Encyclopedia of

world scientists
Revised Edition

ElizabEth h. OakEs

Encyclopedia of World Scientists, Revised Edition Copyright © 2007 by Infobase Publishing This is a revised edition of Encyclopedia of World Scientists Copyright © 2001 by Infobase Publishing and International Encyclopedia of Women Scientists Copyright © 2002 by Infobase Publishing All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact: Facts On File, Inc. An imprint of Infobase Publishing 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Oakes, Elizabeth H., 1964– Encyclopedia of world scientists/Elizabeth H. Oakes.—Rev. ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-8160-6158-7 ISBN-10: 0-8160-6158-0 1. Scientists—Biography—Encyclopedias. I. Title. Q141.025 2007 509.2'—dc22 [B] 2007006076 Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755. You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com Text design by Erika K. Arroyo Cover design by Salvatore Luongo Chronology by Dale Williams Printed in the United States of America VB MSRF 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Acknowledgments Introduction List of Entries Biographical Essays A–Z Bibliography Entries by Field Entries by Country of Birth Entries by Country of Major Scientific Activity Entries by Year of Birth Chronology iv v vii 1 803 805 814 820 827 834

For assistance with photographs and biographical information, I thank those scientists who graciously responded to my requests and the many libraries and archives who helped. I would also like to express my gratitude to the University of Montana Mansfield Library, where much of the research for this book was completed, and to the authors of the many science reference books I consulted. Finally, my sincerest thanks to Frank K. Darmstadt, Executive Editor, Melissa Cullen-DuPont, Assistant Editor, and Alana Braithwaite, Editorial Assistant, for their unwavering support and superb guidance throughout the project.


Encyclopedia of World Scientists, Revised Edition is a diverse and comprehensive two-volume collection of biographies of scientists. The set includes the fascinating stories of nearly 1,000 scientists, from all scientific disciplines, and all periods of history, as far back as 600 b.c., who have contributed significantly to their fields. Among the nearly 500 women scientists, you will find those who succeeded in their work against quite impossible odds. From the example of the Greek physician Agnodice—who in the fourth century b.c. cut her hair short and dressed as a man in order to avoid arrest for breaking the law against women practicing medicine—to the contemporary example of women turned down for jobs and discouraged from pursuing their education, the reader can see how women scientists have often faced formidable obstacles. In this set for the first time, these women take their place side by side with the great male scientists. What they all hold in common is a legacy of achievement that has forever altered our understanding of the world. Among the firsts in this book, the reader will find: • the first female physics professor • the first scientist to successfully clone an animal • the first female research scientist at General Electric Corporation • the first scientist to explain the theory of continental drift • the first woman to win a Nobel Prize • the first woman to head a branch of the U.S. Military, • and the first scientist to suggest the existence of antimatter. The reader will also read about the discovery of the polio vaccine, the invention of the Diesel engine, the creation of the Apgar Score System for evaluating the health of newborns, the development of the first computer languages, and the discovery of the radiocarbondating process. While this set brings together an array of well-known and lesser-known scientists, providing the basic biographical details of their lives, the focus is on their work, with their scientific achievements presented in everyday language that makes even the most complex concepts accessible.

The ScienTiSTS
Encyclopedia of World Scientists, Revised Edition, includes the well-known scientific “greats” of history, as well as contemporary scientists whose work is just verging on greatness. Among these are many minority scientists who have often been excluded from books such as this. A majority of the scientists in the book represents the traditional scientific disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, and the Earth sciences. A smaller number represent mathematics, computer science, the philosophy of science, medicine, engineering, anthropology, and psychology. In addition to the biographical entries, the book contains more than 200 evocative black-and-white photographs and illustrations. To compile the entrant list, I relied largely on the judgment of other scientists, consulting established reference works, such as the Dictionary of Scientific Biography, science periodicals, awards lists, and publications from science organizations and associations. Despite this process, I cannot claim to present the “most important” historical and contemporary figures. Time constraints and space limitations prevented the inclusion of many deserving scientists.




The enTrieS
Entries are arranged alphabetically by surname, with each entry given under the name by which the scientist is most commonly known. The typical entry provides the following information: Entry Head: Name, birth/death dates, nationality, and field(s) of specialization. Essay: Essays range in length from 500 to 1,500 words, with most totaling around 750 words. Each contains basic biographical information—date and place of birth, family information, educational background, positions held, prizes awarded, etc.— but the greatest attention is given to the scientist’s work. Names within the essays set in small capitals

provide easy reference to other scientists represented in the book. In addition to the alphabetical list of scientists, readers searching for names of individuals from specific countries or scientific disciplines can consult one of the following indexes found at the end of the book: Field of Specialization Index: Groups entrants according to the scientific field(s) in which they worked. Nationality Index: Organizes entrants by country of birth and/or citizenship. Year of Birth Index: Organizes entrants according to the year they were born. Subject Index: Lists page references for scientists and scientific terms used in the book.

lIst of entrIes
Abbe, Cleveland Ackerman, Thomas P. Adamson, Joy Agassiz, Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz, Jean Louis Rodolphe Agnesi, Maria Gaetana Agnodice Agricola, Georgius Aiken, Howard Hathaway Ajakaiye, Deborah Enilo Alder, Kurt Alexander, Hattie Elizabeth Alfvén, Hannes Olof Gösta Allen, Paul Altman, Sidney Alvarez, Luis Walter Alvariño, Angeles Ampère, André-Marie Anastasi, Anne Ancker-Johnson, Betsy Andersen, Dorothy Hansine Anderson, Carl David Anderson, Elda Emma Anderson, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, Gloria Long Anfinsen, Christian Boehmer Anning, Mary Apgar, Virginia Arber, Agnes Robertson Archimedes Aristarchus of Samos Aristotle Arrhenius, Svante August Aston, Francis William Audubon, John James Auerbach, Charlotte Avery, Mary Ellen Avery, Oswald Theodore Avicenna Avogadro, Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Ayrton, Hertha (Phoebe Sarah Marks) Babbage, Charles Baekeland, Leo Hendrik Baeyer, Adolf von Bailey, Florence Merriam (Florence Augusta Merriam) Baker, Sara Josephine Banks, Harvey Washington Banting, Sir Frederick Grant Bárány, Robert Bari, Nina Karlovna Barney, Ida Barton, Clara Barton, Derek H. R. Bascom, Florence Bassi, Laura Maria Catarina Bateson, William Bechtereva, Natalia Petrovna Becquerel, Antoine-Henri Bell (Burnell), Susan Jocelyn Bellow, Alexandra Benedict, Ruth Fulton Benerito, Ruth Mary Roan Bennett, Isobel Ida Berg, Paul Bergius, Friedrich Berkowitz, Joan B. Bernard, Claude Bernoulli, Daniel Bernstein, Dorothy Lewis Bertozzi Andrea Berzelius, Jöns Jakob

Best, Charles Herbert Bethe, Hans Albrecht Bilger, Leonora Neuffer Binet, Alfred Binnig, Gerd Birman, Joan S. Bishop, Katharine Scott Blackburn, Elizabeth Helen Blackwell, Elizabeth Blagg, Mary Adela Bloch, Felix Blodgett, Katharine Burr Blum, Lenore Epstein Boden, Margaret Bodley, Rachel Littler Bohr, Niels Henrik David Boivin, Marie-Anne-Victoire Gallain Bok, Bart Jan Boltzman, Ludwig Eduard Bondar, Roberta Lynn Boole, George Boole, Mary Everest Bordet, Jules-Jean-Baptiste-Vincent Borlaug, Norman Ernest Born, Max Bosch, Carl Bose, Satyendranath Bothe, Walther Wilhelm Georg Bovet, Daniel Bowman, Sir William Boyle, Robert Bozeman, Sylvia Brady, St. Elmo Brahe, Tycho Brandegee, Mary Katharine Layne (“Kate”) Branson, Herman Russell


Braun, Emma Lucy Braun, Karl Ferdinand Breckenridge, Mary Brewster, Sir David Brill, Yvonne Claeys Britton, Elizabeth Gertrude Knight Broca, Pierre-Paul Broglie, Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, prince and seventh duc de Brongniart, Alexandre Brønsted, Johannes Nicolaus Brooks, Harriet Brown, Rachel Fuller Browne, Barbara Moulton Browne, Marjorie Lee Buchner, Eduard Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm Burbank, Luther Burbidge, Eleanor Margaret Peachey Burnet, Sir Frank Macfarlane Burton, Leone Butenandt, Adolf Buys Ballot, Christoph Hendrik Diedrik Caldicott, Helen Caldwell, Mary Letitia Calvin, Melvin Cambra, Jessie G. Campbell-Swinton, Alan Archibald Canady, Alexa I. Cannizzaro, Stanislao Cannon, Annie Jump Cantor, Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cardús, David Carnot, Nicolas-Léonard-Sadi Carothers, E. (Estella) Eleanor Carothers, Wallace Hume Carr, Emma Perry Carrel, Alexis Carruthers, George R. Carson, Benjamin S. Carson, Rachel Louise Carver, George Washington Caserio, Marjorie Constance Beckett Cassini, Giovanni Domenico Cauchy, Augustin-Louis, Baron Cavendish, Henry Celsius, Anders Chadwick, Sir James Chain, Sir Ernst Boris Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan Chang, Min-Chueh Chang, Sun-Young Alice

Charpak, Georges Chase, Mary Agnes Meara Chasman, Renate Wiener Châtelet, Gabrielle-Emilie du Cherenkov, Pavel Alekseyevich Chinn, May Edward Cho, Alfred Y. Chu, Paul Ching-Wu Clapp, Cornelia M. Clark, Eugenie Clark, Josiah Latimer Clarke, Edith Clay-Jolles, Tettje Clasina Claypool, Edith Jane Cleopatra the Alchemist Cobb, Jewel Plummer Cohen, Stanley H. Cohn, Mildred Colborn, Theodora Colden, Jane Cole, Rebecca J. Colmenares, Margarita Hortensia Colwell, Rita Rossi Colwin, Laura North Hunter Comstock, Anna Botsford Conway, Lynn Ann Conwell, Esther Marly Conybeare, William Daniel Cooper, Leon Neil Copernicus, Nicolaus Cori, Gerty Theresa Radnitz Coriolis, Gustave-Gaspard Cornforth, John Warcup Cousteau, Jacques-Yves Cowings, Patricia Suzanne Cox, Geraldine Anne Vang Cox, Gertrude Mary Cremer, Erika Crick, Francis Harry Compton Crookes, William Crosby, Elizabeth Caroline Crutzen, Paul J. Curie, Marie Sklodowska Curie, Pierre Cuvier, Georges-Léopold-ChrêtienFrédéric-Dagobert, Baron Daily, Gretchen Dalton, John Daly, Marie Maynard Dana, James Dwight Daniell, John Frederic Darden, Christine Darwin, Charles Robert Darwin, Erasmus

Daubechies, Ingrid Davis, Margaret B. Davis, Marguerite Davy, Sir Humphry Debye, Peter Joseph William Delbrück, Max Descartes, René du Perron De Vries, Hugo DeWitt, Lydia Maria Adams Dewitt-Morette, Cécile-Andrée-Paule Diacumakos, Elaine Dicciani, Nance K. Dick, Gladys Rowena Henry Dicke, Robert Henry Diels, Otto Diesel, Rudolf Diggs, Irene Dirac, Paul Adrien Maurice Dolan, Louise Ann Domagk, Gerhard Doppler, Christian Johann Doubleday, Neltje Blanchan De Graff Douglas, Allie Vibert Dresselhaus, Mildred Spiewak Dubos, René Dunham, Katherine Mary Duplaix, Nicole Dyer, Helen M. Earle, Sylvia Alice Eastwood, Alice Eccles, Sir John Eckerson, Sophia Hennion Eddy, Bernice Edelman, Gerald M. Edinger, Johanna Gabrielle Ottelie (“Tilly”) Edison, Thomas Edwards, Cecile Hoover Edwards, Helen T. Egas Moniz, António Caetano de Abreu Freire Ehrenfest-Afanaseva, Tatiana Ehrlich, Paul Eigen, Manfred Eigenmann, Rosa Smith Einstein, Albert Einthoven, Willem Elgood, Cornelia Bonté Sheldon Amos Elion, Gertrude Belle (“Trudy”) Emeagwali, Dale Brown Emerson, Gladys Anderson Enders, John Franklin Erasistratus of Chios


Eratosthenes Erlanger, Joseph Esaki, Leo Esau, Katherine Estrin, Thelma Euclid Euler, Leonhard Evans, Alice Catherine Ewing, William Maurice Faber, Sandra Moore Fahrenheit, Gabriel Daniel Falconer, Etta Zuber Faraday, Michael Farquhar, Marilyn Gist Farr, Wanda K. Fawcett, Stella Grace Maisie Federoff, Nina V. Fell, Honor Bridget Fenselau, Catherine Clarke Ferguson, Margaret Clay Fermi, Enrico Feynman, Richard Philip Fibonacci, Leonardo Pisano Fieser, Mary Peters Fischer, Emil Hermann Fischer, Ernst Otto Fischer, Hans Fisher, Elizabeth F . Fleming, Sir Alexander Fleming, Williamina Paton Stevens Florey, Howard Walter Flory, Paul Flourens, Pierre Flügge-Lotz, Irmgard Foot, Katharine Forrester, Jay Fossey, Dian Foucault, Jean-Bernard-Léon Fowler, William Alfred Franck, James Frank, Ilya Mikhailovich Franklin, Benjamin Franklin, Rosalind Elsie Fraunhofer, Joseph von Free, Helen Murray Freedman, Wendy Laurel Freud, Sigmund Friedel, Charles Friend, Charlotte Frith, Uta Auernhammer Fukui, Kenichi Gabor, Dennis Gadgil, Sulochana Gage, Susanna Phelps

Gaillard, Mary Katharine Galdikas, Biruté M. F . Galen Galilei, Galileo Gamow, George Gardner, Julia Anna Garmany, Catharine Doremus Gasser, Herbert Spencer Gauss, Karl Friedrich Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis Geller, Margaret Joan Germain, Marie-Sophie Giblett, Eloise Rosalie Gilbert, Grove Karl Gilbert, Walter Gilbreth, Lillian Evelyn Moller Giliani, Alessandra Glashow, Sheldon Lee Gleditsch, Ellen Glusker, Jenny Pickworth Goddard, Robert Hutchings Goldberg, Adele Goldhaber, Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber, Sulamith Golgi, Camillo Good, Mary Lowe Goodall, Jane Goodenough, Florence Laura Gould, Stephen Jay Gourdine, Meredith Charles Graham, Thomas Granville, Evelyn Boyd Grasselli Brown, Jeanette G. Green, Arda Alden Grignard, François-Auguste-Victor Grimaldi, Francesco Maria Gross, Carol A. Guillaume, Charles-Édouard Gullstrand, Allvar Gurdon, John Bertrand Guthrie, Mary Jane Gutierrez, Orlando A. Haber, Fritz Hadley, George Hahn, Dorothy Anna Hahn, Otto Hale, George Ellery Hall, James Hall, Lloyd Augustus Halley, Edmond Hamerstrom, Frances Hamilton, Alice Harden, Arthur Hardy, Harriet

Harris, Mary Styles Harrison, Anna Jane Harvey, Ethel Browne Harvey, William Harwood, Margaret Hassel, Odd Hawes, Harriet Ann Boyd Hawking, Stephen William Haworth, Walter Hay, Elizabeth Dexter Hay, Louise Schmir Hazen, Elizabeth Lee Hazlett, Olive Clio Healy, Bernadine Heezen, Bruce C. Heisenberg, Werner Karl Heloise Herophilus of Chalcedon Herrad of Landsberg Herschel, Caroline Lucretia Herschel, Sir John Frederick William Herschel, Sir William Hershey, Alfred Day Hertz, Gustav Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf Herzberg, Gerhard Herzenberg, Caroline Stuart Little Hess, Victor Francis Franz Hess, Walter Rudolf Hewish, Antony Hewitt, Jacqueline N. Heyrovský, Jaroslav Hibbard, Hope Hildegard of Bingen Hill, Sir Archibald Vivian Hill, Dorothy Hill, Henry Aaron Hinshelwood, Cyril Hipparchus Hippocrates of Cos Hobby, Gladys Lounsbury Hodgkin, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot Hoffleit, Ellen Dorrit Hoffmann, Roald Hogg, Helen Battles Sawyer Hollerith, Herman Hollinshead, Ariel Cahill Holmes, Arthur Hoobler, Icie Gertrude Macy Hopkins, Donald Hopper, Grace Brewster Murray Horney, Karen Danielsen Horstmann, Dorothy Millicent



Hounsfield, Godfrey Newbold Hoyle, Sir Fred Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer Huang, Alice Shih-Hou Hubbard, Ruth Hubble, Edwin Powell Hubel, David Hunter Hückel, Erich Hudson, Mary K. Humboldt, Alexander von Hutton, James Huxley, Sir Andrew Fielding Huygens, Christiaan Hyatt, Gilbert Hyde, Ida Henrietta Hyman, Libbie Henrietta Hypatia of Alexandria Ildstad, Suzanne Imes, Elmer Samuel Itakura, Keiichi Jackson, Shirley Ann Jacobi, Mary Jacobs, Aletta Henriette Jacquard, Joseph-Marie Jansky, Karl Guthe Jeans, Sir James Hopwood Jemison, Mae Carol Jenner, Edward Jex-Blake, Sophia Louisa Jobs, Steven Johnson, Katherine Coleman Goble Johnson, Virginia E. Joliot-Curie, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Irène Jones, Mary Ellen Joshee, Anandibai Joule, James Prescott Joullié, Madeleine M. Jung, Carl Gustav Just, Ernest Everett Kapitsa, Pyotr Leonidovich Karle, Isabella L. Karrer, Paul Kastler, Alfred Kato, Tosio Kaufman, Joyce Jacobson Keller, Evelyn Fox Kelsey, Frances Oldham Kelvin, William Thomson, Lord Kendrew, Sir John Cowdery Kepler, Johannes Kessel, Mona Khayyám, Omar Khorana, Har Gobind Kil, Chung-Hee

King, Helen Dean King, Louisa Boyd Yeomans King, Mary-Claire King, Reatha Clark Kipping, Frederic Stanley Kirch, Maria Winkelmann Kistiakowsky, Vera E. Kittrell, Flemmie Pansy Kivelson, Margaret Galland Klein, Christian Felix Klein, Melanie Reizes Klieneberger-Nobel, Emmy Klug, Aaron Knopf, Eleanora Bliss Koehl, Mimi A. R. Kolff, Willem J. Koller, Noemie Benczer Kornberg, Arthur Kovalevskaia, Sofia Vasilyevna (“Sonya”) Krebs, Sir Hans Adolf Krieger, Cecelia Krim, Mathilde Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Doris Kuhn, Richard Kuiper, Gerard Peter Kuperberg, Krystyna Kwolek, Stephanie L. Lachapelle, Marie-Louise Ladd-Franklin, Christine Laird, Elizabeth Rebecca Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste-PierreAntoine de Monet, chevalier de Lancefield, Rebecca Craighill Langmuir, Irving Laplace, Pierre-Simon de, Marquis Laveran, Charles-Louis-Alphonse Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, Marie-Anne-Pierrette Paulze Lawes, John Bennett Lawrence, Ernest Orlando Leakey, Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey, Mary Douglas Nicol Leakey, Richard Erskine Frere Leavitt, Henrietta Swan Le Beau, Désirée Leblanc, Nicolas Lebon, Philippe Lee, Tsung-Dao Lee, Yuan Tseh Leeuwenhoek, Antoni van Lehmann, Inge Lehn, Jean-Marie

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leloir, Luis Federico Lenard, Philipp Eduard Anton von Leopold, Aldo Leopold, Estella Bergere Lepeshinskaia, Ol’ga Borisovna Protopova L’Esperance, Elise Depew Strang Lester, William Alexander, Jr. Levi-Montalcini, Rita Levy, Jerre Levy, Julia Lewis, Gilbert Newton Lewis, Margaret Adaline Reed Li, Ching Chun Libby, Leonora Woods Marshall Libby, Willard Frank Lim, Robert Kho-seng Lin, Ch’iao-chih Linnaeus, Carl Lipmann, Fritz Albert Lipscomb, William Nunn, Jr. Lister, Joseph Lloyd, Ruth Smith Logan, Martha Daniell Logan, Myra Adele Long, Irene Duhart Lonsdale, Kathleen Yardley Love, Susan Lovelace, Augusta Ada Byron Lovelock, James Ephraim Lowell, Percival Lubchenco, Jane Lucid, Shannon W. Luria, Salvador Edward Lyell, Sir Charles Lyon, Mary Frances Maathai, Wangari Muta MacGill, Elsie Gregory Mach, Ernst Mack, Pauline Beery Macklin, Madge Thurlow Macleod, John James Rickard Maiman, Theodore Makhubu, Lydia Phindile Maltby, Margaret Eliza Mandl, Ines Hochmuth Mangold, Hilde Proescholdt Manton, Sidnie Milana Manzolini, Anna Morandi Marconi, Guglielmo Marcy, Geoffrey Margulis, Lynn Alexander Maria the Jewess (Mary, Miriam) Marrack, Philippa


Martin, Archer John Porter Massey, Walter Eugene Massie, Samuel Proctor Matzinger, Polly Celine Eveline Mauchly, John William Maury, Antonia Caetana Maury, Carlotta Joaquina Maury, Matthew Fontaine Maxwell, James Clerk Maxwell, Martha Dartt Mayer, Maria Gertrude Goeppert McClintock, Barbara McDuff, Margaret Dusa McMillan, Edwin Mattison McNally, Karen Cook McNutt, Marcia Kemper Mead, Margaret Medawar, Peter Brian Meitner, Lise Mendel, Johann Gregor Mendeleev, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendenhall, Dorothy Reed Mercator, Gerardus Merian, Maria Sibylla Mestral, George de Metchnikoff, Élie Mexia, Ynes Enriquetta Julietta Meyerhof, Otto Fritz Micheli-Tzanakou, Evangelia Michelson, Albert Abraham Miller, Elizabeth Calvert Minkowski, Hermann Minot, George Richards Mintz, Beatrice Mitchell, Maria Möbius, August Ferdinand Mohs, Friedrich Moissan, Ferdinand-Frédéric-Henri Molina, Mario Moore, Stanford Morawetz, Cathleen Synge Morgan, Agnes Fay Morgan, Ann Haven Morgan, Lilian Vaughan Sampson Morgan, Thomas Hunt Moss, Cynthia Mössbauer, Rudolph Ludwig Moufang, Ruth Muir, John Muller, Hermann Joseph Müller, Paul Hermann Mulliken, Robert S. Murphy, William Parry Nambu, Yoichiro Napier, John

Natta, Giulio Néel, Louis-Eugène-Félix Nernst, Walther Hermann Neufeld, Elizabeth Fondal Newlands, John Alexander Reina Newton, Sir Isaac Nice, Margaret Morse Nichols, Roberta J. Nicolle, Charles-Jules-Henri Niepce, Joseph Nightingale, Dorothy Virginia Nightingale, Florence Nipkow, Paul Gottlieb Nirenberg, Marshall Warren Nobel, Alfred Bernhard Noddack, Ida Tacke Noether, Emmy Noguchi, Constance Tom Norrish, Ronald George Wreyford Northrop, John Howard Novello, Antonia Coello Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane Nuttall, Zelia Maria Magdalena Nyholm, Ronald Sydney Ocampo-Friedmann, Roseli Ochoa, Ellen Ochoa, Severo Ogilvie, Ida H. Ohm, Georg Simon Olden, Kenneth Onsager, Lars Oort, Jan Hendrik Oppenheimer, J. Robert Ørsted, Hans Christian Osborn, Mary J. Ostwald, Wilhelm Panajiotatou, Angeliki Pappus of Alexandria Pardue, Mary Lou Parsons, Charles Algernon Pascal, Blaise Pasteur, Louis Patrick, Ruth Patterson, Francine Pauli, Wolfgang Pauling, Linus Carl Payne, Katharine Boynton (“Katy”) Payne-Gaposchkin, Cecilia Helena Pearce, Louise Peden, Irene Carswell Pellier, Laurence Delisle Pendleton, Yvonne Pennington, Mary Engle Penry, Deborah L. Perey, Marguerite-Catherine

Perkin, William Henry Perlmann, Gertrude E. Perrin-Riou, Bernadette Pert, Candace Beebe Perutz, Max Ferdinand Péter, Rózsa Petermann, Mary Locke Peterson, Edith R. Phelps, Almira Hart Lincoln Phillips, Melba Newell Piaget, Jean Piazzi, Giuseppe Picotte, Susan La Flesche Pierce, Naomi E. Pimental, David Pinckney, Eliza Lucas Planck, Max Playfair, John Pliny the Elder Poincaré, Jules-Henri Polanyi, Michael Poncelet, Jean-Victor Popov, Alexander Stepanovich Porter, Sir George Pregl, Fritz Prelog, Vladimir Pressman, Ada Irene Prichard, Diana García Priestley, Joseph Prigogine, Ilya Profet, Margie Jean Proust, Joseph-Louis Ptolemaeus, Claudius (Ptolemy) Purcell, Edward Mills Pythagoras Pytheas of Massilia Quimby, Edith H. Quinland, William Samuel Quinn, Helena Rhoda Arnold Rabi, Isidor Isaac Rajalakshmi, R. Raman, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Ramanujan, Srinivasa Iyengar Ramart-Lucas, Pauline Ramey, Estelle Ramón y Cajal, Santiago Ramsay, William Randoin, Lucie Ratner, Sarah Ray, Dixy Lee Rees, Mina S. Richards, Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards, Theodore William Richardson, Jane S. Richter, Charles Francis


Ride, Sally K. Rigas, Harriet B. Robbins, Frederick Chapman Roberts, Dorothea Klumpke Robinson, Julia Bowman Robinson, Robert Rockwell, Mabel MacFerran Roemer, Elizabeth Rohrer, Heinrich Roman, Nancy Grace Röntgen, Wilhelm Conrad Rothschild, Miriam Rowland, F Sherwood . Rowley, Janet D. Rubin, Vera Cooper Russell, Bertrand Arthur William Russell, Elizabeth Shull Rutherford, Ernest Ružic Leopold ˇka, Sabatier, Paul Sabin, Alfred Bruce Sabin, Florence Rena Sagan, Carl Edward Sager, Ruth Salk, Jonas Edward Sanchez, Pedro Antonio Sanford, Katherine Koontz Sanger, Frederick Sarachik, Myriam Saruhashi, Katsuko Schafer, Alice Turner Scharrer, Berta Vogel Schiaparelli, Giovanni Virginio Schrieffer, John Robert Schrödinger, Erwin Schwinger, Julian Seymour Scott, Charlotte Angas Seaborg, Glenn Theodore Seibert, Florence Barbara Semenov, Nikolay (Nikolayevich) Sessions, Kate Olivia Shapley, Harlow Shattuck, Lydia White Shaw, Mary Sherrill, Mary Lura Sherrington, Charles Scott Shiva, Vandana Shockley, Dolores Cooper Shockley, William Shoemaker, Eugene Merle Shreeve, Jean’ne Marie Siegbahn, Karl Manne Georg Sikorsky, Igor Silbergeld, Ellen Kovner Simmonds, Sofia

Simon, Dorothy Martin Simpson, Joanne Malkus Sinclair, Mary Emily Singer, Maxine Sinkford, Jeanne C. Sithole-Niang, Idah Sitterly, Charlotte Emma Moore Skinner, B. F . Slye, Maud Caroline Snyder, Solomon Halbert Soddy, Frederick Solomon, Susan Somerville, Mary Fairfax Spaeth, Mary Sparling, Rebecca Hall Sperry, Elmer Ambrose Sperry, Pauline Sperry, Roger Wolcott Sponer, Hertha Spurlock, Jeanne Srinivasan, Bhama Stanley, Louise Stanley, Wendell Meredith Stark, Johannes Staudinger, Hermann Stein, William Howard Steitz, Joan Argetsinger Stephenson, Marjory Stern, Frances Stern, Otto Stevens, Nettie Maria Steward, Susan Smith McKinney Stewart, Alice Stewart, Sarah Stokes, William Stoll, Alice Mary Stone, Isabelle Stubbe, JoAnne Sudarkasa, Niara Sullivan, Betty J. Sumner, James Batcheller Sutherland, Ivan Edward Svedberg, Theodore Swinburne, James Swope, Henrietta Hill Sydenham, Thomas Synge, Richard Szkody, Paula Tamm, Igor Evgenievich Tarski, Alfred Tartaglia, Niccolò Taussig, Helen Brooke Taussky-Todd Olga Taylor, Lucy Hobbs Taylor, Stuart Robert

Telkes, Maria Teller, Edward Tereshkova, Valentina Vladimirovna Nikolayeva Tesla, Nikola Tesoro, Giuliana Cavaglieri Tharp, Marie Theophrastus Thomas, Martha Jane Bergin Ting, Samuel Chao Chung Tinsley, Beatrice Muriel Hill Tiselius, Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Todd, Alexander Robertus, Baron Tolbert, Margaret E. M. Tombaugh, Clyde William Tomonaga, Shinichiro Tonegawa, Susumu Trotter, Mildred Trotula of Salerno Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin Eduardovich Tsui, Lap-Chee Tull, Jethro Turing, Alan Mathison Turner, Charles Henry Uhlenbeck, Karen Keskulla Urey, Harold Clayton Van der Meer, Simon Van Dover, Cindy Lee Vassy, Arlette Vennesland, Birgit Venter, J. Craig Virtanen, Artturi Ilmari Vivian, Roxana Hayward Vold, Marjorie Jean Young Volta, Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Von Mises, Hilda Geiringer Von Neumann, John Louis Von Sachs, Julius Vrba, Elisabeth Vyssotsky, Emma T. R. Williams Waelsch, Salome Gluecksohn Schoenheimer Wagner-Jauregg, Julius Waldeyer-Hartz, Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Walker, Mary Edwards Wallace, Alfred Russel Wallach, Otto Washburn, Margaret Floy Washington, Warren M. Watson, James Dewey Wattleton, Alyce Faye Weertman, Julia Wegener, Alfred Lothar


Weinberg, Steven Weisburger, Elizabeth Amy Kreiser Weller, Thomas Huckle Werner, Abraham Gottlob Werner, Alfred Wethers, Doris L. Wexler, Nancy Sabin Wheatstone, Sir Charles Wheeler, Anna Johnson Pell Wheeler, Emma Rochelle Whipple, Fred Lawrence Whipple, George Hoyt White, Gilbert Whiting, Sarah Frances Widnall, Sheila E. Wiesel, Torsten Nils Wiles, Andrew John Wilkins, J. Ernest, Jr. Wilkins, Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkinson, Sir Geoffrey

Williams, Anna Wessels Williams, Cicely Delphin Williams, Heather Williams, Oswald S. Willson, Lee Anne Mordy Wilson, Charles Thomson Rees Wilson, John Tuzo Witkin, Evelyn Maisel Wittig, Georg Wöhler, Friedrich Wong-Staal, Flossie Wood, Elizabeth Armstrong Woods, Geraldine Pittman Woodward, Robert Burns Wozniak, Stephen Wright, Jane Cooke Wrinch, Dorothy Maud Wu, Chien-Shiung Wu, Sau Lan Wyse, Rosemary

Xie, Xide Yalow, Rosalyn Sussman Yang, Chen Ning Yener, Kutlu Aslihan York, James Wesley, Jr. Young, Grace Chisholm Young, Judith Sharn Young, Lai-Sang Young, Roger Arliner Young, Thomas Yukawa, Hideki Zakrzewska, Marie Elizabeth Ziegler, Karl Zinder, Norton David Zoback, Mary Lou Zsigmondy, Richard Adolf Zuber, Maria T. Zworykin, Vladimir

Biographical Essays


Abbe, Cleveland
(838–96) American Meteorologist Cleveland Abbe ushered in the modern era of meteorology by instituting a national system of daily weather reports and forecasts that served as the prototype for the U.S. Weather Bureau, which he also helped to organize. Abbe helped transform the reporting of weather from a highly localized phenomenon based on conjecture into a coordinated system based on observed facts and informed projections of potential weather developments. Abbe’s “probabilities,” as he initially called them, acted as the precursor to the present-day weather forecast. Abbe was born on December 3, 838, in New York City, brother of Robert Abbe, the pioneer in plastic surgery who introduced radiation therapy to the United States. Growing up in the city, he became enthralled with weather by reading articles by Joseph Henry (among others) in the daily newspapers. In the summer of 857, he read William Ferrel’s classic article on the theories of storms and winds in the Mathematical Monthly, which guided him into the study of meteorology. That year, he graduated from the Free Academy (now the College of the City of New York) and proceeded to conduct graduate studies in astronomy under F Brunow at Ann Arbor, Michigan, until 860, and . then under B. A. Gould at Cambridge, Massachusetts, until 864. Abbe spent the next two years studying and working as an assistant under astronomer Otto Struve at the Observatory of Pulkova in Russia. Upon his return to the United States, he worked briefly at the Naval Observatory before taking up the directorship of the Cincinnati Observatory. In his inaugural address on May , 868, he outlined his intention of establishing a system of weather reports. John Gano, president of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce, pledged his sup

port for such a project, and the Western Union Telegraph Company donated transmissions over its telegraph lines of weather reports from the 40 volunteer meteorological correspondents enlisted by Abbe. The first Cincinnati Weather Bulletin was dispatched on September , 869. In October 869, Abbe devised a code of cipher for abbreviating the weather reports. Abbe’s Cincinnati Weather Bulletin served as the prototype for the nationalization of a weather-reporting system, which Smithsonian observer Increase Allen Lapham of Milwaukee urged Congress to establish under the auspices of the Signal Corps of the Army. The U.S. Congress announced a joint resolution supporting the measure on February 2, 870, and on February 9, President Ulysses S. Grant signed the initiative into law, charging the secretary of war with establishing it under the Army Signal Service. Abbe married on May 0, 870, in the midst of preparations for the institution of the weather report, which went into effect in November 870. On January 3, 87, Abbe was appointed civilian assistant to the chief signal officer, General Albert J. Myer. Together they organized the Weather Bureau of the Army Signal Service, which oversaw the national weather reports. The reports consisted of daily synopses of current weather conditions, along with “probabilities,” or forecasts of possible atmospheric developments. Abbe devised a system to reduce traffic on the electromagnetic telegraph wires by having all of the reporters at the major stations opening up their lines at specific appointed times, each to give a report and then listen to others’ reports, thereby disseminating all the necessary information in a mere 20- to 30-minute interchange. Despite the efficiency of such a system, Western Union refused to dispatch all weather reports on March 4, 87, forcing the Weather Bureau to use competing telegraph companies for their transmissions. Abbe continued to impose order on the system he innovated, determining the altitude above sea level of all Signal Service barometers



in 872. The next year, he launched the Monthly Weather Review, a slim bulletin of weather statistics that expanded in some 20 years into one of the most respected meteorological journals in the world under Abbe’s editorship. Also in 873, the International Meteorological Congress established the “Daily Bulletin of Simultaneous International Meteorological Observations,” based on Abbe’s national system. Abbe published prolifically. His most important papers included “Treatise on Meteorological Apparatus and Methods,” published in 887, and “Preparatory Studies for Deductive Methods in Storm and Weather Prediction,” published in 889. Other important titles included Solar Spots and Terrestrial Temperature; A Plea for Terrestrial Physics; Atmospheric Radiation; and Treatise on Meteorological Apparatus. Abbe was duly recognized for his contributions to science. For example, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 879. Perhaps the most distinguished honor was his receipt of the Marcellus Hartley medal for Eminence in the Application of Science to the Public Welfare on April 7, 96. He was unable to attend the ceremony, however, due to ill health. Half a year later, Abbe died at his home in Chevy Chase, Maryland, on October 28, 96. In his honor, flags in front of the Department of Agriculture and the Weather Bureau in Washington, D.C., were flown at half-mast on the day of his funeral. In his memory, the American Meteorological Society named the Cleveland Abbe Award for Distinguished Service to Atmospheric Sciences by an Individual after him.

Ackerman, Thomas P.
(947– ) American Meteorologist The theory of nuclear winter, or the catastrophic atmospheric consequences wrought by nuclear war, elicited a sea change in the public perception of the viability of actually employing nuclear weapons tactically. Thomas Ackerman participated on the team that proposed a scientific model for a nuclear winter scenario in the early 980s. The theory’s reception varied along political lines: antinuclear activists embraced it as evidence of the insanity of maintaining nuclear arsenals, while the conservative contingent attacked its scientific limitations. Thomas P. Ackerman was born in 947. He graduated with a degree in physics from Calvin College, then went on to attend the University of Washington, earning his master of science degree in physics in 97 and his Ph.D. in atmospheric science in 976. After receiving his doctorate, he went to work as a research scientist at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center.

In 982, the Swedish environmental journal Ambio published an article in which Paul Crutzen and John W. Birks coined the term “nuclear winter” to describe the aftereffects of a nuclear war. Interestingly, they theorized that the resulting environmental effects would eclipse the destructiveness of the actual explosions, as carbon soot from the resulting fires would blanket the atmosphere, preventing sunlight from reaching the Earth’s surface. When carl sagan read this account, he grasped the political implications of such a theory, and he realized that the scientific community could offer the antinuclear movement the ultimate deterrent: a description of mutually assured destruction, or global suicide. Sagan set out to create a scientific model of nuclear winter, using computer software to extrapolate the effects of a nuclear holocaust. He enlisted Ackerman, along with Richard P. Turco, Owen B. Toon, and James B. Pollack, to form the team later known by the acronym TTAPS. The group developed a one-dimensional model projecting the likely outcomes of significant nuclear events. In their report, “Nuclear Winter: Global Consequences of Multiple Nuclear Explosions,” published in the December 23, 983, issue of Science, they proposed that nuclear weapons exploding over 00 cities, releasing an explosive power totaling as little as 00 megatons, would send so much dust and smoke into the atmosphere that the temperature would drop anywhere from five to 5 degrees, an outcome that could have catastrophic environmental consequences. The nuclear winter theory galvanized the political community: the antinuclear movement used it as an apocalyptic rallying cry to discontinue the stockpiling of nuclear arms and, indeed, to reach disarmament treaties. However, the conservative faction seized upon the theory’s limitations, pointing out that it did not take into account the division of the Earth’s surface into water and land (which would create heat transfer), the difference between daytime and nighttime sunlight (TTAPS postulated 24hour sunlight at one-third strength), and the limitations of existing computers to take into account the multiple variables factoring into a realistic scenario. Conservatives further accused the TTAPS team of sacrificing scientific integrity in order to advance a political agenda, a position confirmed by the opinions of leading scientists (including Nobel laureate Richard Feynman) who criticized the study’s methodologies. The TTAPS team, along with Crutzen and Birks, received the 985 Leo Szilard Lectureship Award from the American Physical Society, reaffirming their scientific integrity. In 988, Ackerman joined the faculty of Pennsylvania State University as a professor of meteorology and associate director of the Earth System Science Center and then held a concurrent position on NASA’s MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) science team and as a site scientist for the Tropical Western Pacific site in the Department of



Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. In 995, he became a full professor at Penn State. Ackerman also continued to collaborate with the TTAPS team, conducting further research on the nuclear winter question. In 990, the group published a followup article in Science, in which they defended their original theory by offering more sophisticated modeling (available due to more sophisticated computer programs) and taking into account more realistic variables. Since then, with the demise of the Soviet Union and the melting of the cold war, little research has been applied to the nuclear winter theory. However, the theory lodged itself in the collective consciousness, exerting a significant influence on public policy as well as personal angst. The reception of the theory demonstrated the necessity of maintaining impeccable scientific integrity, especially when scientific findings carry political implications. Ultimately, the theory’s influence eclipsed the question of its scientific validity, as it forced a more considered approach to the question of the destructive capacity of nuclear weapons and the wisdom of maintaining vast nuclear arsenals in a state of readiness.

Adamson, Joy
(90–980) Austrian Naturalist Best known for her book Born Free: A Lioness of Two Worlds, which detailed her experiences raising a lion cub in Africa, Joy Adamson was an artist and naturalist who did much to further the cause of wildlife preservation. Adamson raised a number of wild animals on game reserves in kenya, where she spent the better part of her life. A film version of the highly popular Born Free was produced in 964 and eventually led to a television series. Born Friederike Viktoria Gessner on January 20, 90, Adamson grew up in Troppau, Silesia, an area of Austria that later became part of Slovakia. Adamson’s father, Viktor Gessner, was an architect and urban planner, and her mother, the former Traute Greipel, came from a wealthy family of paper manufacturers. Adamson demonstrated an interest in animals and creative pursuits from a young age; after shooting and killing a deer on the family’s estate— hunting was a popular pastime on the estate—a teenaged Adamson swore she would never again kill for sport. Adamson had varied interests and studied such subjects as psychoanalysis, painting, metalwork, music, dressmaking, and archaeology at schools in Vienna. Though Adamson planned to pursue a career in medicine, she did not take her final exam. Instead, in 935, Adamson married Victor von klarwill, an Austrian businessman. Because Adamson’s new husband was Jewish, the couple decided

to move to kenya to escape the growing Nazi movement. Adamson went ahead of von klarwill, and during her journey she met botanist Peter Bally. After divorcing von klarwill, Adamson married Bally in 938. Bally traveled through kenya to study plant specimens, and Adamson accompanied him. She began to paint the plants Bally collected, eventually completing about 700 paintings. Adamson’s second marriage ended in divorce in 942, and a year later she married George Adamson, a game warden. During the following years, Adamson continued her paintings of flowers and plants and also began to paint portraits of tribal members. Then, in 956, George Adamson killed a lioness that attacked him. After discovering that the lioness was protecting three cubs, George Adamson brought home the cubs. Two were sent to the Rotterdam Zoo, but Adamson kept the third cub and named her Elsa. Adamson and her husband raised Elsa and trained her to live in the wild. Adamson chronicled these experiences in the book, Born Free, which was published in 960. Elsa eventually had three cubs of her own and began to visit the Adamsons. When Elsa died at the age of five, the Adamsons trained her three cubs and set them free in Serengeti National Park. Adamson wrote about the cubs in Living Free and Forever Free, sequels to Born Free. During the 960s, Adamson worked to increase awareness of wildlife endangerment and the need for preservation, capitalizing on the popularity of her books. In 96, Adamson established the Elsa Wild Animal Appeal Fund in the United kingdom. Chapters in the United States and Canada followed. Adamson was also a founder of the World Wildlife Fund and among the first to boycott apparel made from animal fur. In 962, she traveled around the world to speak about wildlife preservation. The proceeds from her activities funded the establishment of wildlife reserves and conservation efforts. Though little was known about the behavior of cheetahs, Adamson raised and trained a cheetah, named Pippa, in the late 960s. She detailed her experiences with Pippa in two books, The Spotted Sphinx, published in 969, and Pippa’s Challenge, published in 972. Adamson moved to an estate outside of Nairobi in 97, and in 976 she focused on raising a leopard cub named Penny. This experience, too, led to a book, Queen of Sheba: The Story of an African Leopard, which was published in 980. Adamson was the recipient of numerous honors and awards for her efforts to advance the wildlife preservation movement. She was presented the Award of Merit from Czechoslovakia in 970, the Joseph Wood krutch Medal of the U.S. Humane Society in 97, and the Austrian Cross of Honor for science and art in 976. Adamson also received the 947 Gold Grenfell Medal from the Royal Horticultural Society for her illustrations of East African plant life. Adamson was murdered by a former servant on January 3, 980, in the Shaba Game Reserve in northern kenya.



Agassiz, Elizabeth Cabot Cary
(822–907) American Naturalist and Educator Although Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz received no formal education, she collaborated with her husband—the famed naturalist Louis Agassiz—to publish important works on natural history. In addition to participating together in several of his expeditions, the couple cofounded the Anderson School of Natural History. After her husband’s death, Agassiz established the Harvard Annex, later named Radcliffe College, which she served as its first president. As one of the nation’s elite colleges, Radcliffe served as a testament to Agassiz’s commitment to women’s higher education. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 5, 822, Elizabeth Cabot Cary was the second of the seven children of Thomas and Mary Cushing Perkins Cary. Although she never attended school because of her frail health, Elizabeth Cary was tutored by a governess at home. She showed no early interest in science, but she was exposed to languages, music, and art. In 846, she met Louis Agassiz, then a professor of natural history at the University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Agassiz emigrated to the United States shortly thereafter, accepting a position at Harvard University as the chair of natural history at the Lawrence Scientific School. Cary married Agassiz in 850. While the couple had no children together, Elizabeth Cary Agassiz became mother to her husband’s three children from a prior marriage. To help support her new family, Elizabeth Agassiz launched a girls’ school in her Cambridge home in 856. Although she did not teach any classes herself, she sat in on the natural history lectures her husband delivered to the school’s pupils. Her interest in the subject was sparked by this experience. After closing the school in 863, she devoted herself to collaborating with Louis Agassiz on a number of scientific endeavors. In 859, Elizabeth Agassiz published her first book, A First Lesson in Natural History, which incorporated a number of her husband’s theories. Seaside Studies, cowritten with her stepson Alexander Agassiz, appeared in 865. A well-regarded textbook and field guide on marine zoology, Seaside Studies discussed a range of topics, such as the distribution of sea life and the embryology of various marine species. Together with Louis, Elizabeth Agassiz embarked on the Thayer expedition in 865 to study the fauna of Brazil. Her copious notes about the voyage provided the basis for A Journey in Brazil, a book authored jointly by Louis and Elizabeth in 868. The couple’s collaboration continued during the Hassler expedition (87–72), a deep-sea dredging effort along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States. In 873,

the duo founded the Anderson School of Natural History on Penikese Island in Buzzard’s Bay, Massachusetts. A summer school and a marine laboratory, Anderson accepted both male and female students (which was rather uncommon for the time). In 873, Louis Agassiz died of a cerebral hemorrhage. Although his untimely death ended the couple’s fruitful joint ventures, Elizabeth Agassiz turned to new projects of her own. In 885, she published Louis Agassiz: His Life and Correspondence, a two-volume biography of her husband, which provided essential information about his theories. Long interested in women’s education, Elizabeth Agassiz devoted the remainder of her life to championing higher education for women. Although she did not believe in the coeducation of men and women, she was an ardent proponent of women’s rights to equal educational opportunities. After traveling to Oxford and Cambridge to gather information, Agassiz founded the all-women’s Harvard Annex in 879, which shared the resources and faculty of Harvard. Agassiz served as its first president. The institution was rechristened Radcliffe College in 893 and was formally linked to Harvard at that time. Agassiz remained president until 899 when she retired. A scholarship and student hall were named in her honor. After suffering an initial cerebral hemorrhage in 904, Elizabeth Agassiz died of a second one in 907.

Agassiz, Jean Louis Rodolphe
(807–873) Swiss/American Ichthyologist, Geologist, Paleontologist Through meticulous observation of the natural world and exhaustive research, writing, and lecturing, Louis Agassiz established himself as the major opponent to charles robert darwin in the debate over the origins of natural history in the mid-800s. Agassiz’s belief in the Platonic notion that behind visible reality resides an unseen reality that controls the world challenged Darwin’s evolutionary model for the origin of the universe. Agassiz first proved himself in Europe as one of the foremost ichthyologists of his time, before focusing his attention on glaciers and introducing the idea of the Ice Age, a period when ice sheets covered most of the Northern Hemisphere. In 846 he accepted an invitation to lecture in the United States, and he remained in the country for the rest of his life, contributing to science education by introducing new pedagogical practices and instituting new learning facilities. Agassiz was born on May 28, 807, in Moutier-enVuly, Switzerland, a village on Lake Morat. His resistance to evolutionary theories probably traced back to the influence of his mother, Rose Mayor Agassiz, and his father, Rodolphe, a Protestant pastor. Agassiz married twice: first, in 832 to Cécile Braun, who had three children before



Louis Agassiz, who in 1840 introduced the idea of the Ice Age (Smith Collection, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania)

her death in 847; second, to Elizabeth Cabot Cary, the first president of Radcliffe College, Harvard University’s extension devoted to women’s education. Agassiz studied at the Universities of Zurich, Heidelberg, and Munich; he earned his Ph.D. from the Universities of Munich and Erlangen in 829 and his M.D. from the University of Munich in 830. He then migrated to Paris, where he studied under Baron georges cuvier and Baron alexander von humboldt between 830 and 832. Cuvier secured his pupil a position under C. F P. von Mar. tius and J. B. von Spix, cataloging the fish they had taken back to Paris from Brazil, a project that Agassiz took over in 826. He published the results in the 829 text Selecta Genera et Species Piscium.

