CHECKING INTERNET FRAUD IN NIGERIA (CASE STUDY LAGOS

)

BY RANI MICHAEL TAHOUF ADMIN NO.: BHC/UFP/08/0338

A PROJECT TO BRIDGE HOUSE COLLEGE IKOYI, LAGOS, NIGERIA IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF CERTIFICATE IN THE UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION PROGRAMME

CERTIFICATION This Project written by Rani Michael Tahouf under the guidance of academic committee and approved by the College, has been submitted and accepted by the Information and Technology Department of Bridge House College in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the University Foundation Programme.

Name of Supervisor: __________________________

Signature:

__________________________

Date:

__________________________

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DEDICATION

This Project is dedicated to God Almighty who has been very supportive of my educational pathway; and has seen me through this project from beginning to the end.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I want to appreciate Almighty God who saw me through this project from beginning to end. I would like to acknowledge my parents who have supported me all of my life. I would like to acknowledge Mrs Abdulrazaq, The Executive Director of Bridge House College, who has been very supportive of my educational pathway in Bridge House College. I would also like to acknowledge The Director of Studies of Bridge House College, Mrs Osuno, whose wise words of advice helped me greatly throughout the writing of this project. I would also like to acknowledge my project supervisor, Mr Wilson Eghonghon, for his patience, time and effort in seeing that I completed this project.

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ABSTRACT This Project is aimed at examining the impact of Internet Fraud in Nigeria, especially Lagos. Material, directly and indirectly related to the topics at hand were reviewed in order to make this study theoretical. Also, questionnaires were used for the purpose of data collection from a target population of thirty people, comprising fifteen female and fifteen male from different age groups and educational background. I distributed the questionnaires in an internet cafe, and the head office of a well known internet service provider called Starcomms. The objectives of this study are to assess problems within Nigerian cities that would make citizens turn to a life of crime; to identify what law enforcing bodies, such as the EFCC, have done to eradicate internet fraud; to discover if it‟s worth living life as an internet fraudster, taking into consideration factors such as income. This entire project was split up into five sections all of which were arranged in chapters, each chapter focusing on different issues. Chapter one gives an introduction about the topic and talks about the scope of the study, objectives of study, and gives definition of unfamiliar terms. Chapter two is the literature review; it talks about the history of Internet Fraud in Nigeria. It also brings forth analysis of previous studies concerning the topic, from various literary works. Chapter three reveals the methods used to carry out the project; and distribution of questionnaires to a target group. Chapter four presents the analysis of the data that was collected with the questionnaires. Percentages, tables and charts were used to present findings. Chapter five gives a summary of the topic, a brief conclusion and my own recommendations towards the eradication of internet fraud in Nigeria.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certification Dedication Acknowledgement Abstract Table of Contents

i ii iii iv v-vi

CHAPTERS Chapter One 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Problem Analysis 1.3 Objective of Study 1.4 Research Questions 1.5 Hypothesis 1.6 Scope of Study 1.7 Unfamiliar Terms

PAGES

1 2 2 3 3 3 3 5 5 6 8 9 11 11

Chapter Two 2.1 History of Internet Fraud in Nigeria 2.2 Whose Fault? 2.3 Internet Fraud in Lagos 2.4 Far Reaching Impact 2.5 How to Solve the Problem 2.6.1 The Internet Scammer‟s Identity 2.6.2 How is Internet Fraud Carried Out?

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Chapter Three 3.1 Characteristics of Study Population 18 3.2 Data Collection Instrument 18 3.3 Procedures for Processing and Analyzing Collection of Data 18 3.4 Limitations of Methodology 18 Chapter Four 4.1 Analysis and Presentation of Data 4.2 Summary Chapter Five 5.1 Summary 5.2 Conclusion 5.3 Recommendations Appendix References

