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SOLUTIONS AND MIXTURES

QUICK REVIEW
An element is a substance made up of atoms of one
kind.
A molecule is formed when atoms of the same or
different elements are chemically combined.
Two atoms of oxygen combine to form a molecule of oxygen [O2]
One atom each of chlorine and sodium combine to form sodium
chloride (NaCl). This joining of atoms from different elements
forms a coupound.

Mixtures are two or more pure substances that are


mixed together but not chemically joined.

PURE VS. MIX


A pure substance:
cannot be separated into 2 or more substances by physical means
has uniform composition throughout the whole sample
A mixture:
can be separated into 2 or more substances by physical or
mechanical means
displays the properties of the pure substances making it up
its composition can be varied by changing the proportion of pure
substances making it up
heterogeneous substances, having non-uniform composition, are
always mixtures

MIXTURES
When a mixtures components are easily
recognizable, such as pizza, it is called a
heterogeneous mixture.

In a homogeneous mixture such as chocolate


milk, the component particles cannot be
distinguished, even though they still retain their
original properties.

MORE ON MIXTURES
Homogeneous particles
distributed evenly; the
same throughout

Heterogeneous
PARTICLES not evenly
distributed; NOT THE
SAME throughout

Type of Mixture

Example

gas in gas

The atmosphere is a mixture of gases, mostly nitrogen and


oxygen.

liquid in liquid

Wine is a mixture of mostly ethanol and water.

solid in solid

Alloys, such as brass, are made up of a mixture of metals.

gas in liquid

Soft drinks, such as cola, are mixtures of mainly carbon


dioxide gas and water.

solid in liquid

Sea Water is a mixture of salts dissolved in water.

solid in gas

Smoke is mixture of tiny solid particles in atmospheric


gases.

SOLUTION = HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE


Solutions are composed of one or many solute(s) and
only 1 solvent
Solute: substance that dissolves into the solvent
Solvent: substance that dissolves the solute(s)

A solution can exist in any of the 3 states of matter: (solid, liquid or gas)
Solid Solutions
ex: brass = copper + zinc
This is called an alloy.
(solvent)
(solute)
Gas Solutions
ex: air = nitrogen + oxygen + argon + carbon dioxide
(solvent)
(solutes)
Liquid Solutions
ex: vinegar = acetic acid
(solvent)

water
(solute)

TRANSFORMATION OF
MATTER
PHYSICAL VS. CHEMICAL CHANGES

What do you have left when


you melt an ice cube?

Physical changes are those changes that do not


result in the production of a new substance.
Chemical changes are changes that result in the
production of another substance.

PHYSICAL CHANGES
Does not result in the formation of a new substance: the
particles remain the same
Physical changes are reversible
Alters only non-characteristic properties of the
substance:(size, shape, or state of matter)

CHEMICAL CHANGES
A new substance is formed: it has different characteristic
properties than the original substance
Chemical changes are NOT reversible

A chemical change has generally occurred if:

there is a color change


a gas is given off
a new substance is formed
heat or light is produced
a residue is formed

Physical

Phase change
Dissolution
Deformation

Chemical

Synthesis
Decomposition
Oxidation
Precipitation

PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL CHANGE?

Painting Wood
PHYSICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

Burning Paper
CHEMICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

Digestion of food
CHEMICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

Sugar dissolving in
water
PHYSICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

Iron turning red when


heated
PHYSICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

Evaporation
PHYSICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

A pond freezing in
winter
PHYSICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

Melting ice
PHYSICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

Cutting wire
PHYSICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

Painting fingernails
PHYSICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

Cutting fabric
PHYSICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

Baking muffins
CHEMICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

Shattering glass
PHYSICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

Decomposition of old
leaves
CHEMICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

Wrinkling a shirt
PHYSICAL

Physical or Chemical
Change?

An old nail rusting


CHEMICAL

SOME EXAMPLES
Physical
Examples:
water boiling
freezing cubes of ice
tearing paper
crushing a can
molding clay
butter melting on warm
toast

Chemical
Examples:
milk goes sour
jewelry tarnishes
a nail or screw forms rust
fried egg
your stomach digesting
food
lighting a match

COMPOUNDS VS MIXTURES
Compounds

Mixtures

Combine chemically
forming molecules

Not chemically
combined

Combine in set proportions

Can combine in any


proportion

Separated chemically

Separated
physically

SEPARATION TECHNIQUES

WHY WOULD WE WANT TO SEPARATE


MIXTURES?
to purify water so that it is safe to drink
to extract a mineral from rocks to be able to use
(example, quartz or gold)
to eliminate the pulp in freshly squeezed juice
to make soup broth

WHAT WE HAVE TO THINK OF WHEN


WE SEPARATE MIXTURES
We need to look for a difference between the parts of the
mixture and then use a separation method that takes advantage
of this difference.
These are some of the properties that can be used:

1) The size of the particles


2) The density of a substance
3) The boiling point of a substance
4) The solubility of a substance
5) The magnetic nature of a substance

WAYS TO SEPARATE MIXTURES


1) Sedimentation and decantation
AKA : settling out and pouring out
When it works:
1)

The size of the particles of a substance have to be large enough to settle to the
bottom of the container.
The larger the size of the particles the faster they will settle to the bottom of the
container.
The liquid above the sedimented particles should be quite clear and can be
poured off easily.
This method only works for heterogeneous mixtures!
When it doesnt work:

As the size of the particles get smaller , it may take too long for them to settle to the
bottom of the container and the particles may also be easily stirred up if we try to
pour off the liquid above the particles .

EXAMPLES OF S&D
Examples:

noodles or vegetables in a soup settle to the bottom


muddy water (mud settles to the bottom)
orange juice that has pulp

salad dressing made of oil and vinegar

WAYS TO SEPARATE MIXTURES


2) Filtration
When it works:

The size of the particles of a substance have to be too large to pass through the holes of a
filter .

This method only works for heterogeneous mixtures!

Downfall:
-

Filtration takes time and may take longer as the residue accumulates on the filter.

Vocabulary:
Residue: is what is left on the filter
Filtrate: is the liquid that passes though the filter

FILTRATION
Mixture of
solid and
liquid

Stirring
rod

Funnel

Filter paper
traps solid

Filtrate (liquid
component

WAYS TO SEPARATE MIXTURES


3) Distillation
When it works:
The substance in the mixture with the lowest boiling point will evaporate first and
will then condense in another cooled container.
This method is the only one that works for SOLUTIONS! (homogeneous mixture)

When it Doesnt work


-This

method cannot be used if 2 substances have the same boiling point

Vocabulary
Distillate: is the liquid that evaporates
Residue: is the substance left behind in the original container

EXAMPLES OF DISTILLATION
Examples:
o separating salt from saltwater
o making distilled water in the lab
o commercially distilling alcohol (ethanol used for thermometers)

DISTILLATION
Separates
homogeneous mixture
on the basis of
differences in boiling
point

MAGNETISM
Metals such as iron, nickel
and cobalt can be separated
from other substances by
passing a magnet over the
material to be separated.
These metals, which are
attracted to the magnet, can
be pulled out of the mixture.