Agnesi, Maria Gaetana
(78–799) Italian Mathematician Maria Gaetana Agnesi is best remembered for her pioneering two-volume work, Analytical Institutions, in which she synthesized and clarified existing information about

algebra as well as integral and differential calculus. Analytical Institutions was translated into several languages, and it became the standard calculus textbook in Europe for over a century after Agnesi’s death. In her most famous work, she discussed the formulation of a cubic curve, now known as the witch of Agnesi. Born in Milan, Italy, on May 6, 78, Maria Gaetana Agnesi was the eldest child of Pietro and Anna Fortunato Brivio Agnesi. A professor of mathematics at the University of Bologna, Agnesi’s father would remarry twice after her mother’s death in 732. The family would eventually grow to include 2 children. Because he came from a wealthy merchant family, Pietro Agnesi could hire the finest tutors for his children. Although most women of this era received at best a strict convent education, Maria Agnesi was schooled in Greek, Hebrew, Spanish, and other languages. At the age of nine, she recited from memory Horace’s defense of higher education for women. Her father held regular intellectual gatherings at his home, and Maria Agnesi was called upon to debate topics of philosophy and science with some of the leading thinkers of the day. Despite her unconventional education, Maria Agnesi’s first ambition was to become a nun. However, her father forbade her from joining a convent, so Agnesi devoted herself to the study of mathematics and to supervising the household. With her tutor, Ramiro Rampinelli, Agnesi delved into calculus texts. In 738, she published Propositiones Philosophicae, which included almost 200 theses on science and philosophy that she had defended at her father’s soirees. That same year, at the age of 20, Agnesi began writing Analytical Institutions as a calculus textbook for her younger brothers. It would take her nearly 0 years to complete and would eventually consist of two massive volumes—the first on algebra and geometry, the second on differential and integral calculus. She oversaw the work’s publication in her home, soliciting feedback from fellow mathematicians. Upon its publication in 748, the book revolutionized the study of calculus. In addition to integrating much of the contemporary information about calculus that had previously existed only in scattered fragments, Analytical Institutions introduced new ideas and methods. Of most significance was the cubic curve she discussed which now bears her name—the witch of Agnesi. This moniker derives from the fact that Agnesi actually misnamed her insight—referring to it as the versiera (which translates from colloquial Italian as “witch”) rather than the proper versoria. Agnesi’s work brought her immediate recognition. After being elected a member of the Accademia delle Scienze, an honorary society of intellectuals, she was nominated to become a professor at the University of Bologna by Pope Benedict XIV in 752. However, she never served



on the faculty. That same year, Agnesi’s father died, and she abandoned mathematics to pursue her religious calling. For the rest of her life, Agnesi cared for the sick and the poor. In 77, she was named the director of a home for the elderly by Cardinal Pozzobonelli. Although several mathematicians would occasionally send her work to review, she always responded that she was no longer concerned with such topics. After suffering for years from dropsy, also known as edema, Maria Gaetana Agnesi died on January 9, 799. In accordance with her wishes, she was buried with the poor in a common grave. Analytical Institutions remained the standard calculus textbook in Europe for nearly 00 years after her death.

(ca. 400 b.c.) Greek Physician Agnodice is recognized as the first female gynecologist. There is, however, little concrete information about her life. Hyginus, a Latin author of the first century a.d., provides the only existing account of Agnodice’s life and work. Subsequent scholarship has suggested, though, that she may be a mythical figure rather than a flesh-and-blood physician. In any event, the story of her courageous decision to practice medicine in ancient Athens has earned her a respected place in the history of medicine. No details about Agnodice’s family are extant, though general facts about women’s role in ancient medicine are known. While Greek women had few privileges, they were allowed to practice midwifery and healing. The famed medical pioneer Hippocrates (ca. 460 b.c.) did not accept women at his primary medical school located on the island of Cos. However, he did allow women to attend another of his schools in Asia Minor, where they could study gynecology and obstetrics. After Hippocrates’ death, women were barred from the practice of medicine, possibly because Athenian rulers discovered that women gynecologists were performing abortions. To deter those who might violate this ban, the death penalty was instituted as punishment. As many Athenian women were reluctant to visit male doctors, given the social codes of the period, women’s access to medical care decreased after the imposition of the ban, and female mortality rates rose. Agnodice came of age in this political and social climate. Determined to become a doctor, Agnodice flouted the laws barring her entrance into the profession. She disguised herself as a man, cutting her hair and dressing in male garments. After attending classes taught by the renowned Herophilos at the University of Alexandria, Agnodice began to practice as a gynecologist. According

to Hyginus’s account, Agnodice went to assist a woman in labor. Thinking Agnodice was a male doctor, the woman refused her help. But Agnodice “lifted up her clothes and revealed herself to be a woman and was thus able to treat her patient,” wrote Hyginus. When news of her skills and gender spread, Greek women flocked to Agnodice, at last able to confide in a female doctor. Unaware of Agnodice’s gender, male doctors grew jealous of her popularity and accused her of seducing women (and of the women feigning illness to visit Agnodice). Agnodice was dragged before an Athenian court. She was forced to reveal her gender to avoid the death penalty for corrupting women. Despite her confession, the male physicians became more outraged and accused her more forcefully for breaking the law forbidding women from studying medicine. Agnodice was rescued from her plight when the wives of leading men arrived in the court. According to Hyginus, they declared that “you men are not spouses but enemies, since you are condemning her who discovered health for us.” The truth of Hyginus’s tale of Agnodice cannot be confirmed. Nonetheless, later women seeking entrance into the medical profession employed Agnodice as a symbol for the precedent of women in medicine. Agnodice also underscores the powerful impulse of women to be treated by female physicians—an argument Victorian women raised to justify the need for women gynecologists more than 2,000 years after Agnodice’s time.

Agricola, Georgius
(494–555) German Mineralogist, Geologist, Metallurgist Though his exhaustive knowledge of diverse subjects earned him the title “the Saxon Pliny,” Georgius Agricola was best known as the author of De re metallica libri XII (On the Subject of Metals), a seminal text in the understanding of metallurgy and the mining and smelting processes of the time. Living in the mining capitals of St. Joachimsthal in Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) and Chemnitz, Germany, Agricola had extensive exposure to every aspect of mining, including the management of the mines and the machinery used, such as pumps, windmills, and waterwheels, which he incorporated into his books. Born on March 24, 494, in Glauchau, Saxony, to Gregor Bauer, a dyer and wool draper, Georg Bauer latinized his name to Georgius Agricola, as was the custom at the time. His youngest and favorite brother followed his footsteps to Chemnitz in 540 to become a metallurgist, and his oldest brother entered the priesthood in Zwickau. In 526 Agricola married the widow of Thomas Meiner,



the director of the Schneeberg mining district; she died in 54. In 542 Agricola remarried, this time to Anna Schûtz, the daughter of the guild master and smelter owner Ulrich Schûtz, who entrusted his wife and children to Agricola’s care upon his death in 534. In 54 at the late age of 20 Agricola entered Leipzig University, where he earned his B.A. in 55. The university retained him as a lecturer in elementary Greek for the next year, after which Agricola went to Zwickau, where he organized a new Schola Graeca in 59. In 520, he wrote his first book, De prima ac simplici institutione grammatica, which described new humanistic methods of teaching. Agricola then fled from the radicalism of the Reformation back to Leipzig, where he studied medicine between 523 and 526. During this time he served on the editorial board in Bologna and Venice for the Aldina editions of texts by galen and hippocrates of cos, interests he maintained later in life. After earning his M.D., he left Italy via the mining districts of Carinthia, Styria, and the Tyrol bound for Germany, where he stayed briefly until the mining city of St. Joachimsthal elected him town physician and apothecary in 527. In 534 Agricola departed for Chemnitz, yet another city renowned for its mining, which elected him mayor in 545. The combination of chronically sick miners and heavy metals allowed Agricola to investigate the pharmaceutical uses of minerals. Agricola published on a wide

range of topics, including politics and economics. In 554 he published De peste libri III, based on his experiences administering care to sufferers of the black plague that swept through Saxony between 552 and 553. De re metallica libri XII (On the Subject of Metals), his crowning achievement, did not appear until 556, four months after his death. The text surveyed all aspects of mining at the time, from working conditions to metallurgy to smelting processes. Agricola had finished writing it during his return visit to St. Joachimsthal, where he had started drafting it 20 years earlier. While there he met the designer Blasius Weffring, who spent the next three years creating 292 woodcuts to illustrate the text. A year later Phillipus Bech translated the work into Old German but retained the woodcuts, creating an edition so fine that it survived 0 years in seven editions. Agricola died on November 2, 555, in Chemnitz. The mining engineer and future United States president Herbert Hoover revived Agricola’s legacy in 92 by preparing an English edition of his masterwork, On the Subject of Metals, a testament to the primacy of Agricola’s work.

Aiken, Howard Hathaway
(900–973) American Computer Engineer Howard Aiken helped usher in the computer age by inventing the Harvard Mark I and Mark II, the precursors to modern digital computers. The New York Times hailed the significance of his invention: “At the dictation of a mathematician, it will solve in a matter of hours equations never before solved because of their intricacy and the enormous time and personnel which would be required to work them out on ordinary office calculators.” Aiken himself did not fully comprehend the potential of his invention, estimating in 947 that only “six electronic digital computers would be required to satisfy the computing needs of the entire United States.” Howard Hathaway Aiken was born on March 9, 900, in Hoboken, New Jersey. Soon after his birth, his family moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he attended Arsenal Technical High School. While studying electrical engineering at the University of Wisconsin, he worked for the Madison Gas and Electric Company. After he earned his bachelor’s degree in 923, the company promoted him to chief engineer. In 927, Aiken moved to Chicago to work for Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Company. Four years later, he took up a research position in the physics department at the University of Chicago. He pursued doctoral study

Georgius Agricola, whose great knowledge of metallury and mining was commemorated in 1912 by future U.S. president Herbert Hoover, who prepared an English edition of Agricola’s masterwork, On the Subject of Metals (Smith Collection, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania)



there and at Harvard University, focusing his dissertation on a theory of space-charge conduction in vacuum tubes. This topic required calculations that would have taken him a lifetime to complete, so in 937 he proposed the design and construction of a calculating machine. “The desire to economize time and mental effort in arithmetical computations, and to eliminate human liability to error is probably as old as the science of arithmetic itself,” he wrote, jovially adding that the computer was “only a lazy man’s idea.” Harvard physics department chair Frederick Saunders pointed out that lab technician Carmelo Lanza had already worked on such a machine, stored in the Science Center attic: a set of brass wheels from charles babbage’s analytical engine. The prospect of completing Babbage’s unfinished task (the existing 9th-century technology could not actualize his design) inspired Aiken, who kept the wheels in his office thereafter: “There’s my education in computers, right there,” he would say of them. Aiken sought to build a machine that answered the multiple demands of scientists and mathematicians: “. . . whereas accounting machines handle only positive numbers, scientific machines must be able to handle negative ones as well; . . . scientific machines must be able to handle such functions as logarithms, sines, cosines and a whole lot of other functions; the computer would be most useful for scientists if, once it was set in motion, it would work through the problem frequently for numerous numerical values without intervention until the calculation was finished; and that the machine should compute lines instead of columns, which is more in keeping with the sequence of mathematical events.” Harvard granted Aiken his Ph.D. in 939, appointing him an instructor in physics and communication engineering. That year, the Navy Board of Ordnance contracted Harvard to conduct research in preparation for World War II. At the same time, Aiken was searching for financial support from the private sector—he first appealed to the Monroe Calculating Machine Company, which declined but referred him to International Business Machines (IBM) president Thomas J. Watson, who promised support of $200,000. IBM engineer Robert V. D. Campbell supervised construction of the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), as the computer was first called, at the Endicott, New York, IBM plant. Measuring 5 feet long, two feet wide, and eight feet high, it weighed more than 30 tons, with its 530 miles of wires and 760,000 moving parts—including 2,200 counter wheels and 3,300 relay components. Operators fed information in by tape or punch card, with output returning on punch cards or by electronic typewriter. It sounded like a “roomful of ladies knitting” when running. The computer could manipulate positive and negative numbers to 23 decimal places, adding them in three-0ths

of a second, and multiplying in four seconds; it could also subtract, divide, and store tabulations in its 72 storage registers. Grace Hopper, who collaborated with Aiken to develop these library functions and later invented the cobol computer language, discovered the first computer “bug”—a moth squished by a relay switch. The computer went into operation in May 944. In accordance with the original agreement, IBM donated the computer to Harvard, which dedicated it on August 4, 944, earning it its lasting name—the Harvard Mark I, which remained functional for the next 4 years and now resides (in sections) in the Harvard Science Center lobby, at the Smithsonian Museum of American History, and in the IBM historical collection. After finishing the Mark I, Aiken continued to advance his design; the navy posted him at the Naval Proving Ground at Dahlgren, Virginia, where he finished the Mark II in 947. Whereas the Mark I combined electronic with mechanical workings, the Mark II was fully electronic. Run by 3,000 electronic relays, the Mark II could add in two-0ths of a second and multiply in seven-0ths of a second, storing up to 00 0digit figures and signs. By 952, Aiken had designed and built Marks III and IV. In recognition of his work, the U.S. Navy promoted him to the rank of commander in its Research Department, and Harvard promoted him to a full professorship in applied mathematics. He also founded Harvard’s Computer Science program, one of the first of its kind. He retired from Harvard in 96, moving to Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, to take up a professorship in information technology at the University of Miami. In 964, Aiken received the Harry M. Goode Memorial Award from the Computer Society. He died on March 4, 973, in St. Louis, Missouri, before the personal computer revolution brought the digital computers that he invented into households worldwide.

Ajakaiye, Deborah Enilo
(ca. 940– Nigerian Geologist )

Deborah Ajakaiye has studied the geophysics of Nigeria, where she was born around 940. Unlike many traditional Africans, Ajakaiye’s parents believed in education for girls as well as for boys and encouraged her schoolwork as well as her career pursuits. Raised in the tin-mining city of Jos in the Oyo province of Nigeria, Ajakaiye has said that it was a primary school teacher who first awakened her interest in science. She received her bachelor’s degree from University College in Ibadan, Nigeria, in 962. She then went on to graduate training at the University of Birmingham in Britain, from which she received her master’s



degree, and Adhadu Bello University in Nigeria, from which she received her Ph.D. in 970. “I chose . . . geophysics because I felt that this field could make possible significant contributions to the development of my country,” she wrote in a 993 paper for the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Ajakaiye points out that geophysics can help a country identify valuable natural resources. For instance, she says, Africa is rich in several minerals needed by hightechnology industries, and some parts of the continent, including Nigeria, possess large deposits of uranium, oil, natural gas, and coal. Selling these resources can give a country the money it needs to feed, house, and educate its people. Geophysics can also identify sources of precious groundwater and help to predict natural disasters. Ajakaiye has looked for all these resources in Nigeria. In some studies she used a new technique called geovisualization, in which computers produce three-dimensional images of materials below the Earth’s surface. Ajakaiye and her students, who included several women, also carried out a survey for a geophysical map of northern Nigeria. “By the end of the survey quite a few Nigerian men had changed their attitudes toward their female counterparts,” she noted. In addition to conducting research, Ajakaiye has taught at Adhadu Bello University and the University of Jos, both in Nigeria. In recent years she has been professor of physics at the University of Jos and the dean of the university’s natural science faculty. She was the first woman professor of physics in West Africa, the first woman dean of science in Nigeria, the first female fellow of the Nigerian Academy of Science, and the first female president of the Nigeria Mining and Geo-Sciences Society (NMGS). She has worked most recently with other scientists at Rice University and the University of Houston on what is called the “structural style project” in the Niger Delta.

Alder, Kurt
(902–958) German Organic Chemist kurt Alder’s name is inextricably linked with that of otto diels, his mentor and collaborator, with whom he discovered one of the most ubiquitous reactions in the natural world, what is now known as the Diels-Alder reaction. Throughout his short-lived career (he died at the young age of 55), he applied this reaction to different combinations, yielding practical results (he invented a synthetic rubber), and other scientists utilized the Diels-Alder reaction in subsequent discoveries, such as the synthesis of morphine. Alder shared the 950 Nobel Prize in chemistry with his compatriot, Otto Diels.

kurt Alder was born on July 0, 902, in königshütte, Germany. His father, Joseph, was a schoolteacher in kattowitz, in the Upper Silesia region. Poland acquired the region they lived in after World War I, prompting the family to move to Berlin to retain their German citizenship. Alder attended the Oberrealschule in Berlin, graduating to the University of Berlin in 922 to study chemistry. He transferred to the Christian Albrecht University (now the University of kiel), where he conducted his doctoral research on azocarboxylic ester under Otto Diels. He submitted his dissertation, “On the Causes of the Azoester Reaction,” in 926 to earn his doctorate in chemistry. Alder remained at the university, working as an assistant in Diels’s laboratory. Alder collaborated with his mentor on the famous experiments that discovered the reaction that bears their joint name, the Diels-Alder reaction. The process conjoins a dienophile, or a doublebonded molecule, with a conjugated diene, or a molecule containing two adjacent double bonds. Alder and Diels reported on the reaction between the dienophile of acrolein and the diene of butadiene in their 928 publication of their results. In 930, the University of kiel promoted Alder to a lectureship in organic chemistry and, in 934, promoted him again, to the title of extraordinary professor. Alder left academia for the industry in 936, when he took up the directorship of scientific research at the Bayer Werke laboratory at I. G. Farbenindustrie in Leverkusen. The next year, he elucidated the Alder-Stein rules (in collaboration with G. Stein) predicting the stereochemical sensitivity of diene reactions. Also during his tenure in the industry, he reversed the diene reaction to investigate the dissociation of components (as opposed to the adduction that he had been examining); he discovered in the process that five-carbon cyclic dienes are much less stable than six-carbon dienes. In the late 930s, he elicited the Diels-Alder reaction between butadiene and styrene (a dienophile) in the presence of peroxides to form a synthetic rubber called “Buna S” (from the German Perbunan), which became an important substitute for natural rubber during World War II when resources became scarce. In 940, Alder left the industry and returned to the academy when Cologne University appointed him to its chair for experimental chemistry and chemical technology. While there, Alder discovered yet another form of diene synthesis, what he called a substituting addition, to identify a new type of reaction—a concerted or “ene” reaction. Alder remained at Cologne throughout the 940s, serving as dean of its Faculty of Philosophy from 949 through 950. Alder and Diels shared the 950 Nobel Prize in chemistry for their joint role in identifying the chemical reaction named after them. The award recognized the significance of 



their discovery of a process that has been the basis of ongoing scientific advancement in the understanding of the natural world. For example, M. Gates utilized the reaction in his synthesis of morphine, the pharmacological foundation of poppy-based narcotics such as opium and heroin. Besides the Nobel Prize, Alder also received the Emil Fischer Memorial Medal from the Association of German Chemists in 938, as well as induction into the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina in Halle. In 950, the University of Cologne had conferred on him the status of honorary doctor of medicine, and four years later, the University of Salamanca in Spain awarded him with an honorary doctorate. In 955, Alder joined with 7 other Nobel laureates to use their collective moral leverage to effect world peace by urging nations to denounce war. He died in Cologne on June 20, 958, at a mere 55, after suffering from declining health.

Alexander, Hattie Elizabeth
(90–968) American Physician Hattie Elizabeth Alexander’s greatest contribution to medical science was her discovery of a treatment for influenzal meningitis, a common and often fatal disease that afflicted infants and children. Her work in this area led her to investigate bacterial resistance to antibiotics and to conclude that such resistance was caused by genetic mutation. She was also a pioneer in research on DNA. The author of more than 60 professional articles, Alexander enjoyed the distinction of being named the first woman president of the American Pediatric Society. The second of Elsie May Townsend and William Bain Alexander’s eight children, Hattie Elizabeth Alexander was born on April 5, 90, in Baltimore, Maryland. A mediocre student at Goucher College, Alexander nonetheless hoped to study medicine. From 923 to 926, she worked as a bacteriologist for the U.S. Public Health Service Laboratory in Washington, D.C. After being admitted to Johns Hopkins University’s medical school, Alexander excelled and earned her M.D. in 930. Upon completing her formal education, Alexander accepted two internships in succession—the first at the Harriet Lane Home in Baltimore (930–3), and the second at the Babies Hospital of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City (93–33). As an intern, Alexander gained her first exposure to the fatal course of influenzal meningitis. In 933, Alexander embarked on a series of overlapping positions at the Babies Hospital, the Vanderbilt Clinic of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, and Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons. Appointed at Babies Hospital as an adjunct assistant pediatrician in 933

and an attending pediatrician in 938, Alexander devoted her early career to combating influenzal meningitis. The disease was caused by Hemophilus influenzae, a deadly bacteria that inflamed the meninges (the tissues surrounding the brain and spinal cord). Alexander sought to create a serum (the component of the blood containing antibodies) that would combat the illness. She injected bacteria from the spinal fluid of children suffering from the disease into healthy rabbits. The rabbits produced an antibody to influenzal meningitis that proved effective in treating the disease in humans. Alexander announced the first complete cure of infants suffering from this disease in 939. In the early 940s, Alexander turned her attention to treating influenzal meningitis with antibiotics in conjunction with the rabbit serum. As a result of this combined treatment, the rate of infant deaths caused by the disease dropped 80 percent by 942. After serving as an instructor in children’s diseases at Columbia, Alexander was named associate professor in 948. Alexander’s investigation of supplementary drug treatment for influenzal meningitis led her to confront antibacterial resistance, the phenomenon in which bacteria become immune to the effects of antibiotics. Theorizing that such resistance was caused by the bacteria’s genetic mutations, Alexander spearheaded early research into microbiological genetics. In 950, she successfully used DNA to alter the hereditary makeup of Hemophilus. Alexander attained the rank of full professor in 958 and retired as a professor emerita in 966. Alexander received a number of awards in recognition of her accomplishments. After receiving the E. Mead Johnson Award for Research in Pediatrics in 942, Alexander became the first woman to earn the Oscar B. Hunter Memorial Award of the American Therapeutic Society (962). In 964, she also became the first woman elected president of the American Pediatric Society. In addition to the numerous lives she saved with her treatment of influenzal meningitis, Alexander is credited with playing an essential role in the acceptance of DNA research in medical fields. She died of cancer on June 24, 967.

Alfvén, Hannes Olof Gösta
(908–995) Swedish Physicist Numerous scientific discoveries have been attributed to Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén in fields such as space physics, astrophysics, and plasma physics, a field that Alfvén pioneered. Alfvén is recognized as the father of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the study of plasmas, or ionized gases, in magnetic fields, and received the 970 Nobel Prize in physics for this work. He was the first space scientist to be awarded the Nobel Prize.


Born on May 30, 908, in Norrkoeping, Sweden, Alfvén was the son of Johannes Alfvén and Anna-Clara Romanus Alfvén. Both of his parents were physicians. Alfvén married kerstin Maria Erikson in 935, and the couple had five children. After attending elementary and secondary school in his hometown, Alfvén entered the University of Uppsala; he earned a doctorate in physics in 934. He then took a position as lecturer in physics at the university, and three years later became research physicist at the Nobel Institute of Physics. In 940 Alfvén joined the staff of the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, where he stayed until 967. During the years at the institute Alfvén held a variety of positions, including professor of the theory of electricity, professor of electronics, and professor of plasma physics. Alfvén’s work in the late 930s and early 940s dealt with astronomical phenomena, particularly plasma. Plasma existed at extremely high temperatures, which could be found in stars, and was a gaslike blend of positively charged ions and electrons. Atoms and molecules were completely charged at such high temperatures. Alfvén’s observations of plasma were a result of his investigations of sunspots, magnetic storms, and other stellar happenings. One of Alfvén’s first important findings was his theorem of frozen-in flux, which stated that a plasma is “frozen” to magnetic field lines. Under certain conditions, Alfvén proposed, the magnetic field associated with a plasma moves together. This discovery contributed greatly to the field of space physics. In 939 Alfvén announced his findings on magnetic storms and light displays in the atmosphere. His theories significantly influenced modern theories of the Earth’s magnetic field. The study of sunspots led to Alfvén’s revolutionary discovery of hydromagnetic waves, which were named Alfvén waves in his honor. At the time of his finding, the traditional belief was that electromagnetic waves were not capable of significantly penetrating a conductor. Alfvén suggested, however, that electromagnetic waves were actually very good conductors with the ability to go through highly charged solar gas. He announced his theory in 942, but it was generally ignored and rejected. During a lecture at the University of Chicago six years later Alfvén presented his theory once again, and it was well received, thanks in part to enrico fermi’s acceptance of the concept. One of Alfvén’s goals in his work with plasma and MHD was to gain an understanding of the origin of the universe. Alfvén believed the universe was formed from plasma and was a supporter of “plasma cosmology,” which opposed the big-bang theory of the creation of the universe. Plasma cosmology suggested that the universe had no beginning or probable end, and that the universe was formed by the electric and magnetic forces of plasma,

which affected the organization of star systems and other observed structures. Though Alfvén’s studies focused on space, many of his findings had practical applications. Attempts to control nuclear fusion, for instance, were based on MHD. During Alfvén’s later years he became active in the antinuclear movement, believing that nuclear power was dangerous in any application. Disagreements with the Swedish government over nuclear power policies influenced him to leave Sweden and accept a position at the University of California at San Diego in 967. Alfvén received a number of honors and awards in addition to the Nobel Prize, which he shared with louis-eugène-félix-néel. These included the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (967), the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute (97), and the Bowie Gold Medal (987). Alfvén died on April 2, 995, in Stockholm, Sweden.

Allen, Paul
(953– ) American Computer Engineer/Entrepreneur Paul Allen collaborated with Bill Gates to found Microsoft, the computer software company that provided the programming for almost all personal computer applications. Allen and Gates wrote the programming that launched the company, though as their company expanded, they exerted their visionary influence by wedding hardware with the appropriate software. Although Allen did not actually write the programming, he is largely responsible for delivering the operating systems that drove IBM’s personal computers and later for the development of the Windows interface, which facilitated amateur users’ interactions with personal computers. In this sense, Allen helped fuel the personal computer boom that ushered in the information age. Allen was born on January 2, 953, in Seattle, Washington. His father was head librarian at the University of Washington. His mother, Faye, hosted “science club” meetings in the family’s home for her 0-year-old son’s burgeoning interest in science. In 965, Allen entered Lakeside, a private college-preparatory school in Seattle, which proved to be a seminal event when he met his future business partner, Bill Gates, three years later. The pair indulged their interest in computers by programming in basic, and Allen mentored junior high school students by teaching computer courses as a high school student. In 97, Allen graduated from Lakeside and matriculated at Washington State University. The next year, he and Gates collaborated to construct a computer for measuring traffic from a $360 Intel 8008 chip, and the pair launched their first company, Traf-O-Data, to market the 



technology. In 974, Honeywell of Boston hired Allen as a programmer. In January of the next year, the cover of Popular Mechanics magazine featured a picture of the Altair, a computer kit based on the then-new Intel 8080 chip. This first personal computer captured Allen’s imagination, as both he and Gates had foreseen the day when personal computers would become available to the general consumer, and computers would grace the desktops not only at corporate offices but also in homes. They also realized that many companies stood poised to manufacture the hardware, but precious few companies, if any, were prepared to produce programming, or software, for these personal computers. Allen and Gates approached Model Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), the Albuquerque, New Mexico-based maker of the Altair, promising delivery of a version of basic for the Altair that they had yet to write. After winning the contract, Allen and Gates spent the next eight weeks frantically composing the code in a computer lab at Harvard University (where Gates was studying) and delivered on their promise. Impressed by the programming, MITS hired Allen as its associate director of software in 975. Gates accompanied Allen to Albuquerque, where the pair founded a company called Microsoft to develop and market software that would fill the technology gap they had identified. By 977, both Apple and Radio Shack had commissioned Microsoft to produce versions of basic for their Apple II and TRS-80 computers (respectively.) In November of that year, Allen resigned from his MITS position to take up a full-time position at Microsoft, in which he owned a 36 percent share. Allen headed research and development. The next year, Microsoft, buoyed by sales of more than $ million, moved to Bellevue in the founders’ home state of Washington. As the 980s approached, the computer giant International Business Machines realized the potential of the personal computer (PC) market, but it needed an operating system to drive its computers. IBM turned to Microsoft, and again Gates and Allen promised delivery of an operating system they had not built yet. Allen contacted Tim Patterson of Seattle Computer Products to ask for the rights to its “Quick and Dirty Operating System” (QDOS) for use in an unnamed client’s computers. Patterson sold Allen the rights for less than $00,000, and Microsoft became the supplier of the operating system for IBM PCs, which dominated the market within three years. That year, 983, Microsoft introduced the graphical interface called “Windows,” which revolutionized personal computing by hiding the programming code behind visual icons. Also in 983, Allen learned that he had developed Hodgkin’s disease, prompting him to resign from Microsoft. However, he held onto his Microsoft stock, making him a billionaire after Microsoft went public in 986.

Allen shifted his focus to investment, and he wielded tremendous power through his financial strength, though some have criticized his investments for lacking vision. He owned three different companies to handle his portfolio, which included controlling interest in such businesses as TicketMaster, the Portland Trail Blazers basketball team, and the Seattle Seahawks football team, as well as in technology-based companies such as Asymetrix, Starwave, and DreamWorks SkG. Allen indulged his passion for rock-and-roll music by funding the Experience Music Project, which grew out of his idea for a Jimi Hendrix museum, and located the postmodern museum on the site of the Seattle World’s Fair, which he attended in 962. In September 2000, Allen resigned from the Microsoft board to focus his attention on his numerous other enterprises, though he remained a senior strategy adviser.

Altman, Sidney
(939– ) Canadian/American Molecular Biologist For pioneering discoveries on ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules Sidney Altman received the 989 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Altman found that RNA molecules, which were thought to act only as carriers of genetic codes among various parts of the living cell, were actually able to act as enzymes, thus dispelling the commonly accepted notion that all enzymes consisted of protein and that only protein molecules were capable of catalyzing chemical reactions in enzymes. Altman shared the Nobel Prize with the University of Colorado’s Thomas R. Cech, who independently reached similar results. The pair’s discovery laid the foundation for new areas of scientific research and biotechnology and shed light on old theories concerning the functioning of cells. Altman was born on May 8, 939, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. His father, Victor Altman, was a grocer, and his mother, Ray Arlin, had worked in a textile factory prior to her marriage. Altman married Ann korner in 972 and had two children. After graduation from West Hill High School in Montreal, Altman entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he studied physics. After earning a bachelor’s degree in 960 he worked as a teaching assistant at Columbia University for two years. It was in the early 960s that Altman changed his emphasis from physics to the up-and-coming interdisciplinary field of molecular biology. Late in 962 Altman moved to Boulder, Colorado, where he attended the University of Colorado. He studied under Leonard S. Lerman and researched T4 bacteriophage, a virus that infects bacterial cells. In 967 he received a doctorate in biophysics.



Altman began his investigations of RNA in the late 960s while a fellow at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England. Altman focused on the transcription of transfer RNA (tRNA), a component of RNA, from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which was known to transfer genetic information into the nucleus of a cell. During his research Altman worked with the enzyme ribonuclease P (RNase P), which was responsible for catalyzing the processing of tRNA. Altman had returned to the United States; at Yale University in 972 an experiment demonstrated that RNase P was composed of both RNA and a protein, thereby indicating that the RNA had been involved in the enzymatic activity. Because it was commonly accepted that enzymes were composed of protein and not nucleic acids, Altman’s discovery was unique. Continuing his studies of enzymatic activity, Altman in 984 worked with a Yale colleague, Cecilia Guerrier-Takada, to produce only the RNA portion of RNase P. This artificial RNA still acted as a catalyst though there was no protein present, proving conclusively that RNA could act as an enzyme. Altman’s discoveries did much to advance the understanding of proteins and genetic codes. Scientists had long been baffled by whether proteins or nucleic acids had appeared first in the development of life; proteins were responsible for catalyzing biological reactions, but nucleic acids carried the genetic codes that created the proteins. With Altman and Cech’s findings this puzzle was solved—nucleic acids could act as both codes and enzymes. In addition to the 989 Nobel Prize, Altman received the Rosentiel Award for Basic Biomedical Research. Altman is a member of a number of scientific societies, including the National Academy of Sciences and the Genetics Society of America, and has received numerous honorary degrees. He is the Sterling Professor of Biology, a professor of chemistry, and a dean at Yale University.

A member of the Manhattan Project, Luis Alvarez witnessed the destruction of Hiroshima from a B-29 bomber that followed the Enola Gay, the plane that dropped the atomic bomb. (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Physics Today Collection)

Alvarez, Luis Walter
(9–988) American Physicist In his first years as a research physicist at the University of California at Berkeley in the 930s Luis Alvarez earned the title “prize wild idea man,” which acknowledged both his wide-ranging investigations and his ability to identify important questions in need of solutions. A member of the Manhattan Project, which developed the atomic bomb during World War II, Alvarez followed the Enola Gay, the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, in another B-29 bomber, from which he witnessed

the destruction of Hiroshima. Alvarez also modified the bubble chamber technique invented by the University of Michigan physicist Donald Glaser for use in conjunction with particle accelerators to identify previously unknown elementary particles. This work earned him the Nobel Prize in physics in 968; he never rested on these laurels, remaining active and innovative in physics for the next 20 years. Alvarez was born on June 3, 9, in San Francisco, California, to Dr. Walter Clement Alvarez, a research physiologist at the University of California (UC) at San Francisco, and Harriet Skidmore Smythe, an Irish woman whose family instituted a missionary school in Foochow, China. Alvarez had two children, Walter and Jean, with his first wife, Geraldine Smithwick, a fellow University of Chicago student, but their relationship ended as a result of the strain of wartime separation. Alvarez had two more children, Donald and Helen, with his second wife, Janet Landis, whom he married in 958. Alvarez entered the University of Chicago in 928, earned a B.S. in 932, and graduated in 936 with a Ph.D. in physics. He appreciated his graduate adviser, the Nobel laureate Arthur Compton, not for guiding him but rather for staying out of his way while he immersed himself in 



his research. At UC Berkeley, he conducted research alongside two other Nobel laureates, ernest orlando lawrence and felix bloch. Alvarez quickly earned his reputation as the wild idea man at UC Berkeley with three significant discoveries in the 930s. Within his first year there he discovered how atomic nuclei decayed and orbital electrons absorbed them, a process known as k-electron capture. He then invented a mercury vapor lamp with a student, and with Bloch he developed a process for determining the magnetic moment of neutrons by slowing their motion in a beam. In the early 940s he conducted research for the military at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on radio detecting and ranging systems, developing three new types of radar in three years. Alvarez never suffered from guilt over his role in the development of the atomic bomb and continued to support nuclear technology, as he believed the benefits far outweighed the drawbacks. After the war Alvarez devoted his research to particle physics, building larger and faster particle accelerators. Alvarez transformed Glaser’s bubble chamber design to use liquid hydrogen instead of diethyl ether as the liquid through which the particles passed, leaving their bubble tracks. By this method he discovered dozens of new elementary particles. In the final years of his career Alvarez projected highenergy muon rays (the subatomic particles of cosmic radiation) at king Chephren’s pyramid in Gaza, Egypt, to determine whether it had secret chambers. The Warren Commission called upon his physics expertise to verify whether a lone assassin had murdered President John F kennedy. Finally he teamed up with his son, the . UC Berkeley geologist Walter Alvarez, to hypothesize that the dust created by the Earth’s collision with an asteroid caused the “winter” that exterminated dinosaurs, a widely accepted theory based on iridium deposits in Italian sedimentary rock. Alvarez remained on the faculty of UC Berkeley until his retirement in 978. The 968 Nobel Prize and the 22 patents he held on his inventions attest to the significance of his work. He died of cancer on September , 988, in Berkeley, California.

Alvariño, Angeles
(96– ) Spanish/American Marine Biologist Angeles Alvariño De Leira, who is known by the professional name Angeles Alvariño, is a fishery research biologist and oceanographer who has specialized in the study of marine zooplankton, animal plankton such as jellyfish and sea anemones. In particular, Alvariño investigated the

geographic distribution and ecology of zooplankton and significantly advanced scientists’ understanding of the little-studied marine organisms. Alvariño’s research led to the detection of 22 undiscovered ocean species. Born on October 3, 96, in El Ferrol, Spain, Alvariño possessed a bright and inquisitive mind. Alvariño’s mother was Maria del Carmen Gonzalez Diaz-Saavedra de Alvariño. Her father, Antonio Alvariño Grimaldos, was a physician who allowed Alvariño to roam freely in his personal library. It was in the library that Alvariño discovered her interest in natural history. Though Alvariño hoped to follow in her father’s footsteps, her father encouraged her to choose a different path—he did not wish his daughter to suffer the pain and disappointment caused by the inability to help critical patients. Alvariño enrolled at the Lycée in 930 and studied a wide range of subjects, including humanities, social science, and physical and natural sciences. After completing two dissertations in both letters and science, Alvariño graduated summa cum laude from the University of Santiago de Compostela, located in Spain, in 933. Though Alvariño was still interested in pursuing a career in medicine, her father continued to object, and so Alvariño decided to study natural sciences. After entering the University of Madrid in 934, Alvariño was forced to postpone her studies when the Spanish Civil War caused the university to close its doors from 936 to 939, but after resuming her schooling, she earned her master’s degree in natural sciences in 94. A year earlier, Alvariño had married Sir Eugenio Leira Manso, captain of the Spanish Royal Navy and knight of the Royal and Military Order of Saint Hermenegild. After receiving her master’s degree, Alvariño was an instructor of natural sciences at assorted colleges in El Ferrol. Interested in pursuing research, she joined the Spanish Department of Sea Fisheries as a research biologist in 948. Though women were not allowed to participate in the Spanish Institute of Oceanography in Madrid, Alvariño nevertheless became involved with oceanography studies and research and, thanks to her outstanding work, was officially admitted as a student researcher in 950. Meanwhile, Alvariño had taken courses at the University of Madrid (later known as the University Complutense), and in 95, after the completion of three theses, in chemistry, plant ecology, and experimental psychology, she was awarded a doctoral certificate. A year later Alvariño became a marine biologist and oceanographer with the Spanish Institute of Oceanography. In 953, Alvariño was awarded a British Council Fellowship and traveled to the Marine Biological Laboratory, located in Plymouth, England, to study zooplankton. There she met Frederick Stratten Russell, a British marine biologist and expert on jellyfish. Russell encouraged Alvariño to focus her investigations on chaetognaths



(arrow worms), hydromedusae (jellyfish), and siphonophores (transparent, floating water organisms). To better study these organisms and gather samples, Alvariño created plankton nets that were then taken out to sea by Spanish fishing boats and research ships. Alvariño traveled to the United States in 956 when she was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship. She conducted research at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute in Massachusetts. In 958, Alvariño was offered a position as a biologist at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography in La Jolla, California. She continued her studies of zooplankton, and her work resulted in a doctoral degree from the University of Madrid in 967. Alvariño left Scripps in 969 and became a fisheries biologist with National Marine Fisheries Service’s Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) in La Jolla. Alvariño remained with the SWFSC until her retirement in 987, studying chaetognaths, hydromedusae, and siphonophores and their connection to the survival of larval fish. Alvariño has also been associated with the University of San Diego and San Diego State University. Though retired since 987, she has continued her investigations of zooplankton. A pioneering marine biologist, Alvariño has contributed to more than 00 scientific articles. In 993, king Juan Carlos I and Queen Sophia of Spain awarded Alvariño the Great Silver Medal of Galicia. Alvariño and her husband reside in La Jolla, California. The couple has one child.

André Ampère, for whom the ampere, the unit for measuring electrical current, was named (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives)

Ampère, André-Marie
(775–836) French Physicist, Mathematician A mathematical child prodigy, self-educated according to the principles of Rousseau, André Ampère established his scientific significance after a fit of inspiration in September and October 820, when he developed the science of electrodynamics. Both Ampère’s law, which established the mathematical relationship between electricity and magnetism, and the ampere, or amp, a unit for measuring electrical current, were named after him. Though Ampère maintained wide-ranging interests in mathematics, chemistry, metaphysics, philosophy, and religion, his fame was mainly the result of his work with electricity and magnetism. Ampère was born in Lyon, France, on January 22, 775, to Jean-Jacques Ampère, an independent merchant who provided his son with a complete library, and Jeanne Desutières-Sarcey Ampère, a devout Catholic who instilled her faith in her son. Ampère spent the rest of his life reconciling his reason with his faith. His personal life amounted to a series of disasters, starting with the execution by guillotine of his father on November 23, 793, in the midst of the French Revolution. Tragedy took a respite during his relationship with Julie Carron, whom he courted against all odds and married on August 7, 799. Tragedy revisited him when she died on July 3, 803, of an illness contracted during the birth of their son JeanJacques on August 2, 800. Ampère then entered into an ill-advised marriage to Jeanne Potot on August , 806. The only positive outcome of the marriage was the birth of his daughter, Albine. Though Ampère did not hold a degree, he taught mathematics at the Lyceum in Lyon before his appointment as a professor of physics and chemistry at the École Centrale in Bourg-en-Bresse in February 802. In 808 Napoleon appointed him inspector-general of the new university system, a post Ampère held until death. In 820 the University of Paris hired him as an assistant professor of astronomy, and in August 824 the Collège de France appointed him as the chair of the experimental physics department. In early September 820 François Arago reported to the Acadèmie des Sciences on the discovery by the Danish physicist hans christian ørsted that a magnetic needle 



was deflected when current in nearby wires varied, thus establishing a connection between electricity and magnetism. In less than a month Ampère presented three papers to the Acadèmie that established the science of electrodynamics by positing that magnetism was simply electricity in motion. Specifically Ampère worked with two parallel wires with electrical current flowing through them: He discovered that the currents attracted each other when heading in the same direction and repelled one another when traveling in opposite directions. The implications of his experiments suggested a whole new theory of matter. Ampère published a comprehensive overview of his findings in 827 in his Memoir on the Mathematical Theory of Electrodynamic Phenomena, Uniquely Deduced from Experience. The scientific community did not embrace his theories until Wilhelm Weber incorporated them into his theory of electromagnetism later in the century. Ampère died on June 0, 836, alone on an inspection tour in Marseilles, France. Despite a tragic personal life, he had been successful in his profession, contributing an entire field to the study of science.

Anastasi, Anne
(908–200) American Psychologist Anne Anastasi was a key figure in the development of psychology as a quantitative behavioral science. Most notably, she was a pioneer in the field of psychometrics—the study of how psychological traits are influenced, formed, and measured. Rated by her peers in 987 as the most prominent living woman in psychology in the English-speaking world, Anastasi authored the definitive work on psychological testing. Born on December 9, 908, in New York City, Anastasi was the only child of Anthony and Theresea Gaudiosi. Her father died when she was only one year old, and she was educated at home by her grandmother until she began the sixth grade. She struggled in high school for two months before she dropped out and decided to enter college early. Anastasi was admitted to Barnard College in 924 when she was only 5. Although she planned to study mathematics, she became enthralled by psychology during a class taught by the department head, Harry Hollingworth. After reading an article by Charles Spearman in which he applied complex mathematical concepts to questions of psychology, she became convinced that she could meld the study of mathematics with psychology. Anastasi entered Barnard’s Honors Program in psychology during her sophomore year and received her bachelor’s degree in 928 at the age of 9. A member of Phi Beta kappa, she

also won the Caroline Duror Graduate Fellowship. She then enrolled at Columbia University, proceeding directly to the Ph.D. track because she had already taken a number of graduate classes in psychology (obviating the need for her to obtain her master’s degree first). After specializing in the field of differential psychology—the area of study that explores individual and group differences in behavior—she received her Ph.D. in 930. The same year she earned her doctorate, Anastasi returned to Barnard as a professor. In 933, she married John Porter Foley Jr., a fellow Columbia graduate student. Four years later, she wrote what is now considered a classic textbook, Differential Psychology. In 939, she left Barnard to become an assistant professor and the sole member of the fledgling psychology department at Queens College of the City of New York. She remained there for eight years before accepting a position as an associate professor of psychology in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at Fordham University in 947. She was promoted to full professor at Fordham in 95 and remained at the school for the duration of her career. Throughout her professional life, Anastasi’s research consistently concentrated on the nature and measurement of psychological traits. Her most influential work, Psychological Testing (982), investigated the role of education and heredity on the development of human personality traits. She demonstrated how difficult measuring these traits can be because of variables such as training, culture, and language differences. Anastasi transcended the “nature-nurture” debate in her work, arguing that psychologists are misguided in their efforts to explain human behavior solely in terms of heredity or environment. She was emphatic that neither “nature” nor “nurture” exists independently and that psychologists should seek to understand the interplay of the two forces. Anastasi retired from Fordham in 979, though she remains active in her field as both an author and a speaker. In addition to being lauded as the leading woman psychologist in the English-speaking world, she has received a number of other honors. In 972, she became the first woman in 50 years to be elected president of the American Psychological Association. Her lifelong achievements were recognized in 987 when President Ronald Reagan awarded her the National Science Medal.

Ancker-Johnson, Betsy
(927– ) American Physicist, Engineer Betsy Ancker-Johnson made important contributions to understanding the behavior of plasmas in solids. She also held high-level posts in government and the automobile



industry. Born on April 29, 927, to Clinton J. and Fern Ancker in St. Louis, Missouri, she spent what she has called her “idyllic” years studying physics at Wellesley College and graduating in 949 with high honors. The happy times ended when Ancker decided to follow her “love of adventure” and interest in other cultures and do graduate work at Tübingen University in Germany. The German professors “told me that women can’t think analytically and I must, therefore, be husband-hunting” rather than seriously pursuing a career, Ancker-Johnson recalled in a 97 talk. Nonetheless, she obtained her Ph.D. with high honors in 953. On returning to the United States, Ancker encountered equal skepticism when she tried to find a job. She discovered that “a woman in physics must be at least twice as determined as a man with the same competence in order to achieve as much as he does.” Physicists were much in demand, but she was offered only second-rate jobs. “Not one interviewer ever leveled with me” about the reason, but she believes it was that “I was in a . . . subset that employers had decided was not dependable; i.e., a woman will marry and quit, and what is invested in her goes down the drain.” Ancker finally took a minor academic post at the University of California in Berkeley. There, through the InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, for which she did volunteer work, she met a mathematician named Harold Johnson. “My husband is man enough not to be threatened by his wife’s awareness of electrons,” she said later. They married in 958, after which she used the name Ancker-Johnson. Ancker-Johnson did research in solid-state physics for Sylvania Corporation (now GTE) from 956 to 958 and for RCA from 958 to 96. After her marriage she encountered her employers’ fear that she would soon quit to raise a family. She informed them that she did plan to have children but would hire live-in help to care for them while she continued to work. During her first pregnancy, she has said, male executives seemed to view her condition as something like “an advanced case of leprosy.” For three months before her first daughter’s birth she was not even allowed to enter the laboratory building without the director’s permission. By the time she had her second child, Ancker-Johnson was working for Boeing, a “more enlightened” company. This time company officials merely stopped her salary eight weeks before the baby’s birth and started it again six weeks afterward, even though she continued working during all but two weeks of that period. Ancker-Johnson made her chief contributions to plasma and solid-state physics while working for Boeing in Seattle, Washington, from 96 to 973. (She was also an affiliate professor of electrical engineering at the University of Washington during this time.) In the early 970s she was supervisor of the company’s solid-state and plasma electronics laboratory and manager of their advanced

Former assistant secretary for science and technology at the U.S. Department of Commerce, Betsy Ancker-Johnson. (Courtesy U.S. Department of Commerce)

energy systems. She identified several types of instabilities that can occur in plasmas in solids, including oscillation, pinching, and microwave emission. She produced microwaves by applying an external electric field but showed that the field did not have to be present when they appeared, a new discovery. Building on her work, other scientists have suggested that solid-state plasmas may be useful sources of microwave radiation. Other applications of her work potentially affect computer technology and extraction of aluminum and other elements from lowgrade ore. Betsy Ancker-Johnson holds several patents in solidstate physics and semiconductor electronics. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and fellow of several professional societies, including the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers and the American Physical Society. She has won excellence awards from Boeing and the Carborundum Company and the Chairman’s Award from the American Association of Engineering Societies. She has been a member of the Board of Directors of the Society of Automotive Engineers, the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association, Varian Associates, and General Mills. 