19 27 28 28 28 30 35

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Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction Internet fraud can be described as an illegal act in which an individual or organisation is scammed out of money, with the use of the internet. In other words, it can be defined as advance-fee fraud carried out over the internet. It has been an issue of rising concern in Nigeria In Nigeria, it has been given the nickname “419”. 419 refers to the Nigerian Criminal Code (Chapter 38: “Obtaining Property by false pretences; Cheating”). Other slang that has come about from internet fraud is “mugu/maga” meaning fool, this is what a victim of internet fraud is called; “yahoo boy” is another way of calling someone a scammer; “yahoo yahoo” is the act of scamming someone. The increase in fraudulent activities, over the years, in Nigeria has increased at a jaw dropping rate. Most of these fraudulent activities take place over the internet. In fact Nigeria is so highly reputed with internet fraud that it has been ranked as the third worst country in the world in which internet fraud takes place. This is a huge problem nowadays as it has definitely scared the image of a once great nation. Many foreigners are lead to believe that internet scams come from Nigeria and are made solely by Nigerians. This of course is a very wrong stereotype. There have been so many attempts made by officials in various organisations, such as the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, with raids of internet cafés and apprehension of some notorious internet fraud top dogs. But it hasn‟t made any significant difference as internet fraud in Nigeria is now at an all time high over the past few years. Most internet fraud activities in Nigeria are carried out within Lagos State as it is one of the most technologically and infrastructural advanced states. With several internet cafés; internet service providers and banks placing their national headquarters in Lagos and a seaport nearby it makes Lagos a perfect location to carry out such a crime. 1

1.2

Problem analysis In Nigeria there is no firm way of dealing with internet fraudsters as it is very difficult to trace an internet fraudster down. The way in which they receive payment from victims is well thought. The norm is requesting payment via bank account but this way has flaws as it would be easy for the bank to turn the bank account holder to the police if a victim should find a way to report. These days‟ scammers ask for a form of payment which can‟t be reversed or cancelled e.g. Western Union. Also, requesting money to be sent by post is another way in which scammers can receive the payment. Also, it‟s against customers rights for an internet service provider to go through the web pages a customer visits. This is exactly why fraudsters can get away with this crime so easily. So long as they don‟t try to defraud someone of a bulk sum of money (millions of dollars) then the chances of getting caught would remain low. Also the EFCC (Economic and Financial Crimes Commission) has proved to be ineffective over the past few years. When poverty is a major issue in Nigeria it‟s no wonder people turn to crime so they can provide for themselves. These days just about anyone could be an internet fraudster; young teenagers, fresh university graduates, women, elderly men in society etc. Nigeria‟s economic failure occurred with a combination of overpopulation rising out of control and Nigeria‟s dependency on crude oil as a main source of income. 1.3 Objective of the Study  To assess the problems within Nigerian cities such as Lagos that would make people turn to a life of crime.  To identify what law enforcing bodies have done about the problem of internet fraud.  To discover whether or not it is worthwhile becoming an internet fraudster.

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1.4    

Research Questions How is internet fraud carried out? Why should internet fraud bother Nigerians so much? Is the government to blame? What can be done to help?

1.5 Hypothesis H0: Internet has aided corruption in Nigeria. H1: Increased usage of internet has discouraged corruption in Nigeria. 1.6 Scope of Study I intend to research into the problems created by Internet Fraud in Nigeria and how it affects everyone in society. As well as finding out what practical solutions there are to solving it. 1.7 Unfamiliar Terms Computer - Machine with which Internet - a world wide interconnection of computers which makes available resources. 419 - a slang for “fraud”, used in Nigeria. It refers to the criminal code chapter 32 (obtaining property by false pretences) Yahoo yahoo - A slang popularly used in Nigeria to describe the act of carrying out internet fraud. Mugu - A slang that is used in Nigeria meaning; a victim of internet fraud.

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Internet café - A place where people go to surf the internet at an affordable rate. EFCC - Economic and Financial Crimes Commision, a Nigerian agency to combat advanced fee fraud, and related crimes.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 History of internet fraud in Nigeria In the 1980‟s Nigeria was well known for its oil wealth as oil was just discovered in mass quantity. It was and still is amongst the top oil producing nations in the world. Overpopulation is when there are too many people within a certain area for the given amount of resources. There was a rapid population growth in Nigeria during the 1980‟s. Many Nigerian‟s had not yet abandoned the traditional ways of thinking that the more children to a family the better. Many Nigerians also thought that because Nigeria was a crude oil producing country, the country‟s wealth would allow them to live comfortable lives; this is another reason why there was rapid population growth. Eventually crude oil production started to fall. A combination of the two is what allowed the Nigerian economy to deteriorate as overpopulation started to take place. The incidence of this meant that people started to loose money and decided to create scams intended at scamming foreign business men interested in shady deals within Nigeria‟s oil-sector. Around this time fraud was mostly used by unemployed university graduates. Later on, fraudulent faxes were being sent from Nigeria to business men in the Western world. Around the 1990s the world developed technologically and with this development came about the internet. Because of the internet and availability of e-mail some people saw opportunities to create scams and pass them around through e-mails. Around this time the Nigerian economy had deteriorated badly so a lot of people began carrying out what is called internet fraud. 2.2 Whose fault? Most people would say that it‟s the fault the government that Nigeria is now in its current state and internet fraud exists as one of the worst crimes committed. This is no surprise because the 5

