abolish pain without impairment consciousness, mental confusion,incoordination or paralysis or some other disturbance or disorder of the nervous system are called analgesics. these are further classified into two components 1.non narcotic or non addictive drugs which do not form habit. examples are aspirin and paracitemol 2.narcotic or addictive drugs which form habit.examples codcine and morphine.
antimicrobials-drugs used to cure diseases caused by microbes or microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses,fungi etc are called antimicrobials. examples are salvassan and azodye. Antibiotic- chemical substances which in low concentration,either kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms by intervening in their metabolic process are called antibiotics.chrysogenum and penicillin are few examples. Antiseptic and disinfactants-antiseptics are the chemical substances which prevent the growth of micro-organisms and may even kill them. examples are furacin and soframycin. Disinfectants are chemical substances which kill micro- organisms but are not safe to be applied to the living tissues.examples are dettol and savlon.
CHEMISTRY IN FOODAll those chemicals which are added to food to improve it keeping qualities,appearance, test, odour and nutritive value are called are called food additives. some important food additives are1. food colours 2. flavours and sweetness 3. fat emulsifiers and stabilizing agents 4. flour improves-antistaling agents 5. antioxidants 6. preservatives 7. nutritional supplements such as minerals ,vitamins and amino acids. • Artificial swetening agents-glucose and sucrose are most widely used artificial sweetening agents but they add to the calorie intake. there fore saccharin is niw used 4
as sweetener as it is about 550 times sweeter than suger and does not add to the calorie intake. it is useul for sugar patients as it is not biodegradable and thus can be excreted as such in urine • Preservatives-chemical substances which are used to protect food against bacteria,yeasts and moulds are called preservatives . some important preservatives are sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulphate.
CHEMISTRY IN SOAPS AND DETERGENTS
A detergent is anything that cleans, especially if it removes oily or greasy dirt. One particular kind of detergent is soap. Soaps are detergents in the sense that they help clean oily and greasy dirt from fabrics, metals, our skin and hair. We restrict the term soap to the sodium salts of long-chain carboxylic acids. A carboxylic acid is marked by the presence of a carboxyl group, -CO2H. With the anion of the carboxyl group balanced by a sodium cation and tied by a covalent bond to a long chain of -CH2- groups that terminate in a CH3- group, we have a soap molecule. We can generalize the molecular structure of a soap molecule as CH3 - (CH2)n - CO2 - Na2+ CH3 - (CH2)n - resembles quite closely the long chains of the hydrocarbon molecules. Like the molecules of gasoline and mineral oil, this part of the soap molecule tends to dissolve readily in materials that are or that resemble hydrocarbons, but not in water. All these long chains of -CH2groups of soaps and of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon-like materials intermingle easily, but they don't mix readily with the H2O molecules of water. The other end of the molecule, though is ionic: O || - C - O - Na+ Like sodium chloride and other ionic compounds, that ionic end tends to dissolve in water, but not in hydrocarbon solvents. As a result, one molecule has two opposite and contradictory tendencies. A hydrophilic structure is attracted towards water molecules but shun hydrocarbons and other oily and greasy substances. A hydrophobic structure shuns water but mixes easily with those very oily, greasy substances that repel the hydrophilic, or charged, part.
Limitations of soap-
1. soaps cannot be used in hard water because calcium and magnesium ions present in hard water produce curdy white precipitate and thus hamper the cleansing action of the soap. 2. soaps cannot be used in acidic solution since acids present in the solution precipitate the insoluble free fatty acids which adhere to the fabrics and thus cleansing action of soap decreases. Soapless detergentssoapless detergents are cleansing agents which have all the properties of soaps, but which actually do not contain any soap.Since they are synthetic substances,therefore they are also called synthetic detergents. unlike soaps , synthetic detergents can also be conveniently used even with hard water. this is due to the reason that sodium and magnesium salts of detergents like their sodium salts are alsosoluble in water.hence synthetic detergents do not form curdy white precipitate with hard water. further they can also be used in acidic solutions. However synthetic detergents have one disadvantage. unlike soaps they are not completely biodegradable. synthetic detergents are of 3 types:(a).anionic detergents-these are so called because a large part of their molecules are anions. examples are sodium lauryl sulphate( C11H23CH2OSO3- Na+) and sodium alkylbenzenesulphonates. (b).cationic detergents-these are quaternary ammonium salts containing one or more long chain alkyl groups.e.g.cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide. (c).non ionic detergents-These are esters of high molecular mass alcohols obtained by reaction between polythelene glycol and stearic acid e.g. polythelene glycol stearate (CH3(CH2)16COO(CH2CH2O)nCH2CH2OH)
CHEMISTRY IN DYES
Dyes - Meaning and Characteristics- Colored substances used for dyeing fabrics are called dyes. A true dye must: • Have a suitable color • Be able to attach itself to the material from solution or be capable of being fixed on it • Be fast to light and washing when fixed. For this it must be resistant to water, acid and alkali Dyes - Chromophores Unsaturated groups or groups with multiple bonds that impart color to the organic compound are called chromophores. Examples are the nitro, the nitroso and the azo groups. Auxochromes as Dyes Auxochromes (salt forming groups like hydroxyl, amino) do not impart color to the chromogens in the absence of chromophores. However, when the chromogen has a chormophore, the auxochrome deepens the color of the chromogen. It is also used to make the chromogen a dye. Classification of Dyes Based on Chemical Structure Oldest synthetic dyes do not have much commercial importance. 6
Classification of Dyes Based on Application Direct or Substantive DyesThese can be directly applied by immersing the cloth in a hot solution of the dye in water. They can be again classified into acid and basic dyes. Acid dyes are sodium salts of sulphonic acid and nitrophenols. They are used for dyeing animal fibers (wool and silk) but not vegetable fibers (cotton). The dye solution is acidified with sulphuric or acetic acid. Basic dyes are salts of color bases with hydrochloric acid or zinc chloride. They can directly dye animal fibers. They need a fixing agent called mordant (tannin) to dye vegetable fibers. These are used for dyeing silk and cotton. Methyl Orange as a DyeThis belongs to the azodyes. It is prepared by coupling diazotized sulphanilic acid with dimethylaniline.