From 973 to 977 Ancker-Johnson served as the assistant secretary of commerce in charge of science and technology. In this job she controlled six organizations with a $230 million total annual budget. In contrast to the prejudice she had faced earlier—but equally irritating to her—she feels she was hired primarily because she was a woman; she was the first appointed by a president to the Department of Commerce. After her service with the government ended, Ancker-Johnson worked for 4 months as director for physical research at Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago. Then in 979 General Motors made her a vice president in charge of environmental activities. She was the first woman in the auto industry to achieve such a high rank. “Environmental activities” included such considerations as pollution controls, automobile safety, and fuel economy. Ancker-Johnson retired from this job in 992, but has remained active on many committees and as director of the World Environment Center. She also has served several terms as a councilor to the National Academy of Engineering since 995.

Andersen, Dorothy Hansine
(90–963) American Physician and Pathologist Although Dorothy Hansine Andersen’s gender was used to deny her an appointment as a surgeon, she overcame the obstacles placed in her path to become a pioneering medical researcher. Andersen is best remembered for discovering and naming the disorder known as cystic fibrosis as well as for developing a simple procedure for detecting the disease. Andersen was also an expert on cardiac defects, and she served as a consultant to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology during World War II. Dorothy Hansine Andersen was born on May 5, 90, in Asheville, North Carolina. The only child of Hans Peter and Mary Louise Mason Andersen, Dorothy Andersen learned to be self-sufficient at an early age. Her father died when she was only 3, leaving her to care single-handedly for her invalid mother. Dorothy Andersen moved with her mother to Saint Johnsbury, Vermont, where she nursed her mother while attending school. Andersen graduated from high school in 98 and entered Mount Holyoke College. After her mother died in 920, she completed her undergraduate degree without the financial or emotional support of any relatives. In 922, Andersen began medical school at Johns Hopkins University, where she worked in the laboratory of Dr. florence sabin, the first woman to enroll, graduate, and teach at Johns Hopkins. Andersen completed her M.D. in 926 and subsequently interned at the University of Roch-

ester. Despite her stellar academic record, however, Andersen was excluded from residency positions in surgery and pathology because such disciplines typically barred women. Determined to pursue a career in pathology nevertheless, Andersen took a post as a research assistant in pathology at Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons. She began a doctoral program in endocrinology at Columbia and earned the degree of doctor of medical science in 935. Upon receiving her doctorate, Andersen accepted an appointment as a pathologist at the Babies Hospital of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City, where she would remain for the duration of her career. She immediately began studying heart defects in infants. In 935, while performing a postmortem examination on a child who had supposedly died of celiac disease (a nutritional disorder), Andersen noted a lesion on the child’s pancreas. Following this lead, she searched for similar cases in autopsy files and painstakingly discovered an unnamed disease. The congenital disorder she uncovered affected the mucous glands and pancreatic enzymes and caused abnormal digestion and difficulty in breathing. In 938, she presented a paper on the disease—which she called cystic fibrosis—to the American Pediatric Society. As a medical researcher, Andersen was expected simply to describe cystic fibrosis. Never one to follow the status quo, however, Andersen searched for both a diagnosis and a cure for the disease. She ultimately discovered that those afflicted by cystic fibrosis also had an increase in sweat salinity, and thus she pioneered the simple “sweat test” used to detect the disease today. In 945, Andersen was named assistant pediatrician at Babies Hospital. During World War II, she was called upon to apply her extensive knowledge of cardiac anatomy as a consultant to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. In 952, Andersen was appointed chief of pathology at Babies Hospital, and she was promoted to full professor in 958. She continued her quest to find a cure for cystic fibrosis, and in 959, she published her final paper—on the occurrence of the disease in young adults. Andersen was frequently derided for her unconventional lifestyle. In addition to flouting the conservative dress code of the day, she took up “unfeminine” hobbies such as hiking, canoeing, and carpentry. Despite these personal attacks, Andersen’s important contributions to medicine were recognized by her peers. In 948, she received the Borden Award for research in nutrition. She was honored with the Elizabeth Blackwell Award in 952, the Distinguished Service Medal of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in 963, was named an honorary fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics, and served as the honorary chair of the Cystic Fibrosis Research Foundation. Diagnosed with lung cancer in 960, Andersen died on March 3, 963.



Anderson, Carl David
(905–99) American Physicist Carl David Anderson’s greatest contributions to physics were his discoveries of the positron, the positive electron, and the muon, a negatively charged particle. Anderson’s detection of the positron confirmed the existence of subatomic particles and furthered physicists’ understanding of the structure and nature of atoms. Anderson won a Nobel Prize in physics in 936 for his discovery of the positron. Born in New York, New York, on September 3, 905, Anderson grew up in a poor family. His father, who was also named Carl David Anderson, and his mother, Emma Adolfina Ajaxson Anderson, were emigrants from Sweden; his father had arrived in the United States in 896. Anderson’s parents both were from farming families. When Anderson was a child, the family moved to Los Angeles, California, where his father worked as a restaurant manager. Unable to afford room and board at a faraway college, Anderson enrolled in 924 at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), which was located in Pasadena, close enough for a commute. Though initially interested in electrical engineering, Anderson decided to major in physics during his sophomore year. An exceptional student, Anderson received numerous financial grants. After earning a bachelor’s degree in physics and engineering in 927, Anderson remained at Caltech to pursue graduate studies in mathematics and physics. Anderson researched electrons and X-rays and received his doctorate in 930. After finishing school Anderson stayed at Caltech and worked with the physicist Robert A. Millikan, a Nobel laureate, who had succeeded in measuring the charge of an electron. Millikan was working on measuring the energies of cosmic rays and asked Anderson to assist in the development of a cloud chamber capable of performing such measurements. Anderson and Millikan created a magnetic cloud chamber that could effectively deflect high-energy cosmic particles, and Anderson photographed the tracks of cosmic rays in the chamber. As Anderson analyzed about ,000 photographs, he noticed that there were as many positively charged particles as there were electrons. Anderson assumed that the positively charged particles were protons, as electrons and protons were the only elementary particles known to exist at that time. As he attempted to prove this, however, he discovered that the mass of the particles was significantly less than the mass of protons. Believing he had found either positively charged electrons or a new particle, Anderson divided the chamber with a lead plate

The first image of Carl D. Anderson’s positron track, which confirmed the existence of subatomic particles and earned him the Nobel Prize in 1936 (Photo by C. D. Anderson, courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives)

to slow the movement of the particles and allow a better analysis. The resultant photographs confirmed Anderson’s suspicion, and in 932 he announced the discovery of a new particle—the positron, or positive electron. Continuing his studies of cosmic rays, Anderson discovered yet another new elementary particle in 936. Using the same cloud chamber in which he had found the positron, Anderson spent four years studying thousands of photographs of the charged particle, which had a mass more than 200 times that of the electron. Anderson named the particle the mesotron, a term that was soon shortened to meson. The theoretical physicist hideki yukawa had predicted the existence of the meson in 935, and when a particle more similar to the one Yukawa foresaw was discovered in 947, Anderson’s meson was renamed muon. He married Lorraine Elvira Bergman in 946, and the couple had two children. Anderson remained at Caltech for his entire career, teaching and researching cosmic radiation and elementary particles before retiring in 976. He succeeded in producing positrons by gamma irradiation in 933, and during World War II he worked for the U.S. government on rocket research. Besides the 936 Nobel Prize in physics, which he shared with the Austrian physicist victor francis franz hess, Anderson received a number of honors, including medals from the Franklin Institute and the American Institute of the City of New York.



Anderson, Elda Emma
(899–96) American Physicist, Medical Researcher Elda Emma Anderson worked on the atomic bomb, then helped to develop a new scientific field, whose goal is to minimize harm from radiation. She was born on October 5, 899, in Green Lake, Wisconsin, the second of Edwin A. and Lena Anderson’s three children. Her older sister, who became a chemistry teacher, was responsible for first igniting her younger sister’s interest in science. She received her bachelor’s degree from Ripon College in 922, then attended the University of Wisconsin, where she earned a master’s degree in physics in 924. In 94 she returned to the university to obtain her Ph.D. Anderson was dean of physics and mathematics from 924 to 927 at Estherville Junior College in Iowa, where she also taught chemistry. In 929 she became a professor in the new physics department of Milwaukee-Downer College. She became head of the department in 934. In late 94 Anderson took a vacation from teaching to work in the Office of Scientific Research and Development at Princeton University. There she became involved with the Manhattan Project, the code name for the secret project to develop an atomic bomb. She moved to the project’s headquarters at Los Alamos, New Mexico, in 943. She worked—sometimes 8 hours a day—measuring subatomic particles produced in cyclotrons, or atom smashers. This work proved vital to both the development of the bomb and the design of nuclear power reactors. Anderson returned to teaching in 947, but her old life seemed dull after the Manhattan Project days. Her research in atomic physics had also stirred her concern about the harm that radiation could do to living things. A new field of science, called health physics, had been established toward the end of the war to discover means to prevent such harmful effects. Anderson left Milwaukee-Downer College in 949 and devoted the rest of her life to developing health physics and making other scientists recognize its importance. Anderson became the first chief of education and training for the Health Physics Division at Tennessee’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory. She also set up the American Board of Health Physics, a professional certifying agency. Perhaps as a result of her work with radiation Anderson developed leukemia, a blood cell cancer, in 956. She died on April 7, 96.

Britain, just as Blackwell had in the United States. Garrett was born in Whitechapel, a poor section of London, in 836. Her father, Newson Garrett, soon became successful in business and moved his family to a large house in the village of Aldeburgh. Elizabeth and her eight brothers and sisters thus grew up in comfort. In 859, when Elizabeth Garrett was 23 years old, a friend told her that Elizabeth Blackwell was going to speak in London. She obtained a personal introduction to Blackwell, who assumed that Garrett must be planning to be a physician. That idea had never crossed Garrett’s mind until that meeting, but suddenly it began to seem a real possibility. Still, she wrote later, “I remember feeling as if I had been thrust into work that was too big for me.” When Garrett told her parents about her new plans, Louisa Garrett predicted that the “disgrace” of her daughter’s action would kill her, and Newson Garrett pronounced the idea of a woman doctor “disgusting.” Nonetheless, he agreed to go with her to talk to London physicians. What Miss Garrett wanted, the doctors said, was impossible. The Medical Act of 858 said that no physician could be placed on the Medical Register, Britain’s list of approved physicians, without a license from a qualified

Anderson, Elizabeth Garrett
(836–97) British Physician Inspired by elizabeth blackwell, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson opened the medical profession to women in
Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, Britain’s first certified female physician as well as its first female mayor (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health)


examining board—and no board would allow a woman to take its examinations. Newson Garrett did not take kindly to being told no, whether the refusal was directed at his daughter or at him. The physicians’ opposition turned him into Elizabeth’s strongest supporter. Obtaining a physician’s license by getting an M.D. degree seemed out of the question, because no British medical school admitted women. However, the charter of the Society of Apothecaries—medical practitioners who made and distributed drugs—said that the society would grant a license to “all persons” who completed five years of training with a qualified doctor or doctors, took certain required classes, and passed its examination. An apothecary’s license was not as prestigious as an M.D. degree, but it would get Garrett onto the Medical Register. Facing the Garrett father-daughter team in August 86, the society directors had to admit that Elizabeth Garrett was a person and therefore could potentially qualify for a license. They told her to return when she had completed their requirements—hoping, no doubt, never to see her again. Bit by bit Garrett accumulated the training she needed, and in 865 she returned to the apothecaries with proof in hand. The society tried to back out of its earlier promise, but after Newson Garrett threatened a lawsuit, it allowed Elizabeth to take the examinations. She found them “too easy to feel elated about” and earned a higher score than anyone else had. By 866 she had her apothecary’s license and her spot on the Medical Register. Once Garrett set up her medical practice, friends and acquaintances flocked to her. One, the women’s rights advocate Josephine Butler, commented, “I gained more from her than [from] any other doctor; for she . . . entered much more into my mental state and way of life than they could.” In addition, Garrett opened a small clinic, St. Mary’s Dispensary for Women and Children, in a poor section of London. In 872 the clinic would become the New Hospital for Women. It was renamed the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital in 97, after its founder’s death. Meanwhile Garrett wanted to spend more time in hospital work to enhance the practical side of her medical training. In 869 she applied for a post at London’s Shadwell Hospital for Children. One director on the hospital board who was sure he did not want her to work there was James George Skelton Anderson, the Scottish head of a large shipping company. Once he met the young woman doctor, however, he changed his mind. Garrett and Anderson were married in 87 and later had three children. Their daughter, Louisa, also became a physician and during World War I headed the first group of British women doctors to serve in active duty in wartime. Elizabeth Anderson was still determined to obtain an M.D. degree. In 868 the University of Paris had opened its doors to women, and Anderson received permission to take the school’s examinations for physicians even though she had not actually studied there. She passed the test and

obtained her M.D. at last on June 5, 870. The British medical journal Lancet reported, “All the [French] judges are complimenting Miss Garrett [and have] . . . expressed liberal opinions on the subject of lady doctors.” Working as a physician was only part of Elizabeth Garrett Anderson’s busy life. At the London School of Medicine for Women, the teaching arm of her New Hospital for Women, she taught classes and served in the administration as dean; she was president of the school between 886 and 902. She was elected to the London school board and at age 7 became mayor of Aldeburgh, where she and her husband had retired in 902. She was the first woman elected mayor in Britain. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson died on December 7, 97, at the age of 8. A fellow physician said of her, “She did more for the cause of women in medicine in England than any other person.”

Anderson, Gloria Long
(938– ) American Chemist Gloria Long Anderson is a respected chemist and educator who has spent more than 30 years at Morris Brown College, a historically black college located in Atlanta, Georgia. At one point, Anderson served as the college’s dean of academic affairs. During her long academic career, Anderson continued her chemistry research, particularly in regard to fluorine-9 chemistry. An active member of the chemistry community, Anderson has been involved with numerous scientific organizations. In addition, Anderson has worked to advance opportunities for minorities and was involved with the Corporation for Public Broadcasting to raise awareness regarding minorities and women in the workplace. Born Gloria Long on November 5, 938, in Altheimer, Arkansas, Anderson was the daughter of Charley Long and Elsie Lee Foggie. Anderson attended the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, which was then called the Arkansas Agricultural, Mechanical and Normal College. A bright and dedicated student, Anderson received a Rockefeller Scholarship from 956 to 958. After earning her bachelor’s degree and graduating summa cum laude in 958, Anderson began graduate studies at Atlanta University. In 960, she married Leonard Sinclair Anderson, and a year later she was awarded her master’s degree. In 962, Anderson taught chemistry at South Carolina State College. From 962 to 964, she was an instructor at Morehouse College in Atlanta. Anderson then attended the University of Chicago to work on her Ph.D. in organic chemistry. She served as a research and teaching assistant and gained her doctorate in 968. With her Ph.D. in hand, Anderson became an associate professor and chair of the chemistry department at



Morris Brown College in 968. She steered her energies toward teaching but also continued her research, specializing in fluorine-9 chemistry. Fluorine-9 was a fluorine isotope that had magnetic properties, and fluorine itself was a highly reactive element that was used in a number of industrial applications. The study of fluorine-9 chemistry rose in significance in the early 940s when fluorine compounds were found to have a number of commercial applications. Anderson studied fluorine-9 chemistry using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which enabled her to investigate the structure and nucleic responses of molecules placed in a strong magnetic field. In addition to chairing the chemistry department, Anderson served as the Fuller E. Callaway professor of chemistry at Morris Brown from 973 to 984. From 984 to 989, Anderson was the dean of academic affairs. She returned to her position as Callaway professor in 990. In the mid-990s, Anderson served as interim president at Morris Brown as well as dean of science and technology. Though most of Anderson’s career has been at Morris Brown, she was affiliated with a number of other organizations. Anderson was a research fellow and research consultant with the National Science Foundation in the early 980s, and in 984 she was a research fellow in the Rocket Propulsion Lab of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. The following year, Anderson was a United Negro Fund Distinguished Scholar. In 990, she became a research consultant with BioSPECS, located in the Netherlands. Anderson has also worked with the Atlanta University Center Research Committee and the Office of Naval Research. In addition to her fluorine-9 chemistry investigations, Anderson has studied antiviral drugs and the synthesis of solid rocket propellants. Anderson has been recognized for her outstanding work as a chemist and an educator. She was the Outstanding Teacher at Morris Brown in 976, received the Teacher of the Year Award in 983, and was inducted into the Faculty/Staff Hall of Fame at Morris Brown, also in 983. In 987, Anderson was given the Alumni All-Star Excellence in Education Award by the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. She served on the board of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting from 972 to 979. Anderson is a member of numerous scientific organizations, including the American Institute of Chemists, the American Chemical Society, the Georgia Academy of Science, and the National Institute of Science.

Anfinsen, Christian Boehmer
(96–995) American Biochemist For groundbreaking work on enzymes the biochemist Christian Boehmer Anfinsen won the 972 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Anfinsen investigated the shape and activity of

enzymes, specifically the enzyme ribonuclease (RNase), and found that an enzyme’s structure was closely tied to its function. He later demonstrated similar behavior in other proteins. Anfinsen’s work significantly advanced the understanding of the nature of enzymes. Born on March 26, 96, in Monessen, Pennsylvania, near Pittsburgh, Anfinsen was the son of Christian Anfinsen, an engineer who had emigrated from Norway, and Sophie Rasmussen Anfinsen, who was also of Norwegian descent. In 94 Anfinsen married Florence Bernice kenenger, and the couple had three children. A year after divorcing in 978, Anfinsen married Libby Esther Schulman Ely. For his undergraduate education Anfinsen attended Swarthmore College, where he received a bachelor’s degree in 937. He then went to the University of Pennsylvania to study organic chemistry and completed a master’s degree in 939. After study abroad at the Carlsberg Laboratory in Copenhagen, Denmark, through a fellowship from the American Scandinavian Foundation, Anfinsen returned to the United States and began studying biochemistry at Harvard University in 940. Anfinsen received his doctorate in 943. His doctoral thesis concentrated on enzymes, particularly those enzymes in the retina of the eye. Anfinsen began his investigation of the function and structure of enzymes in the mid-940s. Enzymes are a type of protein, and proteins are composed of blocks of amino acids. As the amino acid chain folds, the enzymes form three-dimensional shapes, known as tertiary structures. Though there are 00 possible ways for one set of amino acids to bond together for one enzyme, only one arrangement results in an active enzyme. Anfinsen wanted to determine how a set of amino acids knew how to arrange in such a way as to produce an active enzyme. Anfinsen chose to focus on the enzyme RNase, which was responsible for breaking down the ribonucleic acid, also known as RNA, in food. He believed he could gain an understanding of how an enzyme protein is built and is configured into an active form by studying the addition of each amino acid. A breakthrough in his research occurred during a leave of absence from the National Institutes of Health, his employer. Anfinsen spent 954 to 955 studying under the chemist kai Linderstrøm-Lang, who encouraged him to start with the entire RNase molecule, then break it down block by block, thereby reversing his existing research methods. Anfinsen was able to observe that the severing of particular key bonds brought about the formation of other bonds between the amino acids, which resulted in an inactive form of RNase. By 962, after Anfinsen had returned to the United States, he had observed that the inactive form of RNase automatically reverted to an active configuration when placed in particular environments. His findings thus confirmed that the configuration for an active enzyme was present within the protein’s sequence of amino acids.



In 972 Anfinsen received the Nobel Prize in chemistry, which he shared with stanford moore and william h. stein, who in 960 had found the precise amino acid sequence of RNase, the first enzyme for which the full sequence was discovered. After being awarded the Nobel Prize, Anfinsen turned his attention to studies of the protein interferon. Throughout his career Anfinsen worked at a number of institutions, including Harvard Medical School, the Medical Nobel Institute in Sweden, the National Institutes of Health, and Johns Hopkins University. Anfinsen received numerous honorary degrees and was a member of several societies, including the National Academy of Sciences and the American Society of Biological Chemists. He died at home on May 4, 995, of a heart attack.

Anning corresponded with scientists and collectors all over England. Her fossils provided important study material for researchers in the new field of paleontology, and if she had belonged to a time and class in which women were educated, she herself might have become a paleontologist. As it was, she was merely a fairly successful businessperson and a local curiosity. When she died in 847, a guidebook commented that her “death was in a pecuniary [financial] sense a great loss to the place, as her presence attracted a large number of distinguished visitors.” More flattering to Anning, and in greater acknowledgment of her scientific accomplishments, was the dedication of a stained-glass window in her honor, paid for by the scientists whom she had served with her discoveries.

Anning, Mary
(799–847) British Paleontologist Mary Anning discovered fossils that helped give British scientists their first understanding of prehistoric life. Born in 799, she grew up in Lyme Regis, on a part of Britain’s southwest coast that had been a sea bottom 200 million years before. People in Lyme Regis often found bones, shells, or other remains of the creatures that had lived in that long-ago ocean. Now turned to rock, these bones and shells could be found sticking out of the seaside cliffs or washed down onto the beach. Lyme Regis became a popular resort in the late 8th century, and some townsfolk with an eye for business began collecting fossils to display or sell to visitors. One such businessman was Richard Anning, who earned most of his living from cabinetmaking. He taught his wife, Molly, and his children, Joseph and Mary, how to look for fossils during walks beside the cliffs. When he died in 80, leaving his family with little money, they tried to support themselves through their fossil business. In 8 Joseph made the family’s first important find, a huge skull with a long snout and rows of sharp teeth embedded in a rock on the beach. He thought the skull belonged to a crocodile, but in fact it was that of an ancient dolphinlike sea reptile called an ichthyosaur, or “fish-lizard.” A year later 2-year-old Mary found the rest of the animal’s 30-foot-long skeleton projecting from a cliff. The two fossils found by the brother and sister added up to one of the first ichthyosaurs ever discovered. Mary Anning, whom one visitor described as “a strong, energetic spinster . . . tanned and masculine in expression,” continued to find and sell prize fossils all her life. In addition to several more ichthyosaurs, she found the first complete skeletons of plesiosaurs, nine-foot-long sea reptiles with small heads, long necks, and paddlelike fins. She found her first plesiosaur in 82; in 828 she found the first British pterosaur, a flying reptile.

Apgar, Virginia
(909–974) American Physician A fellow physician once remarked, “Every baby born in a modern hospital anywhere in the world is looked at first through the eyes of Virginia Apgar.” He meant that the quick tests of a newborn infant’s health, introduced by Apgar in 952, are used in hospitals everywhere. Virginia Apgar was born on June 7, 909, to Charles and Helen Apgar in Westfield, New Jersey. She shared a love of music with her family, playing the violin during family concerts and even making her own instruments as an adult. Her family also taught her to appreciate science; her businessman father’s hobbies included astronomy and wireless telegraphy. During her undergraduate years at Mount Holyoke College, Apgar helped to pay for her schooling by waiting on tables and working in the school library and laboratories. She also reported for the college newspaper, won prizes in tennis and other sports, acted in plays, and played in the orchestra. After graduation from Mount Holyoke in 929 Apgar attended medical school at Columbia University, where she earned her M.D. in 933. She wanted to be a surgeon, but her professors convinced her that she could never earn a living in that male-dominated field. “Even women won’t go to a woman surgeon,” she remarked later; when asked why, she sighed, “Only the Lord can answer that one.” Apgar turned her attention to the new specialty of anesthesiology instead. She was only the 50th physician certified as a specialist in administering painkilling and sleep-inducing drugs during surgery. Being a woman was no problem in the field, since anesthesia had previously been given by nurses, most of whom were women. Apgar began teaching at Columbia’s medical school in 936, and she became the school’s first professor of anesthesiology and first woman professor in 949. Beginning in 938 she was also clinical director of Presbyterian Hospital’s



Virginia Apgar, who developed the Apgar Score System for testing the health of newborns immediately following birth (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health)

anesthesiology department. She was the hospital’s first woman department head and helped to establish anesthesiology as a medical specialty. Within anesthesiology Apgar focused on anesthesia given during birth. After assisting at some 7,000 births during her career, she wrote in the 972 book Is My Baby All Right? “Birth is the most hazardous time of life. . . . It’s urgently important to evaluate quickly the status of a justborn baby and to identify immediately those who need emergency care.” Yet, she noticed, a newborn baby was often simply wrapped up and hustled off to the hospital nursery. Serious problems sometimes were undetected for hours or days, and by the time they were found, it was too late to treat them. “I kept wondering who was really responsible for the newborn,” Apgar later told a reporter, and apparently she decided that she was. “I began putting down all the signs about the newborn babies that could be observed without special equipment and that helped spot the ones that needed emergency help.” The result was the Apgar score system, five tests that a doctor or nurse could perform in a few seconds during the first minute or so after a birth. The tests, which Apgar introduced in 952, rate a baby’s color, muscle tone, breathing, heart rate, and reflexes on a scale of 0 to 2; the combined results are the Apgar score. A combined score of 0 indicates a very healthy baby, whereas a low score warns of problems needing immediate treatment. After 33 years at Columbia, Virginia Apgar surprised her colleagues by going back to school. In 959 at the age of 49, she earned a master’s degree in public health from Johns Hopkins University. At this same time the charity organization called the National Foundation-March of Dimes, founded to help children with polio, was changing its focus to birth defects, which affect 500,000 children

born in the United States each year. The charity asked Apgar to direct its department of birth defects. “They said they were looking for someone with enthusiasm, who likes to travel and talk,” Apgar recalled. “I love to see new places, and I certainly can chatter.” She knew little about birth defects, but she learned. Apgar’s work for the foundation included writing, distributing research grants, fund-raising, and public speaking around the world. She traveled some 00,000 miles a year for the group. It was said to be largely a result of her efforts that the foundation’s annual income rose from $9 million when she joined them to $46 million at the time of her death. She became director of the foundation’s basic research department in 967. In 965 Apgar also became the first person to lecture on birth defects as a medical subspecialty. Apgar received many honors for her work, including the elizabeth blackwell Citation from the New York Infirmary in 960 and the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ Distinguished Service Award in 96. The Ladies’ Home Journal named her their Woman of the Year in science in 973. The Alumni Association of the Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons awarded her its Gold Medal for Distinguished Achievement in Medicine in 973; she was the first woman to win this prize. Apgar died of liver disease on August 7, 974, at the age of 65.

Arber, Agnes Robertson
(879–960) British Botanist A devoted researcher, botanist Agnes Robertson Arber spent her career studying the anatomy and morphology of plants. Over the course of nearly 60 years, Arber published more than 80 scientific works that greatly enhanced scientists’ knowledge and understanding of plants. Arber’s first published book, Herbals; Their Origin and Evolution: A Chapter in the History of Botany: 1470 to 1670, became a widely read standard. Agnes Robertson was born on February 23, 879, in London, England. Her parents, Henry Robert Robertson and Agnes Lucy Turner, were artistic and raised their children in a creative and intellectual environment. Arber’s father was an artist, and her sister Janet went on to become an artist as well. Her brother Donald pursued academia, later becoming a professor of Greek at Trinity College, Cambridge. Arber was greatly influenced by the stimulating family atmosphere and also gained an interest in art, which she later incorporated into her scientific research. In 897, Arber entered University College in London. Two years later, she was awarded a B.Sc. degree with first-class honors. Arber then attended Newnham College, Cambridge, on a scholarship. Newnham was one of two women’s colleges at Cambridge. In 90, she passed the



first part of the natural science Tripos, the honors examination, and a year later she passed the second part, which covered botany and geology. In 903, Arber received a Quain Studentship in biology and returned to University College to conduct research and teach. Arber was granted a D.Sc. degree in 905 from the University of London. Arber received a lectureship in botany at University College from 908 to 909 and continued to develop her skills as a plant morphologist and anatomist. In 909, Agnes married the much older E. A. Newell Arber, a paleobotanist at Trinity College. Their daughter, Muriel, was born in 93. Newell Arber died when Muriel was only five years old. Following her association with University College, Arber became affiliated with Newnham College. She was able to use Newnham’s Balfour Laboratory facilities to conduct her research until 927, when Newnham shut down the laboratory. Arber then constructed a laboratory in a spare room in her home, which allowed her to work in solitude and whenever she pleased. At Balfour, Arber had for a period shared the facilities with botanist Edith Saunders, and Arber discovered that she preferred to work independently. So dedicated to her research was Arber that she chose to live modestly and pursue her work rather than supplement her income by teaching. Arber’s book on herbals provided information on the history of botany in addition to detailed information and renderings of numerous plants. It was published in 92, and a second edition came out in 938. Arber published three additional books: one on water plants, which was published in 920; one on monocotyledons, published in 925; and a book on cereal, bamboo, and grass, which came out in 934. Arber also produced more than 80 journal articles. Arber’s last work to include original scientific research was published in the early 940s. She later turned toward philosophical, mystical, and historical subjects. Her final books included The Natural Philosophy of Plant Form, published in 950, and The Mind and the Eye, published in 954. Though Arber’s later written works deviated from a purely scientific approach, she was widely recognized and respected as an outstanding botanist who had contributed greatly to the understanding of plant form. Arber was elected to the Royal Society in 948, becoming only the third female to receive the honor, and she was also the first woman to achieve the Linnean Medal, presented by the Linnean Society of London.

A copper engraving of Archimedes from a 19th-century book. (The caption reads: “George Cooke fecit. London, Publish’d by Vernor, Hood & Sharpe, Poultry, 1807”)

(287 b.c.–22 b.c.) Sicilian/Greek Physicist, Mathematician considered Archimedes one of the two greatest mathematicians in history; only isaac newton was his equal. Archimedes’ estimation for the numerical value of pi survived as the best approximation available
karl friedrich gauss

into the Middle Ages. However, he was most renowned for his practical applications of mathematical and physical theories. Two of his innovations, Archimedes’ principle and the Archimedes screw, involved the displacement of water, and he was considered the founder of hydrostatics. Though little is known about Archimedes’ personal life, his own writings reveal the identity of his father, the astronomer Phidias. Archimedes was born in Syracuse on the island of Sicily in about 287 b.c. Evidence suggests that he traveled to Alexandria, where he studied mathematics under the successors of euclid. He returned to Sicily, which was under the rule of king Hieron II, supposedly a relative or at least a friend (Archimedes dedicated The Sand-Reckoner to Hieron’s son, Gelon). In this late text Archimedes contrived a notation system for very large numbers, and in another text, Measurement of the Circle, he estimated the value of pi as 22/7, a relatively accurate figure. However, his applications of mathematical concepts proved even more profound than his abstract realizations. In De architectura, Vitruvius told the dubious story of Archimedes’ solution to a problem posed by Hieron—how to test whether a gift crown was indeed pure gold, as the giver claimed, or alloyed with



less precious metals, as Hieron suspected. As Archimedes pondered the problem in the bathtub, he noticed that the farther he immersed his body in the tub, the more water spilled over the edge. He hypothesized that the density of the displaced water equaled the density of his submerged body. In his excitement he rushed through the streets naked shouting, “Eureka!” While testing the authenticity of the crown, he noticed that a block of pure gold equal in weight to the crown displaced less water than the crown, thus casting doubt on its composition. This test, which hinged on relative density and buoyancy, became known as Archimedes’ principle. Archimedes described this principle, along with his understanding of buoyancy (or the upward force exerted on solids by liquids), in On Floating Bodies, a text that established him as the founder of hydrostatics. Of even greater practical value was his invention of what became known as the Archimedes screw, a device that could draw water along an ascending helix and was used for raising water in irrigation systems. Archimedes was apparently most proud of his formulation of the volume of a sphere as two-thirds that of the cylinder in which it is inscribed, as discussed in one of his most famous works, On the Sphere and the Cylinder. When Cicero was the quaestor, or chief financial officer, of Sicily in 75 b.c., he tracked down Archimedes’ grave and verified that it was indeed inscribed with a sphere and cylinder as well as the formula for their intersection. Hieron called upon Archimedes to invent weapons to stay the Roman invasion of Sicily in 25 b.c., led by Marcellus. Experts doubt that Archimedes invented the weapon of mirrors that ignited distant ships with focused sunlight, though he did invent various catapults. Marcellus ultimately captured Sicily in 22 b.c., and though the general himself admired Archimedes’ work, his soldiers put the mathematician to death, supposedly while he was making calculations in the sand.

Aristarchus of Samos
(320 b.c.–250 b.c.) Greek Astronomer Recognized as one of the first to propose and support the theory that the Sun is the center of the universe and that Earth revolves around the Sun, Aristarchus of Samos was an astronomer and mathematician whose ideas were not universally embraced during his lifetime. Another achievement of Aristarchus was his attempt to calculate astronomical distances by using mathematics, specifically geometry. Aristarchus estimated the relative distances of the Earth from the Sun and the Moon, and though his results were highly inaccurate, his method was correct. It was also the

first effort to measure astronomical distances with a method more advanced than mere speculation. Little is known about the life of Aristarchus. He was born around 320 b.c. on Samos, an island in eastern Greece in the Aegean Sea. The area was the heart of Ionian civilization, where science and philosophy flourished. Aristarchus studied under Strato of Lampsacos, who was the third head of the Lyceum, the school outside Athens, Greece, founded by the philosopher Aristotle. It is believed Aristarchus was taught by Strato in Alexandria rather than at Athens. Aristarchus’ colleagues referred to him as “the mathematician,” and references by the Roman architect and writer Vitruvius indicate that Aristarchus was among seven who were highly skilled in all areas of mathematics and capable of using their knowledge for practical applications. Vitruvius also attributed to Aristarchus the invention of a commonly used sundial. Best known for his heliocentric view of the universe, which placed the Sun at the center, Aristarchus faced considerable opposition during his day, despite indications that ideas concerning heliocentrism began as early as the fifth century b.c. with the Pythagoreans in southern Italy. Various theories regarding the rise of heliocentrism exist. Some believe that around 440 b.c. Philolaus proposed that the Earth, Moon, planets, and Sun revolved around a central fire. Philolaus’ contemporary Hicetas was credited by others as being the first to ascribe a circular orbit to the Earth. Authorities unanimously, however, attribute the heliocentric theory to Aristarchus. Though only one of Aristarchus’ writings, On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon survived, those who followed Aristarchus frequently referred to his theories. The mathematician and engineer archimedes, who lived shortly after Aristarchus, discussed in a treatise Aristarchus’ opinion that the Sun and stars were stationary. Aristarchus’ achievements in mathematics tend to be somewhat overshadowed by his astronomical advances, but his mathematical skills were considerable, and scholars often rank him with other famous Greek mathematicians such as euclid and archimedes. In On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon Aristarchus used a geocentric view, which placed the Earth at the center of the universe. To calculate relative distances from Earth of the Sun and Moon, Aristarchus considered the fact that when the Moon is in the second quarter, half-light and half-dark, it forms a right angle with the Earth and the Sun. Aristarchus then calculated the relative lengths of the sides of the triangle with geometrical methods. Though the method was accurate, Aristarchus estimated that the Earth was 8 times farther away from the Sun than from the Moon, a grossly inaccurate result. Aristarchus’ heliocentric theory was not widely recognized or adopted until the 6th century, when nicolaus copernicus proposed that the Earth and other planets


revolved around the Sun. It is said that Aristarchus’ views were considered so contrary to popular beliefs that the philosopher Cleanthes of the Stoic school proposed that Aristarchus be indicted for impiety. Though Aristarchus’ advanced beliefs did not enjoy a receptive audience during his lifetime, they contributed greatly to modern astronomical thought. A crater on the Moon is named in his honor.

(384 b.c.–322 b.c.) Greek Philosopher of Science Though Aristotle’s theories touched on areas of physics, astronomy, psychology, and biology, his most important contribution was the development of a scientific paradigm for understanding the world that held sway for centuries. It was not until the 6th and 7th centuries that new paradigms transplanted the primacy of Aristotelian science. Aristotle was born in 384 b.c. in Stagira in Chalcidice. His father, Nicomachus, was a physician at the court of Mayntas II of Macedon, grandfather of Alexander the Great. Both of his parents died when he was a boy. In 367 b.c. at the age of 7 he traveled to Athens, where he remained for the next 20 years, studying under Plato at the Athenian Academy until Plato’s death in 347 b.c. Aristotle then traveled for 2 years, teaching at academies he established at Assus in Asia Minor (where he married the daughter of the ruler, Hermeias) and at Mytilene in Lesbos. From 342 b.c. to 335 b.c. Aristotle tutored the young Alexander the Great. Plutarch reported that Aristotle disappointed Alexander by publishing the Metaphysics, which, the ruler assumed, was written solely for his own personal benefit. Alexander’s ascension to the throne created a favorable situation for Aristotle to return to Athens, where he established his own academy, the Lyceum, in his gardens. Aristotle’s writings were apparently rediscovered and organized by Andronicus of Rhodes in about 50 b.c. Most of these extant writings appear to be lecture notes for courses at the Lyceum. Thomas Aquinas drew upon Aristotelian thought as the foundation for much of his Christian theology. In the sciences Aristotle’s biological theories retained the most validity, especially as expressed in De partibus animalium (On the parts of animals) and De generatione animalium (On the generation of animals). Aristotle mentioned more than 500 animal species in his writings, and 9th-century zoologists confirmed as true some of Aristotle’s observations about animals that had been assumed false by earlier readers. Many of his astronomical theories, based on beliefs such as the centrality of the Earth in the universe, were eventually proved false.

Despite this, the methods by which he arrived at his convictions remain instructive. Aristotle reversed Plato’s prioritization of dialectics over mathematics. For Aristotle mathematics and science acted as the organizing principles upon which reality was based. Reality was thus best understood by applying mathematical and scientific logic to the questions that confounded human reason. Upon the death of Alexander the Great in 323 b.c. Aristotle left Athens for fear that the city, under the sway of anti-Macedonian sentiments, would condemn him to the same fate his mentor, Plato, had suffered: execution for crimes against the state. Aristotle retired to his maternal estate in Chalcis, where he died in 322 b.c.

Arrhenius, Svante August
(859–927) Swedish Physical Chemist Svante August Arrhenius posited his theory of electrolytic dissociation despite strong opposition. Almost 20 years after he first defended his conviction to the incredulous doctoral committee at the University of Uppsala, he finally received recognition of the significance of his discovery with the 903 Nobel Prize in chemistry. His dissertation hypothesized that when salt dissolves in water, its components (sodium and chloride) dissociate into charged ions that can conduct electricity, even though neither dry salt nor pure water acts as an electrical conductor. Doubters resisted his theory in part because it straddled the fence between physics and chemistry; in response Arrhenius became one of the founders of physical chemistry, a scientific discipline that explained chemical phenomena through physical laws. Arrhenius was born on February 9, 859, in Vik, in the district of kalmer, Sweden, to the former Carolina Thunberg and Svante Gustaf Arrhenius, a land surveyor. Arrhenius’s first marriage, to Sofia Rudbeck, lasted only from 894 to 896, though it produced one child, Olev Wilhelm. In 905 Arrhenius married Maria Johansson, who bore him three more children, Ester, Anna-Lisa, and Sven. By the age of three Arrhenius had taught himself to read, and his father’s bookkeeping piqued his interest in mathematics. After graduation from the Cathedral School in Uppsala in 876 Arrhenius attended the University of Uppsala; he received his bachelor’s degree in mathematics, chemistry, and physics in 878. He remained at the university to embark upon graduate study in physics; disillusioned with his advisers, he left in 88, bound for Stockholm, where he continued his doctoral research under the physicist Eric Edlund at the Physical Institute of the Swedish Academy of Sciences. In May 884 his dissertation on the



Arrhenius pursued diverse scientific interests. In the late 890s he predicted the greenhouse effect by relating increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide to atmospheric warming. In 908 he published Worlds in the Making, in which he conjectured that life traveled through space on spores. Sweden finally acknowledged the accomplishments of its patriotic son in 903, when Arrhenius became the first Swede to win the Nobel Prize. The Nobel committee had been undecided whether to award it in physics or chemistry. The previous year, Britain’s Royal Society awarded him the Davy Medal, named in honor of the British chemist sir humphry davy, who discovered nitrous oxide, better known as “laughing gas,” in 800. In 9 Arrhenius won the first Willard Gibbs Medal from the Chicago section of the American Chemical Society, and in 94 the British Chemical Society awarded him the Faraday Medal, given in honor of michael faraday, the 9th-century British physicist who first demonstrated that electrical forces could produce motion. Arrhenius died in Stockholm on October 2, 927.

Aston, Francis William
(877–945) British Chemist, Physicist A dedicated and tireless worker, Francis William Aston received the 922 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his development of the mass spectrograph, a device used to separate atoms of different masses and measure the masses, and for discoveries made with the spectrograph. Aston found that though the atomic weight of each element was a whole number, most elements were mixtures of isotopes, which were atoms of the same element that differed in mass. The spectrograph has wide application in geology, nuclear physics, chemistry, biology, and other fields. The third of seven children, Aston was born on September , 877, in Harborne, in Birmingham, England. His father, William Aston, was a farmer and metal merchant, and his mother, Fanny Charlotte Hollis, was the daughter of a gun manufacturer. Aston’s scientific skills were evident from an early age, and he conducted experiments in a crude laboratory housed on the family farm. After graduating from secondary school in 893 with highest honors in mathematics and science Aston attended Mason College, which later became the University of Birmingham. Aston studied organic chemistry and optics under P. F Frankland but was forced to postpone . his studies by a lack of funds. Aston worked as a chemist for a brewing company in the early 900s and performed experiments in electricity with instruments he designed and built at home. These experiments won him a schol-

Svante August Arrhenius, one of the founders of physical chemistry (Smith Collection, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania)

electrical conductivity of solutions earned a mark of fourth class, the lowest possible passing grade, preventing Arrhenius from teaching. Arrhenius sent copies of his dissertation to luminary scientists; several supported him by forming a core group of proponents of a new scientific field, physical chemistry. Wilhelm Ostwald demonstrated his faith in Arrhenius’s theory by offering him a position at the Polytechnikum in Riga, Latvia. Arrhenius declined, choosing instead the last-minute offer of a lectureship from Uppsala. This decision to prioritize posts in his homeland over foreign offers became a pattern in Arrhenius’s life until in 89 he finally landed a position at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm; he became the rector of the school in 896. In 905 the Nobel Institute of the Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm created a chair for him to head the physical chemistry division; Arrhenius maintained his association with the academy until his death.



arship in 903 to the new University of Birmingham. There he researched the flow of electrical currents passing through gases at low pressures. In 90 Aston began assisting Joseph John Thomson at both the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University and the Royal Institution in London. With Thomson, Aston investigated the gas neon and found the first evidence for isotopes in nonradioactive elements. In 99 Aston became a fellow of Cambridge University’s Trinity College and perfected the mass spectrograph, which he built himself. From observations taken with his spectrograph Aston successfully calculated the proportion of heavier to lighter atoms in neon and theorized that the atomic weights of elements were always whole numbers and that most elements are combinations of isotopes. Aston was also able to demonstrate that the existence of isotopes was not restricted to radioactive elements. In the 920s Aston developed larger spectrographs that were increasingly accurate. Through a series of observations in 927 Aston discovered some fractional discrepancies with the rule of whole numbers. When particles in the nucleus of an atom were packed more tightly, a greater fraction of the atom’s mass became converted to energy devoted to keeping the nucleus intact. Aston used the particles, known as “packing fractions,” in calculations that provided important information concerning the stability and abundance of elements. Aside from the Nobel Prize in chemistry, Aston received a number of awards and honors, including the 938 Royal Medal of the Royal Society and the 94 Duddell Medal and Prize of the Institute of Physics. Aston, who remained at Trinity College for the duration of his career, preferred to work alone rather than collaborate. He enjoyed photography and outdoor sports and was an amateur musician. Aston remained single throughout his life. He died on November 20, 945, in Cambridge, England.

and his mistress, Jeanne Rabin. He was baptized JeanJacques Fougère Audubon upon his return to France. Anne Moynet, Jean Audubon’s wife, graciously adopted her husband’s illegitimate offspring in 794, and in 803 the younger Audubon was sent to one of his father’s American farms, in Pennsylvania, where he first developed his interest in observing and drawing birds. In 808 he married Lucy Bakewell, though he committed himself more devoutly to his vocation of bird painting, leaving his wife to fend for herself as a governess while raising their two sons, Victor and John. Having little formal education, Audubon taught himself all he knew about science and painting. The dubious claim that he briefly studied painting under Jacques Louis David in Paris would amount to his only formal training, if it is true. Audubon compensated for his lack of credentials with unflagging energy and confidence in his own powers of observation. In Pennsylvania he tied colored string around phoebes, plain grayish brown and white flycatchers found in the eastern United States, to mark them, antedating the practice of banding birds for tracking purposes by more than half a century. In 90 he briefly met the preeminent ornithological artist Alexander

Audubon, John James
(785–85) French/American Ornithologist, Naturalist John James Audubon’s paintings and drawings of North American birds captured the popular imagination of his time, fostering interest in nature and its inhabitants for years. Though Audubon would not qualify as a hard scientist, he did more for the understanding of ornithology than many of the field’s purists by making it possible for the common person to appreciate birds and their natural surroundings. Audubon was born Fougère Rabin, or Jean Rabin, in Les Cayes, Saint-Domingue, West Indies (now Haiti), on April 26, 785, to the French sea captain Jean Audubon

John James Audubon, the well-educated painter and ornithologist whose paintings and drawings of North American birds have won popular acclaim for almost two centuries (Smith Collection, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania)



Wilson; viewing the first two volumes of Wilson’s ninevolume American Ornithology convinced Audubon of his own superior artistic skills. He reached the height of these skills between 82 and 824, painting birds in Louisiana and Mississippi. After attempting unsuccessfully to find a publisher for his paintings in Philadelphia and New York, Audubon found more favor in London, where the engraver Robert Havell published the four-volume series The Birds of America, containing 435 aquatint copperplates of Audubon’s ornithological art, between 827 and 838. Because of Audubon’s limited writing and descriptive skills, William MacGillivray wrote a five-volume accompaniment to Birds, Ornithological Biography, published between 83 and 839. A Synopsis of the Birds of North America, published in 839, acted as a one-volume index. Audubon continued to conduct fieldwork, traveling through the mid-Atlantic states in 829; through the Southeast from 83 to 832; to Labrador, Canada, in 833; as far west as Galveston, Texas, in 837; and as far north as Fort Union in what would become North Dakota in 843. He collected information on birds as well as on mammals; that formed the basis for the book Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America, a three-volume text published between 845 and 848. The naturalist John Bachman cowrote the text, and Audubon’s sons, Victor and John, assisted in the project. The Royal Society of London elected Audubon as a member, legitimizing his status as a scientist. His paintings, however, revealed multiple technical mistakes, as well as a tendency to anthropomorphize birds’ faces. These errors were nevertheless invisible to all, save ornithologists, and his work was accurate enough to allow nonspecialists to appreciate the grace and beauty of birds. Audubon died on January 27, 85, in New York City.