Nigerian government consists of several corrupt officials and until corruption is kicked out, I believe there will be no sudden change of situation. The thing that drives people to turn to crime like this is the harsh living condition of the country; lack of employment (even for university graduates), uneven spread of wealth, hunger and thirst, lack of electricity, poor quality shelter etc. The role of the government is to stabilise the economy, create wealth, provide for the poor and needy, create jobs etc. If the government was effective and efficient at fulfilling its duties then internet fraud wouldn‟t be a huge problem in Nigeria. Simply put, if Nigerians are made to live in such harsh conditions, crime is one of the only ways out. In the metropolis of Lagos which is ironically dubbed “Centre of Excellence” by the government there is so much toil and hardship. So as long as the economy is weak there‟s practically no solution to this problem. If the majority of the population was comfortable then may be internet fraud wouldn‟t be such a problem. 2.3 Internet fraud in Lagos It‟s a well known fact that Lagos is the centre of internet fraud in Nigeria; most fraudulent activities carried out in Nigeria via use of the internet have come from Lagos. Also, Lagos is home to one of the best universities in Nigeria, UNILAG (University of Lagos). UNILAG produces so many graduates yearly in many different fields, it‟s slowly making a difference by providing the gift of education to young Nigerians today; it‟s fuelling a nation by providing a workforce. In Nigeria exists a system; upon graduation, one must go through what is called NYSC then after completion of this they can receive employment in their desired field. It should be a beneficial system but one of the main reasons why university graduates find it so hard to get employment is because of existence of NYSC (National Youth Corps Service). The NYSC was established so that young people who pass through university at home and abroad may serve Nigeria before entering 6

the job market. If a youth should apply for a job without taking NYSC then it means that by law employers aren‟t allowed to pay such employees more than N25, 000 a month. In the words of Bishop David Oyedepo (Overseer of Winners Church, and Founder of Covenant University Ota, Ogun State) “NYSC is creating human time-bombs and it should be scrapped. If a young man or woman can graduate from university with a first class degree and be unemployed then there‟s a serious problem.” Because of unemployment, the youth of nowadays will turn to internet fraud as a means of survival. To add to the problem, a lot of youth think of ways in which to carry out scams or how they‟re going to occupy major positions in government and steal money. If youth in Nigeria have such an attitude towards their futures then internet fraud is only going to get worse. In Nigeria there just aren‟t that many employment opportunities for those with limited or no education and those jobs that already exist pay very little to employees. In the Untied Kingdom for example it‟s easy for a student from even secondary school to get a part time job with good pay. In Nigeria this is the opposite; there aren‟t many places interested in employing part time employees and most employers give small pay for plenty work. With the computerisation of public schools in Lagos State it makes it very easy for secondary school students to take up internet fraud and use it as a means of providing for themselves and their families. There was a fictitious story written in „FORTUNE Magazine‟, basically it talked about the spread of internet fraud and it covers how it is even practised by teenagers. It tells the story from the shoes of a 14 year-old boy that is called Akin. It states that Akins‟s parents work for so little every month; his mother is a cleaner and his father a bus conductor. Akin is basically the bread winner for his immediate family and other relatives. His „office‟ is an internet café situated within Ikeja, Lagos. His boss is a man who others call „chairman‟, he buys computer time and hires a team of teenagers much like Akin. They 7

