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Introduction

1.1 What is pinch analysis?
Figure 1.1(a) shows an outline flowsheet representing a traditional design for the
front end of a specialty chemicals process. Six heat transfer “units” (i.e. heaters, coolers and exchangers) are used and the energy requirements are 1,722 kW for heating
and 654 kW for cooling. Figure 1.1(b) shows an alternative design which was generated by Linnhoff et al. (1979) using pinch analysis techniques (then newly developed) for energy targeting and network integration. The alternative flowsheet uses
only four heat transfer “units” and the utility heating load is reduced by about 40%

Reactor
Steam
Reactor

Recycle

70

Steam
Recycle

1
1068
1

Steam
1652

2
3

2
654

3

M

M

H  1722

H  1068

M

Product

Feed

C 0

6 units
M

Product

Feed

Cooling
water

C  654

(a) Design as usual

4 units
(b) Design with targets

Figure 1.1 Outline flowsheets for the front end of a specialty chemicals process