Auerbach, Charlotte
(899–994) German Geneticist known to many scientists as the “mother of chemical mutagenesis,” Charlotte Auerbach conducted extensive research on mutagens and other genes with the desire to unlock the mysteries of genetic mutation. Auerbach significantly advanced scientists’ understanding of mutagenesis through her experiments on the fruit fly, or Drosophila, and bread mold, or Neurospora. One of Auerbach’s goals was to make science palatable and understandable to the general public, and to this end she wrote and published two books on genetics for this audience. Auerbach was born on May 4, 899, in krefeld, Germany, to a German-Jewish family. She was surrounded by scientific influences—her father was a chemist, an uncle

a physicist, and her grandfather an anatomist who identified a part of the human intestine later named Auerbach’s plexus in his honor. After earning degrees from a number of universities in Germany, including those at Würzburg, Freiburg, and Berlin, Auerbach was forced to flee the country in 933 because of the rise of Nazism. Auerbach journeyed to Edinburgh, Scotland, where she studied and worked at the Institute of Animal Genetics. She received her Ph.D. in 935 and spent the rest of her career at the Institute, taking leave only temporarily for sabbaticals in the United States and Japan. A few years after earning her doctorate, Auerbach became interested in mutagenesis when she learned of the research of American geneticist Hermann Joseph Muller. Muller, who had demonstrated in 927 that X-rays acted as mutagenic agents, spent a year at the Institute of Animal Genetics. During that time, Muller succeeded in persuading Auerbach to research mutation to learn how genes behave. Rather than study X-rays, Auerbach researched the effects of mustard gas on the fruit fly. Mustard gas, an agent used in chemical warfare during World War I, was believed to induce effects similar to those of X-rays. Through rigorous and thorough research, Auerbach found that mustard gas was a powerful chemical mutagen and was able to produce observable mutations in the fruit fly and in mice—the first documented success with chemical mutagens. She also observed that chemical mutagens acted more slowly than X-rays, which produced an immediate effect. Because of the sensitive nature of her studies, secrecy shrouded her research, providing Auerbach with ample time to conduct her experiments and formulate her theories. Auerbach published her results in 947, the same year she was named a lecturer at the institute. Continuing with her studies of genetic mutation, Auerbach became involved with the study of DNA, which had been found to be the carrier of genetic code in the early 950s. Auerbach’s knowledge of chemical mutagenesis allowed her to determine that the initial step in the chemical mutagenesis process was a chemical change in DNA. In 958, the same year she became a reader at the institute, Auerbach traveled to the United States, where she was a visiting professor at the Oakridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. There she experimented with the bread mold Neurospora to study spontaneous mutations. Auerbach studied many other chemical mutagens during her career, including sulfur mustard, formaldehyde, nitrogen mustard, and diepoxybutane. She published two genetics books for the general public—Genetics in the Atomic Age, published in 956, and The Science of Genetics, published in 96. Auerbach was also a dedicated educator and authored two textbooks on mutagenesis. She became a full professor in 967 and retired two years later. Among the many awards she received were the keith



Medal from the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 947, the Darwin Medal from the Royal Society of London in 977, and honorary degrees from universities including those at Dublin, Cambridge, and Leiden. Auerbach remained involved in the scientific community during the years before her death, working to increase awareness of environmental mutagens and to increase the understanding of genetics among laypeople.

Avery, Mary Ellen
(927– ) American Pediatrician Pediatrician Mary Ellen Avery made breakthrough discoveries regarding respiratory conditions of newborns. Avery is attributed with determining the primary cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), a severe condition that affected some premature infants. Avery found that the onset of RDS was tied to the lack of pulmonary surfactant—a substance naturally produced by the lungs—in undeveloped lungs. After discovering the cause of RDS, Avery led the hunt for the prevention and successful treatment of the often fatal condition. Born on May 6, 927, in Camden, New Jersey, Avery was the second daughter born to William Clarence Avery, proprietor of a manufacturing firm in Philadelphia, and Mary Catherine Miller Avery, a high school vice principal. As a child, Avery was inspired to pursue medicine and pediatrics by Emily Bacon, a female neighbor who was a pediatrician. Bacon frequently discussed medicine with Avery and occasionally took her to the hospital. Avery attended Wheaton College, located in Norton, Massachusetts, and studied chemistry. She graduated summa cum laude in 948 with a bachelor’s degree. Avery then entered medical school at Johns Hopkins University, earning her medical degree in 952. A bout of tuberculosis following her medical schooling helped spark Avery’s interest in studying the lungs. She completed her pediatrics residency at Johns Hopkins in 957. After finishing her residency, Avery went to Harvard Medical School in 957 as a research fellow. It was at Harvard that Avery made a breakthrough discovery concerning RDS. During her research, Avery compared sets of lungs from healthy laboratory animals to sets from infants who had died as a result of RDS. She observed that the healthy lungs were coated with foamy matter while the lungs from deceased newborns were not. Avery theorized that this foamy substance must play a crucial role in RDS—immature lungs, Avery believed, lacked essential pulmonary surfactant, which caused the foam. The results of her research were published in the American Journal of Diseases of Children in 959.

Founder of the Joint Program in Neonatology at Harvard Medical School and Children’s Hospital, Boston, Mary Ellen Avery is famous for her groundbreaking discovery of the primary causes of respiratory distress syndrome in infants. (The Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives of the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions)

During the 960s, Avery was on the pediatrics faculty at Johns Hopkins University. In 969, she traveled to Montreal, Canada, to work as a professor and chairman of the pediatrics department at McGill University. Since 974, Avery has been associated with Harvard Medical School. Continuing with her search for effective therapies and treatments for RDS over the years, Avery researched the effects of glucocorticoid hormones on lung development. These studies laid the groundwork for the use of glucocorticoids in pregnant women with a high risk for giving birth prematurely. Avery’s studies also helped lead to the development of replacement surfactant in 99. In addition to her pioneering research studies, Avery established the Division of Newborn Medicine, originally known as the Joint Program in Neonatology, at Harvard Medical School and Children’s Hospital, Boston, in 974. Avery also penned a classic textbook, The Lung and Its Disorders in the Newborn Infant, as well as a number of other books on diseases of the newborn. Among the many honors and awards bestowed upon Avery were the American Lung Association’s Edward Livingston Trudeau Medal



in 984; the virginia apgar Award, given by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 99; the National Medal of Science in 99; the karolinska Institute in Stockholm’s Marta Philipson Award for Pediatric Research in 998; and the Massachusetts Medical Society’s Lifetime Achievement Award in 999. Avery has also received numerous honorary degrees and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. In 2004 she continued to work as the Thomas Morgan Rotch Professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and as physician-in-chief, emeritus, at Children’s Hospital.

Avery, Oswald Theodore
(877–955) Canadian Bacteriologist/Physician Oswald Avery was the first scientist to identify deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, as the material responsible for genetic transfer. With this discovery, Avery helped usher in the age of biogenetics, a branch of science that has wrought profound changes on society, from the use of DNA in courts as evidence to confirm the guilt or innocence of criminals to its use in the cloning of sheep. A decade after Avery’s 944 discovery of DNA as the substance of genetics, james watson and francis crick established the structure of DNA, further confirming the genetic function of the substance. Oswald Theodore Avery was born on October 2, 877, in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in Canada. His mother was Elizabeth Crowdy, and his father, Joseph Francis Avery, was a Baptist clergyman. When he was 0 years old, Avery and his family immigrated to New York City, where his father became pastor of the Mariners’ Temple in the Bowery on the Lower East Side of Manhattan—a mission church supported by the wealthy philanthropist John D. Rockefeller. In 892, both Avery’s father and his older brother, Ernest, died, leaving Avery to oversee his younger brother, Roy, while his mother went to work at the Baptist City Mission Society. In 893, Avery traveled to central New York, where he enrolled in Colgate Academy, and three years later matriculated into Colgate University to study humanities. In 900, he graduated with a bachelor of arts degree, and returned to New York City to study medicine at Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons, where he earned his medical degree in 904. He proceeded to practice general surgery, but soon became disillusioned with his field’s inability at the time to treat serious diseases, leading him into medical research as a means of advancing the field. In 907, he landed a position as associate director of the bacteriological division of Brooklyn’s Hoa-

gland Laboratory, where his student nurses dubbed him “The Professor.” Avery studied how bacteria species caused infectious diseases. He excelled in practical applications—for example, he developed a quick and simple method for differentiating human from bovine streptococcus hemolyticus. He also focused much of his attention on the pneumococcus bacteria, determining the optimum and limiting hydrogen-ion concentration for pneumococcus growth. At this same time, Rufus Cole, the director of the newly established hospital of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, was focusing his laboratory’s research efforts on finding a pneumococcus serum to fight lobar pneumonia, then known as the “captain of the men of death,” which claimed the lives of some 50,000 people per year in the United States. One of Avery’s papers on secondary infection in tuberculosis patients, which demonstrated a highly organized approach to clinical investigation, caught Cole’s attention, prompting him to drive from Manhattan to Brooklyn to visit the bacteriologist. Impressed, Cole wrote Avery two letters offering him a position at the Rockefeller Institute Hospital; Avery was too busy to reply to either letter, requiring Cole to drive up to Brooklyn again to make the offer in person. “The Professor” finally accepted in 93, and after he began working at Rockefeller, his colleagues shortened his nickname to “Fess.” Avery, a recluse who never married, shared an apartment and a laboratory for many years with Alphonse Raymond Dochez. Together, the pair focused their research on the clear gelatinous coating encapsulating virulent pneumococci, discovering in it what they dubbed a “specific soluble substance.” Avery and Dochez subsequently found this “SSS” in lobar pneumonia patients’ urine and blood, thus verifying that virulence resides in the pneumococcal coating. Furthermore, Avery and Dochez discovered that culture fluids derived from this coating reacted with pneumococcal antisera in a type-specific manner—in other words, type I pneumococci culture fluids reacted only with type I antisera, type II cultures with type II antisera, and so forth. This marked the discovery of immunological specificity, or the reaction of specific bacteria with specific antigens. Avery next set about analyzing the chemical make-up of the capsule, enlisting the assistance of Michael Heidelberger. In 922, the young chemist identified the coating’s active ingredients as polysaccharides, or sugar molecules, earning pneumococcus Avery’s nickname, “the sugar-coated microbe.” In 928, the British Ministry of Health medical officer, Frederick Griffith, hypothesized that pneumococci might switch types upon losing their polysaccharides, based on his experimental injection of mice with live,



capsule-deficient (hence harmless) pneumococci bacteria mixed with heat-killed virulent pneumococci of a different immunological type, which resulted in the death of the mice. At first, Avery was dubious of Griffith’s “transformation,” but subsequent duplication of his results inspired Avery to pursue the identity of the transforming substance. Avery enlisted two young scientists—Colin M. MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty—to assist in the complex process of isolating which component of the pneumococcal bacteria was responsible for the immunological transference. After more than a decade of frustrating work, the trio finally published their findings in a 944 edition of the Journal of Experimental Medicine in a milestone paper entitled “Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal Types. Induction of Transformation by a Desoxyribonucleic Fraction Isolated from Pneumococcus Type III.” This daunting title translates into one of the most significant biological findings of the 20th century—that deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, serves as the material by which genetic transferal takes place. A decade later, in 953, James Watson and Francis Crick published the structure of DNA, spurring subsequent research that confirmed DNA’s role as the genetic substance. Avery retired in 943, the year before the publication of the landmark DNA paper. He moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where his brother, Roy, taught bacteriology at Vanderbilt University. His career was honored with the receipt of the Paul Ehrlich Gold Medal and the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London, a prestigious organization to which he belonged as a foreign member. Avery died of cancer on February 20, 955. Rockefeller University erected and named a granite gateway on its northwest corner in Avery’s honor.

had memorized the koran, and by the age of 8 his intelligence so surpassed that of all of his teachers that he educated himself through books. At this young age he healed the Samanid prince Nuh bin Mansur, who appointed Avicenna as court physician. This position secured him access to the royal Samanid library, in which he continued his selfeducation until the Samanid dynasty was overthrown by the Turkish leader Mahmud of Ghazna. The concurrent death of his father cast Avicenna into political and personal exile. After years of wandering and itinerant work as a physician he landed in Hamadan, where the Buyid prince Shams ad-Dawlah declared him court physician and twice named him vizier. During this period Avicenna commenced writing the two books that established his lasting significance. The five books of The Canon of Medicine, containing over a million words, surveyed the entire field of medicine, focusing on anatomy, physiology, etiology, diagnosis, obstetrics,

(980–037) Persian Physician, Philosopher of Science Avicenna produced two texts of paramount importance: The Book of Healing, a comprehensive treatment of disciplines, ranging from the physical sciences to music and psychology, based on an Aristotelian and Neoplatonic foundation, and The Canon of Medicine, the most significant text on medicine produced in the East or the West. Throughout his tumultuous life, living in the midst of political turmoil, Avicenna retained his faith in a God, which was the basis for much of his writing. Avicenna was born in 980, in Bukhara, Iran. His father’s house served as a kind of intellectual salon, providing learned company for him early on. By the age of 0 he

Avicenna, one of the foremost Muslim Aristotelians of his day (Smith Collection, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania)



and pharmacology, among other disciplines. Since he had lost his own practice notes in transit, he based his treatise less on personal experience than on the precedents of Greek physicians of the Roman imperial age and Arabic medical documents. The Book of Healing discussed most areas of human knowledge, including logic, psychology, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic, music, and metaphysics. The only two areas that Avicenna did not touch on were ethics and politics. He based the work on a religious foundation, positing the necessary existence of a God. Fulfilling his medical and administrative duties by day, Avicenna devoted his nights to composition and research, which often entailed all-night discussions and general revelry with his students. Both of these seminal texts were translated into Latin in the 2th century, exposing them to a European audience, notably the Franciscan schools, which incorporated Avicenna’s thought system with Augustinian theology as a basis for medieval intellectual and religious beliefs. The death of Shams ad-Dawlah in 022 prompted Avicenna to migrate to Isfahan, where he enjoyed the favor of the ruler ’Ala ’ad-Dawlah. He continued his prolific output, composing three more major works: the Book of Salvation, a summary of The Book of Healing; the Book of Directives and Remarks, a spiritual map from the initiation of faith to the constant contemplation of God; and The Arabic Language, a tome on Arabic philology that remained in draft form at his death. Though Avicenna ranked as one of the foremost Muslim Aristotelians, his true but unfinished goal was to establish an Oriental philosophy. Despite his efforts at self-healing while on a military campaign, Avicenna died of colic and exhaustion in 037.

title, count of Quaregna and Cerreto. He married Felicita Mazzé, with whom he had six children. Like his forefathers, he studied and practiced law until the turn of the century. In 800 Avogadro embarked on a private study of mathematics and physics, and by 806 he taught at the college attached to Turin Academy. On October 7, 809, the College of Vercelli appointed him as a professor of natural philosophy. In 820 the Turin Academy established the first chair of mathematical physics in Italy and appointed Avogadro to fill the chair. Political opposition, however, abolished the chair from 822 until 832. On November 28, 834, Avogadro was reappointed to the chair, a position he occupied until his retirement in 850. Avogadro conceived of his major hypothesis, discussed in the paper “On the Way of Finding the Relative Masses of Molecules and the Proportions in Which They Combine” and published in an 8 edition of the Journal de Physique, as a mere extension of the work of GayLussac, which was published in 809. Avogadro’s humility prevented his ground-breaking assertion from receiving

Avogadro, Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo
(776–856) Italian Physicist Amadeo Avogadro’s important hypothesis regarding the atomic weight of gases languished in obscurity for some 50 years, with andré-marie ampère its sole supporter, until stanislao cannizzaro asserted its validity convincingly at the 860 Chemical Congress at karlsruhe. What became known as Avogadro’s law states that equal volumes of gases at equal temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules. Avogadro’s work led to a more informed understanding of atomic molecular theory and, most importantly, distinguished atoms from molecules. Avogadro was born on August 9, 776, in Turin, Italy. His parents were Anna Maria Vercellone Avogadro and Count Filippo Avogadro. His father was elected senator of Piedmont in 768 and appointed advocate general to the senate in 777. In 787 Avogadro inherited his father’s

Amedeo Avogadro, whose work distinguished atoms from molecules and led to a more informed understanding of atomic molecular theory (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives)


the audience and recognition it deserved. This oversight of the scientific community not only cost Avogadro personally but also set back the progression of atomic theory by a half-century. As it turned out, Avogadro’s law did not apply universally to gases, but specifically to noble gases, among others. However, the basis of his theory encouraged several inferences, namely, that the ratio of the relative molecular weights of two gases is in the same proportion as their densities at the same temperature and pressure. This inference allowed scientists to calculate atomic weights with precision by this ratio. Avogadro also deduced that simple gases such as hydrogen and oxygen are diatomic (H2, O2); thus water is H2O, not HO, as john dalton had asserted. On November 2, 89, Avogadro was elected as a full member of the Academy of Sciences of Turin after 5 years as a corresponding member. A more lasting honor was the naming of the number of particles in one mole as Avogadro’s constant: 6.022 × 023. Avogadro died on July 9, 856, in Turin.

Ayrton, Hertha (Phoebe Sarah Marks)
(854–923) British Physicist, Engineer One of the first woman electrical engineers, Hertha Ayrton improved the working of the electric arc, used in streetlights and movie projectors of her time, and invented a fan to clear poisonous gases from mines and soldiers’ bunkers. She was the first woman to gain an award from Britain’s prestigious Royal Society. Named Phoebe Sarah Marks at her birth, Hertha Ayrton was born in 854 in Portsea, England, into the large family of Levi Marks, a Jewish refugee from Poland. Marks, a jeweler and clockmaker, died in 86, leaving his wife, Alice, in poverty with eight children to support. While Alice worked as a seamstress, Sarah, the oldest girl, took care of her brothers and sisters. She did not begin school until she was nine, but eventually she attended the school her aunt ran in London. While there she met Barbara Bodichon, a wealthy women’s rights advocate and philanthropist who became her friend and supporter. In 876 Bodichon helped Sarah enter Girton, a women’s college of Cambridge University. Sarah changed her name to Hertha while at college. After graduating from Girton in 880, Marks turned a cousin’s idea into her first invention, a tool that divided a line into equal parts. She obtained a patent on it in 884, and it proved useful to engineers, architects, and artists. Encouraged by this success, Marks began studying at Finbury Technical College, where one of her teachers was the physicist W. E. Ayrton. Ayrton admired Marks’s intelligence and energy, and the two married in 885. They later

had a daughter, Barbara. Hertha helped her husband in his work, but he encouraged her to do her own research as well, giving her the use of his laboratory and calling her his “beautiful genius.” Some of Hertha Ayrton’s most important work began in 893 as a continuation of a project her husband was doing on electric arcs, which were used in streetlights, searchlights, and later in movie projectors. The arc, a glowing stream of electrons that flowed between two carbon electrodes separated by a pit or crater, often degenerated into rainbow flickers accompanied by a hissing noise; early movies were nicknamed “flickers” or “flicks” because of this failing. Determined to “solve the whole mystery of the arc from the beginning to the end,” Hertha showed that these problems occurred because oxygen in the air entered the crater and combined with the carbon in the electrodes. Drawing on her research, engineers worked out a way to protect the arc from the air and thus increase its power and reliability. These and other experiments made Hertha Ayrton a national authority on the electric arc. In 895 the magazine Electrician asked her to write a series of articles on the subject, which she expanded into a book in 902. The Institute of Electrical Engineers was so impressed by her paper explaining the hissing of the electric arc, which she read to them in March 899, that the group made her its first woman member two months later. A reviewer called the paper “a model of the scientific method of research.” Ayrton’s paper on the electric arc was also presented to Britain’s premier organization of scientists, the Royal Society, in 90, but this time a man had to read it because the society did not permit women at its meetings. W. E. Ayrton’s health began to fail in 90, and he and Hertha moved to the coast in an attempt to improve it. Unable to continue her electrical experiments because she now lacked a laboratory, Hertha became curious about the sandy beaches covered with what she later described as “innumerable ridges and furrows, as if combed by a giant comb.” To learn how waves shaped the sand, she built glass tanks in her attic, put a layer of sand in the bottom, and filled them with water. She put the tanks on rollers to imitate wave motion and found that when waves moved constantly back and forth over the same spot, they created regular ripples that eventually pushed the sand into two mounds between the crests of the waves. Ayrton believed that this kind of wave action formed both sand dunes on the shore and underwater sandbanks that often wrecked ships. She hoped other engineers could use her research to prevent sandbanks from forming. Ayrton presented a paper about her sand research to the Royal Society in 904. This time she was allowed to read it herself, the first woman to read a paper before the group. The society awarded her its Hughes Medal in 906 for her work on electric arcs and sand.



The London Times commented of the award, “It seems that the time has now come when woman should be permitted to take her place in . . . all our learned bodies.” Several of Hertha Ayrton’s inventions helped her country during wartime. Her improvements to searchlights made night spotting of aircraft easier. She also used what she had learned in her beach experiments to design a fan that drove poisonous gas out of bunkers and trenches and drew in fresh air. One soldier whom it helped during World War I wrote: “There are thousands and thousands of inarticulate soldier persons who are extremely grateful

to you.” The Ayrton fan was later modified to drive dangerous gases out of factories and mines. Hertha Ayrton once said, “Personally I do not agree with sex being brought into science at all. . . . Either a woman is a good scientist, or she is not.” She expressed her belief in women’s equality in another way by joining the Women’s Social and Political Union, one of the most militant organizations seeking votes for women. Ayrton’s gender denied her some of the scientific recognition she deserved, but she did live to see British women gain the right to vote in 98. She died five years later.

Babbage, Charles
(792–87) English Mathematician, Computer Scientist Charles Babbage’s frustration with the persistence of human errors in mathematical tables gave birth to the notion of mechanical computation, an idea that led to modern computer technology. Once Babbage recognized the potential for the mechanization of mathematics, he devoted himself obsessively to its realization. He designed and attempted to build three mechanical computers in his lifetime, though it wasn’t until May 99 that Doron Swade successfully completed the construction of a Babbage computer at the Science Museum in London for a cost equivalent to $500,000. Part of the driving force behind Babbage’s project was his belief in the connection between science and culture, especially industry, which stood to progress on the shoulders of scientific discovery. Babbage was born to affluent parents on December 26, 792, in Teignmouth, England. He attended Cambridge University from 80 to 84, though he found that many of his professors could not match his intellect. In an attempt to bolster British mathematical standards to the level of those in continental Europe, he joined Sir john frederick herschel and George Peacock in campaigning against British intellectual isolationism. Toward this end he helped found the Analytical Society in 85. He was instrumental in the founding of many other organizations, among them the Royal Astronomical Society in 820 and the Statistical Society of London in 834, a testament to his wide-ranging interests. His theory of “operational research” helped with the establishment of the British postal system in 840. His diverse scientific interests included cryptanalysis, probability, geophysics, astronomy, altimetry, ophthalmoscopy, statistical linguistics, meteorology, actuarial science, and lighthouse technology.

In 827 Cambridge University honored Babbage with an appointment as the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, a position he held through 839. The position would have served as a perfect platform from which to preach against

Charles Babbage, one of the grandfathers of modern computer technology (The Image Works)



and perhaps reform the substandard teaching of mathematics in Britain. Ironically, Babbage did not use the position as a bully pulpit because of his preoccupation with mechanized computation and an analytical machine. In about 830 he commenced work on what became known as his Difference Machine No. One, based on addition rather than multiplication. The construction of this eightfoot-tall machine took a decade and cost the equivalent of $85,000, though he never completed it because of a loss of funding. In 847 he went on to design his Difference Engine No. Two, a streamlined version of No. One, though he never constructed this design, as the government refused to finance it. Babbage’s concept acted as a harbinger of modern computers, though his engine was an analog decimal machine, as opposed to the modern computer, which is a binary digital machine. Lord Byron’s daughter, augusta ada byron lovelace, created programs for the prototypical computer, establishing the field of computer programming in conjunction with Babbage’s designs for his computer. These two cohorts devised systems to predict winning horses, but lost much money as the systems were never foolproof. Although Babbage criticized the Royal Society for its conservatism, he was elected a member in 86. Babbage died on October 8, 87, in London.

Baekeland, Leo Hendrik
(863–944) Belgian/American Chemist Leo Baekeland discovered the first fully synthetic substance that could be molded into almost any shape imaginable—he named his innovation “Bakelite,” partly after his own name, but its generic nomenclature is plastic. Other scientists had already discovered the same polymer from the reaction of carbolic acid, or phenol, with formaldehyde, but Baekeland devised a means of transforming it from a gooey resin into an infinitely transmutable substance by heating it under pressure and thereby ushered in the plastic age. Baekeland was born on November 4, 863, in Ghent, Belgium. His mother worked as a maid, and his father was a shoe repairman. He taught himself photography, then attended night classes at the Municipal Technical School of Ghent to learn the chemistry of film developing. Unable to afford the chemicals necessary for the process, he recycled his own by melting down a silver watch given to him as a gift and figuring out how to extract and purify silver nitrate from it for use in exposing his pictures. Baekeland entered the University of Ghent at the age . of 7 to study chemistry under F Swarts, whose daughter, Celine (known as “Bonbon”), he later married. The couple

had two children. Upon his graduation with a bachelor of science degree in 882, the university retained him as a professor of chemistry while he pursued doctoral studies. He earned his doctorate maxima cum laude two years later, and served as a professor of chemistry and physics at the Government Higher Normal School of Science in Bruges from 885 through 887. He then returned to the University of Ghent until 889, when he immigrated to the United States after using a traveling fellowship to study in France and Britain. In the United States, Baekeland first worked as a chemist for the E. & H. T. Anthony Company, a photographic paper manufacturer, before setting out on his own as a consultant and inventor of what the field lacked. He invented the first contact developing paper—an unwashed silver chloride emulsion—that succeeded on the commercial market. He then “invented” (the validity of this assertion is dubious) Velox, otherwise known as “gaslight” paper because it could be developed with artificial light (which came from gas at the time) and thus did not rely on direct sunlight for development. While his scientific claim may have been hyperbolic, his business sense was very accurate: He established the Nepera Chemical Company in partnership with Leonardo Jacobi to manufacture Velox, and George Eastman bought the company out in 899 for $ million. Baekeland moved his family into Snug Rock, an estate on the banks of the Hudson River in the north of Yonkers, New York, converting the barn into a lab to continue his experimentation in search of his next big hit—a synthetic substitute for shellac, the natural resin that served as an electrical insulator, among other things. He followed in the footsteps of scientific predecessors, such as adolf von baeyer, who combined phenol (a coal-tar derivative) and formaldehyde (an embalming fluid derived from wood alcohol.) However, Baekeland hit upon a means of controlling pressure and temperature perfectly with his “bakelizer,” a kind of industrial-strength pressure cooker that transformed the viscous, shellac-like by-product of the phenol-formaldehyde reaction into a hard-but-moldable substance, the perfect malleable synthetic. After applying for a patent on July 3, 907, and securing patent number 942,699 soon thereafter, Baekeland introduced polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride to the scientific community at the 909 meeting of the New York chapter of the American Chemical Society, and to the world thereafter as “Bakelite.” He founded and served as president of the General Bakelite Corporation in 90 to manufacture the plastic, but he again exercised his business sense by licensing the use of his process to other manufacturers, who made such imitations as Redmanol and Condensite, while he simultaneously pushed Bakelite as the genuine article. By 9, Bakelite had set up plants in the United States as well as in Germany. By 922, Baekeland had orchestrated the consolidation of several


plastics makers into the Bakelite Corporation, which he continued to serve as president until 939, when the company folded into Union Carbide and Carbon Company. Baekeland also served as president of the three major chemical associations in the United States—the American Chemical Society in 924, the American Electrochemical Society, and the American Society of Chemical Engineering. The first organization awarded him its Nichols Medal in 909, and the last society granted him its Perkin Medal in 96; the Franklin Institute bestowed its Franklin Medal on him in 940. Baekeland died on February 23, 944, in Beacon, New York.

Baeyer, Adolf von
(835–97) German Chemist Adolf von Baeyer struggled to establish himself throughout his early career, but recognition slowly accrued for him after he succeeded in synthesizing indigo and other dyes, such as triphenylmethane. First, the king of Bavaria bestowed on him the noble title of “von” (probably more for his role in launching the German dye industry than for his scientific contribution), and then he gained international recognition as the recipient of the 905 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf Baeyer was born on October 3, 835, in Berlin. His mother, Eugenie Hitzig, grew up in a family who hosted Berlin’s literary coterie, and his father, Johann Jacob, performed geodetic surveys as a captain in the Prussian Army before his promotion to general’s rank. Baeyer charted his own path into science early on, performing experiments on plant nutrition at his grandfather’s Müggelsheim farm as a boy; back in the confines of Berlin, he took to the test tubes with chemical experimentation starting at the age of nine. Three years later, he synthesized a previously unknown chemical compound—double carbonate of copper and sodium. On his 3th birthday, he initiated his lifework, buying a chunk of indigo worth two talers for his first dye experiments. Baeyer distinguished himself academically as well: His chemistry teacher at the Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium appointed him as his assistant. After graduating from secondary school in 853, he entered the University of Berlin to study physics and mathematics. A stint in the Prussian army interrupted his study until 856, when he returned to academia at the University of Heidelberg, intending to study chemistry under Robert Bunsen. After an argument with the renowned chemist, however, he changed his mentor to Friedrich kekulé, one of the few organic chemists at the time. He continued to collaborate with kekulé even after returning to Berlin to complete his doctorate on arsenic methyl chloride, or cacodylic, in 858.

His doctoral committee’s tepid reception of his dissertation (they did not really understand it) prevented him from securing an academic position, so Baeyer traveled to Ghent to continue his collaboration with kekulé experimenting on uric acid for the next two years. He submitted the paper reporting these studies (in lieu of his dissertation) to the Berlin Institute of Technology, which hired him in 860 as a lecturer in organic chemistry; he retained this position for the next dozen years despite its paltry salary, because he had access to a well-appointed laboratory. In 863, he made one of his most important discoveries: barbituric acid, a derivative of uric acid that he apparently named after his girlfriend at the time, Barbara. In 868, Baeyer married Adelheid Bendemann, the daughter of a family friend, and together the couple had three children: Eugenie, Hans, and Otto. The prior year, he had helped found the German Chemical Society to facilitate the sharing of scientific thought by assembling the best minds in the country to discuss advances in chemistry. Meanwhile, the University of Berlin had finally given him a professorship, though it was unsalaried. Despite Baeyer’s distinction as an excellent clinical scientist, he experienced difficulty establishing himself academically until 872, when the University of Strasbourg finally appointed him to a full professorship of chemistry. In 865, Baeyer had commenced the research on indigo that defined his career. By the next year, he had devised an approximate structural formula for the compound, and four years later, in 870, he synthesized indigo. He continued his indigo studies when he moved to the University of Munich as a professor of organic chemistry in 875, and by 883, he had developed an even more precise formula for the dye. He remained at the university for the next three decades, during which time he also developed a theory for the formation of carbon rings around compounds that became known as the “Baeyer strain theory.” In 885, eccentric king Ludwig II of Bavaria inducted Baeyer into the nobility by conferring on him the “von” distinction. Two decades later, Baeyer’s contributions to chemistry were honored with the Nobel Prize, awarded on December 20, 905. He continued to work for another decade, retiring from the university when he turned 80 in 95. Two years later, as World War I raged, he died in his own family home in the country near Lake Starnberg on August 20, 97.

Bailey, Florence Merriam (Florence Augusta Merriam)
(863–948) American Naturalist Florence Merriam Bailey was a pioneer in the study of birds in their natural habitats. Bailey fought for the



protection of bird life and was among the first to realize the environmental and biological importance of birds. Devoting her life and career to observing birds, Bailey wrote more than 00 articles on her bird research. Bailey was also active with the Audubon Society. She was born Florence Augusta Merriam on August 8, 863, in Locust Grove, in upstate New York. Her father, Clinton Levi Merriam, was a congressman, and her mother, Caroline Hart Merriam, was a college graduate who was an amateur astronomer. Bailey’s interest in wildlife and nature began at an early age, and she spent much time exploring the surrounding woods and studying animals and birds. Her interest in nature was encouraged by her father, who was interested in natural history and was a friend of naturalist John Muir as well as her older brother, Clinton Hart Merriam. Hart, as he was called, planned to enter medical school and instructed his sister in anatomy and biology. After completing studies at a private school in Utica, New York, Bailey enrolled at Smith College, a women’s school, in 882. By this time, Bailey had come to view birds as valuable treasures and was one of the first to promote the study of birds in the field rather than killing birds and studying primarily their bones and feathers. It was during her college years that Bailey became more actively involved in her work with birds and bird protection. Dismayed by the fashion trend of using bird feathers and stuffed birds to adorn ladies’ hats, Bailey began to write articles to educate people on the negative aspects of the practice, which led to the deaths of 5 million birds a year. Bailey established a Smith College chapter of the Audubon Society and organized events, including bird walks and a letter-writing campaign, to discourage the killing of birds for fashion’s sake. Though Bailey completed school in 886, she did not receive a degree as she did not follow a degree course. Smith College later awarded Bailey a bachelor’s degree in 92. A bout of tuberculosis soon after her graduation led Bailey to California to recuperate, and she spent most of the 890s traveling about the western part of the United States, rigorously studying the nesting, feeding, and mating habits of birds in their habitats. Bailey’s first published book, Birds Through an Opera Glass, was released in 889 and was a collection of articles she had completed for the Audubon Magazine. Bailey used her own name rather than follow the common practice of adopting a male pseudonym. She wrote several books during her travels as well, including A-Birding on a Bronco (896) and Birds of Village and Field (898). After her journeys, Bailey settled in Washington, D.C., to live with her brother Hart, who had become the first chief of the U.S. Biological Survey in 885 as well as a founder of the National Geographic Society in 888. In 899, at the age of 37, Bailey married one of her brother’s

field naturalists, Vernon Bailey. Together the couple traveled and studied in the West, Vernon concentrating on mammals and Florence on birds. In addition to her more than 00 articles, Bailey completed 0 books, including the well-known Handbook of Birds of the Western United States (902) and Birds of New Mexico (928). Devoted to raising awareness among the general public about the value of birds, Bailey spent many years teaching ornithology classes to adults, primarily through the Audubon Society of the District of Columbia, a chapter she helped to found. Bailey was the first woman to become an associate member of the American Ornithologists’ Union (885) and was also the first female fellow (920) and the first woman to receive the society’s Brewster Medal (93). Bailey continued to work and teach into her later years, and her last major book was published in 939. She died on September 22, 948.

Baker, Sara Josephine
(873–945) American Physician Influenced by her Quaker upbringing and the death of her father and brother in a typhoid epidemic when she was 6, Sara Josephine Baker was determined to pursue a career in medicine and became the first woman to receive a doctorate in public health. She revolutionized infant care in New York City when she was appointed chief of the city’s newly created division of child hygiene in 908. In this position, she reduced the city’s infant mortality rate to the lowest of all major cities worldwide by taking such progressive measures as establishing milk distribution stations, setting up programs to train and license midwives, and creating a foster care system for infants. In addition to her work as a doctor, she was active in the women’s movement. The daughter of Orlando Daniel Mosser Baker, a lawyer, and his wife, who was among the first women to attend Vassar College, Baker was born on November 5, 873, in Poughkeepsie, New York. She was raised among affluent people, but the influence of her Quaker father and Aunt Abby instilled in her the strength to pursue her own path in life, even when it meant overcoming great obstacles. Baker abandoned her plans to follow in her mother’s footsteps and attend Vassar College when she lost her father and brother to typhoid. Instead, she enrolled in New York Women’s Medical College, graduating second in her class in 898. After serving an internship at New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston, where she worked with residents of the city’s most impoverished slums, she moved to New York City and opened a clinic near Central Park West. Establishing a practice as a female doctor was difficult, and Baker was unable to make ends



home deliveries than for hospital deliveries. Her Little Mothers’ League trained young girls in infant care since older siblings were often responsible for caring for infants while their mothers worked. In addition, Baker was responsible for introducing the concept of prenatal care and for creating a foster care system that placed babies in homes where they would receive significantly better care than was available in institutions. As a pioneer in the women’s movement, Baker singlehandedly lobbied New York University Medical School, where she eventually earned her doctorate in public health, to admit women. She helped to found the College Equal Suffrage League and marched in the first annual Fifth Avenue Suffrage Parade. Between 922 and 924, Baker served as the U.S. representative on the health committee of the League of Nations. Active in children’s and women’s health issues throughout her life, she served on numerous committees and was president for one term of the American Medical Women’s Association. Sara Josephine Baker died of cancer in New York City on February 22, 945.

Banks, Harvey Washington
(923–979) American Astronomer, Astrophysicist Harvey Washington Banks broke the color barrier at Georgetown University as the first African American to receive a Ph.D. in astronomy from the institution. Banks focused his career on the study of planetary spectroscopy, or the examination of light emitted by distant sources, and geodetic measurements, using orbiting objects as a means of determining distances in the United States. Banks was born on February 7, 923, in Atlantic City, New Jersey, but when he was still young his parents, Nettie Lee Jackson and Harvey Banks, Sr., moved to Washington, D.C., where he attended Dunbar High School. He was married to Ernestine Boykin, and together the couple had four children—Harvey III, Deborah, Dwann, and Darryle. Banks remained in Washington, D.C., for his undergraduate work at Howard University, where he earned a bachelor of science degree in physics in 946 and added a master of science degree, also in physics, in 948. He stayed on at Howard as a research associate in physics until 952, when he got a job in the private sector as an electronic engineer at National Electronics, Inc. Two years later he left the industry for a job in education, teaching physics and mathematics in the public school system of Washington, D.C. After two years of teaching Banks returned to academia, where he was a research assistant in astronomy at the Georgetown College Observatory while pursuing his doctorate at Georgetown University. In 96

The first woman to receive a doctorate in public health, Sara Josephine Baker was chief of New York City Department of Health’s first division of child hygiene in 1908. (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health)

meet. She eventually closed the clinic and went to work for the city department of health as a medical inspector. This job, which involved examining sick children in schools and working to prevent the spread of contagious disease, led to a job in 902 in which Baker was given the difficult task of searching for sick infants in the Hell’s kitchen area of New York and trying to prevent some of the ,500 deaths occurring each week from dysentery. When the New York City Department of Health established its first division of child hygiene in 908, there was no one more qualified to run it than Sara Josephine Baker. As the first woman in the country to hold an executive position in a health department, Baker took it upon herself to see that preventive health care and health education became the responsibility of government. At milk stations set up throughout the city, nurses examined infants, distributed inexpensive, high-quality milk, and encouraged mothers to bring their children for regular checkups. Her first 5 milk stations were credited in 9 with saving the lives of more than one thousand babies. Baker also established a mandatory licensing program for midwives that resulted in lower rates of infection for



he became the first African American to receive a Ph.D. in astronomy from Georgetown. His dissertation, “The First Spectrum of Titanium from 6000 to 3000 Angstroms,” defined the focus of the rest of his career: He studied the properties of light originating from distant sources, a concentration known as planetary spectroscopy. Georgetown retained Banks as a fellow for the year after he earned his doctorate, then hired him on as a lecturer and research associate from 963 through 967. During this period he also taught at American University, also in Washington, D.C., and at Delaware State College. Then in 967 Delaware State appointed him as a professor of astronomy and mathematics with a concurrent appointment as the director of the college’s observatory. On September , 969, Banks returned to his alma mater, Howard, as an associate professor of astronomy, and two years later the university added an appointment as an associate professor of physics, a position he maintained until his death. Besides spectroscopy, Banks concerned himself with geodetic measurements, or determinations of distances between two points based on objects orbiting the Earth. He was thus interested in orbits and celestial mechanisms. In the 970s Banks supervised the construction of an observatory outside Washington, D.C., as a member of the Beltsville Project. Banks also coordinated the Astronomy and Space Seminar for the National Science Teachers’ Association. He was also a member of numerous societies, including the American Astronomical Society, the Optical Society, the Washington Academy of Science, the New York Academy of Science, the Washington Philosophical Society, and the Spectography Society. Banks died in 979.

Banting, Sir Frederick Grant
(89–94) Canadian Physiologist Sir Frederick Grant Banting devised a method for isolating the pancreatic hormone insulin, which regulates blood-sugar levels and thereby controls the disease diabetes mellitus. For this discovery Banting received the 923 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, which he shared with john james rickard macleod. The contributions to the research of Charles H. Best and James Bertram Collip were not recognized officially, so Banting shared his prize money with Best and Macleod shared his with Collip. Banting was the first Canadian to receive a Nobel Prize. Banting was born on November 4, 89, near Alliston, Ontario. His parents were Margaret Grant, the daughter of a miller, and William Thompson Banting, a farmer of Irish parentage. Banting was engaged to Edith Roach in 920, but the marriage never materialized. Banting did marry Marion Robertson in 924, and the couple had one son, but the unhappy marriage ended in divorce in 932.

Banting married Henrietta Ball, a technician in his department, in 939. Banting’s father sent him to Victoria College of the University of Toronto to enter the Methodist ministry, but in 92 Banting shifted to studying medicine. With the onset of World War I the university accelerated Banting’s course of study, and he received his M.D. in December 96. The Canadian Army Medical Corps inducted Banting as a lieutenant immediately upon his graduation. He served as a surgeon at the orthopedic hospital in Ramsgate, England, where he sustained an arm injury that prompted the government to award him a Military Cross in 99 for gallantry under fire. After the war Banting set up practice in London, Ontario, supplementing his scant income with a position as a demonstrator in surgery and anatomy at the University of Western Ontario. In May 92 Banting abandoned his failing practice to conduct an experiment inducing pancreatic ischemia as a means of isolating insulin. Macleod offered him space in his University of Toronto laboratory as well as the assistance of Best while Macleod himself departed for summer vacation. During his absence Banting and Best succeeded in isolating what they called “isletin,” named after the islets of Langerhans, the section of the pancreas that produces the hormone, but upon his return Macleod vetoed this name in favor of the traditional name derived from the Greek, insulin. By January 922 the team, joined by Collip to produce a pure extraction, completed successful clinical trials on themselves and on a 4-year-old diabetic. Recognition of the significance of this discovery was almost immediate: In addition to the Nobel Prize, the University of Toronto established the Banting and Best Chair of Medical Research in 923, a position that Banting himself filled before it expanded into the Banting and Best Department of Medical Research. That year the Canadian parliament granted Banting an annuity. In 924 the Banting Research Foundation was established, and in 930 the University of Toronto named its new medical school buildings the Banting Institute. In 935 the Royal Society of London inducted Banting as a fellow. In 934 king George V, a diabetic, knighted Banting, a symbolic act of appreciation of the man who literally extended the life expectancy of all diabetics through the controlling influence of insulin. Banting’s own life was cut short when his plane crashed in Newfoundland on February 2, 94.

Bárány, Robert
(876–936) Austrian/Swedish Physician Robert Bárány received the 94 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his work on the vestibular appara-



tus, the mechanism in the inner ear that controls balance. Bárány invented a battery of simple and practical tests that led to the founding of a new field, otoneurology, which investigated the connection between the vestibular and the nervous system. Bárány was born on April 22, 876, in Rohonc, Austria, the eldest of six children. His mother, Marie Hock, was the daughter of a prominent Prague scientist; his father, Ignaz Bárány, was a bank official. The intellectual bent on his mother’s side influenced Bárány to pursue an academic career, and a childhood case of tuberculosis in the bones pushed him toward medicine. In 909 Bárány married Ida Felicitas Berger, and all three of their children entered the medical sciences: Ernst became a professor of pharmacology at the University of Uppsala, Franz became a professor of internal medicine at the University of Stockholm, and Ingrid became a psychiatrist in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 894 Bárány entered the University of Vienna medical school, where he received his M.D. at the turn of the century. Between 900 and 902 he studied internal medicine, neurology, and psychiatry in Frankfurt, Heidelberg, and Freiberg, before returning to Vienna for surgical training in the hospital there. In 903 he landed a position at the Ear Clinic in Vienna under the directorship of Adam Politzer. World War I interrupted a period of fertile research, as Bárány served as a medical officer on the Russian front. He was captured as a prisoner of war; at that time he contracted malaria, but his medical skills earned him respect and special treatment. In 96 Prince Carl of Sweden arranged for Bárány’s release. His return to Vienna was marred by infighting among his colleagues, who wanted to claim credit for his Nobel Prize, a development that antagonized Bárány. He accepted a professorship from the University of Uppsala in 97 and remained there the rest of his career. The tests that Bárány devised included the Bárány caloric test, whereby one ear is irrigated with hot and the other with cold water, after which the physician observes for nystagmus, or the rapid, involuntary movements of the eyeballs. Bárány also developed the chair test, spinning the patient in a rotating chair and then checking for nystagmus. His noise box isolated hearing on one side by distracting the other side with a constant signal. The pointing test, whereby the patient pointed to a specific position with eyes open and then with eyes closed, tested the connection between the cerebellum and body movements. In addition to the Nobel Prize, many other distinctions brought recognition to Bárány’s work. The Swedish Society of Medicine awarded him the 925 Jubilee Medal for his development of a surgical technique for curing chronic sinusitis. He also won the Belgian Academy of Sciences Prize, the German Neurological Society’s ERB Medal, and the Guyot Prize from the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. After a series of strokes Bárány

died on April 8, 936, in Uppsala. An international meeting celebrating his 60th birthday went ahead as planned a few days after his death. Bárány’s achievements were commemorated by the establishment in 948 of the Bárány medal at the University of Uppsala and by the founding of the Bárány Society in 960 to advance vestibular research.

Bari, Nina Karlovna
(90–96) Russian Mathematician Nina karlovna Bari’s work on trigonometric series is acknowledged to be the foundation of function and trigonometric series theory. The first woman to attend Moscow State University, Bari refined the constructive method of proof to obtain results in function theory. Bari was a prolific author who wrote 55 publications, including her seminal book A Treatise on Trigonometric Series. Born in Moscow on November 9, 90, Bari was the daughter of Olga and karl Adolfovich Bari. Her father was a physician. Russian education was segregated by gender at this time, and the most rigorous classes were reserved for boys. But Bari flouted convention, took the boy’s high school exam, and passed. She enrolled at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Moscow State University in the wake of the 97 Russian Revolution, becoming the first woman to attend this prestigious institution. She graduated in 92, just three years after entering the university. Bari pursued a teaching career after leaving Moscow State. She was a lecturer at the Moscow Forestry Institute, the Moscow Polytechnic Institute, and the Sverdlov Communist Institute. She also won the distinction of receiving the only paid research fellowships at the Research Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, where she studied under the brilliant mathematician Nikolai Nikolaevich Luzin. With other elite students, Bari was part of a group nicknamed Luzitania in honor of its mentor. Luzin inspired Bari to explore function theory. (In fact, he rejected any area of mathematical study except function theory.) Bari’s thesis examined trigonometric series and functions. In 922, she presented the centerpiece of her dissertation to the Moscow Mathematical Society, becoming the first woman to address this organization. She successfully defended her thesis in 926 and was awarded the Glavnauk Prize for her research. Bari studied in Paris in 927, attending the Sorbonne and the Collège de France. After a period at the Polish Mathematical Congress in Lvov, Poland, she won a Rockefeller Grant that enabled her to return to Paris. Her interest in working abroad was motivated by the disintegration of the Luzitania movement. Her mentor’s radical ideas and often abrasive personality had alienated his colleagues.



(He left Moscow State University in 930 for a position at the Academy of Science’s Steklov Institute, was accused of ideological sabotage in 936, and was ultimately forced to withdraw from academia and research.) In 929, Bari returned to Russia to join the faculty of Moscow State University. She was promoted to full professor in 932. Three years later, she was awarded the degree of Doctor of the Physical-Mathematical Sciences, which was a more prestigious research degree than the standard Ph.D. Bari remained at Moscow State, leading function theory work at the university with her colleague D. E. Men’shov. In 952, Bari published one of her most important works—an article entitled “On Primitive Functions and Trigonometric Series Converging Almost Everywhere.” She presented her ideas at the 956 Third All-Union Congress in Moscow and at the 958 International Congress of Mathematicians in Edinburgh, Scotland. Later in life, Bari married Viktor Vladmirovich Nemytski, a fellow Soviet mathematician. The details of their marriage have been lost. In 960, Bari completed her final work, a 900-page book on cutting-edge trigonometric series theory. This monograph, A Treatise on Trigonometric Series, was widely admired and is now considered a standard reference textbook for those studying function and trigonometric series theory. Bari died on Moscow on July 5, 96, when she fell in front of a moving train. It is suspected that her death was a suicide. Her colleagues at Moscow State believed that Luzin had been her lover and that she was seriously depressed after he died in 960.

Barney, Ida
(886–982) American Astronomer Educated as a mathematician, Ida Barney used her ability to make complex mathematical computations and her tolerance for tedious, detailed work to contribute a vast array of new information to the field of astronomy. Over a period of 23 years, she cataloged the positions, magnitudes, and proper motions of more than 50,000 stars, which involved taking more than half a million measurements. The 22 volumes she published during her lifetime contain this information and remain an important contribution to our understanding of celestial bodies. Ida Barney was born in 886 in New Haven, Connecticut, to Eben Barney and Ida Bushnell Barney. An excellent student who was inducted into the honor societies of Phi Beta kappa and Sigma Xi, she received a B.A. degree from Smith College in 908 and a Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University in 9. For 0 years following the completion of her education, she taught mathematics at Rollins College, Smith College, Lake Erie College, and again at Smith College.