extract e-mail addresses and credit card information and use this data to carry out internet scams. Akin‟s boss is computer illiterate, he gets 60% of the income Akin makes, reserves 20% to pay off law enforcement officials and teachers who complain when the boys skip school so they can „work‟, the remaining 20% is still more than enough for him. He can buy things off the internet such as phones, laptops, jewellery, watches, and shoes. There‟s a sign at the door of the café that displays a warning against illegal practices and offenders will be prosecuted. Ironically nothing is done about these offenders and the crime shall continue. 2.4 Far Reaching Impact Today Nigeria is a country most people like to avoid business dealings with. So long as you are doing business with someone from the West and you tell them you‟re Nigeria they might think twice about the business deal in mind. On websites on the internet people display the warning stating that they don‟t accept transactions from Nigeria. This is how internet fraud has decimated the face of a nation which was once made to be glorious with an outstanding reputation. When you ask people from the Western World where they think online scams originated most of them would say Nigeria. Because of the mistakes others have made others must suffer the consequences. Around some time in 2007, popular American television talk show host Oprah Winphery, had a show in which the issue of online fraud was discussed. From that day it was clear how the rest of the world sees Nigeria. The country was unfairly disgraced in this one hour. It was a day that the nation couldn‟t forget. Victims of 419 came on the show and talked about their experiences. Now we‟re amongst the most corrupt countries in the world and our full potential won‟t be attained any time soon. This is the cost of the ongoing time. As you have been reading this several scam letters were fired from Nigeria. Some may be replied to along with the cash sum requested. This will make the pockets of 8

someone shrink and someone else‟s pockets will fatten. It‟s a never ending cycle; firm action should be taken soon because the nation is suffering as a result. Because of fraud, it makes it hard for the average Nigerian to receive a visa in order to visit or study in countries such as the U.K. or America.

2.5 How to solve the problem In Nigeria, the EFCC (Economic and Financial Crimes Commission) has an anti-fraud unit that is meant to deal with and eradicate internet fraud within Nigeria. It was established by the former government of Obasanjo in year 2003. According to an article by Kabiru Danladi in Daily Trust he said “It became very popular since its inception due to its dynamic and courageous leader, Mallam Nuhu Ribadu. The mere mention of EFCC and Ribadu sent shudders through the spines of dubious public office holders, politicians, big time crooks and aspiring criminals.” He also went further as to explaining how under Ribadu‟s leadership the EFCC has become a wrecking ball towards all corruption within Nigeria including internet fraud. In an article by Dele Sobowale in Vanguard he talked about the EFCC having only one big case “Perhaps the only big case that the EFCC broke on its own concerned the former inspector general of police, IGP, Tafa Balogun, GCON.” Basically the I.G. of police was found guilty of corrupt charges and he only received a minimal jail sentence of one year after which he walked free despite the fact he stole a hefty sum of over 100 million naira. The EFCC claim that they‟re making progress but the populous begs to differ. Raids of internet cafés, and suspected fraudsters residencies have been made in the past. But statistics say that internet fraud is at an all time high. In Lagos one can go to so many internet cafés (such as Cool Café, Ettim-Inyang Crescent, Victoria Island) and find internet fraudsters in action. I believe that the EFCC must take serious action in order to stop existing internet 9

fraudsters. The EFCC must make public examples of many internet fraudsters so they can make any one thinking of carrying out this crime have second thoughts. From an economic view it all boils down to people not having enough money. It‟s no secret, in order to make money one needs a form of occupation. It is not so easy for anyone to set up a successful business in Lagos. This is because when there are so many problems such as lack of electricity, lack of security, and instability within the business environment the cost of running a business is so high. Getting a good, well paying job is very hard these days because there‟s a lack of vacant jobs and those that are vacant will usually become occupied by those who have been educated overseas. This problem lies beyond the individual alone; it is one that must be solved by the government. As it ultimately has all the funds in which it should invest wisely so that no one needs to turn to a life of crime as a means of survival. The government can create jobs and implement policies which could be used as devices to stop this growing trend of internet fraud. The reason Nigeria as a whole is not doing well is because we don‟t have good systems. Look at the Japan; a nation with only 30 percent flat land and next to no natural resources and it‟s an economic giant today. Nigeria on the other hand is blessed with natural resources such as crude oil, gold, acres of agriculture, and intelligence within our human workforce. Some of the scams created are so well thought of. If we have people with so much mental capacity, why not create something positive for them to use their potential on? As a geography student I have learned that the reason why a country won‟t do well is because of the lack of planning. China was getting overcrowded and because the government made some simple wise decisions, China is doing well today. Nigeria‟s case is very similar to China‟s; it is not too late to change the country.