Aniline Yellow (Amino azobenzene) as a DyeThis is another azodye and has little value as a dye. This is because it is sensitive to acids. This is the simplest basic azo dye. This can be obtained by coupling benzene diazomium chloride with aniline.
Malachite Green as a DyeBelongs to the triphenyl methane dyes. Prepared by condensing 1 molecule of benzaldehyde with 2 molecules of dimethylaniline (1:2 ratio) in presence of con H2SO4. The 7
leuco base is oxidised with lead dioxide and HCl to color base which further reacts with HCl to give the dye. Natural Dyes (Alizarin and Indigo) Dyes can also be classified as natural and synthetic dyes. Compounds extracted from plants are called natural dyes. These were used in olden days to color fabrics. Alizarin (red) and indigo (blue) are two examples. Synthetic dyes came into being to provide more varieties of colors.
CHEMISTRY IN COSMETICSChemicals find great use in cosmetics. Creams like cleansing creams, cold creams, bleaching and vanishing creams are prepared synthetically from chemicals. Perfumes, talcum powders and deodorants are also some other cosmetic substances that are obtained from chemicals. Lipsticks, nail polish and hair dyes also are chemical substances. PETRFUMEDespite the variety of personal care products we've encountered, all share a similar characteristic: a pleasant odor or flavor. (Our sense of taste is limited to sweet, sour, bitter and salty.) Flavors are combinations of these four tastes with the sense of smell. Odours affect our perception of flavor. Our perfumes, colognes and lotions, like the products we use to color our hair and bodies, have their origins in antiquity. The word perfume itself comes from the Latin per("through") and fumus ("smoke"), and may have applied originally to scents carried by the smoke of incense and odorous plants used in sacred ceremonies. Today's perfumes are the products of a long history of changes in the popularity of different sorts of various synthetic chemicals, animal oils and extracts of fragrant plants, all dissolved as 10% to 25% solutions in alcohol. Cologne, a shortened form of eau de Cologne (from the French for "water of Cologne"), is a much more dilute and much less expensive version of a perfume, with concentrations of the fragrant oils running about a tenth those used in the perfume. The term itself refers to the city of Cologne, Germany, where an Italian, Giovanni Maria Farina, settled in 1709 and began manufacturing a lotion based on citrus fruit. The product became a very popular toiletry, providing fame to the city and wealth to Farina and his heirs. LIPSTICSLipsticks and lip balm prevent moisture loss, and contain castor oil, sesame oil, mineral oils, lanolin (or cetyl alcohol), beeswax or carnauba (used in car polishes,dyes (or pigments) and perfumes. The oils, waxes, polymers and dyes of liptstick protect, soften and brighten the lips.
NAIL POLISH Nail polish has been used since 3000 B.C., when henna was used by the Egyptians for its red colour. Modern nail polish is made of lacquer, and consists of polymers (nylon, nitrocellulose), solvents (acetone, amyl acetate) plasticisers, colourants, and perfumes. Plasticisers are used to make the polish film more flexible to prevent chipping.
OTHER IMPORTANT USES OF CHEMISTRYCARBON FIBRES Carbon fibers are made of long chain of carbon atoms.They are got from synthetic or regenerated fibers by heating them in the absence of oxygen. These fibers on heating decompose to produce carbon fibers. CERAMIC Besides being useful, chemicals find use in artifacts as well. Ceramics, paints, varnishes, glass, cement are various other useful substances that contain various chemicals as their components. Construction industry is the major beneficiary of such substances. MICRO ALLOYS Micro alloyed steels are intermediate carbon steel alloys with 0.3 to 0.6% carbon content. They also include vanadium, columbium (niobium), titanium and so on. These micro alloys are tougher than higher alloys. Their enhanced strength is due to the precipitation hardening reaction where nitrides or carbonitrides are formed in steel. Therefore, nitrogen level control is a key factor. ROCKET PROPELLANTS Propellants are the fuels used in rockets for propulsion. For example, alcohol, liquid hydrogen, liquid ammonia, kerosene, hydrazine and paraffin can be used as propellants. INSECT REPELLENTS The chemicals like dimethyl phthalate, N, N-diethyl - meta - toulamide (Deet), N - N diethyl benzamide are used as effective repellents against mosquitoes, flies and other insects. These are widely used in insect repellant body creams. PHEROMONES OR SEX ATTRACTANTS Another way to get rid of insects is to use pheromones or insect sex attractants. These chemicals help induce the mating urge and attract insects of opposite sex. When coated on 9
poisonous baits, they prove fatal for insects. Methyl engenol attracts the oriental fruit fly. Bombykol attracts the silk worm moth.
Our body is made up of tissues, which are all composed of chemicals. We need an adequate supply of chemicals in the form of food, vitamins, hormones, and enzymes, which are in turn chemicals. For taking care of our health we need medicines. We find that chemicals and chemistry penetrate into every aspect of our life. Paper, sugar, starch, vegetable oils, ghee, essential oils, tannery, distillery, soap, cosmetics, rubber, dyes, plastics, petroleum infact there is almost nothing that we use in our daily life that is not a chemical. Continuing research will keep adding to this list.
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