During the 920s, many universities received increased funding to conduct massive projects in astronomy, and the Yale Observatory was among them. In 922, Barney joined the staff there and began work under Frank Schlesinger. Since he did not believe women could make theoretical contributions in science, she was put in charge of the tedious and time-consuming task of measuring stars on photographic plates and using mathematical computations to translate their positions to celestial coordinates. Barney succeeded in this massive undertaking, while Schlesinger developed several new devices that made the process of measuring the stars and computing their locations easier. The first innovation was a projection device that was designed to reduce both strain on the eyes and accidental errors that resulted from the observer bumping the microscope. This new mechanism allowed images to be viewed and bisected in a small screen so that the scientist was not always required to be peering through a microscope. This development increased both the speed and accuracy of measurements taken by Barney and other scientists. The second innovation involved making use of the emerging technology in computer science. The catalogs published by Barney and Schlesinger between 939 and 943 were the first ones for which IBM punch card machines were used for many of the computations. When Schlesinger retired from the Yale Observatory in 94, Barney became the sole supervisor of the project and the sole author of subsequent volumes on the stars she was measuring. From the time she took over direction of the project, all measurements of the photographic plates were carried out at the IBM Watson Scientific Laboratory with a new electronic device. The device automatically centered images, resulting in higher accuracy in determining their positions and less eye fatigue. Ida Barney was awarded the annie j. cannon Prize of the American Astronomical Society in 952, an award that was given every three years to a woman of any nationality who had made outstanding contributions to the field of astronomy. After her retirement in 955, several more catalogs of stars were published under her name. She died on March 7, 982, at the age of 95. The “Yale positions,” as detailed in her numerous volumes, have been hailed as highly accurate and, therefore, extremely important to the future determinations of the motions of these stars.

Barton, Clara
(82–92) American Nurse and Humanitarian Best known for establishing the American Red Cross, the U.S. arm of the International Red Cross, Clara Barton was a humanitarian who tirelessly worked to help victims of natural disasters. She was affiliated with the American Red



Cross for more than two decades. Barton also worked as a battlefield nurse during the Civil War, and her fearless dedication resulted in the moniker “Angel of the Battlefield.” Born Clarissa Harlowe Barton on December 25, 82, in the small town of North Oxford, Massachusetts, Barton was the youngest of five children born to a middle-class farming family. Barton’s father, Stephen Barton, was not only a farmer but also a businessman and state legislator. Barton’s compassion for her fellow humans was largely influenced by her father. Barton’s mother, Sarah Stone, was an intense and eccentric woman with a fierce temper. With many daily family chores, Barton developed a strong work ethic at an early age. She was also active in the community, tutoring underprivileged children and helping to nurse the sick. Because teaching was one of the few respectable professions for women in the early 800s, Barton became a teacher in 839. After several years of teaching, she journeyed to New York to attend the Clinton Liberal Institute. When she finished her schooling, Barton returned to teaching, working at the first public school in New Jersey. In 854, however, Barton, fighting depression and a nervous breakdown, left teaching for good. She moved to Washington, D.C., where she secured a job as a copy clerk in the U.S. Patent Office, making her the first female clerk in the federal government. Though her job as a copyist was not necessarily fulfilling, Barton’s life was changed forever with the outbreak of the Civil War in 86. Hoping to help the troops, she requested permission to become a battlefield nurse. Women were not allowed near the battlefield, but Barton was extremely persistent, and in 862 she was given a pass to the front lines. For three years, Barton traveled to battlefields with wagons of medical and food supplies. She fed wounded soldiers while also tending to their injuries. In 865, the Civil War ended, and Barton spent the year attempting to identify dead soldiers and locate missing soldiers. Through her tireless efforts, she managed to identify 22,000 men. In the mid- to late 860s, Barton traveled across the United States to deliver lectures about her experiences during the Civil War. Though Barton’s lectures were well received, the physical and emotional pressures pushed her dangerously close to a breakdown in 868. On the advice of her doctor, she traveled to Europe to recuperate. In 869, Barton was in Geneva, Switzerland, where she met a group affiliated with the International Red Cross. One of the group, Dr. Louis Appia, asked for Barton’s assistance in persuading the U.S. government to endorse the Treaty of Geneva. Among the provisions included in the treaty was the establishment of the Red Cross, an international wartime relief organization. Barton agreed, but before she could return to the United States, the Franco-Prussian War commenced, and she joined the Red Cross workers on the front lines.

Clara Barton, who established the Red Cross and was known as Angel of the Battlefield for her service during the Civil War (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health)

Barton returned to the United States in 873, but she soon suffered a nervous breakdown and was unable to work for two years. By 877, Barton’s health was stabilized, and she began her efforts to form a U.S. branch of the Red Cross. Dr. Appia appointed Barton the U.S. representative, and she worked to gain support from the government and generate publicity and national support. Barton also expanded the scope of the Red Cross to include peacetime efforts, such as helping victims of natural disasters, diseases, and major accidents. In 88, Barton was elected president of the American Red Cross and succeeded in forming the first chapters. A year later, the U.S. government ratified the Treaty of Geneva, and from 883, Barton dedicated her career to the Red Cross. Barton was both an administrator and a hands-on relief work participant. She was involved in helping victims of a Michigan forest fire, Ohio and Mississippi River floods, a drought in Texas, an Illinois tornado, and much more. Though Barton was intensely committed to the Red Cross, infighting within the organization led her to resign in 904. A year later, the U.S. government assumed control of the national organization. Barton moved to Glen Echo, Maryland, and wrote A Story of the Red Cross, published in 905, and Story of My Childhood, published in 907. Never married, Barton died of pneumonia on April 2, 92.



Barton, Derek H. R.
(98–998) English Chemist Derek Barton transformed the landscape of physical chemistry in one fell swoop by establishing conformational analysis, or the notion that chemical geometry corresponds to molecular function. This advancement in understanding also transformed the chemical imagination from representing chemical reactions and structures in two dimensions, instead forcing chemists to visualize molecules more accurately, in their three-dimensional configurations. He shared the 969 Nobel Prize in chemistry with odd hassel, who had established the geometry of a common steroid. Derek Harold Richard Barton was born on September 8, 98, in Gravesend, kent, England. His father, William Thomas Barton, was a carpenter (like his father before him) and a lumberyard owner who died when Barton was 7. After helping his mother, Maude Lukes, run the family business for two years, Barton entered Gillingham Technical College. He remained there only a year before transferring to Imperial College of the University of London, where he graduated with first-class honors in 940. He conducted his doctoral research on the synthesis of vinyl chloride (the black plastic used to make phonographic records) under Ian Heilbron and E. R. H. Jones to earn his Ph.D. in 942. During World War II, Barton remained at Imperial to conduct military intelligence research developing secret inks. In 944, the Albright and Wilson company in Birmingham hired him to work on synthesizing organic phosphorous compounds. However, he only lasted a year in the industry before returning to academia; he preferred a position as a junior lecturer in inorganic chemistry at Imperial to a corporate job. Four years later, in 949, a position in organic chemistry, his actual area of specialization, opened up at Imperial College. During those four years, Barton commenced the research that led to his breakthrough realization. He investigated triterpenoids and steroids, recording correlations between their chemical structures and their molecular properties. Word of Odd Hassel’s work deciphering the geometry of cyclohexane (a foundational molecule for triterpenoids and steroids) reached him, and he extended this work to other, more complex molecules. In 949, the prominent steroid chemist Louis Fieser invited Barton to Harvard University as a visiting lecturer to fill the position vacated by robert burns woodward, who was taking a one-year sabbatical. While attending a lecture by Fieser on some unsolved steroid mysteries, an epiphany visited Barton: He realized that the three-dimensional shapes of molecules must correspond to their characteristics. He immediately expound-

ed his theory, citing experimental confirmation, in a four-page paper entitled “The Conformation of the Steroid Nucleus.” He published this piece in the Swiss journal Experientia, a relatively obscure publication that soared in circulation after word got out about the significance of Barton’s paper. Not only did he establish the field of conformational analysis by asserting a correlation between molecular structure and molecular functions, but also he transformed the chemical view from a flat plane into a three-dimensional space of complex configurations. Upon his return to England in 950, Barton was promoted to a readership at Birkbeck College of the University of London, which three years later promoted him again, to a professorship. In 955, the University of Glasgow named him its Regius Professor, but two years later Barton returned to London to take up a full professorship at Imperial College, where he remained for the next two decades. During the 950s, he worked with freeradical chemistry to elicit reactions for chemical synthesis. He uncovered the biosynthetic process governing the transformation of opium poppies into morphine. He also generated photochemical reactions by casting ultraviolet light on samples to rupture chemical bonds into free radicals that he then manipulated to synthesize compounds. In 958, he employed what became known as the “Barton reaction” to synthesize the steroid aldosterone, and in one experiment increased the world’s supply of this electrolytic hormone from a matter of milligrams to more than 60 grams. In 969, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences honored Barton and Hassel with the Nobel Prize in chemistry, in recognition of Hassel’s experimental determination of the chemical geometry of steroids, and Barton’s “gap jumping” theory correlating this chemical geometry to corresponding chemical characteristics, thereby demonstrating how the two seemingly disparate areas of form and function actually work hand-in-hand. Three years later, Queen Elizabeth II knighted Barton, though he insisted on leaving the title of “Sir Derek” behind when he traveled outside of England. In 978, Barton relocated to Gif-sur-Yvette, France, as the director of research for the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of the Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles (ICSN.) This move thrilled his second wife, Professor Christiane Cognet, who was French (his earlier marriage to Jeanne kate Wilkins, which yielded one son, William Godfrey Luke Barton, ended in divorce.) Barton continued to invent new reactions, naming the components “Gif” reagents after the site of his research. In 986, Texas A&M University named Barton a Distinguished Professor, a post he held for the last dozen years of his life. During this time, he received further accolades: The American Chemical Society granted him its 989 Creative Work in Synthetic Chemistry Award and its



995 Priestley Award. His second wife died in 994, and his third wife, Judy Cobb, survived him when he passed away on March 6, 998, in College Station, Texas.

Bascom, Florence
(862–945) American Geologist Regarded as one of the first female geologists in the United States, Florence Bascom opened many doors for future women scientists. A lifelong college educator, Bascom instructed female students to become professional geologists. Among her students were paleontologist julia anna gardner, petrologist Anna Jonas Stose, crystallographer Mary Porter, and Scripps College’s Isabel Fothergill Smith. Bascom also carried out research on the formation of the Piedmont Mountains in the eastern United States. Born in Williamstown, Massachusetts, on July 4, 862, Bascom, the youngest of six children, grew up in an educated and enlightened environment. Her mother, Emma Curtiss Bascom, was a teacher and suffragist, and her father, John Bascom, was a professor at Williams College who also supported women’s right to vote. John Bascom was hired as the president of the University of Wisconsin in 874, and the family moved to Madison, Wisconsin. The University of Wisconsin opened its doors to women students in 875, and in 877 Bascom began her studies there. She received two bachelor’s degrees, one in arts and one in literature, in 882, and two years later she earned her bachelor’s degree in science. Influenced by her father’s friend, a geology professor at Ohio State University, Bascom became increasingly interested in geology, particularly petrography, the study of rocks, with an emphasis on the configuration of rock layers that formed mountains. In 887, Bascom was awarded a master’s degree in geology. Two years later, she became one of the first women allowed to take classes at Johns Hopkins University. Bascom received her Ph.D. in 893. Her dissertation argued that rocks believed to be sediments were, in fact, metamorphosed lava flows. During her years of schooling, Bascom also spent time teaching. She taught at the Hampton Institute for Negroes and American Indians (now Hampton University) from 884 to 885, at Rockford College from 887 to 889, and at Ohio State University immediately following graduation, from 893 to 895. In 895, Bascom began teaching at Bryn Mawr College, where she remained for the rest of her career. Geology was not a department at Bryn Mawr but was considered part of the natural sciences. As a result, Bascom initially worked out of a storage area in the newly established sciences building. Within two years, she had gathered a collection of minerals, rocks, and fossils and founded the school’s department of geology. Bascom

The first woman and the first geologist to be awarded a Ph.D. by Johns Hopkins University, Florence Bascom (Sophia Smith College)

was strongly committed to educating future female geologists, and when Bryn Mawr attempted to lessen geology from a major to an elective, Bascom protested by threatening to quit. Rather than lose her, Bryn Mawr conceded to her wishes. She became a full professor in 906. In addition to training young geologists, Bascom worked as an assistant geologist for the U.S. Geological Survey beginning in 896. She became a full geologist in 909, and from 909 to 938, Bascom spent summers traveling through the Piedmont Mountains, which ran from Alabama to New York and were part of the Appalachian range. There she collected rock samples and studied the rock layers, afterward completing detailed reports about her findings. These reports were part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s efforts to create an extensive map of the nation. Not only was Bascom the first woman to be hired by the U.S. Geological Survey, but she was also the first woman to present a paper to the Geological Society of Washington, in 90. She was also the first female fellow of the Geological Society of America, which she joined in 894. Bascom served as associate editor of American Geologist from 896 to 905. After retiring from Bryn Mawr in 928, Bascom served as vice president of the Geological Society of America in 930 and continued to work until her death in 945.

Bassi, Laura Maria Catarina
(7–778) Italian Physicist A devoted educator, Laura Maria Catarina Bassi was the world’s first female physics professor. knowledgeable not only in physics but in anatomy, mathematics, and a number of languages, including Latin, Greek, and French, Bassi was well known throughout Europe for her intelligence and accomplishments, and students and scholars traveled



Laura Bassi, the world’s first female physics professor, who taught in Bologna, Italy, in the mid-1700s (The Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University)

to Italy to attend her lectures. Bassi was active with the Academy of Science of Bologna, Italy. Born on October 3, 7, in Bologna, Italy, Bassi grew up in a wealthy family. Bassi’s father was a lawyer, and Bassi was educated at home, taught by the family physician, Dr. Gaetano Tacconi, a university professor and member of the Academy of Science. Bassi showed high intelligence from an early age, and she excelled in her studies, which included such subjects as philosophy, mathematics, anatomy, natural history, French, and Latin. In 733, when Bassi was 2 years of age, she took part in a public debate with five distinguished philosophers. Bassi was influenced to join the debate by her family and friends. Her participation in the debate piqued the curiosity of so many spectators that the debate had

to be moved from the university hall to the great hall of the Palace of the Senators. One member of the intrigued crowds was the archbishop of Bologna, Cardinal Lambertini, who later became Pope Benedict XIV. Lambertini was impressed with Bassi’s knowledge and visited her the day after the debate to offer congratulations and persuade Bassi to continue her education. Less than a month following the debate, Bassi received a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Bologna. The ceremony took place at the Hall of Hercules in the Communal Palace. The Bologna Senate also provided funds that enabled Bassi to continue her studies. Bassi became a professor of physics at the University of Bologna after passing a rigorous public examination. Though the University of Bologna held a liberal view toward female scholars, Bassi was the first female professor hired in the physics department. She continued her own studies while teaching physics. She studied mathematics and Greek and continued to expand her knowledge in mechanics and hydraulics. Bassi was particularly interested in Newtonian physics. She also taught anatomy and became the chair of the anatomy department. In 738, Bassi married Giuseppe Veratti, a physician and fellow professor. Together the couple had 2 children. After her marriage, Bassi remained active in academia and continued to teach. Bassi successfully lobbied for increased responsibilities at the university as well as a higher salary in order to finance laboratory equipment costs. In the 740s, Bassi was involved with the Academy of Science of Bologna. She presented a number of papers at the Academy, including “On the Compression of Air,” presented in 746, “On the Bubbles Observed in Freely Flowing Fluid,” given in 747, and “On the Bubbles of Air that Escape from Fluids,” presented in 748. Though Bassi was not particularly concerned with publishing, she wrote a number of scientific papers, including several on physics, chemistry, mathematics, mechanics, and technology. Bassi knew and corresponded with scholars across Europe, including the philosopher Voltaire. In addition to her academic work, Bassi wrote poetry and worked in various ways to help the poor. She was appointed the chair of experimental physics at Bologna in 776, two years before her death.

Bateson, William
(86–926) English Geneticist In coining the term genetics, William Bateson established a new branch of scientific inquiry. He disavowed the Darwinian theory of natural selection, which attributed evolution to the slow aggregation of multiple small changes, in favor of the theory of discontinuous varia-



tion, which allowed for evolutionary “jumps.” Bateson’s discovery in 900 of the 866 article “Experiments with Plant Hybrids” by the Austrian monk johann gregor mendel provided support for his own experimentation. Bateson translated Mendel’s work into English, using the results from the monk’s experiments to prove his own hypotheses. Bateson was born on August 8, 86, in Whitby, England. His mother was Anna Aiken Bateson; his father was William Henry Bateson, a classical scholar who became the master of St. John’s College in Cambridge in 857. Though Bateson’s academic future seemed unpromising when he was a boy, he nevertheless earned first-class honors in the natural sciences at Cambridge University when he received his B.A. in 883, having focused his attention on zoology and morphology under the influence of Professors A. Sedgwick and W. F R. Weldon. He spent the next two years in . the United States conducting research on marine organisms at Johns Hopkins University under W. k. Brooks. In 885 Bateson returned to Cambridge as a fellow of St. John’s College, and in 887 he received the Balfour Studentship. In 894 he published his first important paper, “Materials for the Study of Variation,” which outlined his theory that evolution was discontinuous and not environmental. The work gained him little recognition, as most scientists rejected his ideas and Cambridge did not appoint him to a teaching position. In 899 he served as a deputy in zoology to Alfred Newton. The turn of the century marked a major turning point in Bateson’s career as well, as he discovered Mendel’s work in breeding pea plants, which corroborated his own breeding experiments. Together with L. Cuénot, he extended his experimentation to animals, focusing on the question of inheritance in the comb shape in poultry. In 902 Bateson published Mendel’s Principles of Heredity: A Defense, in which he translated Mendel’s work and proposed a Mendelian interpretation of evolution that became the theoretical umbrella for much of the remainder of his career. He coined the term genetics in 906 at the Third Conference on Hybridization and Plant Breeding. In 907 Cambridge appointed him to a readership in zoology, but in 908 the university fully legitimized his work by establishing for him a professorship in genetics, the first such chair in Britain. Bateson further validated the new field by founding Journal of Genetics with R. C. Punnett in 90. That same year Bateson departed from his long association with Cambridge to become the first director of the John Innes Horticultural Institution, a position he retained the rest of his life. Bateson received much recognition for his pioneering work, including the Darwin Medal in 904, the presidency of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 94, and the Royal Medal in 920. In 922 the British Museum named him a trustee. He died on February 8, 926, in London, England.

Bechtereva, Natalia Petrovna
(9??– ) Russian Neurologist Understanding the relationship of mind and brain, that is, of perception, thinking, and emotion to the electrochemical functioning of the brain, has been the lifework of Natalia Bechtereva. This effort resulted in Bechtereva’s explanation in 968 of “the error detector,” the way the brain, through neural network processing in the cortical and subcortical regions, realizes that an error in thinking has been made. Bechtereva was able to map this interplay of neural networks in tests given to patients while electrodes were implanted in their brains. Through this and other cognitive experiments, she postulated a theory about how thinking works in the brain. Natalia Bechtereva was born in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg), Russia, which was then part of the relatively new Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), founded in the ruins of czarist Russia after World War I and the overthrow of Czar Nicholas II by the Bolsheviks in 97. (The exact date of her birth is unknown.) She is a widow with one son who was born in 949. Her studies in biological sciences were interrupted by World War II, which required mobilization of all available manpower in the Soviet Union to head off invading Nazi armies. She received her B.S. degree in biological sciences in 95 when she was 27 years old and earned an M.D. degree in 959. In 954, while she was still a medical student, she was appointed to the position of senior scientific worker at Leningrad’s Polenov Neurological Institute. By 962, she was head of Polenov’s Physiology Lab and deputy director of the institute. In 962, she was appointed head of Polenov’s Department of Human Neurophysiology. It was during the 960s that Bechtereva began to make the first major breakthroughs in understanding the physiological workings of the human brain. Blending mathematics, physics, and physiology, Bechtereva developed a complex approach to brain functioning research. She sought to link the structuralfunctional organization of the brain with the cerebral mechanisms of thinking, memory, and emotion. As a result of her studies, Bechtereva suggested that thinking processes were supported by a linked neural network in the cortex and subcortex. This system operated on two levels, one a fixed, or rigid, system that is always present during thinking and other “flexible” elements that kick in only to complete specific tasks such as recognizing the semantic meaning of speech. This network is globally integrated in the brain so that if one part of the brain is injured or impaired, other parts of the brain/neural network can often compensate to allow thinking, memory, and emotion to continue, albeit sometimes not in exactly the same way or with the same results as before.



Bechtereva’s approach yielded several surprising findings. Observing the physiology of emotions, she discovered a protective cerebral mechanism that can be set in motion as a counterweight to negative emotions. This mechanism is a physiological process that was observed under clinical conditions. Bechtereva also has developed therapies to fight chronic brain diseases. By stimulating different parts of the brain with electrical impulses given by brain probes, spinal cord, visual, and acoustic neural networks have been reintegrated in ways that help patients who suffer from certain kinds of motor problems and with problems in seeing and hearing. Since 990, Bechtereva has been director of the Institute of the Human Brain and head of the institute’s Neurophysiology of Thinking and Consciousness Lab, an organization in St. Petersburg that is part of the Russian Academy of Sciences. She is supervising the lab’s use of noninvasive positron emission tomography technology to develop an even more complete understanding of the global neural networks that give rise to consciousness. For her efforts in understanding brain function, she has been awarded Germany’s Hans Berger Medal (970), the U.S. Cybernetic Society’s McCulloch Medal (972), and elected to the Soviet (now Russian) Academy of Sciences (98) and the U.S. Academy of Medicine and Psychiatry (997). From 983 to 994, she was editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Psychophysiology.

Becquerel, Antoine-Henri
(852–908) French Physicist Henri Becquerel followed in the footsteps of his father, Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel, and grandfather, AntoineCisar Becquerel, who were both famous physicists. Henri established himself in his father’s prominent posts at the Museum of Natural History and the National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts and held several other prestigious positions before he made his landmark discovery of radioactivity in 896. For this work he earned the 903 Nobel Prize in physics. Becquerel was born on December 5, 852, in Paris, France. Eminent scholars in his father and grandfather’s circles surrounded him from the very beginning, introducing him at a young age to the world of science, and physics in particular. He began his formal education at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, from which he graduated to the École Polytechnique in 872. Upon his departure from the Polytechnique in 874 he married Lucie-Zoé-Marie Jamin, daughter of the physicist J.-C. Jamin. She died four years later, only weeks after giving birth to their son, Jean, who in turn became a physicist. In 890, two years after

Henri Becquerel, whose discovery of radioactivity in 1896 earned him the 1903 Nobel Prize in physics (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, William G. Myers Collection)

he earned his doctorate from the Faculty of Sciences of Paris, Becquerel married his second wife, the daughter of E. Lorieux, an inspector-general of mines. Becquerel earned positions from the institutions where he studied soon after his graduation. In 876 the Polytechnique appointed him as a répétiteur; he rose to the position of full professor two decades later in 895. In 877 the Administration of Bridges and Highways appointed him as an ingénieur after he studied from 874 to 877 at the School of Bridges and Highways; he later ascended to the position of ingénieur de première classe for the administration. In 878 the Museum of Natural History appointed him to his father’s former position of aidenaturaliste. Henri’s father, Edmond, died in 89, and the subsequent year his father’s chairs of physics at the museum and at the National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts succeeded to Henri. In 895 the German physicist wilhelm conrad röntgen discovered X-rays. At that time Becquerel was studying fluorescence, as his father and grandfather had, and so he experimented with the substance he was studying at the time, potassium uranyl sulfate. Hypothesizing a connection



between X-rays and luminescence, he placed this uranium salt, known to luminesce, on top of photographic plates wrapped in black paper, then exposed this setup to sunlight. On February 24, 896, he reported his results to the Academy of Sciences: The luminescence of the uranium salt exposed the plates through the black paper, thus suggesting the existence of X-rays. Becquerel repeated this procedure twice, but he stored the setups in dark drawers because the Sun was hidden by clouds on February 26 or 27. By happenstance he developed these photographic plates on March  and found them fully exposed, suggesting some type of radiation other than X-rays, as the lack of exposure to sunlight meant that luminescence could not have been triggered. The rays that exposed the photographic plates were actually called Becquerel’s rays until his doctoral student, marie sklodowska curie, named this phenomenon radiation. Her research for her dissertation proved so fundamental to the understanding of radiation that she, along with her husband, pierre curie, shared the 903 Nobel Prize in physics with Becquerel. Their joint findings shifted the direction of physics in the 20th century. Becquerel died on August 25, 908, in Le Croisic, in Brittany, France.

Bell (Burnell), Susan Jocelyn
(943– ) British Astronomer While she was still a graduate student, Jocelyn Bell Burnell spotted a “bit of scruff” on a paper tape carrying recorded signals from space. Her identification of a new kind of star was a discovery Current Biography called “one of the most exciting events in the history of astrophysics.” Susan Jocelyn Bell was born on July 5, 943, in Belfast, Northern Ireland. She and her sisters and brother grew up in Solitude, their family’s large country house. When Jocelyn was about  years old, her father, Philip, an architect, helped to rebuild Armagh Observatory. Jocelyn went along, met the observatory’s astronomers, and learned to love their science. At the University of Glasgow Bell was the only woman among her class’s 50 physics majors. She earned a B.S. with honors in 965 and moved on to Cambridge University, where she studied radio astronomy. Radio astronomers map the sky by recording radio waves that stars and other objects in space give off, just as conventional astronomers record and use light. Astronomers can also study the sky through other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as microwaves, X-rays, and gamma rays. Each type of radiation provides a different “picture” of the universe. Bell’s first task was to help build a new radio telescope, a job that sometimes meant swinging a 20-pound

sledgehammer to drive in the poles that would hold up its antenna wire. Once the telescope was operating, Antony Hewish, the head of the radio astronomy project, gave her the painstaking job of analyzing the 00 feet of tape that its recorders spewed out each day. One day in October 967, after Bell had been doing this for several months, she saw an unusual signal—what she called a “bit of scruff.” As she said later, “I . . . remember[ed] that I had seen this particular bit of scruff before, and from the same part of the sky.” When Bell checked back, she found that the strange signal appeared once every 23 hours and 56 minutes. This indicated that it was keeping sidereal time, or “star time,” rather than Sun time. The Earth rotates with respect to the Sun once every 24 hours, but its rotation time with respect to the stars is slightly less. The fact that the signal recurred on a star-time schedule meant that it almost surely originated outside the solar system. The signals pulsed once every .3 seconds. Since no natural object that could make such rapidly pulsing signals was known, Hewish’s group began to wonder whether the signals could be communications from another solar system. They joked about “little green men.” At the end of 967, however, Bell disproved this idea by finding another signal, pulsing even faster than the first, in a different part of the sky. “It was highly unlikely that there were two lots of little green men signaling to us from opposite sides of the universe,” she concluded. She soon found two more such signals. Hewish published an article about the discovery on February 9, 968. The new objects were dubbed pulsars, and astronomers speculated that they might be neutron stars, a strange kind of star predicted by theory but never observed before. They knew that when a large star runs out of nuclear fuel, it blows up in a colossal explosion called a supernova. The core left after a supernova explosion was expected to be only 6.2 to 9.3 miles across, yet heavier than the Sun. Its tremendous gravity would probably smash electrons into protons in the atoms’ nuclei, leaving a soup of neutrons. Only something as small and heavy as a neutron star could spin as fast as the pulsars without being torn apart. Astronomers guessed that powerful radio waves streamed from the star’s magnetic poles and “flashed” at Earth once each time the object rotated, just as the turning light in a lighthouse seems to flash each time its beam passes an observer. Jocelyn Bell received her Ph.D. in 969. She then married Martin Burnell, a government official, and moved with him whenever he was transferred to a new town, as happened often. They had a son in 973, and Bell Burnell, as she now called herself, decided to work only part-time so she could care for him. “I am very conscious that having worked part-time, having had a rather disrupted career, my research record is a good deal patchier than any man’s



of a comparable age,” she says. On the plus side her peripatetic career has produced a breadth of experience that few other astronomers can equal. For instance, she has done gamma-ray astronomy at Southampton University and X-ray astronomy at the Mullard Space Science Laboratory of University College, London. She has also managed a telescope in Hawaii for the Scottish Royal Observatory. Antony Hewish was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 974, partly for his “decisive role in the discovery of pulsars.” Jocelyn Bell did not share the award. This angered one of Britain’s foremost astronomers, sir fred hoyle, who claimed that Hewish had “pinch[ed] [stolen] the discovery from the girl.” He praised Bell’s “willingness to contemplate as a serious possibility a phenomenon that all past experience suggested was impossible.” Bell said that Hoyle’s accusation was “overstated,” but some other astronomers agreed with it at least in part. In any case, Bell has received plenty of other awards, including the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia’s Michelson Medal (973), the Herschel Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society of London (989), and the Jansky Award of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (995). From 99 to 999, Bell, now divorced, was a professor and chairperson of the physics department at the Open University, which offers classes to adults all over Europe through correspondence, television, and computer. She calls herself “a role model, a spokeswoman, a representative, and a promoter of women in science in the U.k.” In 200, Bell accepted a position as dean of science at the University of Bath. She continues research as well, some of it on pulsars, the mysterious stars she helped to discover.

Bellow, Alexandra
(935– ) Romanian/American Mathematician Alexandra Bellow is a pioneer in the field of ergodic theory. This complex area of mathematical theory is concerned with the long-term averages of the successive values of a function on a set when the set is mapped into itself. It also looks at whether these averages equal a reasonable function on that set. Ergodic theory has far-reaching applications for the study of statistical mechanics, number theory, and probability, and it can even be used to explore the concept of entropy in physics. A professor at Northwestern University, Bellow has done much significant work in the field. Born on August 30, 935, in Bucharest, Romania, Alexandra Bellow was the daughter of two physicians— Dumitru and Florica Bagdasar. The communist takeover of Romania cast a long shadow over Bellow’s childhood. Although her father initially supported the communists,

and was even appointed minister of health, he was soon accused of “defection” and imprisoned. Bellow’s mother replaced her husband in his post, but she too was removed from it in 948. Bellow studied mathematics at the University of Bucharest. In 956, she married Cassius Ionescu Tulcea, a professor of mathematics at the university. She earned the equivalent of a master’s degree in 957 and then moved to the United States with her new husband to continue her education at Yale University. She was awarded her Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale in 959 for her thesis “Ergodic Theory of a Random Sequence.” After graduating, Bellow served as a research associate at Yale from 959 to 96 before taking a similar position at the University of Pennsylvania from 96 to 962. She then accepted an assistant professorship at the University of Illinois in 962 and was promoted to associate professor in 964. She left the University of Illinois in 967 to become a professor of mathematics at Northwestern University. Together with Tulcea, Bellow published Topics in the Theory of Lifting in 969. The couple was divorced that same year. In 97, Bellow began to concentrate on ergodic theory, writing a number of articles on the topic. She married the Nobel Prize-winning author Saul Bellow in 974. They spent 975 in Jerusalem, where she taught mathematics at the University of Jerusalem. Back at Northwestern in 976, Bellow continued her research. With D. kolzow, she edited the proceedings of a conference on measure theory in 975. She also edited the Transactions of the American Mathematical Society from 974 to 977, and she served as associate editor of the Annals of Probability from 979 to 98 and of Advances in Mathematics in 979. Moreover, she cowrote an influential paper with Harry Furstenberg in 979, which applied number theory to ergodic theory. In it, the pair proposed the Bellow-Furstenberg theorem. She was a Fairchild Scholar at the California Institute of Technology in 980. In the 980s and 990s, Bellow pursued her work on ergodic theory and continued to bring together mathematicians to explore the field. With De Paul University professor Roger Jones, she organized a conference—“Almost Everywhere: Convergence in Probability and Ergodic Theory”—in 989. That same year, she married mathematician and civil engineer Alberto Calderón (she had divorced Saul Bellow in 986). She gave the emmy noether Lecture for the Association of Women Mathematicians in 99. Subsequently, she collaborated with Jones and other mathematicians on eight papers that explore partial sequences of observations. In this work, Bellow sought to identify when averages based on partial observations are likely valid for entire populations, when they are not valid, and by how much they may be off. Bellow retired from Northwestern in 997, though she continued to research and publish on ergodic theory.


She has won several awards for her contributions, including a 987 fellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. She is considered to be a leading figure in the development of ergodic theory.

Benedict, Ruth Fulton
(887–948) American Anthropologist Ruth Benedict was one of the first American women to become a professional anthropologist. She proposed the idea that each of the world’s cultures has its own “personality.” As part of her fight against racism, a term she coined, Benedict wrote books that helped different cultures understand one another and was one of the first to combine anthropology with psychology and sociology to gain a multifaceted understanding of human culture. She also pioneered the use of anthropology to study major modern cultures. Ruth Fulton was born on June 5, 887, in New York City. Her childhood was scarred by the death of her father, Frederick, a surgeon, when she was less than two years old. Reaction to this loss and to her mother’s continuing grief made her depressed and lonely throughout the first half of her life. Limited hearing, the result of a childhood attack of measles, also tended to isolate her. She and her younger sister, Margery, grew up partly on their grandparents’ farm and partly in the cities where their mother, Bertrice, found teaching jobs. Money was always scarce. Fulton graduated from Vassar College in 909, but she had little idea of what she wanted to do with her life. She taught school and also wrote poetry, some of which appeared in national magazines under the name Anne Singleton. In 94 she married Stanley Benedict, a biochemist. They slowly drifted apart, however, and separated permanently in 930. To fill time, Ruth Benedict began taking classes in 99 at the New School for Social Research in New York City. Teachers there introduced her to Columbia University’s Franz Boas, the “grand old man” of anthropology. Benedict soon began studying anthropology full-time and earned her doctorate in 923. Columbia immediately hired her and, according to Current Biography, “eventually she became, next to Dr. Boas himself, the key figure in the Department of Anthropology.” Her teaching inspired such students as margaret mead, and her fieldwork among the Native Americans of the Southwest resulted in two books, Tales of the Cochiti Indians (93) and a two-volume work on Zuñi mythology (935). She also edited Journal of American Folklore between 925 and 940. Benedict came to believe that each culture forms a basic pattern into which it tries to integrate all the random details

of daily life. It honors only certain human traits, rejecting others that might be respected by other groups. Taken together, she said, the traits a culture honors form a sort of collective personality of that culture. She described these ideas in her best-known book, Patterns of Culture, published in 934. Benedict was one of the first to link culture and individual personality, combining findings from anthropology and psychology. Later scholars have doubted that a single cultural pattern dominates daily life as fully as Benedict suggested, but her book remained a popular introduction to anthropology for more than 25 years. Although still only an associate professor, a title she had been given in 93, Benedict became acting head of Columbia’s anthropology department after Franz Boas’s retirement in 936. In 940, when the belief that some races were superior to others was tearing the world apart, she published Race: Science and Politics to disprove this poisonous myth, which she called racism. “All the arguments are on the side of the Founding Fathers [of the United States], who urged no discrimination on the basis of race, creed, or color,” she wrote. The army’s Morale Division arranged for the distribution of 750,000 copies of The Races of Mankind, a pamphlet with the same message that she coauthored. Benedict worked for the Office of War Information in Washington, D.C., from 943 to 945, advising the agency about dealing with people in occupied and enemy territories. After the war she extended her idea of cultural patterns into a detailed study of Japanese culture, The Chrysanthemum and the Sword. Most Americans thought of Japan only as an enemy they had fought during World War II, but Benedict’s book, published in 946, helped them understand and respect the Japanese. In 947 the U.S. Office of Naval Research gave Columbia a grant to carry out research on contemporary cultures and chose Ruth Benedict to head this huge endeavor, the most ambitious anthropology project yet seen in the United States. She also served as president of the American Anthropological Association in 947–948. Most people in the field had considered Benedict the leading American anthropologist since Franz Boas’s death in 942, but Columbia waited until 948 to make her a full professor. Unfortunately, she did not have long to enjoy her new status. Benedict died of a heart attack on September 7, 948.

Benerito, Ruth Mary Roan
(96– ) American Chemist During her 43-year career as a chemist, Ruth Benerito has studied the caloric and fat content needed to keep



intravenously fed medical patients alive. She has also worked with the cotton textile industry to devise new ways to treat cotton fabric so that it will not easily soil or wrinkle. These projects have led to contributions in the analysis and production of fat emulsions, epoxides, metallic salts, and diepoxy compounds. Ruth Mary Roan was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, on January 22, 96, to John Edward Roan, a civil engineer and railroad executive, and Bernadette Elizardi, an artist. She was the third of six siblings and, from an early age, displayed an interest and talent for science and mathematics. She graduated from high school when she was 4. In 950, Roan married Frank H. Benerito. In 935, Benerito enrolled in Sophie Newcomb College, the women’s college of Tulane University in New Orleans. She completed her B.S in chemistry in three years and then spent a year in graduate chemistry studies at Bwyn Mawr in Pennsylvania. The difficulty of finding work during the depression forced her to return to New Orleans in 937. She managed to get a job as a science teacher at a New Orleans area high school and finished her master’s degree in chemistry at Tulane in 938. Benerito then secured a teaching job at Randolph-Macon Women’s College in Virginia in 940. She taught chemistry there until 943 when she returned to New Orleans to teach at Sophie Newcomb and Tulane. She was employed as a full-time teacher until 953. During this time, she studied for her Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, which she was awarded in 948. In 953, Benerito left full-time teaching to take a job with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). She was hired as a research chemist at the USDA’s Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC) in New Orleans, one of four such centers whose goal was to study and promote regional agricultural products. At the SRRC’s Oilseed Laboratory, Benerito was project leader of the Intravenous Fat Program and devised new ways to analyze proteins and fats in seeds such as peanuts, pecans, and cottonseed. This work led to suggestions about ways in which seeds could be treated so that they could be used to help in the intravenous feeding of medical patients. In 958, Benerito began a long involvement in research about ways to treat cotton fabrics when she took the job of research leader of the SRRC’s Physical Chemistry Research Group, Cotton Chemical Reactions Laboratory. Here Benerito worked on refining epoxides that would make cotton fabrics crease resistant when they dried. She later devised an epoxide that would keep cottons crease resistant when they were dry or wet. These discoveries enabled the cotton fabric industry to remain competitive with manufacturers of synthetic fabrics. During this and other work, Benerito was granted more than 50 patents, and she also continued to work as an adjunct professor of chemistry at Tulane University. In 964, she was awarded the Distinguished Service Award from the

USDA. In 968, she was given the Federal Women’s Award and the Southern Chemist Award, and in 970, she won the American Chemical Society’s Garvan Award. She retired from government service in 986 after a career as “an outstanding and inspiring teacher of chemistry, a brilliant research scientist, and an inspiring and untiring leader of research” (from the Southern Chemist Award citation). In 2002, Benerito received the Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award.

Bennett, Isobel Ida
(909– ) Australian Marine Biologist Isobel Bennett gained an international reputation as a marine biologist even though she lacked formal training and never achieved the status of professor at the University of Sydney, where she worked most of her life. She was born in Brisbane on July 9, 909, the oldest of four children. Her mother died when Isobel was nine years old; her family’s money ran out when she was just 6, and she had to leave school to earn a living. She worked at secretarial jobs, but in 932 the Great Depression caused the last of these to vanish. Refusing to let their spirits be dampened, Bennett and one of her sisters spent the remainder of their savings on a cruise to Norfolk Island. As luck had it, another passenger on the cruise was William J. Dakin, professor of zoology at the University of Sydney. Dakin became friends with the two young women and offered Isobel a job helping with his research on the history of whaling. Bennett took him up on the offer. Dakin’s specialty was marine biology, and Bennett too became interested in the subject. Dakin trained her and gave her increasingly challenging assignments. For instance, she became a regular crew member on the university’s research ship, Thistle, sorting through nets full of plankton (tiny, floating marine life) and later giving informal instruction to the students on the ship’s expeditions. She took on other jobs herself, such as cataloging and reorganizing the department’s library. “When she saw something that should be done, she simply did it,” wrote her biographer, Nessy Allen. In time Bennett became almost as expert as Dakin. Her specialty was the ecology of the intertidal area. She studied intertidal shore life in Australia and in Antarctica, which she was one of the first four Australian women scientists to visit. She wrote many scientific papers and nine books, some of which became widely used textbooks. The Great Barrier Reef, which she wrote after numerous expeditions there between 948 and 970, was the first book to give a general picture of the whole Great Barrier Reef. It was published in 97. The University of Sydney never paid Bennett what it would have paid someone with a graduate degree, even



though she did similar work. In 962, however, the university did award her an honorary master’s degree, and in 995 it awarded her an honorary doctor of science degree. Bennett also received other awards, including the Order of Australia and in 982 the Mueller Medal of the Australia and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science. She was only the second woman to receive the latter award. The Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales gave awards to two of her books, in 982 and 988. Although she officially retired in 97, Isobel Bennett was still working in 992 at the age of 83. Her peers have called her “one of Australia’s foremost marine scientists.” In 995, she received an honorary Doctor of Science (DSC [Hon]) from the University of Sydney. One genus and five species of marine animals and a coral reef have been named after her.

Berg, Paul
(926– ) American Biochemist Paul Berg placed his stamp indelibly on the history of science by pioneering the technology to create recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Berg received the 980 Nobel Prize in chemistry for this innovation, sharing the award with Frederick Sanger and walter gilbert, who worked with DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Berg was born on June 30, 926, in Brooklyn, New York, to Sarah Brodsky and Harry Berg, a clothing manufacturer. Berg grew up with two brothers. On September 3, 947, he married Mildred Levy, and together the couple had one son, John Alexander. World War II interrupted Berg’s study of biochemistry at Pennsylvania State University, as he served in the United States Navy from 943 through 946. He returned to his undergraduate work after the war and received a bachelor’s degree in 948. He went on to pursue a doctorate at Western Reserve University (now Case Western Reserve University), researching under a National Institutes of Health fellowship from 950 until 952, when he received a Ph.D. in biochemistry. Berg conducted postdoctoral work as an American Cancer Society research fellow at the Institute of Cytophysiology in Copenhagen, Denmark, under Herman kalcker from 952 to 953. He continued postdoctoral research the next year under arthur kornberg at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, where he remained as a scholar in cancer research from 954 through 957. Berg served as an assistant professor of microbiology at the Washington University School of Medicine from 956 to 959, when the Stanford University School of Medicine recruited him as a professor of biochemistry. At Stanford

Paul Berg, who received the 1980 Nobel Prize in chemistry for developing the technology to create recombinant DNA (Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries)

Berg served as a senior postdoctoral fellow of the National Science Foundation from 96 through 968. He acted as the chairman of Stanford’s Department of Biochemistry from 969 to 974; in 970 Stanford named him the Sam, Lula and Jack Willson Professor of Biochemistry. At Stanford, Berg conducted the pioneering research that led to the innovation of the techniques for splicing genes that became known as recombinant DNA technology. However, on the eve of performing an experiment injecting the recombinant DNA of monkey virus SV40 and a complementary bacteriophage into the common intestinal bacterium Escherichia coli, Berg realized that the all-pervasive nature of E. coli made the combination potentially highly volatile and halted his experiment. He then drafted a letter along with other prominent scientists warning the scientific community of the potential dangers of recombinant DNA technology if wielded unwisely. This missive, known as the “Berg letter,” was published in the July 26, 974, issue of Science, and it listed the recommendations arrived at by the group that Berg chaired, the Committee on Recombinant DNA Molecules Assembly of Life Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences. This prompted a meeting of 00 scientists from 6 countries that convened in Pacific Grove, California, on February 27, 975, to discuss professional standards for the handling of the recombinant DNA question. Federal regulations published by the National Institutes of Health in June 976 followed the guidelines set at this meeting. Besides the Nobel Prize, Berg received the 959 Eli Lilly Prize in biochemistry from the American Cancer Society and the 980 National Medal of Science. From 985 until 2000, Berg served as the director of the New Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine.



Since 99 he has been head of the National Institutes of Health’s Human Genome Project scientific advisory committee. From 994 to 2000, Berg was the Vivian k. and Robert W. Cahill Professor in Biochemistry and Cancer Research. In 2000 he became the emeritus Cahill Professor in Biochemistry and the emeritus Director of the Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine. Berg could be considered the father of the genetic engineering industry, which created new medicines and other chemicals but also created an ethical dilemma in terms of transforming the building blocks of life. He set an important precedent by questioning the implications of his own research, thereby prompting others to proceed into new scientific realms with caution.

Bergius, Friedrich
(884–949) German Chemist Friedrich Bergius received the Nobel Prize for discovering a method for converting coal into oil. This so-called Bergius process, which subjected coal to extremely high pressure, was further developed by German industry to provide resources for the German war effort during World War II. Bergius was also a pioneer in cellulose conversion and succeeded in breaking down wood into edible products. Unlike many of his contemporaries, Bergius was not a pure academician; he conducted most of his path-breaking experiments at the Goldschmidt Company, where he served as research director for 3 years. Bergius was born on October , 884, in Goldschmieden, Germany (now part of Poland), to Heinrich and Marie Hasse Bergius. Later in life Bergius would marry Ottilie kratzert, with whom he had three children. In 903 Bergius enrolled at the University of Breslau, where he studied chemistry and was awarded his doctorate four years later. He then served as an assistant to three renowned chemists—fritz haber, Walther Nernst, and Max Bodenstein. With Bodenstein, Bergius began to explore the uses of high pressure in certain chemical reactions and invented the leak-proof high-pressure apparatus that would figure prominently in his future work. Bergius accepted a professorship at the Technical University in Hanover in 909. At his own laboratory there he investigated the effects of high pressure in both the formation of coal from wood and the transformation of heavy oils into lighter ones. By 93 he was granted his first patent for his insight that adding hydrogen to petroleum to replace hydrogen lost during the refining process, would increase the yield of gasoline. But Bergius found it increasingly difficult to conduct his industrial-scale projects at the Goldschmidt Company in Essen. His position there

provided him with an industrial laboratory that could process up to 20 tons of petroleum per day. He remained at the company until 945. Bergius’s early years at the Goldschmidt Company were devoted to the problem of converting coal into oil. Recognizing that petroleum and coal differ only in their hydrogen content and molecular mass (petroleum has a higher hydrogen content and lower molecular mass), Bergius conceived the conversion process that bears his name. He heated a mixture of coal dust and heavy oil with hydrogen under high pressure in the presence of a catalyst composed of metallic sulfides. The coal took up the hydrogen—that is, became hydrogenated—and could be distilled to yield petroleum. Despite the profound implications of the Bergius process, he was thwarted in his efforts to continue his work after Germany’s defeat in World War I and subsequent economic and industrial collapse. Bergius sold the patent rights from his discovery to a large German company, Badische Anilin und Sodafabrik (BASF), in 926. Although he had not succeeded in making his conversion process economically feasible, BASF expanded his research, and by 928 the company had constructed a factory that produced gasoline from coal. Bergius then began to explore the possibility of creating edible products from wood. He found that treating wood with hydrochloric acid and water resulted in the breakdown of cellulose—the fundamental substance of wood and other plant material—into sugar. Throughout the 930s and 940s he perfected the hydrolysis (a chemical reaction whereby a substance reacts with water and is converted into other substances) of wood, and established in 943 a plant in Richau that was essential to the German war effort. Unable to find work in Germany after World War II, Bergius left the country. After a stint in Spain, he moved in 946 to Argentina, where he served as a scientific adviser to the Argentinean government until his death on March 30, 949. Bergius’s achievements were recognized in 93, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry (which he shared with carl bosch) for developing chemical highpressure methods. Bergius was also honored with the Liebig Medal of the German Chemical Society. His work provided the basis for both the coal hydrogenation and cellulose conversion industries. Unfortunately both of these processes helped provide essential resources for Nazi Germany.