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2.6.1 The Internet Scammer‟s Identity Just think to yourself about what an internet scam artist from Nigeria would look like. The stereotypical image most have in our mind is a young man, may be about 23 to 25, but it goes much further than that. Women, university graduates, teenagers and big men take part in this heinous crime. Illustrious people in society have been nabbed for internet fraud. In the month of November 2005, internet fraudster Emmanuel Nwude was sentenced to 25 years in prison after a long court case that had lasted for years. Mr. Nwude defrauded a Brazilian bank of $242 million through an internet scam which made use of fake bank drafts. This court case marked history in Nigeria as it was the first high-profile court case in which the EFCC (Economic Fraud and Financial Crimes Commission) was involved. Internet fraud pays well, why else would so many people rush to it? A group of fraudsters can make up to $500,000 within one to two months provided they catch some „big fish‟ and create very good scams.

2.6.2 How Is Internet Fraud carried out? A typical internet fraudster needs a few things to undertake business: 1. Internet Connection 2. E-mail addresses 3. E-mail extractor 4. E-mail account

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Internet Connection This should be relatively fast, as time means money. The best and most affordable way to carry out this act is in internet cafés. Many areas of Lagos contain shady internet cafés that cater for scammers. Areas such as Festac are known for this. These internet cafés have a way of doing it; they shut their doors at night time but still leave doors open to scammers so that the scammers can work without fear of discovery. One would imagine that the owners of such internet cafés receive their own cut. Other scammers who have made quite the living would graduate to purchasing their own internet connection so they can work from home. This makes it harder for them to be traced by officials of the law because they can‟t get caught in action. E-mail addresses These are usually obtained through chain letters cleverly designed, from internet forums where contributors leave e-mail addresses, business cards of big businesses etc. The most popular way of collecting e-mail addresses is from chain letters people send through e-mail accounts. (Below) is a sample of such a chain letter: E-mail extractor This is a piece of software, created with the purpose of extracting e-mail addresses from a webpage. Once the e-mails are extracted they‟ll be sent out by the scammer. E-mail account The e-mail account is what the scammer will use to forward a spam letter to the many e-mail addresses collected, sometimes up 12

to a thousand. When this is done, there‟s bound to be at least one person who will fall for the scam. (Below) a sample of a scam email: There are different genres of scam e-mails that can be sent. I‟m only going to expatiate on a few. Lottery Scam The lottery scam works by sending fake notices to a recipient stating that they one a lottery. The winner is usually asked to send sensitive information to a free email account (i.e. yahoo, hotmail, g-mail). The scammer will notify the victim that before the cash prize is released a small fee such as insurance, registration, or shipping is required. Once the fee has been sent, the scammer will invent another fee. The reason why this scam works so well is because the victim instills trust in the scam artist. Also, the victim sees the big cash prize and blinds themselves to the small fees that they‟re paying. Hit Man Scam An e-mail is sent to a victim stating that a hit man has been hired by a close friend of the recipient to kill him/her but will call off the hit in exchange for a large sum of money. The message will go further with a warning not to contact the local authorities, or the hit man will be forced to go through with the plan. Charity Scam A scammer will pose as a charitable organization, and request donations so as to help less fortunate. Sometimes they link to online news articles to strengthen their story and gain more funds. The aim is to persuade people that they are helping a worthy cause. 13

Once the money is sent the scammer often disappears, some may become persistent and will ask for a series of payments.

Other Scams Apart from the scams which I mentioned above you have scammers impersonating real people and organizations (i.e. a scam in which wife of late General Sani Abacha says she is under house arrest and has a huge sum of money in which she can‟t withdraw without your help.). We also have scams with fictional characters (i.e. an astronaut who was trapped on the moon, or a person that ran into a deceased person without a will or any family members or friends). Sometimes internet fraud will go further than e-mails; the scammer in question can approach the victim through an on-line dating service or instant messenger and attempt to create a romantic relationship with the victim. The scammer will then use false display pictures of other attractive people along with a false personality, usually a wealthy business man in a foreign country. Later on the scammer may go further on to saying that they‟d like to meet the person and will request some money, may be for plane tickets or whatever excuse they can come up with. When the day of the meeting comes the victim is waiting for someone to arrive and the scammer disappears from the victim‟s life and looses contact. Here is a sample of an internet fraud e-mail that has probably been sent to so many different e-mail accounts across the world:

