Recruitment & Selection Recruitment

“Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation.” Recruitment is the positive process as it attracts suitable applicants to apply for available jobs. The process of recruitment : (1) Identifies the different sources of labour supply (2) Assesses their validity (3) Chooses the most suitable source or sources, and (4) Invites applications from the prospective candidates for the vacant jobs. “Recruitment is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected.” A recruitment programme helps the firm in at least four ways: • Attract highly qualified and competent people • Ensure that the selected candidates stay longer with the company. • Make sure that there is match between cost and benefit. • Help the firm create more culturally diverse work force.

Process of Recruitment Human Resource Planning Identify the Human Resource requirement Determine the number, levels and criticality of vacancies Organisational Recruitment Policy Choose the sources

Analyse the Cost & Time Job Analysis Start the Recruitment Programme

Screen & select the candidates

Evaluate the Programme

Factors Affecting Recruitment
Organizational Factors An organization’s reputation depends on its size, area of business, profitability, management etc., eg. Strong values would attract a better response to a recruitment drive. The organisational culture and the attitude of its management towards employees also influence candidate’s decision to apply to an organization. Another contributes to the success of a recruitment programmers the geographical location of the vacant position. The amount of resource allocated also determine the success of a recruitment drive. The channels and methods used to advertise the vacancy also determine the success of a recruitment programme. Environmental Factor (External Factor) The situation in the labour market, the demand for manpower, the demographic the knowledge and skills set available , all determine the response to a recruitment programme. The stage of development of the industry to which the organization belongs also influences the results of the requirement program. Culture , social attitudes and believes also impact the effectiveness of the requirement program.

Recruitment Policy
“The recruitment policy is concern with quantity and qualifications of manpower”. According to Yoder, “recruitment policy establishes board guidelines for the staffing process. It should reflect the reputation and image of the organization. Example: recruitment policy of C-DAC (Centre for Development of Advance Computing), follows all mode in the recruitment approach i.e. press advertisement, campus recruitment, through consultant, special recruitment drives and headhunting agencies. The basic qualifications of induction in: Technical grade: B.Tech/B.E, M.Sc, MCS, M.C.A, M.Tech and Ph.D. Administrative streams: MBA and diplomas with specific specializations. A good recruitment policy complies with government policies on hiring. A good recruitment policy is based on the organization's objectives, identification of the recruitment needs Preferred sources of recruitment Criteria for selection and preferences The cost of Recruitment Other financial implications

Sources of Recruitment
Different sources of recruitment can be employed, depending on various factors like the level of position, no. of people required, time available and the fund allocated for the recruitment. The different sources of recruitment: Internal Search/ Source The organizations which go in for an internal search normally announce the vacancy through the displays on notice boards, circulars sent to different dept. or through the company’s internet. Candidates from within the organization respond to this ‘job posting’ by sending in their applications, this information about the vacancy ensure by the HR Dept.& the management evaluates all the applicants and makes the final selection.

External Sources There are various methods of recruiting from external sources. some of the popular methods are : advertisements, campus recruitments, Job Portal, employee referrals, employment exchanges, private placement agencies etc.

Employee Referral Job sites Recruitment Vendor
Campus Recruitment

Email Website Registration Job Fairs

Sources of Recruitment
Professional or Trade Association Present Employees Advertisement Employment Exchanges Employee Referrals Campus Recruitment Walk-ins and write-ins Consultants Former Employees Contractors Displaced Persons Radio & Television Previous Applicants Acquisitions & Mergers Competitors E-Recruiting

Internal sources

External Sources

Comparison of Internal and External Recruitment
Internal Sources

External Sources





Internal recruitment is a quick 1.External Recruitment is a lengthy process. It involves search of process. It involves finding candidates from within the candidates from outside the organization. organization. This process is cheaper. It does 2. This process is costly as not involve any cost of vacancies to be notified in contracting the external newspaper etc. sources. The existing staff members are 3.The workers feel dissatisfied if motivated to improve their external sources are used. performance. 4. The business can hope for Choice of candidate is scope of talented candidate from outside . fresh limited. The scope of freshThis means infusion of new blood talent is diminished. and new ideas into the enterprise. Internal sources help in saving 5. External sources of recruitment time of officials responsible for are time-consuming. recruitment.

Techniques or Methods of Recruitment
Identification of the sources of recruitment helps in finding the location of prospective candidates for vacant jobs. But recruitment techniques & method are concerned with the way to tap the various sources of recruitment. The methods of recruitment may be classified as follows; 1. Direct recruitment 2. Indirect Recruitment 3. Recruitment Through third party

Direct Recruitment;
Under this method, an employer can establish direct contact with the prospective candidates in the following ways: • • • Campus Recruitment Internships Walk in Interview

Indirect Recruitment:
It involves dissemination of recruitment message or advertisement through public media, i.e. , • • newspapers and magazines T.V. and radio.

Recruitment through Third Party: Under this method , recruitment is done through parties including: • Employment agencies and exchange; • Management consultants or professional search firms known as head hunters: • Professional Associations:

Evaluation of recruitment programme Recruitment strategies, policies and objectives need to be evaluated from time to time to test their effectiveness and their conformance to the organizational strategies, policies and objectives; The success of recruitment programme can be judged based on a number criteria, some of these are; The number of success placements. The number of hiring The number of offers made The number of applicants The cost involved The time taken for filling up the position.