Berkowitz, Joan B.
(93– ) American Physical Chemist Joan B. Berkowitz has made contributions to a number of research fields during her career as a physical chemist. In addition to her focus on environmental management and



hazardous waste, Berkowitz has investigated the thermodynamics of high-temperature vaporization, the electrochemistry of flames, and the oxidation of alloys. In 989, Berkowitz formed Farkas, Berkowitz, and Company, a consulting firm that specializes in environmental projects, including hazardous waste management. Born on March 3, 93, in Brooklyn, New York, Berkowitz displayed an independent and bright nature from an early age. Her father, Morris Berkowitz, was a salesman for the Englander Mattress Company. Her mother, Rose Gerber Berkowitz, was a housewife who became interested in women’s rights and suffrage. Influenced by her mother’s beliefs, Berkowitz determined by the age of 2 that she would pursue a career for herself. Berkowitz received a scholarship to attend Swarthmore College, and in 952, she graduated with a bachelor’s degree in chemistry. Though she hoped to pursue graduate studies in physical chemistry at Princeton University, where her boyfriend since high school was studying mathematics, Princeton’s chemistry department did not admit women at that time. Berkowitz thus attended the University of Illinois at Urbana. In 955, she received her Ph.D. in physical chemistry. After earning her doctorate, Berkowitz journeyed to Yale University to complete postdoctoral work from 955 to 957. Furthering her doctoral work on electrolytes, Berkowitz investigated polyelectrolytes and ionic solutions at Yale. She began working for Arthur D. Little, Inc., based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 957. Two years later, Berkowitz married her high school boyfriend, Arthur P. Mattuck. Mattuck had completed his studies and was a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The couple had one daughter. Berkowitz and Mattuck divorced in 977. At Arthur D. Little, Berkowitz worked in basic and applied research programs involving high-temperature chemistry and environmental science. She studied the kinetics of oxidation of transition metals, notably molybdenum, tungsten, and zirconium, and she also researched the properties, such as strength and hardness, and reactions of chromium-based alloys to high temperatures. As a result of these studies, Berkowitz developed reusable molds for castings from molybdenum and tungsten. She obtained a patent for these molds, which were later used in space programs to make vehicles. Though Berkowitz made contributions to the space program, she also investigated environmental issues. One of her projects involved the study of the processes used for cleaning coal in power plant boilers. Berkowitz investigated the effects of these processes on particulate emissions. She also looked into problems involving limestone injection wet scrubbing. During her long career at Arthur D. Little, Berkowitz was involved with numerous outside organizations. From 

963 to 968, she was an adjunct professor of chemistry at Boston University. Beginning in 972, Berkowitz focused more heavily on environmental issues and hazardous waste. She played a role in the production of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s first report on hazardous waste and in 975 served on a team evaluating physical, chemical, and biological methods used for treating hazardous wastes. In 980, Berkowitz was promoted to vice president at Arthur D. Little. Berkowitz left Arthur D. Little and moved to Washington, D.C., in 986, to head Risk Science International. In 989, Berkowitz cofounded Farkas, Berkowitz, and Company, with Allen Farkas. Berkowitz has been very active in the chemical and environmental communities. She is a member of the American Chemical Society, the Electrochemical Society, the Air Pollution Control Association, and the American Institute of Chemists. Berkowitz also served as president of the Electrochemical Society, making her the first female president of the organization, from 979 to 980. For her pioneering work, Berkowitz received the Achievement Award of the Society of Women Engineers in 985.

Bernard, Claude
(83–878) French Physiologist Claude Bernard first intended to distinguish himself as a writer, but a literary critic persuaded him to pursue a stable career first as a safety net, so Bernard chose medicine. Bernard never practiced medicine but distinguished himself through physiological experimentation. He focused his attention on the digestive and vascular systems, making important discoveries on the strength of his objective detachment combined with his ability to see beyond accepted theories. When his health flagged near the end of his life, he devoted himself to the philosophy of science, setting out the key principles of scientific experimentation and hypothesis. Bernard honored his modest roots by returning for the yearly grape harvest to his home near the village of St.Julien, in the Beaujolais region of France, where he was born on July 2, 83. His parents, Pierre Françis Bernard and Jeanne Saulnier, were vineyard workers. Bernard shifted the course of his life toward academia through determination and even through calculation. After he failed to earn teaching credentials with the Faculty of Medicine in Paris in 844, he entered into an unhappy marriage with Fanny Martin for her dowry, which enabled him to continue his beloved experiments. This union yielded three children—a son who died in infancy and two daughters, Jeanne-Henriette and Marie-Claude.



Bernard entered the world of medicine when an apothecary named Millet hired the 9-year-old as an apprentice in his pharmacy in Vaise, a suburb of Lyons. After Bernard’s aborted attempt at literature, he passed the baccalaureate in 834 to enter the Faculty of Medicine in Paris. In 839 he entered an internship under Pierre Rayer at the Charité, one of Paris’s municipal hospitals. He received his M.D. in Paris on December 7, 843; that same year saw his first publication, “Recherches anatomiques et physiologiques sur la corde du tympan.” On March 7, 853, he received his doctorate in zoology from the Sorbonne on the strength of his thesis, “Recherches sur une nouvelle fonction du foie.” In the decade between these two events Bernard made a series of significant contributions to medicine with his physiological experiments. Françis Magandie served as Bernard’s mentor in the laboratory from 84 through 844 and from 847 through 852, when Magandie retired from both his academic chair and his laboratory, both of which Bernard inherited. Bernard’s discoveries advanced the understanding of the digestive and vascular systems. At the time doctors believed that digestion occurred primarily in the stomach; Bernard discovered that it occurred primarily in the small intestine. He discovered that pancreatic secretions break down fat molecules into fatty acid and glycerin. He also determined that the digestive system is anabolic as well as catabolic; in other words, it both breaks down complex molecules into simpler ones and builds complex molecules out of simpler ones. An example of the latter would be glycogen, a starchlike substance that Bernard discovered in 856, which the liver produces from sugars and stores as carbohydrates to be broken back down into sugars when necessary. One of Bernard’s vascular discoveries involves the climate-controlling mechanisms of the vasomotor system, which dilates and constricts blood vessels on the skin’s surface to heat or cool the body. As Bernard’s failing health kept him out of the laboratory, he shifted his focus to the philosophy of science; he published An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine in 865. In 869 he was elected to the French Academy. Bernard died on February 0, 878, in Paris, France.

Daniel Bernoulli, who provided the theoretical framework used to establish the modern science of hydrodynamics (Smith Collection, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania)

Bernoulli, Daniel
(700–782) Swiss Mathematician, Physicist Over four generations the Bernoulli family produced  important mathematicians. Daniel Bernoulli was one of the most significant thinkers in his family, affecting the history of science by providing the theoretical foundation for the establishment of the modern science of hydrodynamics. The cornerstone of this new branch of science

was Bernoulli’s principle, which holds that the pressure in a fluid decreases as its velocity increases. Bernoulli also contributed to the understanding of medicine, mathematics, and the natural sciences, as he held chairs in these disciplines throughout his career. Daniel Bernoulli was born on February 8, 700, in Groningen, Netherlands, the second son of Johann I. Bernoulli and Dorothea Falkner Bernoulli, daughter of the patrician Daniel Falkner. The inherent brilliance of the family created competition, expressed in bitterness between father and son. On the eve of Daniel’s 738 publication of his influential tract Hydrodynamica his father, Johann, published a competing text, Hydraulica, which he predated to 737 in order to undercut his son’s achievement. Johann I and Nikolaus II, Daniel’s older brother, served as Daniel’s early mathematics teachers. In 73 Daniel commenced studying philosophy and logic, and in 75 he passed his baccalaureate. After earning his master’s degree a year later he embarked on the study of medicine at a series of universities—first in Basel, then in Heidelberg in 78, and in Strasbourg in 79, before returning to Basel in 720. In 72 he earned his doctorate with the dissertation “De respiratione.” In 724 Bernoulli published his work on differential equations and the physics of water flow, Exercitatio-


nes quaedam mathematicae, which prompted a job offer from St. Petersburg, where he remained for eight years. Throughout this period he applied for professorships at the University of Basel without success until 733, when he received a joint appointment in anatomy and botany. A decade later he exchanged these chairs for one in physiology, which he preferred, and in 750 he exchanged that for one in physics, which he filled until 776. In Hydrodynamica Bernoulli discussed the relationships among the properties of pressure, density, and velocity in flowing fluid. He also set the groundwork for a kinetic theory of gases, asserting that an increase in temperature leads to a corresponding increase in molecular pressure and motion, assuming that molecules are in constant but random motion. Bernoulli’s contributions to science and mathematics earned him 0 prizes from the Paris Academy of Sciences between 725 and 749, with papers on subjects as various as astronomy, gravity, magnetism, navigation, and oceanology. The academy awarded the 734 prize jointly to father and son for their tandem work on planetary orbits. Believing that he alone deserved the honor, Johann I reportedly threw Daniel out of the Bernoulli house. Bernoulli assured himself a place in the history of science by utilizing for the first time Leibniz’s calculus to solve Newtonian scientific problems. Bernoulli died on March 7, 782, in Basel, Switzerland.

Bernstein, Dorothy Lewis
(94–988) American Mathematician Mathematician Dorothy Lewis Bernstein’s research involved a mathematical function known as the Laplace transform. Named after French mathematician and astronomer Pierre-Simon de Laplace, the function had applications in the solving of partial differential equations and in operational calculus. Bernstein was also an educator and did much to advance the relatively new field of computer science, particularly as it applied to mathematics. She was a firm believer in the practical application of mathematics. Bernstein was born on April , 94, in Chicago, Illinois. Her parents, Jacob and Tillie Bernstein, were Russian immigrants. Bernstein spent the bulk of her childhood in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. She began attending the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 930. A bright and dedicated student, Bernstein earned both her bachelor’s and master’s degrees in 934 after passing an oral examination and completing her thesis, which dealt with the complex roots of polynomials. She graduated summa cum laude. After earning her degrees, Bernstein stayed at the University of Wisconsin for an additional year, during which

she worked as a teaching fellow. She was then awarded a scholarship to pursue her doctorate in mathematics at Brown University, located in Rhode Island. Bernstein faced a rather unsupportive crowd at Brown. Not only were her teaching responsibilities limited to only three female students, but Bernstein was counseled by a dean to avoid searching for teaching positions in certain areas of the United States because of her religion (Jewish) and her gender. In addition, Bernstein’s doctoral examination was particularly demanding. Her adviser later told her that the degree of difficulty was prompted by Bernstein’s gender and her education—universities in the East did not feel Midwestern schools lived up to their standards. Despite the hardships, Bernstein managed to acquire a teaching position at Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts, where she taught from 937 to 940. In 939, Bernstein earned her Ph.D. from Brown with a dissertation on the Laplace transform. After teaching at Mount Holyoke, she traveled across the country, gaining valuable training on the education of mathematics students. Bernstein taught at the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 94 then worked as a research associate at the University of California at Berkeley during the summer of 942. In 943, she secured a teaching position at the University of Rochester in New York and was promoted to assistant professor in 946. It was at Rochester that Bernstein became more involved with computers. She undertook a research project investigating digital computers and their abilities to process massive amounts of data at high speeds to perform difficult mathematical problems. The project, which was affiliated with the Office of Naval Research, resulted in Bernstein’s 950 publication of Existence Theorems in Partial Differential Equations. Bernstein remained at the University of Rochester until 957. By that point, she had become a full professor. She journeyed to the University of California in Los Angeles as a visiting professor from 957 to 958, and in 959, she was offered a professorship at Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland. During her 20 years at Goucher, Bernstein built a strong mathematics department and was instrumental in adding applied mathematics and computer science to the undergraduate curriculum. She was also responsible for establishing an internship program for students majoring in math. Bernstein was the chair of the department from 960 to 970 and the director of the computer center from 96 to 967. A strong advocate for computer science, Bernstein lobbied for the instruction of computer programming and computer use in mathematics classes at high schools. This work was conducted through her involvement with the National Science Foundation. She also helped found the Maryland Association for Educational Use of Computers in 972. Bernstein became the first female president of the Mathematical Association of America in 979 and was also involved with the American Mathematical Society and the



Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Bernstein retired from Goucher in 979 and died in 988.

Bertozzi, Andrea
(965– ) American Mathematician Andrea Bertozzi is a mathematician who is known for her interdisciplinary work with computer scientists, physicists, and engineers. Much of her work has, in one way or another, examined the behavior of thin liquid films on hard surfaces. In tandem with physicists and engineers, she has worked at the Argonne National Laboratory and at Duke University constructing mathematical models that explain this and other physical phenomena. Born in 965, in Boston, Massachusetts, to William and Norma Bertozzi, Andrea was encouraged by both of her parents to study and attend university. Her father, a professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, encouraged her to pursue her interest in the sciences. In 99, she married Bradley koetje, a management consultant. Bertozzi knew from an early age that she was interested in mathematics. Even in the first grade, she was captivated by the rudimentary math that was being taught and

Mathematician Andrea Bertozzi, who is known for her work with computer scientists, physicists, and engineers, shown here with Tupper, a male Samoyed (Andrea Bertozzi)

pushed to learn more. By high school, she had begun to learn advanced math and was concentrating on theory and abstract concepts, which she found to be the most interesting part of mathematics. After graduating from high school in Lexington, Massachusetts, in 983, Bertozzi enrolled in Princeton University to study mathematics. She also studied a considerable amount of physics, although she took no degree in that subject. She earned her B.A. in math in 987 and remained at Princeton to complete an M.S. in 988 and a Ph.D. in 99. After completing her Ph.D., Bertozzi took a position as L. E. Dickson Instructor of Mathematics at the University of Chicago. At Chicago, Bertozzi first became interested in the mathematics of thin films. She began working with a group of physicists who were studying mathematical models that described the behavior of phenomena that were similar to thin films. Gradually, the problem centered specifically on a mathematical description of liquids flowing on a solid surface. This was an area of mathematics that had not received much attention but had been researched by physicists since the 960s. Bertozzi remained at the University of Chicago until 995 when she was offered the position of associate professor at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. Then during 995–96, she worked at the Argonne National Laboratory, located outside of Chicago in Argonne, Illinois. Here, as a maria goeppert mayer Distinguished Scholar, she continued her work in the field of scientific computing, which she had begun at the University of Chicago. The purpose of scientific computing is to create computer models that simulate physical processes on the computer. In this way, virtual experiments that can mimic actual physical conditions are created. At Argonne, Bertozzi continued her study of the mathematical-physical properties of thin liquids on dry surfaces. This problem, which seems relatively simple, is actually complicated. A liquid applied to a dry surface will not spread evenly but will pool and spread onto the surface in fingerlike rivulets. Bertozzi worked on a set of partial differential equations, also called evolution equations because this kind of math describes an event occurring over time, that fit a model for film-coating behavior into mathematical terms. This work, although basic research, may someday be helpful for industries such as the microchip-manufacturing sector, which needs to understand this coating process in making their complicated and delicate product. After her year at the Argonne Lab, Bertozzi returned to her job as associate professor of mathematics at Duke University in 996. In 998, she became associate professor of mathematics and physics, and in 999, she became a full professor in both disciplines. Currently, she is director of Duke’s Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, an interdisciplinary research center that includes scientists from the disciplines of math, biology, engineering, medi-


cal sciences, and environmental studies. In addition to her studies of thin films on hard surfaces, Bertozzi works in more general problems of fluid dynamics. Bertozzi was recognized for her work by the Sloan Foundation, which awarded her a research fellowship in 995. In 996, she was presented the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers by the U.S. Office of Naval Research. Cambridge University Press published her book, coauthored with Andrew Majda, Vorticity and Incompressible Flow, in 2000.

Berzelius, Jöns Jakob
(779–848) Swedish Chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius helped structure and advance chemistry into the modern era. He left his indelible mark on the field by instituting the symbology combining abbreviations of elements with numerical subscripts, a system that revealed his synthesis of electrochemistry with the atomic theory. He identified the atomic weights of all but four of the elements known at the time, and he and his assistants added to the list of known elements by discovering cerium, selenium, lithium, thorium, silicon, vanadium, and several lanthanides, as well as pyruvic acid. Much of his work has proved foundational to further chemical studies, such as the use of selenium in television transmission and silicon in computer hardware and software. Berzelius was born on August 20 or 29, 779, near Linköping at Väversunda in Sweden. His father was a clergyman and schoolmaster who died, along with his mother, when Berzelius was young; relatives raised the boy thereafter. In 796, he entered the University of Uppsala to study medicine, but he discovered chemistry while researching the dubious therapeutic effects of galvanism for his dissertation. He earned his M.D. in 802 but distinguished himself the next year with his first of innumerable contributions to the field of chemistry when he discovered a new element, cerium, while working in an unpaid position at the Caroline Medico-Chirugical Institute in Stockholm. He did not abandon medicine, donating his expertise to care for the poor over the next several years. In 807, the surgical institute promoted Berzelius to a professorship of medicine, botany, and pharmacy. The next year, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences inducted him into its fellowship, and he split his time between the two institutions for the majority of his career. Also in 808, he collaborated with M. M. Pontin to discover ammonium amalgam and to introduce the mercury cathode. In 8, he published a paper introducing his Latinate nomenclature to the field of chemistry, combining one- and two-letter symbols for the elements with numer-

ical subscripts corresponding to the number of atoms in the molecule—this system remains in use to this day. In 85, the surgical institute recognized Berzelius’s contributions to the field of chemistry by appointing him a professor of chemistry. He continued his comprehensive investigation of the elements, discovering another new one, the photoconductive chemical selenium, in 87. By the next year, he had personally determined the atomic weight of 39 of the 49 elements known at the time, with his assistants ascertaining another six of the elements. One of his assistants, J. A. Arfwedson, discovered yet another new element, lithium, in 88. That year, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences appointed Berzelius as its permanent secretary. Throughout his researches, Berzelius was developing a new theory synthesizing electrochemistry, or the use of electrolysis in chemical investigations, with the atomic theory. He expounded this theory in his 89 Essay on Chemical Proportions, a work that also introduced to chemistry the notion of dualism—the division of all compounds into positive and negative components (though this belief later proved inaccurate.) In 82, he published his first annual survey of significant advances in chemistry, a tradition he maintained until 848. Berzelius’ contributions to the field of chemistry were diverse and prodigious. Among other things, he introduced the term protein to the scientific vocabulary, discovered the existence of isomers, identified the catalysis phenomenon, and proposed the theory of radicals (the notion that stable atoms combine into molecules by binding radicals, or unconnected atoms.) He continued to identify new elements, discovering silicon in 824, and thorium in 829; the next year, his assistant, N. G. Sefström discovered vanadium. In 832, Berzelius retired from his post at the surgical institute to devote himself to the academy. Upon his marriage in 835, Charles XIV John, king of Sweden and Norway, named him a baron. Although some of his beliefs proved untenable, such as his application of his dualistic theory to organic substances, and his adamant claim that chlorine was not an element, his contributions to the field of chemistry far outweigh his misjudgments. His masterwork, the Textbook of Chemistry, was considered the definitive work on the field in his time, and was translated into six different languages (not including English, unfortunately). He died on August 7, 848, in Stockholm.

Best, Charles Herbert
(899–978) American/Canadian Medical Researcher Charles Best collaborated with frederick g. banting in identifying insulin as a diabetes-stabilizing substance.



This discovery radically transformed the lives of diabetics, extending their life-expectancy and improving their quality of life significantly. Best also conducted important research on choline, identifying its ability to reduce fat accumulation in the liver, as well as promoting the use of heparin as an anticoagulant, and the use of histaminase as an anti-allergen. Charles Herbert Best was born on February 27, 899, in West Pembroke, Maine, a border town straddling New Brunswick, Canada. Both his mother, Luella Fisher, and his father, the doctor Herbert Huestes Best, who practiced on both sides of the border, originally hailed from Nova Scotia. World War I interrupted Best’s liberal arts study at the University of Toronto, as he served as a sergeant in the Canadian Tank Corps (qualifying him for Canadian citizenship). Upon his return to the university, Best financed his pre-med course of study by playing baseball professionally. In 92, J. J. R. Macleod, Best’s physiology professor, sponsored Frederick Banting’s experiments on pancreatic extracts as diabetes regulators. To determine which of two students would serve as Banting’s assistant, Macleod flipped a coin—Best won the coin toss. On May 7, 92, the same day Best finished the examinations for his bachelor of arts degree in physiology and biochemistry (which he earned with honors), he commenced on experiments as Banting’s assistant. This line of research resonated with Best, as he had lost his paternal aunt (who lived with his family) to diabetes only three years earlier. Following up on the 30-year-old discovery by Oscar von Mering and Joseph Minkowski that dogs deprived of their pancreas developed diabetes, Banting conceived of an experiment to induce atrophy in the pancreas of a dog, from which to prepare an extract for injection into a pancreas-deficient, diabetic dog. Banting hypothesized that secretions from the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, devoid of the digestive enzyme trypsin that destroyed the stabilizing effects of the pancreas on blood sugar levels, would counteract diabetes. After overcoming obstacles, the pair of researchers removed one dog’s atrophied pancreas, chopped it up, ground it in a cold mortar, mixed it with salt water, filtered it through cheesecloth, then injected this extract into the diabetic dog. The dog’s blood-sugar level dropped from 0.2 to 0.2, representing a qualified success. In September, Macleod returned from his summer vacation to suggest ways to improve the experiment; he also hired biochemist J. B. Collip to purify the extract chemically. Best and Banting published their initial results in an article entitled “The Internal Secretion of the Pancreas” in the February 922 edition of the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. The month before, Best and Banting had injected Collip’s purified extract into themselves to test for side effects; finding none, they injected

this insulin (Latinate for “island,” after the islets of Langerhans) into Leonard Thompson, a 4-year-old diabetic degenerating toward certain death. The boy’s health improved, and he lived another 3 years, dying in 935 not of diabetes but of pneumonia contracted after a motorcycle accident. Best continued to work toward his master of arts degree, which he received in 922. At the same time, recognition of the profound significance of Best and Banting’s discovery showered upon the scientists, as they essentially extended the life span of diabetics while also allowing them to live more normal lives. In 923, while Best was delivering an address to Harvard medical students, word arrived of that year’s Nobel Prize winners for medicine or physiology: the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences granted the prestigious award to Banting and Macleod. Soon thereafter, a telegram arrived from Banting, who expressed fury that Best had been overlooked and promised to share not only credit but also his prize money equally with Best. Macleod, who also considered the accomplishment collaborative, shared his prize money with Collip. In 924, Best married Margaret Mahon, a historian and botanist, and the couple eventually had two sons. In 925, the University of Toronto granted Best his medical degree, as well as the Ellen Mickle Fellowship, awarded to the graduate with the highest standing in the medical course. The next year, he traveled to England for two years of postgraduate research under Sir Henry Dale, earning his doctorate from the University of London in 928. While there, Best discovered the anti-allergic enzyme histaminase. The year before, Best had returned to the University of Toronto to take up the directorship of the department of physiological hygiene. Two years later, in 929, when Macleod retired, Best assumed the chairmanship of the physiology department as well. Over the next decade, Best discovered the “lipotropic” function of the choline, the ability of this component of lecithin to prevent fat accumulation in the liver. He also investigated the anticoagulating effects of heparin and organized Canadian efforts to supply dried blood serum to Allied wounded in World War II. In 94, the Canadian Navy appointed him director of its medical research unit. That year, when Banting died in a plane crash in Newfoundland, Best assumed the directorship of the department of medical research that the University of Toronto named after this pair of scientists in the wake of their landmark discovery of insulin, a post he retained for the remainder of his career. From 948 through 949, he presided over the American Diabetes Foundation; thereafter, he remained honorary president of this organization as well as of the International Diabetes Foundation. In 953, the International Union of Physiological Sciences named him its first president. That same year, the University of



Toronto named a new medical research building the Best Institute. Best retired in 965, and the next year, a group of his friends purchased and donated his parents’ Maine house to the American Diabetes Association for use as a museum. Best died at Toronto General Hospital on March 3, 978, several days after he ruptured an abdominal blood vessel upon hearing of his son’s fatal heart attack.

Bethe, Hans Albrecht
(906–2005) German/American Physicist Hans Bethe established his significance in the history of science after his flight from Nazi Germany, where he was persecuted because of his Jewish ancestry. In 936 he worked with colleagues to create a summary of nuclear physics that became known as “Bethe’s Bible,” essential reading for physics graduate students. In 938 he reluctantly agreed to write a paper for an astrophysics conference, then summarily solved the problem of astral energy production. During World War II he helped develop the atomic bomb, as part of the Manhattan Project, an experience that prompted him to promote the necessity of social responsibility in science. Bethe was born on July 2, 906, in Strassburg, Germany (now Strasbourg, France), to Albrecht Theodore Julius Bethe, a lecturer in physiology at the University of Strassburg, and Anna kuhn, the daughter of a professor. Bethe met his future wife, Rose Ewald, while working at the Technical College of Stuttgart under her father, Paul Ewald, who invited his protégé into his home for dinners. The Ewalds also emigrated from Germany, and Rose was attending Smith College when she reconnected with Bethe. The couple married on September 4, 939, and had two children, Henry and Monica. In 924 Bethe entered the University of Frankfurt, and in 926 he moved to the University of Munich, where he earned a doctorate in theoretical physics in 928. Under Arnold Sommerfeld he wrote his dissertation on the theory of electron diffraction. Over the next three years Bethe held teaching positions at his undergraduate and graduate universities; he also visited Cambridge University on a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship and worked with enrico fermi in Rome. In 932 the University of Tübingen appointed Bethe as an assistant professor. Over the next year he exchanged knowledge with Hans Geiger, the inventor of the Geiger counter, until the university dismissed Bethe for his Jewish heritage and Geiger dissolved their friendship. After a short stint in exile at the Universities of Manchester and Bristol in Britain, Bethe landed an assistant professorship at Cornell University. In 937 he

After serving as a member of the Manhattan Project during World War II, Hans Bethe became an advocate for social responsibility in science. (Photograph by Roy Bishop, Acadia University, courtesy AIP Emilio Sergè Visual Archives)

earned the title of full professor at the university, where he remained until his 975 retirement. Bethe found himself explaining theoretical physics not only to students, but also to Cornell’s physics faculty. Bethe, recognizing the lack of publications discussing the basics of nuclear physics, enlisted the help of Robert F Bacher, M. Stanley Livingston, and his former gradu. ate adviser, Arnold Sommerfeld, to write a series of three articles in 936 and 937 that together functioned as a primer on the subject. Two years later george gamow and edward teller coerced Bethe to present a paper at their Washington, D.C., astrophysics conference. In a short six weeks he discovered how massive stars generate energy by a six-stage process known as the carbon cycle, whereby a carbon-2 atom reacts with four hydrogen nuclei successively and releases energy in creating a helium nucleus along with the original carbon atom. Physical Review published this paper, “Energy Production in Stars,” on the first page of a 939 issue. On the basis of this work Bethe received the 967 Nobel Prize in physics. In 94 Bethe gained U.S. citizenship and subsequently contributed to America’s military efforts in World War II by working on the development of radar at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he invented the Bethe coupler to measure increased electromagnetic wave activity. Bethe then traveled to Los Alamos, New Mexico, as



a member of the Manhattan Project, in which he headed the Theoretical Physics Division. After contributing to the building of the atomic bombs, Bethe devoted his efforts to educating his profession and the general public about the destructive capabilities of nuclear power. Toward this end he helped launch The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist. Besides the Nobel Prize, Bethe received a 946 Presidential Medal of Merit, the 955 Max Planck Medal of the German Physical Society, and the 96 Enrico Fermi Award from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. As a professor emeritus, Bethe maintained an office at Cornell and continued to educate the public on both social and scientific issues.

Bilger, Leonora Neuffer
(893–975) American Chemist In a career that spanned 48 years, Leonora Neuffer Bilger built a reputation as a gifted teacher of chemistry and an able administrator of the University of Hawaii’s chemistry department. She also contributed to the understanding of nitrogen compounds by her decades-long work studying these substances. Born on February 3, 893, in Boston, Massachusetts, Leonora Neuffer Bilger was the daughter of George and Elizabeth Neuffer. Around the turn of the century, the family moved to the booming industrial river town of Cincinnati, Ohio. Neuffer attended primary and secondary schools in Cincinnati, and in 909, she enrolled as an undergraduate in chemistry at the University of Cincinnati. She earned her B.A. in 93, a master’s degree in chemistry from the University of Cincinnati in 94, and a Ph.D. from the same institution in 96 for her study of hydroxylamines and hydroxamic acids. After attaining her doctorate, she took the position of professor and chair of the chemistry department of Sweet Briar College in Virginia in 96. Neuffer stayed at Sweet Briar for two years before returning to the University of Cincinnati to join that institution’s faculty of chemistry. At Cincinnati, she directed chemical research at the university’s basic chemistry laboratory. In 924, Neuffer won the Sarah Berliner Fellowship to further her study of asymmetric nitrogen compounds at Cambridge University in England. She remained in England for a year. On her return, she took a two-year leave of absence from the University of Cincinnati to serve as a visiting professor at the University of Hawaii. When she returned to Cincinnati, she married Earl M. Bilger, another member of Cincinnati’s chemistry department faculty. In 929, she and her husband accepted permanent positions at Hawaii’s department of chemistry.

The study of nitrogen compounds continued to occupy Leonora Neuffer Bilger’s time in Hawaii, but she also became increasingly involved as a teacher and administrator. In 943, she was made head of the chemistry department at Hawaii; she would remain as department head until 954. In the late 940s, the University of Hawaii decided that it needed to build a new chemistry laboratory to replace its small and aging structure. Because of her competence and her experience as head of research at the University of Cincinnati’s chemical laboratory, Bilger was chosen by the faculty as the lead consultant in this project. To see what sorts of facilities other universities had and to gather information about cutting-edge laboratory design from other chemists, Bilger visited 25 chemical laboratories around the United States. She used this knowledge to work with the project architects to design a 70,000-square-foot, $.5-million facility that was opened for staff and students in 95. The building, Bilger stated, would “provide an environment that arouses the enthusiasm of large numbers of students and research workers” (Journal of Chemical Education). This structure was eventually named after her. For her lifetime of teaching, administration, and research, Leonora Neuffer Bilger was awarded the American Chemical Society’s Garvan Award in 953, the same year she was also appointed senior professor at the University of Hawaii. Bilger remained senior professor until 958 and was professor emerita from 960 to 964. She died on February 9, 975, at the age of 82.

Binet, Alfred
(857–9) French Psychologist Alfred Binet instituted the first intelligence tests, though his original conception differs radically from how his ideas were applied by others. Binet considered intelligence too complex to be captured by a single number, as it would be impossible to take into account many unquantifiable factors. Binet, in collaboration with Théodore Simon, devised the Binet-Simon Intelligence Test specifically to identify students who developed en retarde, or “late,” which translated as “retarded,” a term that has taken on a negative connotation absent from the original French word. This kind of bastardization exemplifies the misapplication of Binet’s work, which survives now in the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test. Binet specifically opposed Wilhelm Wundt’s notion of an intelligence quotient, though Binet’s name is associated with IQ. More correctly, Binet can be seen as a precursor to jean piaget’s developmental psychology. Binet was born on July 8 (or ), 857, in Nice, France. His parents divorced when he was young, and


his mother, who was an artist, raised her only child. After he graduated from the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris, his father tried to persuade him to follow in the family tradition by becoming a physician, so Binet studied medicine briefly before switching to law for his degree. However, law did not hold Binet’s interest either, and he began independently studying the psychological works of Bain, Sully, and especially John Stuart Mill’s theory of associationism (or environmentalism—the belief that environment dictates psychology) at the Bibliothéque Nationale. In 880, he started publishing papers in his adopted field, bringing him to the attention of the neurologist Jean Martin Charcot, director of the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, who met Binet in 883 and invited him to work at the hospital. There, Binet investigated hypnosis, hysteria, and abnormal psychology, as well as the more dubious fields of phrenology (the study of skulls to discern character traits) and physiognomy (the belief in a direct correlation between animal-appearance and psychology). However, Binet soon became disillusioned with Charcot’s lack of scientific integrity. In 884, Binet married Laure Balbiani, daughter of the embryologist E. G. Balbiani, who invited his new sonin-law to work in his laboratory at the College de France. There, Binet conducted research for his doctoral dissertation, which he wrote on various aspects of insects, such as their behavior, physiology, histology, and anatomy. Also important to Binet’s later research was the birth of his two daughters, Madeline and Alice, as he later based his psychological theories on his play with them. Recognition of the significance of Binet’s research came early in his career, as the French Academy of Moral and Political Sciences named him a lauréat, granting him a ,000-franc prize in 887 (a significant sum at that time). In 89, he met Dr. Henri Beaunis, who offered him a position at the Sorbonne’s laboratory of physiological psychology despite their disagreement over the validity of hypnosis—perhaps because the independently wealthy Binet did not require a salary. By 894, Binet became codirector of the lab, ascending to the director’s position in 895. That year, he and Beaunis cofounded L’Année Psychologique, the first French psychological journal, which he edited from 897 until his death. He also sat on the board of the American journal, Psychological Review. Binet’s most significant research commenced when he took on Théodore Simon as a doctoral student. In the fall of 904, the French government appointed Binet to a ministerial commission in conjunction with a new law requiring universal education for all French children, a regulation that raised the question of how to identify students who developed en retarde, or later than most students. While conducting casual “research” on his two daughters, he realized the correlation between attention span and the progression of intellectual stages,

and he devised sets of tasks appropriate to progressive developmental stages that could predict slow intellectual maturation. In 905, Binet and Simon established a pedagogical laboratory, testing about 50 “normal” children of different ages, as well as about 45 “subnormal” children. He gave each group about 30 simple tasks to perform: if threequarters of the children of the same age successfully completed a task, it was considered age-appropriate. Binet and Simon developed a “Test of Intelligence,” whereby they would introduce students to tasks appropriate to one year younger than their age; if the students passed this test, Binet and Simon would administer the tasks appropriate to their own age to see if the students’s intellectual development was on par with their age. If students could not perform the tasks appropriate to two years younger than their own age, they were considered en retarde, in need of further surveillance and evaluation. Binet and Simon first published what became known as the Binet-Simon Intelligence Test in 905 and followed up with revisions in 908 and 9. Their test was adopted almost universally, except, interestingly enough, in France, where Binet’s work was largely ignored. Unfortunately, the Binet-Simon test was also almost universally misapplied, as many failed to heed Binet’s caveats: that test scores were to be used in practical matters only; that there was no proposed theory of intellect underlying the test; and that the test was meant to discover mild retardation in children, not rate differences in “normal” children. The validity of the test became bastardized when evaluators disregarded these distinctions. Binet published prolifically throughout his career, and wrote several important books in his later period: L’étude expérimentale de l’intelligence (The Experimental Study of Intelligence), published in 903; Les enfants anormaux (Abnormal Children), published in 907; and Les idées sur les enfants (Modern Ideas About Children), published in 909. Binet died relatively young, on October 8, 9, in Paris. In 96, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test was instituted, and has become a standard test. However, the fact that Binet was not alive to oversee the application of his ideas to practice resulted in their gross misinterpretation.

Binnig, Gerd
(947– ) German Physicist Gerd Binnig shared the 986 Nobel Prize in physics with heinrich rohrer as coinventor of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), a mechanism that allowed the examination of individual atoms on the surface of solids. This pair also shared the prize with Ernst Rohrer, who—some



55 years earlier—had invented the electron microscope, the most powerful microscope until the advent of the STM. Binnig was 39 years old at the time he won. Binnig was born on July 20, 947, in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. His parents were Ruth Bracke, a drafter, and karl Franz Binnig, a machine engineer. Binnig studied at Offenbach and at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt, where he received his Ph.D. in 978. At Goethe University Binnig met Lore Wagler, who was studying to become a psychologist, and the couple married in 969. Together they had two children—a daughter, born in 984, and a son, born in the United States in 986. Immediately upon receiving his doctorate, Binnig went to work for International Business Machines (IBM) in the company’s Zurich Research Laboratories, located in Rüschlikon, Switzerland. There he teamed up with Rohrer, who had been working with IBM for 5 years, and together they began to consider the surface of solids at an atomic level, a topic that still perplexed scientists. Binnig

and Rohrer hit upon the idea of applying the quantum theory of tunneling that had been experimentally verified by Ivar Giaever in 960 to the study of solid surfaces. Tunneling is the quantum phenomenon whereby atoms on the surface of a solid escape to form a kind of cloud hovering above the surface; when another surface approaches, the two atomic clouds overlap and tunneling, or an atomic exchange back and forth, occurs. Binnig and Rohrer applied this phenomenon to their research by attaching a tungsten conducting probe to an instrument that would move the tip of the probe, which was the width of a single atom, into close enough proximity to the surface of the solid to induce tunneling. Since the magnitude of the flow of electrons depended on the distance of the tip from the surface, the mechanism could maintain a constant distance as it scanned the surface, thereby allowing for computerized mapping of the surface of the solid. The STM could achieve a vertical resolution of 0. angstrom, or /30 the size of a single atom, and a horizontal resolution of 6 angstroms. By 98 Binnig and Rohrer had constructed the first STM, and with it Binnig was the first person to observe a virus escaping a cell. In 984 IBM promoted Binnig to the position of group leader and subsequently appointed him as an IBM Fellow. In 985 Binnig took a leave from IBM to conduct research at Stanford University, where he helped develop the atomic force microscope (AFM) along with Calvin Quate and his IBM colleague Christoph Gerber. The AFM expanded upon the uses of the STM, allowing for the microscopic examination of materials that did not conduct electricity. As an innovator of both the STM and the AFM, Binnig was one of the foremost figures in microscopy in the 20th century. In 990, Binnig joined the Supervisory Board of the Daimler Benz Holding.

Birman, Joan S.
(927– ) American Mathematician Joan Birman fell in love with patterns early in life, later focusing her mathematical research on knot and braid theory. Birman appreciated the beauty of these lowdimensional topologies, likening them to art, but she also developed the practical applications of knot theory in collaboration with biologists, who utilized her work to determine the knotted structures of DNA. Birman was born on May 30, 927. As first-generation Americans, her parents instilled in Birman and her three sisters a strong work ethic, especially in education, which they believed to be the key to personal betterment. Birman’s love of patterns developed at an early age: Instead of playing games with marbles, she marveled over the swirl

Gerd Binnig, who was 39 years old when he won the 1986 Nobel Prize in physics (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives)



of patterns inside the globes as they rolled; and when her mother sewed her plaid skirts, Birman matched the patterns together seamlessly. In elementary school, the addition and multiplication of odd numbers peaked her mathematical inquisitiveness as she tried to anticipate if the answer would be odd or even. She loved high school geometry, competing with her fellow students at the all-girls school she attended to solve theorems, but college calculus confused her, as it did not require the same kind of spatial visualization as geometry. She attended Barnard College of Columbia University, earning her B.A. in 948. She remained at the university for graduate study, earning her M.S. in physics in 950. Birman utilized her expertise as a systems analyst in the aircraft industry and at Stevens Institute of Technology for several years before devoting her life to parenting, as she raised three children. In 96, she recommenced her education with part-time doctoral work. She studied at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences of New York University under Wilhelm Magnus. This was long before nontraditional students gained credence, but the fact that Birman was an older woman did not faze Magnus: He took his student seriously, encouraging her to pave the way for women to become research mathematicians. Birman earned her Ph.D. in 968. Birman returned to teach at her alma mater, and she chaired the department of mathematics at Barnard College from 973 through 99, with a two-year break from 987 through 989. She was honored with a Sloan Foundation Fellowship from 974 through 976 as well as a Guggenheim Fellowship in 994 through 995. She also spent time as a Visiting Member at the prestigious Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, and then she returned to her professorship at Barnard. Since 998 she has been research professor emeritus at Barnard. Birman’s publications have made a strong impact on her field. Her book, Braids, Links, and Mapping Class Groups, is an influential text, and her article “New Points in View of knot Theory,” which appeared in the April 993 edition of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, earned her the 995 Chauvenet Prize in expository writing from the Mathematical Association of America. She has also delivered lectures in 3 countries, notably at the 990 meeting of the International Congress of Mathematicians in kyoto, Japan, when she discussed the work of Vaughan Jones. Also in 990, Birman used her personal funds to establish the Ruth Lyttle Satter Prize in Mathematics in memory of her sister, who was a research botanist at the University of Connecticut. The American Mathematical Society awards the $4,000 prize every two years to a woman who made an outstanding contribution to the mathematical research in the previous five years. margaret dusa mcduff received the first prize in 99, and 

993 recipient lai-sang young served on the selection committee that chose 995 recipient sun-young alice chang. In honor of Birman’s 70th birthday, Barnard College and Columbia University hosted a Conference in Low-Dimensional Topology in 998, featuring Vaughan Jones as a speaker, among others. Outside of mathematics, Birman enjoys cooking, which she finds not only relaxing but also inspirational to her mathematical creativity.

Bishop, Katharine Scott
(889–975) American Physician Working in the male-dominated field of medical research at a time when few women had professional pursuits, katharine Scott Bishop enjoyed many accomplishments during her career. Best known for codiscovering vitamin E and identifying its critical role in biological reproduction, Bishop also practiced medicine and worked as an anesthesiologist and educator. Born katharine Scott on June 23, 889, in New York City, Bishop was the daughter of Walter and katherine Emma Scott. After completing her studies at the Latin School in Somerville, Massachusetts, she attended Wellesley College. Bishop earned her undergraduate degree from Wellesley in 90 and proceeded to enroll in premedical classes at Radcliffe College. She then attended Johns Hopkins Medical School and was awarded her medical degree in 95. After earning her medical degree, Bishop journeyed to California to teach histology, the study of the microscopic structure of animal and plant tissues, at the University of California Medical School from 95 to 923. In addition to her teaching, Bishop conducted research with Herbert McLean Evans, an anatomist. Together the researchers discovered and investigated vitamin E in 922, originally referring to it as substance X. The substance was found to play a vital role in the ability for rats to reproduce—a discovery the scientists made when they successfully deprived rats of substance X. Vitamin E is mostly found in foods of plant origin and is a fat-soluble vitamin. The body is unable to produce vitamin E, and thus an outside dietary source is needed, which Bishop and Evans recognized during their extensive research. The discovery of vitamin E by Bishop and Evans led to further studies of the important class of vitamins that later came to be known as antioxidants. This group of substances also includes vitamin C and beta carotene, or vitamin A. Bishop and Evans published their findings in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 923 in a joint article entitled “Existence of a Hitherto-Unknown Dietary Factor Essential for Reproduction.” Evans continued to



work with the substance, and later, in 935, Evans and other researchers succeeded in isolating vitamin E and the actual factor, called tocopherol, responsible for reproduction. Bishop, meanwhile, married attorney Tyndall Bishop and had a position as a histopathologist at the George William Hooper Institute of Medical Research in San Francisco from 924 to 929. During this period, Bishop published a number of articles on physiology and histology. Bishop chose to focus on raising her two daughters during the 930s. She also spent two years at the University of California Medical School studying public health. In the mid-930s, her husband grew ill, and Bishop practiced general medicine and anesthesiology to support the family. She also worked as an anesthesiologist at St. Luke’s Hospital in San Francisco. After the death of Tyndall Bishop in 938, Bishop accepted a position at Alta Bates Hospital in Berkeley, California, in 940. An active member of the medical community, Bishop belonged to several professional organizations, including the American Association of Anatomists, the Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. She practiced medicine at Alta Bates Hospital until her retirement in 953. Bishop spent her remaining years at her home in Berkeley. She died on September 20, 975.

Blackburn, Elizabeth Helen
(948– ) Australian/American Molecular Biologist A renowned molecular biologist and biochemist, Elizabeth H. Blackburn is best known for her discovery of telomerase, an enzyme needed for the reproductive process of chromosomes. Blackburn’s studies significantly advanced the scientific community’s understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and her work with telomerase has opened the doors to new research, particularly in regard to cancer research and gerontology studies. Born on November 26, 948, in Hobart, Australia, Blackburn developed an interest in medicine and biology at an early age. She was no doubt inspired by her physician parents, Harold and Marcia (Jack) Blackburn. Blackburn attended the University of Melbourne and earned her B.S. degree in 970. She received her master’s degree a year later. Blackburn then left her native Australia to pursue a doctorate at Cambridge University in England. She earned her Ph.D. in molecular biology in 975 with a dissertation on the sequencing of nucleic acids. With her doctorate in hand, Blackburn traveled to the United States. She began a fellowship in biology at Yale University in 975, the same year she married American biologist John Sedat. Blackburn had met Sedat at Cam-

bridge, where Sedat had been conducting postdoctoral research in biology. At Yale, Blackburn investigated the structure and replication of chromosomes and began to work with telomeres, which are found at the ends of chromosomes and help stabilize gene cells. Blackburn left Yale in 977 and moved to California to work as a research fellow at the University of California, San Francisco. A year later, she was offered a position as assistant professor at the University of California, Berkeley. Continuing her investigations of telomeres, Blackburn observed a connection between the size of a telomere and the capacity of a chromosome to divide and replicate. Through continued efforts, she discovered that cells carried out a process to replace missing telomeres, without which gene cells could not survive. In particular, in 985, Blackburn and her graduate assistant, Carol W. Greider, succeeded in isolating telomerase, the enzyme responsible for synthesizing new telomeres, thus helping chromosomes to replicate. Telomerase also regulates the length of telomeres. Blackburn’s findings made the creation of artificial telomeres and chromosomes possible, greatly advancing genetic research. In 986, Blackburn became a full professor at the University of California, Berkeley. Four years later, in 990, she became a professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, as well as in Biochemistry and Biophysics, at the University of California, San Francisco. From 993 to 999, she was chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, the first female to hold this distinguished position. In 2004 she held the position of Morris Herzstein Professor of Biology and Physiology in the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco. During these years, Blackburn continued her research on telomeres and telomerase. In 990, Blackburn and several of her students published a paper on the effects of defective telomerase. Faulty telomerase causes telomeres to shrink, which in turn affects genetic reproduction. These findings had applications in cancer research, as cancer cells possess markedly long telomeres. Blackburn and Greider published Telomeres (Monograph 29), a book of essays on telomeres, in 995. Blackburn has received much recognition for her pioneering work on telomeres. In 988, she was awarded the Eli Lilly Award for Microbiology, and in 990, she received the National Academy of Science’s Molecular Biology Award. Three years later, Blackburn was elected a foreign associate of the National Academy of Science. She was given an honorary doctorate from Yale University in 99, and in 992, she was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London. In 999 she was chosen the California Scientist of the Year. In 2000 she won both the American Association for Cancer Research—G.H.A. Clowes Memorial Award and the American Cancer Society Medal of Honor. Her numerous other awards include the General Motors



Cancer Research Foundation Alfred P. Sloan Award in 200 and the Dr. A. H. Heineken Prize for Medicine in 2004. Though committed to her career, Blackburn’s priorities are balanced between work and family life, which includes Sedat and their son. Blackburn discussed the importance of motherhood and family in the on-line article, “Balancing Family and Career: One Way That Worked.”

Blackwell, Elizabeth
(82–90) British/American Physician With her graduation from medical school in 849, Elizabeth Blackwell began a nearly 40-year career in medicine, a sojourn that was remarkable not only for the energy and dedication of its practitioner but also because Blackwell was the first licensed woman M.D. in the Western world. Blocked at nearly every point in her early career by male doctors who could not accept a woman in their ranks, Blackwell carved out a niche for herself and other women physicians in what had been an all-male profession. Blackwell was born in Bristol, England, in 82 into a family of religious activists and social reformers. Her father, Samuel Blackwell, was a wealthy sugar refiner and Dissenter, that is, a member of one of the several Protestant sects that had arisen in England in the 8th and 9th centuries whose views opposed those of the established Church of England. Blackwell’s mother, Hannah Lane Blackwell, was also a supporter of social reform and Dissenter religious belief. Because Samuel Blackwell strongly believed that women should receive the same education as men, he engaged private tutors to teach all 2 of his children. Elizabeth received an excellent classical education in England until a fire at Samuel Blackwell’s refinery compelled the family to move to the United States in 832. Blackwell, who set up another sugar refinery in New York, was able to continue his children’s first-class education in that city. Eventually, not only Elizabeth but her sisters Anna, Ellen, and Emily earned university degrees. Emily would eventually follow in Elizabeth’s footsteps by becoming a medical doctor. When Elizabeth was 7, a financial panic bankrupted her father’s New York business, and again the family moved, this time to Cincinnati, Ohio. Samuel Blackwell died soon after the move to Cincinnati, and Elizabeth was forced to work as a teacher in a boarding school founded by her sisters. After several years of teaching in Cincinnati and western kentucky, Blackwell decided to apply for medical school. According to comments she made in her autobiography, Pioneering Work in Opening the Medical Profession to Women, she “hated everything connected with the body, and could not bear the sight of a medical book.”