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CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENCY, THE HONORABLE, GOVERNOR OF CBN. TINUBU SQUARE, LAGOS- NIGERIA. Date 15th october,2007. Official Web Account: soludo11@i12.com Our Ref: CBN/OHG/OXD1/2007 Your Ref:................................. TELEX: CENBANK. PAYMENT FILE: CBN/BEN/07. Attn: Sir/Madam, PAYMENT NOTIFICATION OF YOUR FUNDS. Definitely, I know that this letter will be a surprising one to You. Firstly, I will like to introduce myself formally as Prof. Charles Soludo, the Executive Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). You are been officially contacted by me today because your Inheritance Funds were Re-deposited into the "Federal Suspense Account" of CBN last week, because you did not forward your Claim As the Right beneficiary. Well known to all, The Central Bank of Nigeria is the mother Bank of all commercial Banks here in Nigeria. Really these men were unexpected by me because their visit was impromptu.i had to ask them why they came to see me in person And they said that they were here to collect the Inheritance Bill Sum of (US$20,000,000) which rightfully belongs to you, on your 15

Behalf. At this development I asked them who authorized them to come down To Nigeria for the Collection of this Payment and they told me That you asked them to come and collect this Funds on your Behalf. infact this was the biggest shock that this Bank have ever Received so far because your Inheritance Funds is still in the "Federal Suspense Account" of CBN, yet you sent these men to come and collect this Funds on your behalf without notifying us. We in this Bank do not understand why you sent these men to come and Collect your Funds on your behalf. If actually you want them to help you Collect your Inheritance Bill Sum, at least you should have informed me as the Executive Governor of this Bank. They actually tendered some Vital Documents which Proved that you actually sent them for the Collection of this Funds. Honestly, it really baffles me that you took such decision without my consent. Here are the Document which they tendered to this Bank today: 1. LETTER OF ADMINISTRATION. 2. HIGH COURT INJUCTION. 3. ORDER TO RELEASE. Actually, these Documents which they tendered to this Noble Bank is a clear Proof that you sent them to Collect this Funds for you. Finally, told them to come back tomorrow morning and they promised To come back. As the Governor of this Noble Bank, I was supposed to Release this Fund to them but I refused to do so because I wanted 16

to hear from you first. Due to the Nature of my job, i will not want to make any mistake in Releasing this Funds to anyone except you whom is the Recognized Bonafide Beneficiary to this Funds. Kindly clarify us on this issue before we make this Payment to these foreigners whom came on your behalf. In receipt of this Confidential Letter, you are required to call this Bank immediately You receive this Confidential Letter. OFFICIALLY SIGNED. PROF. CHARLES SOLUDO. GOVERNOR, CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA. C-B-N

This is obviously a fraudulent document because the governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria would never address anybody concerning such a manner. The scammer makes the victim to believe that he/she has US$20,000,000 which is supposedly unaccounted for. If the victim should go on and make contact with the fraudster then the fraudster will find a way to get money from the victim by making lame excuses as to why the money is taking long to get to the victim.

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Chapter Three Methodology 3.1 Characteristics of Study Population In this project my target population is 30 people; it consists of 15 men and 15 women from different age group, educational development and social class. I conducted the distribution of the questionnaires in an office of a well known internet service provider, called Starcomms. Some questionnaires were filled in by some friends and family members and the remaining were distributed within an internet cafe in Lagos. 3.2 Data Collection Instrument Questionnaires will be used to source data from the population. The study was carried out with the use of historical analysis, literature review and questionnaires as well as interviewing various people. 3.3 Procedures for Processing and Analyzing Collection of Data I made use of tables, charts and percentages in order to interpret and analyse collected data. 3.4 Limitations of Methodology Basic limitations that occurred in the production of this project include time constraint, and limited finance to staff and students of Bridge House College.

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Chapter Four 4.1 Analysis and Presentation of Data Questionnaires were made and distributed to 30 people, 15 male and 15 female; all of whom are all residents of Lagos. The people were of different age, academic qualification and social class. The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the data collected from samples and answers to the research questions stated in chapter 1.4. Sex Male Female Total Number 15 15 30

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What is your educational stage? Secondary School Undergraduate Postgraduate TOTAL

Number 13 3 14 30

Age 15-24 years 25-34 years 35-44 years 45-54 years 55 and above Total

Number 16 4 3 5 2 30

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Are You a Resident of Lagos State? Yes No Total

Number 30 0 30

21

Where do you make use of the internet? At Home/Office At Internet Cafés Both I Don‟t use Internet Total