Selection is the process of picking individuals (Out of the pool of the job applicants) with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. It is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify and hire those with a greater likelihood of success in a job. Recruitment & Selection are the two crucial steps in the HR process and are often used interchangeably. While recruitment is said to be positive in its approach as it seeks to attracts as many candidates as possible. Selection, on the other hand, is negative in its application in as much as it seeks to eliminate as many unqualified applicants as possible in order ton identify the right candidates.

Selection Decision Outcomes
Later Job Performance



Correct Successful Decision
Unsuccessful Accept

Reject Error Correct Decision


The Selection process can have four possible outcomes. Two of the possible outcomes have a positive effect on the organization., whereas the other two have negative impact.
1. The first positive out come is selecting the right candidate . It is obvious that the impact of this going to be positive. 2. The second positive outcome is rejecting and unsuitable candidate. This also have a positive impact because, had an unsuitable candidate being selected, he would not have performed successfully on the job. 3. The two negative outcomes are selecting an unsuitable candidate, or rejecting the right candidate. In the first case , the cost of having an unsuitable candidate in the job is high. In the last case whereas the right candidate is rejected, the organization losses potential candidate who could have turned out to be an asset to the organization because of his

Selection Process
Selection process in an organization depends on the organization's strategy and objectives, the tasks and responsibilities of the job and the qualifications, experience and characteristics required in an individual to perform these tasks and responsibilities successfully.

External Environment Internal Environment Preliminary Interview

Rejected applicants

Selection Tests Employment Interview Reference and Background Analysis Selection Decision Physical Examination Job Offer Employment Contract Evaluation

Selection Tests
Different types of test are used as selection methods to evaluate an applicant. There are different Tests designed to evaluate different aspects to performance, like intelligence, aptitude, attitude, etc.Some of these tests are discussed below:

•Intelligence Tests:
These are the first standardized tests developed by psychologists. Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon, two French psychologists, explicitly defined the component of intelligence as “reasoning, judgment, memory, and the power of abstraction. “ They measured intelligence as the “general mental ability of the individuals in intelligent behaviors”.

•Aptitude Tests:
It measure an individual’s ability to learn a given job, when given adequate training. Mechanical, clerical , linguistic, musical and academic abilities are some of the examples of job related aptitudes.

•Achievement Tests:
Tests measure the job-related proficiency and knowledge of the applicants. These tests can be classified as “Job knowledge” tests and “work sample” tests. which is evaluate the knowledge of the applicant in his areas of experience is tested

•Situational Tests:
Situational Tests are generally used in middle and senior level management selection, to test the applicant’s likely responses to real –life business situations. The candidates are exposed to simulated business situations and their responses are recorded and evaluated.

•Interest Tests:
Its identify & understand the degree of interest a candidate has in a job. For Example , a candidate who looks for variety in his job might not be interested in doing a mechanical and monotonous job.

•Personality Tests:
Personality tests help in understanding the basic job-related personality traits of an employee. Tese tests help in assessing an individual’s value system, emotions, maturity and other personal characteristics. which expressed in personality traits like self confidence, tact's, optimism, decisiveness, conformity, objectivity, judgment, dominance or submission and stability. and honesty.

•Polygraph Tests:
Are conducted to tests the validity and truthfulness of an applicant’s answer, by monitoring the physical changes in his body as he answer a series of questions.

It involve examining an individual’s handwriting to assess his personality, emotional characteristics



Recruitment Vs. Selection
Process of selection of the right types of the candidates and offering them jobs. Negative process as it leads to rejection of unsuitable candidate. To pick up the most suitable people for the vacant jobs.

2.Nature 3.Aim

Process of searching candidate for vacant jobs and making them applying for the same. Positive process as it stimulate s people to apply for the vacant jobs Attract more and more candidates for vacant jobs.


5.Contract of



The firm notifies the vacancies through Thee firm asks the candidates to pass various sources and distributes application through a number of stages such as forms to candidates. filling of forms, employment tests, interview, medical exam, etc,. It follows the recruitment and it leads No contractual relation is created. to a contract of service between the Recruitment implies communication of employer and the employee. vacancies only Only a certain number of candidates are selected. No. restriction upon the no. of candidate.

An interview helps in assessing the applicant’s profile and comparing it with the job profile for suitability. Some candidates may provide false information in their applications, just to gain employment. The other advantage of an interview is the employer can sell his organization and the job to the candidate during the course of the interview. There are several types of interviews these are described below.

•Preliminary Interview:

Preliminary interview are brief , first round interviews that aim to eliminate the applicants who are obviously unqualified for the job. These interviews are generally informal and unstructured and are conducted even before the candidates fill in the application blanks.

• Selection Interview:
A selection or core interview is normally the interaction between the job applicant and the line manager or experts, when the applicant’s job knowledge, skills, talent, etc, are evaluated and ascertained.
The Selection Interview can be of the following types: 1. Formal & structured Interview 2. Unstructured Interview 3. Stress Interview Group Interview method 4. Panel Interview 5. In-depth Interview

• Decision Making Interview:
After the applicant’s knowledge in the core areas of the job is evaluated by experts, including line managers in the organization, the applicants are finally interviewed by the departmental heads and the HR function.

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