Elizabeth Blackwell became the first licensed female medical doctor in the Western world when she graduated from medical school in 1849. (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health)

She was rejected by Harvard, Yale, and numerous other colleges before finally being accepted at Geneva College in upstate New York, mainly because the acceptance committee thought her application was a prank. When she arrived in 847, the teachers were startled but kept to their word, and she was admitted. Blackwell performed well at Geneva College. In 848, she served a year’s residency at Philadelphia Hospital, an institution serving mainly the poor in Philadelphia. Here, according to Blackwell, “the young resident physicians, unlike their chief, were not friendly. When I walked in, they walked out.” Blackwell persevered and was awarded a degree in 849. From 849 to 85, she went to Europe to further her medical education. On her return to the United States in 85, Blackwell began lecturing about medicine and hygiene on the abolitionist and suffragist circuit that had been established by some of the reformers who had been friends of her father’s when she was a child living in New York. A group of Quaker women who were active in this circle offered financial aid, and in 853, Blackwell was able to open a clinic for poor women and children. Blackwell, along with Polish immigrant physician marie zakrzewska and Blackwell’s



younger sister Emily, staffed the clinic. The cases were those common to the urban poor—typhus, cholera, food poisoning, as well as other common ailments such as broken bones, cancer, and infections. By 868, Blackwell had managed to add a medical college, the Women’s Medical College of the New York Infirmary, to the clinic. It would be a major training hospital for future generations of women physicians. In 869, one year after having established Women’s Medical College, Blackwell returned to England to live and work. She established a successful practice there but, as she got older, gradually moved into retirement in the Scottish Highlands. Blackwell not only personally broke the gender barrier in Western medicine but was influential in training successive generations of women physicians to continue the revolution she had charted. By founding the New York Infirmary, she also challenged other doctors to become engaged in bringing medical services to the poor, a struggle she continued almost until her death at the age of 89 in 90. Hers was a legacy of social activism and personal commitment that has flowered into organizations such as Doctors Without Borders and other engaged medical groups.

Blagg, Mary Adela
(858–944) British Astronomer Mary Blagg played an instrumental role in the standardization of lunar nomenclature in the early 20th century. A self-taught astronomer, Blagg pursued knowledge in astronomy and the sciences until she became an accepted and skilled astronomer and an expert on the nomenclature of lunar formations. Blagg was a member of the subcommittee of the International Astronomical Union and worked on gathering and standardizing lunar terminology. She made significant advances in astronomy during a time when few women were accepted as professionals in scientific communities. Born in 858 in Cheadle, North Staffordshire, in England, Blagg grew up in privileged circumstances. Blagg’s father worked as a lawyer, and Blagg attended a private boarding school in London. Education and higher learning were not customarily pursued by women during those times, and women of Blagg’s circumstance and background generally pursued worthy causes. Blagg followed convention, but she also yearned to educate herself further, and she studied her brother’s textbooks to teach herself mathematics. Her curious and inquisitive nature drew her to the sciences, and further individual studies provided Blagg with a competent grasp of the basics of astronomy. Blagg decided to continue studying astronomy after attending a lecture given by J. A. Hardcastle, a British

astronomer. Blagg became involved with the Council of the International Association of Academies and the International Astronomical Union beginning in the early 900s. A committee delegated with the task of standardizing lunar nomenclature was formed in 907 by the Council of the International Association of Academies. The standardization of this nomenclature was necessary for scientists to locate, study, and discuss unique and specific features of planets or satellites. The committee was not successful in publishing a report explaining lunar nomenclature because of a series of deaths of committee members. Fortunately, however, Mary Blagg, a committee member, had managed to make considerable progress. In 99, the International Astronomical Union was formed at a meeting in Brussels. The organization was established to regulate planetary and satellite nomenclature. During the 99 meeting, a new committee was established and assigned the task of standardizing lunar and Martian nomenclatures. Mary Blagg and a number of other astronomers were appointed to this committee and began work on the development of a standard for lunar nomenclature. The committee was headed by astronomer H. H. Turner. During this period, Blagg worked as an assistant to Turner, who was investigating variable stars, stars that had variable brightness because of inner changes or the occasional concealment of mutually revolving stars. Together Blagg and Turner published a series of 0 papers detailing their work, which greatly furthered astronomers’ understanding of variable stars. In 935, the nomenclature committee published its report, Named Lunar Formations, which was coauthored by Blagg and k. Muller. The report was the first orderly listing of lunar nomenclature. Blagg made significant contributions to astronomy while working with Turner. In addition to assisting him with his study of variable stars and working on lunar nomenclature, Blagg also discovered new elements for a number of stars, including Lyrae, RT Cygni, V Cassiopeiae, and U Persei. She also investigated light waves, greatly furthering the work of other astronomers on the subject. Mary Blagg was respected by her peers for her knowledge and dedication, and she was awarded for her outstanding work by the Royal Astronomical Society, which elected her a member. Her skills and avid interest in astronomy allowed Blagg to work with the best astronomers of her day. After Blagg’s death in 944, a lunar crater was named in her honor.

Bloch, Felix
(905–983) Swiss/American Physicist Recipient of the 952 Nobel Prize in physics, Felix Bloch was recognized for the development of nuclear induction,



also referred to as nuclear magnetic resonance, which allowed for the measurement of the magnetic fields of atomic nuclei. Though these techniques were initially developed to uncover the magnetic moment of the proton and neutron, they contributed greatly to physics and chemistry and were later used to analyze the structure of large molecules. Bloch also made numerous advances in the field of solid-state physics. Born on October 23, 905, in Zurich, Switzerland, to Agnes Mayer and Gustav Bloch, a grain merchant, the younger Bloch showed an early interest in mathematics and astronomy. He married the physicist Lore C. Misch, the German-born daughter of a professor, in 940, and the couple had four children. Because of his propensity for the sciences Bloch’s family encouraged him to enter the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to study engineering. Bloch matriculated in 924, and soon he became interested in physics. Bloch graduated in 927 and continued his education at the University of Leipzig. There he studied under werner karl heisenberg, one of the founders of quantum mechanics. Bloch received his doctorate in physics in 928. His doctoral dissertation presented a study of the quantum mechanics of solids that significantly extended the understanding of electrical conduction. After earning his doctorate, Bloch studied and conducted research at a variety of institutions, including the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands and the University of Copenhagen, where he worked with niels hendrik david bohr. Bloch traveled to the United States after the rise of Adolf Hitler and took a position at California’s Stanford University. Before Bloch became interested in studying the neutron, he had already made many advancements in theoretical physics. With the Bloch-Fouquet theorem he detailed the structure of wave functions for electrons in a crystal. The theorem later became useful for physicists studying the nature of metals. Bloch also worked on the quantum theory of the electromagnetic field. After he began teaching at Stanford, he set out to investigate the magnetic moment of the neutron, the existence of which had been announced in 933 by otto stern. In 934 Bloch suggested that proof of the neutron’s magnetic moment could be found by splitting a beam of neutrons into two sections that related to polarized neutron beams. Bloch and his collaborator luis walter alvarez from the University of California at Berkeley used this technique to measure the neutron’s magnetic moment in 939. After a period during which Bloch worked on atomic energy in New Mexico and countermeasure radar research at Harvard University, he returned to Stanford University and developed the method of nuclear induction with the physicists William W. Hansen and Martin Packard. The technique, which was based on the principle of magnetic resonance, helped determine the relationship between

Felix Bloch, who won the 1952 Nobel Prize in physics for the development of nuclear induction, which allows for the measurement of the magnetic field of atomic nuclei (Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries)

nuclear magnetic fields and the magnetic and crystalline properties of assorted materials. Bloch’s method enabled scientists to investigate nuclear particles thoroughly and to measure the nuclear magnetic moment of an individual nucleus accurately. For his outstanding contribution to physics Bloch received the Nobel Prize in physics in 952, an award he shared with edward mills purcell, who had simultaneously discovered a nearly identical technique. The technique later became known as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and enjoyed a wide range of applications not only in physics and chemistry but also in such fields as diagnostic medicine. After 955 Bloch continued his studies of NMR and also researched superconductivity. He retired from Stanford University in 97 and became professor emeritus. Bloch was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 948 and also served as a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.



Blodgett, Katharine Burr
(898–979) American Physicist The first woman to win a Ph.D. from Cambridge University and the first woman research scientist at General Electric Corporation (GE) were one and the same person: katharine Burr Blodgett, one of American’s trailblazing women physicists. At General Electric, Blodgett developed nonreflecting glass for cameras and perfected methods for applying and measuring extremely thin surface films. Born on January 0, 898, in Schenectady, New York, Blodgett was the daughter of George Bedington Blodgett, a lawyer who was the head of GE’s patent department, and katharine Buchanen Blodgett. George Blodgett died before katharine’s birth, and Mrs. Blodgett moved katharine and her older brother to New York City, then France, where Blodgett learned to speak, read, and write in French. For her secondary education, Blodgett returned to New York City to attend the private Rayson School run by three English sisters. She did so well at Rayson that she won a scholarship to attend Bryn Mawr, a women’s college in Pennsylvania. There, under the tutelage of two inspiring professors—Charlotte Scott in math and James Barnes in physics—Blodgett graduated second in her class in 97 with a degree in physics. During a visit to GE’s plant and headquarters while she was still an undergraduate, Blodgett met and befriended Irving Langmuir, the future Nobel laureate and one of GE’s principal research scientists. Langmuir advised Blodgett, who was hoping for employment at GE’s labs after graduation, to seek postgraduate education. This Blodgett did by earning an M.S. from the University of Chicago in 98 for her study of the gas absorption potential of coconut charcoals, research with direct application to the development of gas masks to counter poison gas attacks during World War I. Langmuir was sufficiently impressed with Blodgett’s skill and dedication to hire her immediately as his assistant at GE. For the first several years they worked on improvements to GE’s electric lightbulbs. Blodgett was lucky to find work in a place where her father had, in a manner, paved her way. “It was virtually impossible,” she said later, “for women scientists to find professional-level jobs at corporations at that time.” But because Blodgett was personally known to many GE executives, she was allowed to work there. No one at GE would ever regret this decision. In 924, Blodgett won a place as a physics doctoral student at Sir Ernest Rutherford’s Cavendish Laboratory, one of the most prestigious centers of scientific learning in the world. Her doctoral dissertation was about the behavior of electrons in ionized mercury vapor. In 926, with Ph.D. in hand, Blodgett returned to GE to begin work on the study of surface chemistry, a subject that would occupy her attention for much of the rest of her career. She succeeded in

Katharine Burr Blodgett (center), the first female research scientist at General Electric Corporation and the first woman to earn a Ph.D. from Cambridge University, which she did in 1926 (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Physics Today Collection)

finding a technique to apply superthin layers, or films, of fatty acids, from four to 44 molecules thick, to the surface of metals. She noticed that these films gave off different colors at different thicknesses. To vastly simplify the measurement of layer thickness, she devised a gauge that would read the film’s color, thus decoding its thickness to onemillionth of an inch (approximately 4.4 molecules thick). Later she applied this technology to developing nonreflective glass, which was achieved by laying an adhesive soapy film 44 molecules thick (four-millionths of an inch) onto a glass lens surface. The thickness was exactly the length of one-quarter of a wave of light and prevented light refraction, which was the cause of reflection. The invention was used for improved camera and motion projection lenses. Blodgett won many awards for her work during her career. The American Association of University Women gave her its Achievement Award in 944. She also won the American Chemical Society’s Garvan Award in 95 and the Photographic Society of America’s Progress Medal in 972. At her death in 979, one of her coworkers, Vincent J. Shaefer, recalled that “the methods she developed have become classical tools of the science and technology of surfaces and films. She will be long—and rightly—hailed for the simplicity, elegance, and the definitive way in which she presented them to the world.”

Blum, Lenore Epstein
(942– ) American Mathematician A mathematical researcher, Lenore Blum has also been active in promoting women mathematicians and encouraging women to enter mathematics and computer sciences.


She has also been an inspiring teacher of mathematics and a committed administrator who has led several university mathematics departments. In her field, Blum is mainly known for her work with computational mathematics, a mix of math and logic whose goal is to better understand and describe mathematically theoretical problems posed by the structure of computing devices. Born in 942 in New York City, Blum lived in her home city for only nine years before she moved with her family to Caracas, Venezuela, where her father had taken a job. One of two siblings, she was an intellectually precocious child who was encouraged to study by both parents, but especially by her mother who was a schoolteacher. In Caracas, Blum briefly attended a Spanish-language Venezuelan school but then transferred to the American School, which is a private institution. Because the tuition was expensive at the American School, Blum’s mother arranged to take a job there as a teacher to pay for her daughters’ education. Blum graduated from high school early and, at age 6, returned to the United States to enroll in the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh. In high school, Blum had been interested in art and mathematics. At Carnegie Institute, she intended to join these two pursuits in the study of architecture. Blum majored in architecture for two years but, missing the purity of pure mathematical exploration, decided to switch to mathematics as a major. In 960, when she was 8 and a college junior, Blum married Manuel Blum, then a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). To be with her husband, she transferred to Simmons College, a women’s college in Boston. Here she continued her study of mathematics, but finding that Simmons did not offer advanced math, she began taking classes in advanced algebra at MIT. After graduation from Simmons in 962, Blum enrolled in MIT’s graduate school and became interested in new approaches to some of the preexisting problems of algebra. Picking up on work done by several other mathematicians, Blum began using new techniques of logic in mathematical solutions. She followed this approach to complete her Ph.D. in mathematics, which she earned from MIT in 970. After completing her doctorate, Blum moved to the University of California at Berkeley to study with the logician Julia Robinson. While working at Berkeley on a postdoctoral fellowship, she became involved in efforts to push for more tenured positions for women mathematicians at American universities. She was an early activist in the newly formed Association of Women in Mathematics. Blum became the third president of this organization in the mid-970s. In 973, Blum was appointed lecturer of mathematics at Mills College, a San Francisco area women’s college. She helped redesign Mills College’s mathematics program,

eventually becoming head of the department and a full professor of mathematics. She remained at Mills College until 986. In 988, Blum was hired as a research scientist at the International Computer Science Institute, a San Francisco area think tank. From 992 to 997, she was deputy director of the University of California at Berkeley’s Mathematics Sciences Research Institute. Blum has been honored for her work in mathematics with a Letts-Villard Research Professorship at Mills College. She also presented a paper at the 990 International Congress of Mathematicians, and she has served as vice president of the American Mathematics Society. Currently, Blum is professor of mathematics at Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Boden, Margaret
(936– ) British Psychologist Margaret Boden has popularized the idea that the computer programming involved in so-called artificial intelligence (AI) can explain much about how the human mind works. She was born on November 26, 936, to a lower-middle-class British family. “I’d never expected to go to university,” she told the reporter Celia kitzinger in 992. “Neither of my parents did.” Nonetheless she won a scholarship to prestigious Cambridge University in 955. She found Cambridge “like being born anew. . . . So many doors opened—intellectual doors, social doors, cultural doors.” Boden studied medicine and philosophy at Cambridge, but she was not happy with her postgraduate experience of working with mental patients and teaching philosophy (from 959 to 962 she was a lecturer in philosophy at the University of Birmingham). Soon after entering Harvard University in 962 to work on a doctorate in social and cognitive psychology she happened to pick up a book, Plans and the Structure of Behavior. “Just leafing through it in the bookshop . . . change[d] my life,” she recalls. “It was the first book that tried . . . to apply the notion of a . . . computer program to the whole of psychology.” This idea struck her “like a flash of lightning.” Boden’s doctoral thesis considered how the idea of intention or purpose for actions was applied in various theories of psychology and how it could be understood in terms of actions taken by a computer. This thesis grew into her first book, Purposive Explanation in Psychology, published in 972. She says that book contained all her basic ideas and that her later, more popular books are mere “footnotes” to it. In 965 Boden began teaching at Sussex University. She married two years later (she divorced in 98)



and soon had two young children. She wrote her first two books in snatches while they napped. Her second book, Artificial Intelligence and Natural Man (977), used comparisons drawn from subjects including knitting and baking to explain the complex computer programming involved in artificial intelligence and show how it could be used to explore human thinking. She followed this book with one about the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, first published in 979, which discussed his ideas about biology and philosophy as well as his famous theories about children’s psychological development. She related his ideas to AI and, in the book’s second edition, to artificial life (A-Life). Boden’s fourth major book, published in 990, was The Creative Mind. It extended the links between computer programs and human thinking into the realm of creativity. Boden maintained that insights into human creativity can be gained by studying the results of attempts to program computers to be creative. Boden edited two important books in the 990s—Dimensions of Creativity, published in 994, and The Philosophy of Artificial Life, which came out in 996. As of 2004 Boden, a fellow of the British Academy and of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, was research professor of cognitive science at the University of Sussex, where in 987 she had become the founding dean of the School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences. The department’s interdisciplinary courses echo her own ability to combine insights from many disciplines. “I’m interested in the human mind, not computers,” she emphasizes, “but I use computers as a way of thinking about the mind.”

Bodley, Rachel Littler
(83–888) American Chemist and Botanist Educated in chemistry and botany, Rachel Bodley devoted a large part of her career to teaching chemistry to female medical students. Later, she moved into administration and used her position to champion the importance of training women to be doctors. In 88, she compiled one of the first studies that tracked the careers of female graduates of an American medical school, a work that was later published as a pamphlet entitled The College Story. The third of five children, Rachel Bodley was born in 83 to Anthony Bodley and Rebecca Talbot Bodley of Cincinnati, Ohio. Her father was a carpenter, and her mother was a teacher who ran a private school in Cincinnati. The fact that both of Bodley’s parents worked was an unusual arrangement for the time and may have inspired Bodley to later break social taboos by pursuing a career in science. Bodley began her education at her mother’s school and continued it at Wesleyan Female College in Cincin-

nati, the first chartered college for women in the United States, from which she received a diploma in 849. Upon graduation from Wesleyan, Bodley taught science there for  years. In 860, she studied advanced chemistry and physics for two years at Polytechnic College in Philadelphia while simultaneously studying anatomy and physiology at the Female Medical College in the same city. Bodley returned to Cincinnati to continue her teaching career, serving as an instructor of natural sciences at the Cincinnati Female Seminary. In 865, she moved back to Philadelphia where she was named as the first professor of chemistry at the Female Medical College, later renamed Woman’s Medical College. After teaching for nine years, Bodley was appointed dean of the school in 874, a position she held until her sudden death by heart attack in 888. Despite her heavy load as a teacher and administrator, Bodley found time to work on botany studies, a discipline that had been one of her loves since childhood. In Cincinnati, and later in Philadelphia, she added to the botanical knowledge of North American plant species by collecting and classifying local flora. Bodley also devoted considerable effort to community work outside the domain of the Female Medical College. She served on secondary school boards in Philadelphia twice (882–85 and 887–88) and was appointed an outside inspector of Philadelphia’s charitable institutions by the Pennsylvania Board of State Charities in 883. Although Bodley was not a leader in the advancement of theoretical or experimental knowledge in chemistry or botany, numerous institutions recognized her contributions to science and the education of women in scientific and medical disciplines. In 87, she was inducted as a member into the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and in 876, she was made a corresponding member of the New York Academy of Sciences and a charter member of the American Chemical Society. She was also awarded an honorary M.D. degree by the Female Medical College in 879, and in 880, she became a member of the Franklin Institute located in Philadelphia. During her lifetime, several of her lectures were published and distributed nationwide. Through her teaching, lecturing, and engagement in scientific societies, Bodley demonstrated that women had the potential to play as valuable a role as men in the scientific endeavor.

Bohr, Niels Henrik David
(885–962) Danish Physicist The study of physics was transformed from its classical model to a new model founded on quantum theory based



on the bold hypothesizing of scientists such as Niels Bohr. Bohr supported his courageous theorizing with careful experimentation, confirming his hunches with physical evidence. He used planetary orbiting as a model for his atomic theory, with electrons circling the nucleus of an atom. Bohr later proposed the liquid drop as a metaphor to visualize atomic motion. The Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded Bohr the 922 Nobel Prize in physics for his pioneering work in the quantum mechanics of atomic structure. Bohr was born on October 7, 885, in Copenhagen, Denmark, to Christian Bohr, a professor of physiology at the University of Copenhagen, and Ellen Adler Bohr, the daughter of the prominent Danish banker D. B. Adler. Bohr married Margrethe Nørlund on August , 92, and the couple had six sons—Hans, Erik, Aage, and Ernst, as well as two others who died young. Aage accompanied his father to Los Alamos, New Mexico, to conduct research on the atomic bomb. Aage won the 975 Nobel Prize in physics jointly with Ben R. Mottelson and James Rainwater essentially for explicating his father’s nuclear model. In 903 Bohr entered the University of Copenhagen. In 907 he received not only his B.S. in physics but also a gold medal from the Royal Danish Academy of Science for his research on the surface tension of water, as in the vibration of a jet stream. In 909 Bohr earned an M.S. in physics and in 9 a doctorate. His doctoral thesis explored the electron theory of metals. In 9 Bohr left Denmark to conduct research in the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University under J. J. Thomson but soon realized that ernest rutherford would be a better mentor, so he transferred to Victoria University in Manchester in 92; he was a lecturer in physics there between 94 and 96. Bohr then returned to the University of Copenhagen, which had established a chair of theoretical physics for him. In 920 he became the director of the Institute for Theoretical Physics (later named after him), a position he held until his death. As of 92 atomic physicists realized that electrons orbited the nucleus of an atom; however, the process in which this occurred could not be understood in the terms of classical principles of physics. Bohr attempted a novel approach to solving this problem by applying Johann Balmer’s mathematical formula for representing the spectral lines of hydrogen atoms. This formula hedged on two integers whose significance remained a mystery. Bohr simply hypothesized that the integers represented orbital paths where the classical laws of physics were suspended, and some other laws, namely, quantum physics, governed the motion. The hypothesis had no theoretical foundation other than the fact that it worked when tested. After his experience on the Manhattan Project, Bohr dedicated himself to lobbying for the sane use of nuclear

Niels Bohr, shown here with his mother, was awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize in physics for his work in the quantum mechanics of atomic structure. (Niels Bohr Archive, courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives)

energy by organizing the first Atoms for Peace Conference in Geneva in 955. In 957 he won the first Atoms for Peace Award, adding this to his list of other prestigious awards, which included the 922 Nobel Prize in physics, the 926 Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute, the 930 Max Planck Medal of the German Physical Society, and the 930 Faraday Medal of the Chemical Society of London. Bohr died on November 8, 962, in Copenhagen.

Boivin, Marie-Anne-Victoire Gallain
(773–84) French Physician A midwife by training, Marie Boivin came to be regarded as the most knowledgeable European obstetrician and gynecologist of the early 800s in spite of the fact that she was denied entrance into medical school in France because of her gender. Undeterred, Boivin, under the tutelage of her mentor marie-louise lachapelle, taught herself the techniques of birth delivery and became an expert on the diseases of the female reproductive organs. She wrote numerous books and pamphlets within her medical discipline, several of which were considered the leading texts in her field even through the mid-9th century. Marie-Anne-Victoire Gallain was born on April 9, 773, in the small town of Montreuil, which was near the royal palace of Versailles in northern France. There



is little information about her father, mother, or siblings other than the fact that Boivin lived with a sister, who ran a hospital in Estampes, a small town near Paris, during the French Revolution. With the end of the revolution, she returned to Montreuil and in 797, at the age of 24, married Louis Boivin, a government bureaucrat. She gave birth to a daughter in 798 and was widowed that same year. To earn a living, Boivin apprenticed herself to the well-known midwife Marie-Louise Lachapelle at the Hospice de la Maternité in Paris. She received a degree in midwifery in 800 and helped Lachapelle set up a formal school of midwifery at the hospice. Boivin then practiced her trade for a year in Versailles until the death of her daughter prompted her to return to Paris and the Hospice de la Maternité. Boivin remained at the Maternité as supervisor-in-chief until 8 when she and Lachapelle had a falling out over the publication of Boivin’s first book, Mémorial de l’art des accouchements (“About the Art of Childbirth”), a case textbook for midwives. L’art des accouchements was lavishly illustrated with more than a hundred precise drawings that showed the various possible positions of the fetus in the womb. Accompanying text detailed the symptoms to be aware of and course of action to take for each. Boivin originally had not considered her illustrations suitable for publication (she considered them too shockingly blunt for the general public), but François Chaussier, the directing physician at the Maternité, insisted that they be included. Because no such work had been written in Europe since 688, there was great need for Boivin’s book. It was hugely popular and was translated into German and Italian. Probably envious about the success of Boivin’s book, Lachapelle fired her. From 8 until her death, Boivin directed several hospitals and maternity wards in Paris, and she also continued to write prolifically about obstetrics and gynecology. She continued her work and study as a gynecologist and became the leading expert in France about pathologies of women’s reproductive organs. She translated into French two important English works about hemorrhaging of the uterus, Edward Rigby’s Treatise on Hemorrhages of the Uterus (translated in 88) and Duncan Stewart’s Treatise of Uterine Hemorrhage (translated in 820). In 88, she wrote her own book on uterine hemorrhaging, which was a history of the thought and treatment on the subject from antiquity until the early 9th century. Finally, in 827, she published an important work on the hydatiform mole, a condition of abnormal pregnancy in which the fetus degenerates into a mass of cysts. The work was called Nouvelle recherches sur l’origine, la nature et le traitement de la mole vesiculaire ou grossesse hydatique. During her lifetime, Boivin won several awards in recognition of her work. The king of Prussia presented her with the Order of Civil Merit in 84. For her work about uterine hemorrhaging, Boivin was awarded a prize in 89

from the Medical Society of Paris, which had assumed that she was a man (she had given her initials, not her full name). However, because she was a woman, she was never admitted to the French Royal Academy of Medicine, to which she famously replied, “The midwives of the academy didn’t need me.” Her works about diseases of the uterus were considered the best available in Europe until the mid-800s. She died in semipoverty on May 6, 84.

Bok, Bart Jan
(906–983) Dutch/American Astronomer Bart Jan Bok’s name graces the discovery he made, Bok’s globules, the dark spots dotting nebulae that he hypothesized to be gaseous clouds gathering energy in the process of becoming stars. This discovery took on added significance as the formation of stars garnered more and more attention in the scientific community as well as in mainstream culture. Bok contributed immensely to the understanding of star formation. Bok was born on April 28, 906, in Hoorn, Netherlands. His parents were Gesina-Annetta Van der Lee and Jan Bok. On September 9, 929, he married Priscilla Fairfield, and together the couple had two children, a son named John Fairfield and a daughter named Joyce Annetta. Bok became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 938. Bok attended the University of Leiden from 924 through 927 and the University of Groningen from 927 through 929; he received his Ph.D. there in 932. In the meantime he traveled to Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, as an Agassiz Fellow from 929 through 930. He remained at Harvard for almost three decades, first as the R. W. Willson Teaching Fellow from 930 through 933. Harvard appointed him as an assistant professor of astronomy from 933 until 939, when he was promoted to associate professor. In 947 Harvard named him the R. W. Willson Professor of Astronomy, a title he held for the next decade. Also in 947 Bok observed against the backdrop of luminous gas the small, circular dark patches that would later bear his name. Bok had been studying cosmic evolution, and this phenomenon fit within the theoretical context for the genesis of stars. Bok had already published several books on related astronomical topics, such as The Distribution of Stars in Space in 937 and The Milky Way, coauthored by his wife, Priscilla Fairfield Bok, and published in 94 and again in 957. Bok also published Basic Marine Navigation with F W. Wright in 944 and The . Astronomer’s Universe in 958. In 957 Bok accepted an appointment as professor and head of the Department of Astronomy at the Austra-



lian National University. He maintained a simultaneous appointment as the director of the Mount Stromlo Observatory near Canberra throughout the next decade. In 966 he returned to the United States as a professor of astronomy at the University of Arizona and as the director of Steward Observatory in Tucson. Bok maintained this joint appointment until 974, when he retired to become a professor emeritus at the University of Arizona. Besides his major discovery, Bok studied the star clouds of Magellan as well as interstellar matter and galactic structure. He conducted radio astronomy to get a clearer map of the Milky Way than simple optical observations could provide. Instead of confirming the optical picture, radio astronomy contradicted it, so Bok revised the existing theories on the Milky Way by fusing the two contradictory hypotheses into one harmonious theory. In 957 he received the Oranje-Nassau Medal in the Netherlands. He died in 983.

which external forces were present. The fusion of his and Maxwell’s theories resulted in the Maxwell-Boltzman distribution law. An offshoot of this finding was the law of equipartition of energy, which stated that the energy created by the motion in different directions in an atom was equally distributed on average. Boltzman called this phenomenon degrees of freedom. Boltzman’s equation, which he derived in 896, measured the relationship between entropy and probability. Through the exploration that led to his assertion of this equation he came to realize that entropy was an expression of the inherent disorder in the atomic system. Boltzman also contributed a theoretical derivation of his former mentor Josef Stefan’s law of blackbody radiation. Prone to depression throughout his life, Boltzman reacted strongly to the consistent criticism of the logical positivist philosophers of Vienna. Although he maintained a close personal relationship with Wilhelm Ostwald, they fought bitterly over their opposing views of science, as Ostwald was an opponent of atomism. Their feuds verged

Boltzman, Ludwig Eduard
(844–906) Austrian Physicist Ludwig Boltzman developed statistical mechanics, which describes how atomic properties, such as mass and charge, decide the perceptible properties of matter, such as viscosity and diffusion. Boltzman left the imprint of his name in three places in the annals of science: the MaxwellBoltzman distribution law, which describes how the energy of a gas is distributed among its molecules; Boltzman’s equation, which expresses entropy in terms of probability; and Boltzman’s constant, a factor used in his equation. Boltzman was born on February 20, 844, in Vienna, Austria, to Ludwig Boltzman, a tax officer, and katherine Pauernfeind Boltzman. He married Henrietta von Aigentler in 876; with her he had four children. Boltzman commenced his undergraduate work at Linz and continued his study at the University of Vienna, where he earned his doctorate in 866 under the tutelage of Josef Stefan. Boltzman held professorships in physics or mathematics at universities in several European cities throughout his lifetime: at Graz from 869 to 873 and again from 876 to 879; at Vienna from 873 to 876, from 894 to 900, and from 902 to 906; at Munich from 889 to 893; and at Leipzig from 900 to 902. The second law of thermodynamics interested Boltzman particularly, and his work focused on applying mechanical and statistical analyses to this law to elucidate its properties further. The work of james clerk maxwell proved instrumental to his own theorizing, in terms of both the kinetic theory of gases and the theory of electromagnetism. Boltzman used Maxwell’s kinetic theory as a foundation and a springboard, applying it to conditions in

Boltzman’s equation, which Ludwig Boltzman derived in 1896, measures the relationship between entropy and probability. (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives)



on violence, but Boltzman maintained his confidence privately that the gas theory of science would prevail in the end. This confidence could not overcome his depression in the face of opposition, however, and while on vacation in Duine, on the Adriatic coast near Trieste, Boltzman committed suicide on September 5, 906. His equation was engraved on his headstone.

Bondar, Roberta Lynn
(945– ) Canadian Neurologist Trained as a neurologist and physician, Roberta Bondar has made a name for herself as an astronaut in the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and as an expert in space medicine. She has investigated brain physiology and conducted other medical and material science experiments as a payload specialist on NASA’s space lab. Born on December 4, 945, in Sault Saint Marie, Ontario, Canada, Roberta Bondar attended public primary and secondary schools in her hometown. In 964, she enrolled in the University of Guelph in Guelph, Ontario. As an undergraduate, she studied zoology and agriculture and earned a B.S. in agriculture in 968. Following graduation, Bondar enrolled in the University of Western Ontario, where she studied experimental pathology. She won her M.S. in that subject in 968 and then continued her education at the University of Toronto, where she earned a Ph.D. in neurobiology in 974. Bondar then enrolled in medical school at McMaster University and received a medical degree from that institution in 977. She did her internship at the Toronto General Hospital and finished her residency in neurology at the University of Western Ontario. Between 980 and 983, Bondar traveled widely to study and work. She was a fellow in neurology at the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada in 98 and worked in neuro-ophthalmology at Tufts New England Medical Center in Boston and at the Playfair Neuroscience Unit in Toronto’s Western Hospital. In 982, she was hired as an assistant professor of neurology at McMaster University; she also served as director of McMaster’s Multiple-Sclerosis Clinic. In 983, Bondar applied for, and was chosen as a member of, the Canadian Astronaut Program. She trained on this program from 984 to 992 while also holding down other jobs. She taught a course in the biomedicine of space for Canada’s Department of National Defense and worked as a clinical neurologist at the University of Ottawa’s medical school. She helped the Canadian Parliament as chair of the Canadian Life Sciences Subcommittee for

the Space Station from 985 to 989. She also served on the Council on Science and Technology for the premier of Ontario in 988–89. In the later 980s and early 990s, Bondar’s duties increasingly brought her to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. In Houston, Bondar began intensive training with other astronauts in preparation for a space flight onboard the space shuttle Discovery. After years of training in Canada, she was finally selected as a crew member for a flight that was slated for January 992. This flight, the first International Microgravity Laboratory Mission, had as one of its main goals the study of the effects of low gravity on the physiological processes of the human body. To aid this study, Bondar prepared a series of experiments to measure blood flow in the brain during microgravity (as low-gravity conditions are called). As payload specialist, she was also put in charge of material’s experiments on the mid-deck of the space station. She became the first Canadian woman astronaut in space in 992 when she flew on the space shuttle Discovery. For her work on the space station, Bondar won the NASA Space Medal in 992. That same year, she was also given a Presidential Citation by the American Academy of Neurology and was awarded the Order of Canada by the Canadian government. Bondar has been given honorary doctorates by more than 20 universities, including McGill University in 992 and the University of Montreal in 994. She is Distinguished Professor at the Centre for Advanced Technology and Education in Canada and a visiting research scientist at the Universities Space Station Association at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. She is also a CIBC Distinguished Professor with the Faculty of kinesiology at the University of Western Ontario and a visiting research scholar in the Department of Neurology at the University of New Mexico.

Boole, George
(85–864) English Mathematician George Boole created a new approach to logic by wresting it from the sole possession of philosophy and applying mathematical precision to the discipline. This new marriage of logic and mathematics allowed for novel applications unimagined by Boole. Boolean algebra, for example, serves as the basis for the design of digital technology that drives computer and telephone circuitry. Boole was born on November 2, 85, in Lincoln, in Lincolnshire, England. His father, John Boole, was a cobbler by trade but maintained an interest in mathematics and optical instruments that he passed on to his son. When the Mechanics Institution was founded in Lincoln in 834, John



In 849 the newly founded Queens College in County Cork, Ireland, offered Boole a professorship in mathematics on the strength of his published theoretical works, despite the fact that he held no university degrees. In 854 he published An Investigation into the Laws of Thought, on Which Are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities. Along with his 847 pamphlet this text laid out the underpinnings of Boolean algebra, which uses a two-valued system of classification that acts as the foundation for binary systems of digital technology. In 855 Boole married Mary Everest, daughter of Sir George Everest (after whom the Himalayan mountain was named) and niece of a Queens College professor of Greek. The couple had five daughters together. The Royal Society elected Boole as a fellow in 857. In 859 and 860 he published a pair of texts, Treatise on Differential Equations and Treatise on the Calculus of Finite Differences, that encapsulated his most important ideas. Boole’s devotion to his work proved to be his downfall. A hard rain could not deter him from walking to his class, which he taught in wet clothes; the illness that followed caused his death on December 8, 864, in Ballintemple, in County Cork, Ireland.

Boole, Mary Everest
Boolean algebra, which is basic to the design of digital technology, is named for George Boole. (The Image Works)

(832–96) British Mathematician Largely self-taught in mathematics, Mary Everest Boole was a prolific writer and thinker who developed theories of mathematical education as well as the psychology of learning. Boole assisted her well-known mathematician and logician husband, George Boole, who was credited with developing a calculus of symbolic logic. Mary Everest Boole spent many years writing and lecturing about psychology, philosophy, and the educational and mental processes of children. Born Mary Everest in 832 in Warwickshire, Gloucestershire, in England, Boole was the older of two children born to Reverend Thomas Roupell Everest and Mary Ryall. Boole’s family included many accomplished academics, and she grew up in an intellectually active home. Boole’s uncle, Sir George Everest, had worked as a surveyor in India, and Mount Everest had been named in his honor. Another uncle was vice president of Queen’s College in Cork, Ireland. Because of an illness afflicting Boole’s father, the family moved to Poissy, France, in 837 so that he could be treated by Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy, a medical system in which Reverend Everest strongly believed. Boole was tutored by Monsieur Deplace, who introduced her to mathematics and to a teaching method that profoundly affected her; Deplace presented

Boole was named the curator of the reading room, which received publications from the Royal Society. Through this library George Boole continued the self-education that he’d commenced after the decline of his father’s business forced him to quit school at the age of 6 to teach in the village schools of West Riding in Yorkshire. On his own Boole worked through complex texts such as Sir isaac newton’s Principia and Lagrange’s Mécanique analytique. At the age of 20 Boole opened his own school in Lincoln. In 839 the newly formed Cambridge Mathematical Journal published Boole’s paper “Researches on the Theory of Analytical Transformations,” the first in a series of original papers Boole submitted to this journal for publication. In 844 the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society published a paper in which Boole discussed the intersection between algebra and calculus. That same year the Royal Society awarded Boole its Royal Medal for his contributions to analysis, specifically of very large and very small numbers. In 847 Boole issued a pamphlet, “Mathematical Analysis of Logic,” in which he demonstrated the inherent connection between logic and mathematics, thus calling into question the traditional connection between logic and philosophy.



Boole with a problem and then asked a succession of questions, prompting Boole to logically and systematically discover the answer. Boole and her family returned to England when she was  years of age. In order to assist her father, Boole left school and took on such duties as helping her father prepare sermons and teaching Sunday school classes. During these years, Boole did not abandon her studies; she used the resources in her father’s library to teach herself the basics of calculus, but she yearned to learn and understand more. In 850, at the age of 8, Boole was introduced to George Boole, who was then 35 years old and a well-respected mathematician, during a visit to her aunt and uncle in Cork, Ireland. After returning home, Boole began corresponding with George Boole about mathematics and science. Their relationship grew, and after the death of her father in 855, the two married. Boole moved to Cork, and the couple had five daughters in nine years. During that time, Boole collaborated with and assisted her husband in his work, which included the publication of Laws of Thought, a book that presented his ideas that algebraic formulas could be applied to both qualitative and quantitative problems. In 864, George Boole died of pneumonia, and Boole was left to raise five children, including one who was only six months old, alone. Boole moved her family to London and found a job as a librarian at Queen’s College, the first women’s college in England. Though Boole would have preferred to teach, women were not allowed to teach at the college at that time. Boole also managed a boardinghouse for students and began leading weekly gatherings to discuss mathematics, philosophy, psychology, and other topics of interest. Boole completed a book, The Message of Psychic Science for Mothers and Nurses, which outlined her ideas about developing mental intelligence. The controversy surrounding the subject matter of the book caused Boole to lose her job as a librarian and the lease at the boardinghouse in 873. Boole began working as a secretary to James Hinton, an ear surgeon who had been a friend of her father, in 873. Hinton also had an interest in psychology and had written numerous books, and following his death in 875, Boole continued to advance his ideas. Boole also became interested in evolution and believed that basic ideas about the universe could be expressed with numbers and symbols. From the age of 50, Boole began writing a series of books and articles. Though her ideas regarding psychology and the unconscious were largely dismissed, Boole’s theories concerning the mental process of children eventually gained wide acceptance. Among her published works were Lectures on the Logic of Arithmetic (903) and The Preparation of the Child for Science (904). Her controversial book, The Message of Psychic Science for Mothers and Nurses, was not published until 883. Boole was

also responsible for inventing curve stitching, now called string geometry, which helped children learn about geometrical units such as angles. Boole remained active until her death in 96. Her complete works were published in 93 as Collected Works and included more than ,500 pages and four volumes.

Bordet, Jules-Jean-Baptiste-Vincent
(870–96) Belgian Physician, Immunologist Recognized as the leading researcher in serology, the study of the properties and reactions of blood serums, Jules Bordet made important contributions in immunology and bacteriology. Bordet uncovered information about the immunity factors of blood serum, a discovery that led to the diagnosis and treatment of numerous diseases. Also credited to Bordet was the development of complement fixation tests, which allowed for the detection of specific antibodies and disease-causing antigens, such as certain bacteria and toxins. For his revolutionary work Bordet was awarded the 99 Nobel Prize in medicine. Born on June 3, 870, in Soignies, Belgium, Bordet was the second son of a schoolteacher, Charles Bordet, and his wife, Célestine Vandenabeele Bordet. In 874, when Bordet’s father gained a position as a teacher at the primary school École Moyenne, the family moved to Brussels. Bordet married Marthe Levoz in 899, and the couple had three children. Their one son followed his father’s career path and became a medical scientist. An exceptional student, Jules Bordet attended the school where his father taught then went to secondary school at the Athénée Royal of Brussels, where his interest in chemistry began. When he was 6 years of age Bordet enrolled at the Free University of Brussels, where he received his medical degree in 892. Bordet embarked on his research projects while he was a medical student, and the year he earned his degree he published a paper regarding the reactions of viruses to immunized organisms and the changes to the viruses that resulted. This work earned Bordet a scholarship from the Belgian government to study at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Bordet spent 894 to 90 at the Pasteur Institute under the zoologist élie metchnikoff. It was during this period that Bordet made his primary discoveries in immunology. Bordet first investigated bacteriolysis, the destruction of bacteria. The scientist Richard Pfeiffer had found in 894 that when vaccinated animals were injected with the bacteria against which they were immunized, they would die. Bordet proposed that bacteriolysis was caused by two substances—one was an antibody resistant to heat, which was immune to the specific bacterium, and the other was



a heat-sensitive component, found in all animals, which became known as a complement. Continuing his experiments, Bordet began to introduce red blood cells from one animal into another animal species. The second animal species, Bordet found, destroyed the foreign red cells. Bordet called this process hemolysis and concluded that it worked in a similar manner to bacteriolysis in that it required a complement. This discovery offered insight into how organisms were able to immunize themselves against antigens and led to the development of the complement fixation test, a process that made it possible to detect the presence of specific bacteria in serum. In 90 Bordet became the director of the Pasteur Institute of Brussels, a new institution devoted to the study of bacteriology. Collaborating with Octave Gengou, Bordet continued his research in immunology and in 906 discovered the bacterium that causes whooping cough. Their work also provided for important findings regarding such diseases and infections as typhoid fever and tuberculosis. Bordet remained at the Pasteur Institute of Brussels until 940. In 907 he began teaching bacteriology at the Free University of Brussels. Though administrative duties took time away from his research, Bordet continued his investigations in immunology. He studied blood coagulation from 90 to 920 and in 920 wrote a text on immunology. After 920 he investigated the bacteriophage, a group of viruses that infected bacteria. When he retired from the Pasteur Institute in 940, his son assumed the directorship. Jules Bordet died in 96.

Borlaug, Norman Ernest
(94– ) American Agronomist Norman Borlaug is credited with fathering the “green revolution,” a movement in the late 960s that attempted to create a holistic solution to global hunger and overpopulation problems by increasing crop yields and decreasing the bureaucratic morass that often exacerbated problems instead of relieving them. After working for years with crop management to solve these problems, Borlaug realized that the hunger problem required not only agricultural solutions but political solutions as well. Borlaug was born on March 25, 94, in Cresco, Iowa, a farming community populated mostly by Norwegian immigrants who maintained a collective memory of the hunger that drove them from their homeland to the United States. His parents, Henry O. and Clara Vaala Borlaug, farmed 56 acres on the outskirts of Cresco. Borlaug married Margaret G. Gibson on September 24, 937, and together they had two children, Norma Jean and William Gibson.

At his grandfather’s insistence Borlaug attended college instead of going into farming immediately after high school. He graduated in 937 with a bachelor of science degree in forestry from the University of Minnesota, where he had studied under Elvin Charles Stakman, head of the plant pathology department. Borlaug stayed on at the university to study plant pathology for a master’s degree in 939 and a doctorate in 942; his dissertation was a study of fungal rot in flax plants. Upon graduation Borlaug worked for E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, studying the effects of dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), the chemical pesticide developed by paul herman müller in 939. Responding to an appeal from the Mexican Ministry of Agriculture, the Rockefeller Foundation appointed a team of agronomists headed by George Harrar to travel to Mexico to advise the country on methods of improving its crop yields. Harrar chose Borlaug as the director of the Cooperative Wheat Research and Production Program in Mexico. Borlaug initiated the introduction of a new strain of wheat with a taller, thinner stem that could outstretch weeds in competition for sunlight. Whereas Mexico had been importing half of its wheat before Borlaug introduced this new strain, it was self-sufficient in wheat production by 948. Borlaug navigated a setback in the 950s, as the successful grain grew too heavy for the thin stalk, which tended to “lodge” or bend over. The solution was a hybrid, blending in a shorter, thicker-stemmed strain; this combination proved twice as productive as the tall-stemmed strain and 0 times as productive as the original strain used by Mexican farmers. As an outgrowth of this project Borlaug became an associate director of the Rockefeller Foundation, and he also headed the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement, applying his expertise to similar situations in Pakistan in 959 and in India in 963. Throughout this period Borlaug became increasingly politicized as he realized that agricultural improvements needed to be accompanied by a decrease in the size and scope of bureaucracies managing agricultural affairs. These tenets of the green revolution earned Borlaug the Nobel Peace Prize in 970, the first awarded to an agricultural scientist. As the 970s progressed and the environmental movement gained momentum, Borlaug came under increasing criticism for his overreliance on chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, which polluted the environment. Borlaug stood behind his commitment to the belief that the drawbacks of using chemicals in farming did not outweigh the importance of reducing famine. His most recent work has involved experimentation with triticale, a man-made species of grain derived from a cross between wheat and rye that shows promise of being superior to both those grains in productivity and nutritional quality.



In 979 Borlaug retired from the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement, and in 984 Texas A&M University appointed him as a Distinguished Professor of International Agriculture. Borlaug continued to contribute his knowledge to several organizations in his field, including the Renewable Resources Foundation; the United States Citizen’s Commission of Science, Law and Food Supply; the Commission on Critical Choices for America; and the Foundation for Population Studies in Mexico.