Number 18 0 8 4 30

22

Whose policies is it that enhances internet fraud in Nigeria? Nigerian Government Western World Nigerian Citizens Total

Number

26 4 0 30

23

Have you received a fraudulent letter in your e-mail before? Yes No I Don‟t Use E-mail Total

Number 23 3 4 30

24

What needs to be done to stop internet fraud? Educate youth Kick out corrupt officials Create better living conditions Arrest all internet fraudsters Total

Number

10 13 5 2 30

25

Question

Positive

Negative

Undecided

Percentage (Yes) 100

Are you aware of computers? Do you own a computer? Are you aware of the internet? Are you aware of internet fraud? Do you think internet fraud should be an issue of major concern in Nigeria? Do you think internet fraud can be eradicated from Nigeria? Do you make use of email? Do you think the EFCC is a corrupt body? Do you think the EFCC can eradicate internet fraud in Nigeria? Do you think that EFCC has made a significant difference in eradication of internet fraud? Do you think Nigerians can stop the spread of internet fraud? Do you sympathize with victims of internet fraud? Do you sympathize with those who carry out internet fraud? Would you try internet fraud? Have you seen anyone carry out internet fraud? Do you beleive that Internet fraud originated in Nigeria?

30

0

0

19 30 30 26

11 0 0 4

0 0 0 0

63.33 100 100 86.67

5

22

3

16.67

25 24 2

5 1 25

0 5 3

76.67 80 6.67

7

18

5

23.33

15

8

7

50

6 3

21 27

3 0

20 10

1 7 0

23 23 30

6 0 0

3.33 23.33 0

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4.2 Summary The data collected tells us that most people are aware of internet and the presence of internet fraud in Nigeria. It also shows that Nigerians are concerned about the spread of internet fraud in Nigeria. Also, most respondents believe that internet fraud can not be eradicated from Nigeria and that the main law officiating body (EFCC) is not properly doing its duty. Lastly, the majority of respondents believe that the Nigerian government is at fault for the existence of internet fraud in Nigeria. Also, in question 15, most respondents said that when they received their first internet fraud letter by e-mail they had a reaction whereas they fell for the scam. This goes to show that internet fraudsters are cunning intelligent people who have not been given sufficient opportunities to show themselves. Another interesting fact I found is that 23 out of 25 that use e-mail have received a fraudulent letter in their e-mail inboxes. This just goes to show that internet fraud is still on the rise and should be stopped before it goes out of hand. These statistics show that internet fraud in Nigeria is a huge problem and the blame lies with the government, but at the same time it is the government‟s responsibility.

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Chapter Five 5.1 Summary Since the 1980‟s the Nigerian economy started to weaken and fall, this left many Nigerians in a state of poverty and so levels of crime and corruption, especially within government increased. Many young university graduates were left without jobs and started sending fraudulent letters to wealthy business men abroad; with the increased availability of internet in the 1990‟s, fraudulent letters were then forwarded through use of e-mail and today internet fraud has been committed so much by Nigerians that it has become a major issue. 5.2 Conclusion In conclusion, no major difference has been made to the harsh conditions and internet fraud is at its peak. The government is the main body to blame because it did not plan ahead for any of today‟s problems which exist in Nigeria. To eradicate internet fraud from the Nigerian society practical solutions should me made starting with the government; corruption should be made to be a thing of the past, all corrupt leaders should be kicked out and then jobs should be created amongst many wealth creating opportunities. 5.3 Recommendations The following recommendations are suggested from the findings and results of this study: 1. Corrupt officials should not have any place in government. 2. Existing leaders should create a more equal distribution of wealth. 3. Practical solutions should be put to use so as to create jobs so that Nigerians don‟t have to look to a life of crime as a means of making a living. 28

4. The EFCC should kick out any corrupt law officiators and should be more serious with their fight against internet fraud by aprehending more criminals. 5. Internet fraudsters should put their brains to better use. 6. Youth should be educated against law breaking practices.

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APPENDIX

Bridge House College, Ikoyi, Lagos Dear Respondent, I am a student of Bridge House College currently undertaking a University Foundation Programme. I am conducting research on the topic “Checking Internet Fraud in Nigeria: Case Study Lagos”. I would be very greatful if you could kindly fill in the questionnaire attached to this sheet to enable me to complete my programme. All data collected will only be used for research purposes only. Thank You, The Researcher.

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1. Sex M F

□ □
2. Age

□ 15-24 years □ 25-34 years □ 35-44 years □ 45-54 years □ 54 and above
3. What is your educational stage?

□ Secondary School □ Undergraduate □ Postgraduate
4. Are you a resident of Lagos State? Yes No

□ □
5. Are you aware of computers? Y N Undecided

□ □ □
6. Do you own a computer? Y N Undecided

□ □ □

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7. Are you aware of the internet? Y N Undecided

□ □ □
8. Where do you make use of the internet?

□ At home □ At internet cafés □ Both □ I don‟t use the internet
9. Are you aware of internet fraud? Y N Undecided

□ □ □
10. Do you think internet fraud should be an issue of major concern in Nigeria? Y N Undecided

□ □ □
11. Do you think internet fraud can be eradicated from Nigeria? Y N Undecided

□ □ □
12. Whose policies is it that enhances internet fraud in Nigeria?

□ Government □ Western World □ Nigerian Citizens
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13. Y

Do you make use of e-mail? N Undecided

□ □ □
14. Have you received a fraudulent letter in your e-mail before? Y N I don‟t use e-mail

□ □ □
15. What was your initial reaction? ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… 16. Y Do you think the EFCC is a corrupt body? N Undecided

□ □ □
17. Do you think the EFCC can eradicate internet fraud in Nigeria? Y N Undecided

□ □ □
18. Do you think that EFCC has made a significant difference in eradication of internet fraud? Y N Undecided

□ □ □
19. Do you think Nigerians can stop the spread of internet fraud? Y N Undecided

□ □ □
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20.

What needs to be done to stop internet fraud?

□ Educate youth □ Kick out corrupt officials □ Create better living conditions □ Arrest all internet fraudsters
21. Y Do you sympathize with victims of internet fraud? N Undecided

□ □ □
22. Do you sympathize with those who carry out internet fraud? Y N Undecided

□ □ □
23. Y Would you try internet fraud? N Undecided

□ □ □
24. Y Have you seen anyone carry out internet fraud? N Undecided

□ □ □
25. Do you believe that Internet fraud originated in Nigeria? Y N Undecided

□ □ □

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1. Wikipedia

“Advance Fee Fraud”

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/advance-fee_fraud) 2. Wikipedia “Internet Fraud” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/internet_fraud) 3. Thisday Online Edition (www.thisdayonline.com)

4. Vanguard (www.vanguardngr.com) Online Edition 5. Akanbi and Nkanga, (March 2 2008), “Battle against internet fraudsters shifts to N’Assembly” Thisday Newspaper 6. Leonard Lawal (29 May 2006), “Online Scams Create Yahoo! Millionaires” Fortune Magazine 7. Danladi. K, (27 December 2008) “EFCC on revenge mission?” Daily Trust Newspaper 8. Obe Idiapo, (17 December 2008) “Do not be left out of global network security development process” Vanguard Newspaper 9. Akingbade Tunde, (21 October 2007) “Exposing ethics of 419ners in Nigeria” Vanguard Newspaper 10. Sobowale Dele, (08 February 2009) “Nigeria: Between rapists, 'rescuers' and apologists” Vanguard Newspaper 11. Ezeobi and Amaefule, (15 January 2009) “Nigeria’s oil wealth has not lifted the poor-Kofi Annan”

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PUNCH Newspaper 12. Oketola Dayo, (24 February 2009) “Internet: Changing the perception of youths globally” PUNCH Newspaper 13. Anuforo Emeka, (19 March 2009) “EFCC returns fraud proceed to Indian Victim” Guardian Newspaper 14. Femi Babafemi, (16 March 2009) “UNILAG Student Convicted Over Love Scam” EFCC Press Release 15. Femi Babafemi, (27 October 2008) “Cybercrime: EFCC Arraigns 58 in Kaduna, Suspects remanded in Prison Custody” EFCC Press Release 16. Olayele Bisi, (31 March 2009) “Re-Branding: Can FG re-brand Nigeria Without IT?” Daily Sun Newspaper 17. Emejo James, (15 April 2009) “Online Banking under Severe Threat” Thisday Newspaper 18. Akosile Abimbola, (04 April 2009) “Internet Fraud Rises 11% in 2008 over 2007-study, US Biggest Perpetrator, Nigeria 3rd” Thisday Newspaper

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