Born, Max
(882–970) German/English Physicist Max Born developed the theory of matrix mechanics, a description of atomic activity that competed with erwin schrödinger’s theory of wave mechanics until Born rec-

Max Born, whose theory of matrix mechanics helped to clarify scientific understanding of quantum physics. (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Segrè Collection)

onciled the two theories, explaining that they coexist, each applicable in different situations. He won the 954 Nobel Prize for this work, which clarified scientific understanding of quantum physics. Born was born on December , 882, in Breslau, Germany, to Gustav Born, an embryologist and professor of anatomy at the University of Breslau, and Margarete kaufman Born, who died when Born was four years old. In 890 his father remarried; Born’s stepmother was named Bertha Lipstein. On August 2, 93, Max Born married Hedwig Ehrenberg, the daughter of a law professor at the University of Göttingen. The couple had three children together—Irene, Margaret, and Gustav. Gustav became the head of the department of pharmacology at Cambridge University. In 90 Born entered the University of Breslau, studying a cornucopia of fields, including astronomy, chemistry, logic, mathematics, philosophy, physics, and zoology. He studied during the summer semesters of 902 and 903 at Heidelberg and Zurich. In 904 he entered the University of Göttingen, where he studied mathematics under David Hilbert, christian felix klein, and hermann minkowski and earned a special assistantship under Hilbert. In 907 he received his doctorate in physics on the strength of a prizewinning paper on the elasticity of wires and tapes. His mentors had to coerce him into submitting the paper for the prize, as he had already moved on from that topic to studying Minkowski’s theories on relativity. After short stints in the military, serving his compulsory term, and at Cambridge University, studying electrons with J. J. Thomson and Joseph Larmor, Born returned at Minkowski’s behest to the University of Göttingen, where he remained from 909 until 933, with a hiatus during World War I. In 95 he worked as an assistant professor at the University of Berlin while fulfilling his wartime military duty there. He took advantage of this opportunity to work with max planck and albert einstein. In 99 Born taught at the University of Frankfurt on the Main; then he returned to a professorship at Göttingen, and in 92 he became director of the university’s Physical Institute. He collaborated with the Hungarian aerodynamicist Theodore von kármán in 92 to devise a definition of heat capacity of crystals, a mathematical expression of the first law of thermodynamics that became known as the Born-kármán theory of specific heats. In 925 he collaborated with his assistants werner karl heisenberg and E. P. Jordan on the most significant work of his career: the application of matrix algebra to quantum mechanics, creating matrix mechanics, the first satisfactory explanation of quantum phenomena. A year later Schrödinger suggested a competing explanation of quantum mechanics, known as wave mechanics. Born reconciled the theories, and even elaborated on wave mechanics by suggesting that the square of the wave


function indicated the probability of finding a particle on that wave, a formula that became known as Born’s approximation. In 926 paul adrien maurice dirac blended the matrix and wave mechanics into one theory. Nazi regulations ousted Born from his position at Göttingen on April 25, 933. Cambridge University offered him the Stokes Lectureship, and during this refuge he composed two influential books, Atomic Physics and The Restless Universe. In 936 Born became the Tait Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, a post he maintained until his 953 retirement. The next year he shared the Nobel Prize in physics with walther wilhelm georg bothe. He also won the 948 Max Planck Medal of the German Physical Society. Born died on January 5, 970, in Göttingen; he had the Heisenberg-Born-Jordan equation engraved on his tombstone.

Bosch, Carl
(874–940) German Industrial Chemist Carl Bosch transformed fritz haber’s elaborate formula for synthesizing ammonia from an experimental process into an industrial process for making fertilizers and explosives. Haber utilized high temperatures and pressure to convert hydrogen and nitrogen into ammonia, a process that Bosch applied to other conversions, such as that of methyl alcohol. Bosch shared the 93 Nobel Prize in chemistry with friedrich bergius for their work with large-scale chemical conversions. Bosch was born on August 27, 874, in Cologne, Germany. His father and mother were Carl and Paula Bosch, and his uncle was the founder of the worldwide electrotechnical firm that carries the Bosch name. Carl Bosch married Else Schilbach in 902, and the couple had one son and one daughter. In 894 Bosch commenced his study of metallurgy and mechanical engineering at the Technical University in Charlottenburg, Germany. In 896 he moved on to the University of Leipzig, where he earned his doctorate in 898. He wrote his dissertation on carbon compounds, under the guidance of Johannes Wislicenus. In 899 Bosch landed a job with the German dyestuffs company Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik (BASF) in Ludwigshafen. In 909 BASF acquired the ammonia conversion patent from Haber, and Bosch began experimenting with ways to increase efficiency and safety while decreasing expenses in the process. The first order of business was to find cheaper catalysts than osmium and uranium. After more than 20,000 experiments Bosch found the combination of iron and blended alkaline material a much cheaper catalyst. Bosch replaced Haber’s reaction chamber, which became unstable as the steel lost its carbon to the hydro-

gen used in the process, with a double-walled chamber. The inner shell, made of soft steel, could leak hydrogen; the outer shell, made of heavy-duty carbon steel, retained its carbon content and hence its strength. This reaction chamber withstood temperatures as hot as 500 degrees Celsius and equally intense pressures. By 9 BASF had a plant opened near Oppau producing commercial amounts of synthetic ammonia. In 99 BASF promoted Bosch to the position of managing director as the post–World War I ammonia industry took off in response to increased fertilizer production. In 923 Bosch developed a process for converting carbon monoxide and hydrogen into methanol for use in manufacturing formaldehyde. This process relied on high temperatures and pressure, as did ammonia synthesis. In 925 BASF consolidated with six other German chemical companies to found I. G. Farben, appointing Bosch as president of the new conglomerate. A decade later Bosch ascended to the position of chairman of the board of directors, and in 937 he filled the highest position for scientists in Germany when he became president of the kaiser Wilhelm Institute (later known as the Max Planck Society). Bosch later applied this technique of using high temperatures and pressure to procure urea from ammonium carbamate. He also addressed the problems of carbon hydrogenation and rubber synthesis. Although Bosch never managed to discover a cost-effective means of producing gasoline from the patented coal dust and hydrogen conversion process acquired from Friedrich Bergius in 925, he and Bergius did jointly win the 93 Nobel Prize in chemistry. After a protracted illness Bosch died on April 26, 940, in Heidelberg, Germany.

Bose, Satyendranath
(894–974) Indian Physicist Although Satyendranath Bose is much less well known than his collaborator in the creation of Bose-Einstein statistics, Bose managed a feat that even albert einstein could not achieve: He verified Einstein’s quantum theory with mathematical equations, thus reconciling the theory with Planck’s law. In honor of Bose’s contribution to quantum physics a set of subatomic particles of finite mass were named bosons after him. Bose was born on January , 894, in Calcutta, India. His father, Surendranath Bose, was an accountant and the founder of the East India Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works. His mother was Amodini Raichaudhuri Bose. In 94 Bose married Ushabala Ghosh; together they had two sons and five daughters. Bose attended Presidency College in Calcutta, where he studied under Jagedischandra Bose,



who shared his last name but was not a relative. In 95 Bose embarked on postgraduate work, earning his master’s degree in mathematics and graduating first in his class. After receiving his degree, Bose became a lecturer in physics at the University of Calcutta’s College of Science. In 92 Bose commenced a relationship of more than 20 years with the newly formed University of Dacca in East Bengal. He became a professor there in 926; in 945, the University of Calcutta named Bose the khaira Professor of Physics, a title he held for  years. Visva-Bharati University subsequently appointed him vice-chancellor in 956, and in 959 the Indian government designated him as a national professor. Over the nearly 40 years of his academic career Bose wrote relatively few works, publishing only 26 original papers between 98 and 956. His 924 paper “Planck’s Law and the Hypothesis Light Quanta” proved extremely significant, however, to the development of quantum physics. Philosophical Magazine rejected the paper in 923, but Bose maintained his determination by sending a copy of the paper to Einstein. Einstein immediately recognized the importance of Bose’s work, which applied a phase-space model to an ideal gas. Bose’s paper provided a solution to Planck’s law concerning blackbody radiation, while suggesting a solution to Einstein’s own theory of electromagnetic radiation. Einstein used his influence to prevail upon the journal Zeitschrift Für Physik to publish a German translation of the paper in 924. Einstein then extended the implications of Bose’s work to form Bose-Einstein statistics, which addressed the gaslike qualities of electromagnetic radiation. This system offered an alternative to enrico fermi’s approach; hence the name for certain subatomic particles depended on the mathematical method used to derive them—they were either bosons or fermions. Bose’s work also contributed to the understanding of Xray crystallography, unified field theory, and the interaction of electromagnetic waves with the ionosphere. Bose helped found the Science Association of Bengali in 948, and he served as a member of the Indian parliament between 952 and 958. He received the Padma Vibhushan award from the Indian government in 954. In 958 the Royal Society elected him a member, one of the few instances of Bose receiving the international recognition he deserved, though his home country of India held him in highest esteem. Bose died on February 4, 974, in Calcutta.

Bothe, Walther Wilhelm Georg
(89–957) German Physicist The physicist Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe made significant contributions to science during the period in

the early 900s commonly known as the “Golden Age of Physics.” Bothe developed a procedure called the coincidence counting method that was useful in detecting subatomic particles, researched cosmic rays, and advanced nuclear reaction theory. Bothe shared the 954 Nobel Prize in physics with max born for his breakthrough work on cosmic radiation. Born on January 8, 89, in Oranienburg, Germany, Bothe was the son of Fritz Bothe, a merchant, and Charlotte Hartung. Georg Bothe married Barbara Below, who was from Moscow, in 920. The couple had two children. In 908 Bothe entered the University of Berlin, where he studied physics, mathematics, and chemistry. In 94 at the age of 23 Bothe was granted his doctorate from the University of Berlin. Bothe worked on his dissertation under the physicist max planck, who in 98 received the Nobel Prize in physics for his discoveries in quantum theory. Bothe’s dissertation detailed his study of the molecular theory of reflection, refraction, dispersion, and extinction of light. After completing his doctorate Bothe started work at the Physical-Technical Institute in the laboratory of Hans Wilhelm Geiger, the creator of the Geiger counter, an instrument used to detect and measure radiation. Bothe’s work with Geiger was hindered by World War I, during which Bothe spent five years as a prisoner of war in Siberia. Despite his captivity, Bothe continued his research in physics. Upon his release in 920 Bothe returned to Germany and resumed his work with Geiger. He also took a position teaching physics at the University of Berlin. Bothe’s interest in quantum theory began to develop, and he decided to investigate the subject further. At the time there was little experimental proof of quantum theory, the theory that electromagnetic energy is transmitted in the form of particles and waves. The theory, however, was generally accepted by the scientific community, and advances toward its proof were being made. Arthur Holly Compton in 923 discovered what became known as the Compton effect, a phenomenon in which electrons scattered X-rays as if they were particles, causing them to transfer some momentum and energy to the electrons. This discovery led some scientists to theorize that momentum and energy were conserved in the sum of many interactions between radiation and matter rather than in individual interactions. Bothe and Geiger tested this new hypothesis in 924 by using a method that would become the coincidence counting method, and their experiments succeeded in demonstrating that energy and momentum were conserved at the level of each interaction. In the late 920s Bothe used the coincidence counting method to study cosmic rays. Collaborating with the astronomer Werner kolhörster, Bothe showed that cosmic rays were not composed of gamma rays only, as had been thought since the discovery of cosmic rays in 92. While studying radioactivity in 930, Bothe detected an unusual



radiation, which he believed was gamma radiation. This radiation was later discovered by Sir james chadwick to be the neutron. In 934 Bothe became the director of the Max Planck Institute at Heidelberg and participated in the building of Germany’s first cyclotron, an accelerator for charged particles in a constant magnetic field, which was completed in 943. During World War II Bothe researched atomic energy and worked on Germany’s attempts to develop an atomic bomb. In addition to the 954 Nobel Prize in physics, Bothe was awarded the Max Planck Prize. He worked at the Max Planck Institute until his death in 957.

Bovet, Daniel
(907–992) Swiss/Italian Pharmacologist For his pioneering work in the science of drugs and the development of synthetic drugs Daniel Bovet received the 957 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. Bovet discovered the first antihistamine, made sulfa drugs a practical commercial reality, and developed medically and financially viable muscle relaxants. Bovet also investigated possible chemical solutions for mental illness. Born on March 23, 907, in Neuchatel, Switzerland, Bovet was one of four children of Pierre Bovet and Amy Babut. Bovet’s father was a professor of pedagogy and experimental education at the University of Geneva. He also established the Institut J. J. Rousseau. The younger Bovet married a fellow scientist, Filomena Nitti, in 938, and the two collaborated on research projects, as well as on articles and other publications. They had three children. After completing his compulsory education in Neuchatel, Bovet attended the University of Geneva, where he studied biology. He received a doctorate in science in 929 for his studies in zoology and physiology, then accepted a position as an assistant at the therapeutic chemistry laboratory at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. A decade later he was appointed head of the laboratory. During the 930s Bovet and his coworkers investigated Prontosil, a dye that had been discovered by the German biochemist Gerhard Domagk to be effective in fighting streptococcal infections such as scarlet fever, pneumonia, and meningitis. Prontosil was prohibitively expensive to produce and was protected by patents. Through a series of experiments on Prontosil, Bovet and his colleagues concluded that sulfanilamide was the ingredient that lent Prontosil its therapeutic powers. Sulfanilamide was easy and inexpensive to produce and soon had mass production. Bovet continued his studies of sulfanil-

amide and developed many derivatives. These sulfa drugs have saved innumerable human lives. In the late 930s Bovet began to look into developing an antihistamine. The human body was not equipped to combat the overabundance of free histamine, which was caused by the presence of an irritant. The effects of this overproduction of free histamine included allergic reactions or swelling. Bovet suggested that a synthetic substance that could block the harmful results of free histamine was needed. He soon developed a rudimentary antihistamine, and from 937 to 94 he and his colleagues performed thousands of experiments to find a commercially feasible alternative. Several substitutes were produced, including pyrilamine. Bovet next turned to muscle relaxants. After moving to Rome in 947 to assume directorship of the Superior Institute of Health’s therapeutic chemistry laboratory, Bovet embarked on a study of curare, a muscle relaxant that had been used by South American Indians for poisonous arrows. At the time curare was used in limited amounts to prepare bodies for surgery. Because pure curare could have unpredictable results, Bovet hoped to develop a synthetic form that would be commercially and medically viable. In eight years of research Bovet produced hundreds of versions of curare, including gallamine and succinylcholine. Bovet assumed Italian citizenship, and in 964 he became a professor of pharmacology at the University of Sassari on the island of Sardinia. In 969 he returned to Rome to head the psychobiology and psychopharmacology laboratory of Italy’s National Research Council. He then became professor of psychobiology at the University of Rome in 97, and an honorary professor after his retirement in 982. During his later years Bovet studied the effects of various chemicals on the central nervous system in order to learn more about the relationship between mental illness and chemistry. A prolific writer, Bovet published more than 400 articles and numerous books before his death in 992.

Bowman, Sir William
(86–892) British Surgeon, Histologist Bowman is best known for his microscopic investigations of human organs. By this process he discovered that the kidney’s blood-filtration system creates urine as its byproduct. He also focused his microscope on the optical organs and discovered the structure and function of the eye as well as the striated muscle. Bowman devoted the first half of his career to histological research; in the second half he developed a very successful private surgical practice in ophthalmology.



Bowman was born on July 20, 86, in Nantwich, in Cheshire, England. His parents, John Eddowes Bowman and Elizabeth Eddowes Bowman, were first cousins. His father divided his attention between his vocation as a banker and his avocation as a naturalist. He acted as a founding member of the Manchester Geological Society. In 842 William Bowman married Harriet Paget, the daughter of a Leicester surgeon. In 826 Bowman attended the Hazelwood School in Birmingham. In 832 W. A. Betts, Birmingham Infirmary’s resident surgeon, took Bowman on as an apprentice. Bowman also worked under the renowned surgeon Joseph Hodgson. Bowman commenced his path to membership in the Royal College of Surgeons in 837 by performing his requisite attendance at a London teaching hospital, choosing to work under Richard Partridge, a professor of anatomy in the king’s College medical department. In 838 Bowman served as a prosector under Richard Bentley Todd, a professor of physiology with whom Bowman collaborated extensively during the course of his career. Later that year Bowman embarked on a hospital tour of Europe, mentoring Francis Galton, who later founded the study of eugenics. Bowman commenced his professional career with an appointment as an assistant surgeon at king’s College Hospital in London in 840. He had already started work, however, on some of the writings that would gain him a lasting reputation. In 836 Bowman and Todd commenced composition of the Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology. This composition consisted not only of writing but also of microscopic observation and painstaking reproduction of the anatomical samples observed. Bowman’s steady hand engraved his drawings directly into wood as his keen eyes stared into the microscope. The pair finished publishing the Cyclopaedia in 852; concurrently Bowman and Todd published the five-volume Physiological Anatomy and Physiology of Man, which appeared between 843 and 856. These two texts revolutionized the study of anatomy and physiology, mostly as a result of advanced microscopic technology. Bowman read his most influential paper, “On the Structure and Use of the Malpighian Bodies of the kidney,” to the Royal Society on February 7, 842. In it he identified what became known as Bowman’s capsule, a key component of the kidney that connected to the renal duct, a previously unknown relationship. The Royal Society, which had elected Bowman as a member the previous year, awarded him the Royal Medal in 842. Thenceforth Bowman focused his career on surgery. He became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 844, and from 846 to 876 he worked at the Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital (later known as Moorfields Eye Hospital). Between 848 and 855 he also taught at king’s College. Bowman founded the Ophthalmological Society in 880. In 884 Queen Victoria knighted Bowman as a baronet. He died on March 29, 892, near Dorking, in Surrey,

having contributed a new method of relating minute anatomical observations to physiological functions.

Boyle, Robert
(627–69) English/Irish Chemist, Philosopher of Science Robert Boyle is best known for the law that bears his name. Boyle’s law states that the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure when the temperature is constant. Boyle is also known for disavowing the Aristotelian theory of elements in favor of a view that matter consists of primary particles. Boyle was thus a harbinger of the modern theory of chemical elements. Boyle was born into the Anglo-Irish aristocracy on January 25, 627, in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland. He was the youngest son in a family of 4 children, born to Richard Boyle’s second wife, katherine Fenton Boyle. The elder Boyle was the first earl of Cork, residing in Lismore Castle, where Robert commenced his education under a tutor. In 635 Boyle went away to Eton College. In 639 he accompanied his brother Francis, who later became Lord Shannon, on a grand tour of Europe with a tutor. While in Florence in 642 Boyle encountered the text Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems by the recently deceased galileo galilei, which made a lasting impression on him. In 655 Boyle published a collection of essays on morality entitled Occasional Reflections upon Several Subjects; supposedly one of these essays inspired Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels. From 656 through 668 Boyle was in residence at the University of Oxford, where with the assistance of Robert Hooke he constructed an air pump in 658 that was based on the design developed by Otto von Guericke in 654. Boyle used this pump to prove for the first time by experimentation Galileo’s assertion that all objects fall at the same velocity in a vacuum. He also proved that air is essential for combustion, respiration, and the transmission of sound. The first edition of Boyle’s New Experiments PhysioMechanical, Touching the Spring of the Air and Its Effects appeared in 660, but it wasn’t until the second edition appeared in 662 that the text became truly ground-breaking. Boyle appended in the second edition his 66 report to the Royal Society expounding Boyle’s law. His discovery occurred during an ingenious experiment that involved tubing shaped into a U and partly filled with mercury to isolate air under atmospheric pressure. Boyle noticed that when he added mercury, the volume halved when the pressure doubled. After experimenting with different pressures and volumes, he noted that the two measurements were inversely related. Boyle published The Sceptical Chymist in 66; in it he refuted the Aristotelian theory of the four elements (earth, air, fire, and water) and Paracelsus’ proposition of three



Boyle’s Law, named for Robert Boyle, who developed it around 1660, states that the volume of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure when the temperature is constant. (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives)

principles (salt, sulfur, and mercury) in favor of a particle theory. In fact, Boyle was staunchly anti-Aristotelian, seeking to replace the primacy of aristotle’s influence with mechanical explanations of physical phenomena. This view remained consistent with his deeply held religious beliefs, which he expressed in the 690 text The Christian Virtuoso. Boyle believed that God set a perfect world in motion, much as a clockmaker sets a clock in motion, then retires to watch its mechanical action. Boyle was a founding member of the Royal Society of London, which elected him president in 680, though he graciously declined the offer. Boyle died on December 30, 69, in London, England.

Bozeman, Sylvia
(947– ) American Mathematician An educator and researcher, Sylvia Bozeman has spent much of her life engaged in making mathematics and the sciences accessible to women and minorities in the United

States. She has made the recruitment of minorities into the sciences part of her career’s work. As a mathematics researcher, she has spent considerable time exploring functional analysis, integral equations, and the mathematics of data compression and decompression for files of computer data. She has also developed and coordinated numerous programs that promote mathematics as a career to elementary, high school, and college students. Born in 947 in rural central Alabama, Sylvia Trimble grew up in the hamlet of Camp Hill, a town near Alabama’s border with Georgia. In 968, she married Robert Bozeman, who is also a mathematician. They have two children. She knew even in elementary school that she had an affinity for math. In high school, she wanted to take as many math courses as she could, but few were available at her school. She was lucky that her math teacher recognized her desire to learn. He tutored her and several other students in trigonometry at night. On her own, Bozeman also studied advanced geometry from books provided by her teacher. Following her graduation from high school in 964, Bozeman enrolled in Alabama A&M University. There she expanded her knowledge of mathematics, making up for the deficiencies of her high school math curriculum. Bozeman’s enthusiasm for mathematics came to the attention of the chairman of the physics department who helped her get into a National Aeronautics and Space Administration math and computer project. In the summer of 967, she attended a mathematics seminar at Harvard University that helped her sharpen her calculus and computer-programming skills. After graduation from Alabama A&M with a B.A. in mathematics in 968, Bozeman enrolled in the graduate school of Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. She completed a master’s degree in mathematics at Vanderbilt in 970, writing her master’s thesis on a branch of algebra called group theory and concentrating on primeorder groups. After completing her master’s degree, Bozeman took a few years off from academics to begin raising a family. Around 972, she moved with her husband to Atlanta and began teaching mathematics at Spelman College, a historically black institution. At Spelman, she was influenced by etta falconer, the chair of the math department. In 976, Bozeman decided to return to graduate work in mathematics. That year, she enrolled as a doctoral student at Emory University in Atlanta. Concentrating on functional analysis, a mix of algebra and a kind of geometry called topology, she earned her Ph.D. in 980. Bozeman quickly gained a tenured professorship after completing her doctorate, and by 982, she was chairperson of Spelman’s math department. Through the 980s and 990s, she developed programs such as the Spelman Summer Science and Mathematics Institute, which trains high school teachers in new techniques in math and especially targets teachers in minority schools. In 993, she was named



director of Spelman’s Center for the Scientific Application of Mathematics, a multidisciplinary research organization whose goal is to increase the number of African Americans in research science positions. She is also a professor of mathematics at Spelman. In recognition of her efforts, Bozeman has received the White House Initiative Faculty Award for Excellence in Science and Technology (988) and the Distinguished College and University Teaching Award from the Southeastern Section of the Mathematical Association of America (995).

Brady, St. Elmo
(884–966) American Chemist St. Elmo Brady has the distinction of being the first African American to have earned a doctorate degree in chemistry. A lifelong educator and academic with a strong commitment to the progress of others, Brady held professorships at four of the historically black colleges and universities in the southern United States. Interested in agricultural research, Brady studied the native plants of the South for the development of practical chemical products. Born on December 22, 884, in Louisville, kentucky, Brady attended public schools and was an exceptional student. Brady and his wife, Myrtle, had one son, who became a physician. Myrtle was an educated AfricanAmerican woman who worked in Washington, D.C. In 904 Brady entered Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee. Modern chemistry was a relatively new subject being taught in black colleges, and Professor Thomas W. Talley was among its early teachers. Brady graduated in 908 and went to Alabama to work at the Tuskegee Institute, now known as Tuskegee University. There he worked with Booker T. Washington, the head of Tuskegee, and the agricultural chemist george washington carver. In 93 Brady left Tuskegee and entered the graduate program in chemistry at the University of Illinois, a significant achievement in that few African Americans held doctoral or other advanced degrees during that era. A year after Brady began the program, he earned his master’s degree and received a fellowship that allowed him to pursue his doctorate. Studying under Clarence G. Derick, Brady investigated the divalent oxygen atom for his dissertation research. In 94 he became the first African American invited into the chemistry honor society Phi Lambda Upsilon. He was also among the first to be admitted into the science honor society Sigma Xi, which he entered in 95. Brady earned his doctorate in 96 and returned to Tuskegee to head the science department. Brady took a job as professor and head of Howard University’s chemistry department in 920 and moved to

Washington, D.C. There he spent seven years developing the undergraduate chemistry program and curriculum. Brady then accepted the position of head of the chemistry department at Fisk University and remained there for 25 years until his retirement. In addition to his teaching duties, which included such courses as organic chemistry and general chemistry, Brady carried out studies on castor beans and magnolia seeds. He established the first graduate program in chemistry in a black college and began a series of lectures, named after Thomas W. Talley, to draw great chemists to the Fisk campus. Brady also oversaw the building of a modern chemistry building—the first ever built at a black college. The building was later named in his and Talley’s honor. Yet another contribution Brady made was the founding of a summer program in infrared spectroscopy. This program, created in cooperation with faculty members at the University of Illinois, attracted teaching staff from colleges and universities across the United States. After retiring from Fisk in 952, Brady moved to Washington, D.C. Retirement did little to slow Brady down, however, and he collaborated in the development of a department of chemistry at a small school in Mississippi, Tougaloo College. Brady also assisted in the recruitment of instructors. He did much to advance opportunities in higher learning for African-American students.

Brahe, Tycho
(546–60) Danish Astronomer Tycho Brahe’s close observation of the sky yielded accurate calculations of the positions of 777 fixed stars. More important, it called into question the prevailing belief in the astronomical ideas of aristotle, who held that the stars were constant and unchanging. Brahe passed his torch on to his assistant, johannes kepler, whose work subsequently laid the foundation for the advancements of Sir isaac newton. Brahe was born on December 4, 546, in the family seat of knudstrup, in Scånia, Denmark (now Sweden). His twin was stillborn, but he had five brothers and five sisters. His mother was Beate Billie, and his father, Otto Brahe, was a privy councilor and governor of Hälsingborg Castle. Brahe’s childless uncle Jørgen essentially kidnaped him and raised him at his castle in Tostrup, Scånia. Brahe’s uncle’s wealth allowed him to study law at the Lutheran University of Copenhagen from April 559 to February 562. A celestial event intervened, though, changing the course of Brahe’s life from law to astronomy. As predicted, a total eclipse of the sun occurred on August 2, 660. The 4-year-old Brahe witnessed the event in awe. In an attempt to refocus his mind on



law, Jørgen sent Brahe to the University of Leipzig in March 562. Brahe simply attended law classes in the day and studied astronomy at night while his tutor, Anders Sörensen Vedel, slept. Another celestial event intervened to confirm Brahe’s devotion to astronomy. In August 563 Brahe witnessed a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn. What piqued Brahe’s interest was the fact that all the existing almanacs and ephemerides predicted this event inaccurately; even the Copernican tables were off by a couple of days. Brahe devoted his life to correcting such inaccuracies. His devotion to accuracy extended beyond astronomy. On December 29, 566, he challenged another Danish nobleman to a duel to decide an argument over a mathematical problem. Brahe lost a slice of his nose in the process, but he affixed a copper replacement to his face. On November , 572, Brahe observed yet another unusual celestial event—a new star. Later named Tycho’s star, the nova appeared in the constellation of Cassiopeia, brighter than the rest of the night sky. This observation established his reputation and shook the foundation of the Aristotelian cosmology, which held that the stars were unchanging. Brahe published his findings in De nova stella in 573, the same year he shocked the aristocratic community by marrying a peasant girl named kirstine. Together the couple had five daughters and three sons. In order to retain Brahe in Denmark, king Frederick II granted him title to the island of Ven, as well as the financial backing to construct an elaborate observatory that Brahe named Uraniborg after the astronomer’s muse, Urania. Here Brahe made the majority of his observations and substantiations of astronomical records. However, when king Frederick’s son, Christian IV, succeeded his father in 588, Brahe fell from favor; he migrated in 599 to Prague, where he found the financial support of Emperor Rudolph II. Johannes kepler served as Brahe’s assistant, and he later published their joint star catalogue, Rudolphine Tables, in 627. Brahe died on October 24, 60, in Prague.

Brandegee, Mary Katharine Layne (“Kate”)
(844–920) American Botanist katharine Brandegee was curator of botany at the California Academy of Sciences for 22 years and also made major contributions to the University of California at Berkeley’s herbarium (dried plant collection). She was born Mary katharine Layne in Tennessee on October 28, 844. Her father, Marshall, whom she called “an impractical genius,” moved the family from place to place, finally settling near Folsom, California, when kate, as she was always known, was nine. Having grown up in California’s beautiful Gold

Rush country, she wrote later, “Biology always attracted me greatly.” In 866 kate married Hugh Curran, an Irish police constable, who died of alcoholism in 874. Seeking a new life, kate Curran enrolled at the medical school of the University of California at Berkeley in 875, only the third woman to do so. She earned her M.D. in 878. She was “not overrun with patients,” however, so she decided to pursue an interest in plants that began when she learned about them in medical school as sources for drugs. Curran studied botany under two experts at the Academy of Sciences in San Francisco and was soon helping them organize the academy’s plant collection. When the curator of the collection retired in 883, the academy, whose charter stated that it “highly approve[d] the aid of females in every department of natural history,” took the very unusual step of giving her his job. Her fellow botanist Marcus Jones writes that she “was a model in thoroughness in her botanical work.” Curran fell “insanely in love,” as she wrote to her sister, with a plant collector named Townshend Stith Brandegee when he visited the academy in 886. They married in San Diego on May 29, 889, and spent their honeymoon walking from there to San Francisco, gathering plant specimens all the way. In 895 they left the academy’s herbarium in the capable hands of alice eastwood, whom Brandegee had trained, and moved back to San Diego, where they set up a home, herbarium, and garden that one visitor called a “botanical paradise.” The Brandegees, traveling sometimes together and sometimes separately, made collecting trips all over California, including Baja California, as well as to parts of Arizona and Mexico. In spite of poor overall health, kate Brandegee enjoyed these arduous journeys. “I am going to walk from Placerville to Truckee,” she wrote to her husband in 908, when she was 64 years old. “I have had considerable hardship in botanizing and perhaps in consequence—I am unusually strong and well.” When the herbarium at the University of California’s Berkeley campus was destroyed in the huge earthquake of 906, the Brandegees not only gave the university their collection (numbering some 00,000 plants) and library but also moved to Berkeley to manage them. They remained there the rest of their lives, working without pay. Brandegee died on April 3, 920.

Branson, Herman Russell
(94–995) American Physicist The physicist Herman R. Branson is known for his contributions in biophysics and his pioneering work in the structure of proteins, which he performed in collaboration with



the American chemist linus carl pauling. His discovery of the spiral structure of proteins did much to further the fields of biochemistry and molecular biology. As important as his scientific discoveries was his dedication to advancing the opportunities of African Americans in the sciences. Branson was born on August 4, 94, in Pocahontas, a small town in Virginia. Though his father, a coal miner, had little education, Branson had relatives who were highly educated and worked in the field of medicine. Branson’s mother encouraged the children to develop their reading skills from an early age and was known to quiz them about what they had read. The family moved to Washington, D.C., after Branson had started school. After graduation from high school at the top of his class Branson entered the University of Pittsburgh, his uncle’s alma mater. He transferred to Virginia State College in Petersburg, Virginia, after two years and graduated with highest honors in 936. He immediately entered a graduate program in physics at the University of Cincinnati, where he researched the effect of X rays on worms. When he earned his doctorate in 939, he became the first African American to receive a doctorate in a physical science at the University of Cincinnati. He married Corolynne Gray in 939, and the couple had two children, both of whom became physicians. With his doctorate in hand Branson went to New Orleans, Louisiana, to teach physics, mathematics, and chemistry at Dillard University. In 94 he returned to Washington, D.C., to teach physics and chemistry at Howard University. He remained there until 968, making many contributions to the school’s science division and, through his research, to the scientific community as a whole. At Howard, Branson successfully established an undergraduate program in physics, an uncommon field of study at historically black colleges and universities. Graduate courses and research fellowships at nearby facilities were added as well. Branson also participated in programs geared toward encouraging young African Americans to take science classes and to pursue careers in medicine and science. For Branson’s own research during his time at Howard University he studied the manner in which the human body uses raw materials, such as phosphorus. After developing a theory about the stages phosphorus undergoes before being used by human cells, Branson tested the theory by tracing radioactive phosphorus in a living animal. Branson’s breakthrough work with Linus Pauling on the structure of proteins took place in the late 940s while Branson was a National Research Council fellow at the California Institute of Technology. Pauling hoped to determine the physical structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Branson’s investigation of the molecule hemoglobin led to his discovery in 950 of a helical structural pattern. This advanced Pauling’s research immensely and also provided insight into sickle-cell anemia.

In 968 Branson left Howard to become president of Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio. Two years later he assumed the presidency of Lincoln University, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After retiring from Lincoln in 985 Branson went back to Howard to oversee a program designed to encourage promising high school students to pursue careers in science. During his career Branson received numerous honors, including honorary degrees from such institutions as Brandeis University and Drexel University. He died on June 7, 995.

Braun, Emma Lucy
(889–97) American Botanist and Ecologist Trained as a geologist and botanist, Lucy Braun made a name for herself as a plant ecologist. She used her knowledge of geology and botany to classify habitat locations and catalog what types of plants lived in certain geologic formations. In her mid-career, she made a careful study of the taxonomy of vascular plants of the Ohio and kentucky region. Her later studies of forest makeup resulted in an authoritative book about deciduous forests in the eastern part of the United States. Born in Cincinnati on April 9, 889, Lucy Braun was the daughter of George Frederick Braun, a school principal, and Emma Moriah Wright Braun, a teacher in the same school that her husband headed. Braun and her older sister, Annette, both attended their parents’ school, and both developed an early interest in nature while accompanying their parents on trips to the woods to collect and identify trees and plants. Lucy Braun began a personal collection of plants that she dried and cataloged while still in high school. At the end of her life, this collection numbered more than  thousand plants, and at her death it was presented to the herbarium of the Smithsonian Institution where still it remains. Braun never married. Braun earned a liberal arts degree in 90 from the University of Cincinnati. She remained at that institution for her M.A. in geology, which she completed in 92. During the summer of 92, she studied plant ecology at the University of Chicago with Henry C. Cowles, one of the foremost experts in that field in the United States. She received her Ph.D. in botany from the University of Cincinnati in 94. Braun spent her entire 6-year teaching and research career at the University of Cincinnati. She began in 90 as an assistant in geology and advanced to instructor in botany (97), assistant professor of botany (923), associate professor (927), professor (946), then professor emeritus (948–73). Her period as professor emeritus was almost exclusively devoted to research.



Braun’s first studies during the late teens and 920s, which included her dissertation, were about physiographic ecology, especially the kinds of vegetation that grew on conglomerate rock in the Cincinnati area and an unglaciated dolomite area in nearby Adams County, Ohio. She also studied the migration of plant colonies during the North American glaciers of the most recent Ice Age. She matched isolated contemporary plant ecologies with geologic records of glacial retreat to chart this plant migration. And she also was the first person to conduct a comparative study in which she matched the flora of the Cincinnati region to catalog studies made a hundred years earlier. This pioneering effort opened up the field of comparative ecology and demonstrated how studies over time could examine the changes in plant ecology that resulted from human factors such as population growth and industrial development. During the 930s, she began studying the composition of forests in the Illinoian Till Plain, which included southwestern Ohio. She later branched out to study forests in the Cumberland Plateau and the Appalachians of eastern kentucky. She eventually expanded this forest study to include all of the forests of the eastern United States. These studies resulted in her massive book, Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America, published in 950. For her groundbreaking work in plant ecology, Braun was given the Mary Soper Pope Award (952) by the Cranbrook Institute of Science. She won a Certificate of Merit (956) from the Botanical Society of America. In 950, she was the first woman elected president of the Ecological Society of America. She died of heart failure in 97 at the age of 8.

Braun, Karl Ferdinand
(850–98) German Physicist For his pioneering contributions in the development of wireless telegraphy karl Ferdinand Braun was awarded the 909 Nobel Prize in physics, a prize he shared with guglielmo marconi, the inventor of a long-wave radio transmitting system. Braun’s studies of electricity also led to the development of the cathode-ray tube and the creation of the oscilloscope, an electronic device that displays fluctuations of voltage and current on the screen of a cathode-ray tube. Braun also discovered that some crystals could be used as rectifiers to convert current from alternating (AC) to direct (DC) current. This finding led to the development of crystal radios. Born on June 6, 850, in Fulda, located in central Germany, Braun was the son of konrad Braun, a court clerk, and the former Franziska Göhring, whose father

was konrad Braun’s supervisor. Braun married Amelie Bühler in 885, and they had four children. After completing high school in Fulda, Braun first studied at the University of Marburg and then entered the University of Berlin, where he received his doctorate in 872. His dissertation focused on the vibrations of elastic rods and strings. Braun worked as an assistant to the physicist Georg Quincke at the University of Würzburg for two years and then held an appointment in Leipzig before accepting a position as professor of theoretical physics at the University of Marburg in 876. In the 870s Braun began studying crystalline materials. He discovered that some semiconducting crystals allowed electrical current to flow in only one direction. In 874 he published these findings, which later led to the development of crystal radio receivers and advanced the standardization of the measurement of conductivity. Braun left Marburg in 880 and worked at the University of Strasbourg, the Technical High School at karlsruhe, and the university in Tübingen before accepting a position as a professor of physics and head of the Physical Institute at the University of Strasbourg in 895. There he created the first oscilloscope, which he called the Braun tube in a paper published in 897. He developed the oscilloscope by modifying a cathode-ray tube so that the electron beam was deflected by a change in voltage. The fluctuating pattern of the current then appeared on the cathode-ray tube’s screen. The oscilloscope was later used in the study of electrical technology and led to the development of the television receiver. Using his newly developed oscilloscope, Braun began to investigate wireless telegraphy in the late 890s. He hoped to increase the broadcasting range of Marconi’s radio transmitter, patented in 896, which had a range of about eight to 2 miles. Braun suggested that the transmitter’s range could be expanded by increasing the electrical power of the transmitter. Through his research Braun eventually produced an antenna circuit without sparks. The transmitter’s power was conveyed to the antenna circuit through an inductive link—large wire coils converted electricity into magnetic fields. Braun patented his improvements to Marconi’s transmitter in 899, and his sparkless antenna circuit, which greatly increased the transmitter’s range, was later used in radio, television, and radar. Braun’s continued research in wireless telegraphy gave rise to improvements in antennas, including the development of unidirectional broadcasting antennas, and led to the employment of radio waves for signaling instruments on boats. Braun traveled to the United States in 94 to testify in a patent case related to radio broadcasting. When World War I began, Braun was detained in the United States because of his German citizenship. He died in the United States in 98.



Breckenridge, Mary
(88–965) American Nurse Midwife Mary Breckenridge established the practice of nursemidwifery in the United States with her founding of the Frontier Nursing Service (FNS) in eastern kentucky in the late 920s. She used the British combination of nursing and midwifery as her model but tailored her approach to rural Appalachia, where nurse-midwives could mobilize on horseback to reach even the most remote patients. In launching the Frontier School of Midwifery and Family Nursing, Breckenridge invoked the symbolism of the banyan tree as an analogy for her educational model: Just as the ancient tree would send down roots from its branches to extend itself, so too would the teaching of nurse-midwifery extend the area that could be covered with competent health and obstetrical care. Breckenridge was born in 88 into a prominent American family that had produced a U.S. vice president as well as a congressman and diplomat. However, such prominence could not shield her from tragedy, as her husband and two children died prematurely. Breckenridge transformed her grief into action as she dedicated herself to nursing as a means of preventing childhood sickness and death. During World War I, Breckenridge served as a public health nurse, learning the value of mobility in caring for the wounded in wartime situations. Traveling throughout England and France, she observed European methods of maternity care and trained as a nurse-midwife. After the war, she imported the concept back to the United States. The same mobility that benefited battlefield care could be applied to rural situations, where much of the population lived great distances from the nearest hospital, so Breckenridge brought the medical care to them. She commenced her work in 925 in southeastern kentucky. By 928, she had named her concept the Frontier Nursing Service. In the beginning, Breckenridge funded the FNS personally, inviting British nurse-midwives to the United States to provide the initial expertise. With a central hospital as its hub, nursing stations fanned out across the countryside. Nurses on horseback extended the range of the FNS. Within the first five years, the FNS covered 700 square miles to serve more than ,000 families. Dr. Louis Dublin conducted a study of the FNS’s first ,000 births; the lack of any maternal deaths due to pregnancy or labor attested to the competence of the nurse-midwives. Steady demand and clear success promoted continuing growth for the FNS, which formed the core of what later became the American Association of Nurse-Midwives. Breckenridge raised the funds necessary to found the Frontier School of Midwifery and Family Nursing. In 939, with the threat of World War II, the British nurse-midwives returned to England with the FNS concept in tow, establishing the Frontier Graduate School of Midwifery with just

Mary Breckenridge, who founded the Frontier Nursing Service in Kentucky in the late 1920s and established the practice of nurse-midwifery in the United States (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health)

two students to begin with. Over the next half-century, the number of students graduated from FNS programs grew to more than 500. Breckenridge died in 965, able to pronounce her FNS initiative a success: “The glorious thing about it is that it has worked.” The FNS hospital in Hyden, kentucky, was renamed the Mary Breckenridge Hospital in honor of its founder. In further tribute, the United States Postal Service created a 77-cent postage stamp bearing the likeness of Mary Breckenridge. And in 998, children’s author Rosemary Wells wrote a book about Breckenridge and the FNS entitled Mary on Horseback: Three Mountain Stories, with an afterword briefly recounting Breckenridge’s biography and the birth of the FNS.

Brewster, Sir David
(78–868) Scottish Physicist A thorough experimenter, Sir David Brewster made significant contributions to science through his extensive studies in optics. He made many discoveries about the polariza-



tion, reflection, and absorption of light. He also studied spectroscopy and tirelessly promoted and popularized science. Well known for his invention of the kaleidoscope, Brewster made his living not from his scientific endeavors but from his work as a writer and editor of journals and books. Born on December , 78, in Jedburgh, Scotland, Brewster was the son of James Brewster, the cleric at the local elementary school, and Margaret key. His interest in science began at an early age, and as a child he studied his father’s notes from college science courses. He also assisted his hometown’s minister and scholar, taking dictation and copying text, and this helped him hone his writing and editing skills. Encouraged by a local astronomer, James Veitch, Brewster built a number of instruments, including microscopes, telescopes, and sundials. Intending to join the ministry, Brewster entered the University of Edinburgh in 794. In 800 he earned an honorary master’s degree, and four years later he received his preacher’s license from the Church of Scotland. By then, however, Brewster’s interest in science and experimental research was strong, and in the late 790s he began his study of light. Never ordained as a minister, Brewster worked as a private tutor from 799 to 807 and also served as an editor for several magazines and journals while he carried out his experiments. Brewster’s most significant work dealt with the polarization of light. In 83 he presented Brewster’s law, which stated that if a light beam is divided into a reflected ray and a refracted ray when the beam hits a reflective surface, then those rays are polarized. The rays are completely polarized when they are at right angles. The angle at which this occurs was known as the Brewster angle. In other words, the refractive index of the reflective substance equaled the Brewster angle, and the Brewster angle and the refractive angle add up to a right angle. The kaleidoscope, invented in 86, was a result of Brewster’s investigations in optics and solidified his reputation in popular culture. Brewster was also responsible for founding optical mineralogy and photoelasticity, and in 89 he categorized hundreds of minerals and crystals according to optical and mineralogical groups. In the early 820s Brewster began to study spectroscopy and by 832 had found spectra of gases, colored glass, and the Earth’s atmosphere. Brewster improved the stereoscope in the 840s and improved the lenses used in lighthouses. Hoping to popularize and elevate the status of science, Brewster worked tirelessly. He was instrumental in the founding of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, the Edinburgh School of Arts, and the Royal Scottish Society of Arts. Brewster published several biographies of scientists and wrote hundreds of articles. Among the honors Brewster received were the Royal Society of London’s Copley, Rumford, and Royal Medals and the Royal Society of Edinburgh’s keith Prize. He became a fellow of the Royal Society in 85 and was knighted

in 83. Brewster served as principal of the University of Edinburgh from 859. He died in Allerby, Melrose, in Scotland, on February 0, 868, shortly after contracting pneumonia.

Brill, Yvonne Claeys
(924– ) American Aerospace Engineer Propellants and propulsion systems were the focus of Yvonne Claeys Brill’s accomplished career. She holds the patent for a hydrazine resistojet, a single propellant rocket system she developed in the 970s that is still in use today. Her work has included stints with private industry and with government, including a position from 98 to 983 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) space shuttle program. Born on December 30, 924, in Winnipeg, Canada, to parents who discouraged her interest in science, Brill succeeded despite the lack of family support in obtaining her B.S. degree in mathematics at the University of Manitoba in 945. In order to find a job in her field, she moved to Santa Monica, California, where she went to work as a mathematician for Douglas Aircraft Company. There, she studied aircraft propeller noise but found the work less than challenging. With hopes of finding more interesting work, she enrolled in the graduate program in chemistry at the University of Southern California, attending graduate classes at night while holding down her job during the day. Following World War II, she transferred to the aerodynamics department at Douglas but soon accepted a position as a research analyst with the RAND think tank in Santa Monica. At RAND, one of Brill’s mentors helped her to make her big breakthrough into the propellant department, where she studied rocket and missile designs and propellant formulas while continuing her graduate studies at night. Brill earned her M.S. degree in chemistry in 95, the same year she met and married her husband, a research chemist. In 952, the couple moved to Connecticut, where Brill accepted a position as a staff engineer at the United Aircraft Research Laboratory in East Hartford. Her work there focused on rocket and ramjet engines. She changed jobs in 955 to work at the Wright Aeronautical Division of Curtiss-Wright Corporation, where she developed high-energy fuels and studied state-of the-art turbojet and turbofan engines that were adapted for advanced aircraft. Between 957 and 966, Brill had three children and served as a part-time consultant on rocket propellants to FMC Corporation in Princeton. When she resumed full-time work in 966, Brill pursued the most rewarding research of her career at RCA Astro-Electronics (now GE Astro). It was here that she developed the hydrazine resistojet thruster,



which represented a monumental advance in the field of single-propellant rockets. She was appointed manager of NOVA Propulsion in 978 and then went on to perform early work on the Mars Observer Spacecraft, which was launched in 992. Brill left RCA to serve for two years as director of the Solid Rocket Motor Fuel program in NASA’s shuttle program. After one more brief stint back at RCA, she worked in London from 986 to 99 as space segment engineer with INMARSAT before retiring. Since then, she has served as a consultant for Telespace, Ltd., in Skillman, New Jersey. The author of 40 publications, Brill’s illustrious career has brought her many honors, including the 993 Resnik Challenger Medal, the 986 Society of Women Engineers (SWE) Achievement Award, and the Diamond Super Woman Award from Harper’s Bazaar and DeBeers Corporation, among others. She is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and of the SWE and a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the British Interplanetary Society.

Britton, Elizabeth Gertrude Knight
(858–934) American Botanist Considered in her day one of the leading experts in her field of bryology (the study of mosses) in the United States, Elizabeth Britton wrote more than 300 papers about ferns, mosses, flowering plants, and wildflower preservation. She became a specialist in bryology, taught botany in an unofficial capacity at Columbia College, and capped her career by playing a central role in the founding of the New York Botanical Garden and the Wild Flower Preservation Society of America. Born on January 9, 858, in New York City, Elizabeth knight was the daughter of James knight, a wealthy manufacturer and plantation owner, and Sophie Ann Compton knight, a homemaker. Because her father’s family had considerable business interests in Cuba, knight lived on that Caribbean island until she was . Her first botanical interests were developed in Cuba where she studied the island’s animals and tropical plants. knight was sent back to New York for her secondary education in 869. She attended a private school in Manhattan. In 885, at age 27, she married Nathaniel Lord Britton, a professor of geology at Columbia College. She had no children. After her graduation from secondary school, knight attended New York’s Normal College, an institution whose students were primarily women and that trained elementary and secondary school teachers. When she graduated from Normal College in 875 at age 7, she was immedi-

ately given a position there as a teacher; she was the Normal School’s botany teacher from 883 to 885. Even as she worked as a teacher at Normal College, the study of botany consumed all of knight’s spare time in the late 870s. In a summer field trip to Newfoundland in 879, knight found a rare grass fern, Schizaea pusilla pursh., growing on a lake shore. This discovery was important within the world of North American botany because it confirmed a finding of the same grass made 60 years previously. News of knight’s work was published by none other than America’s leading botanist, Asa Gray. As a result of this and other fieldwork, knight was elected to the Torrey Botanical Club of New York City in 879, a group of professional and amateur botanists who maintained their own herbarium and met regularly to exchange information. It was through the Torrey Botanical Club that knight met Nathaniel Britton, whom she married in 885. From the 880s through the 920s, Elizabeth Britton devoted a considerable part of her professional life to the collection and study of mosses. She worked hard to revise moss genera so that classification of these fit into new findings that came to her through others and through her own research. She also sorted through the collection of ferns and mosses gathered by Henry Hurd Rusby, a botanist who had been employed by the Parke Davis drug company to gather herbal plants in South America. To complete this work, she and her husband traveled to London in 888 to consult the holdings of the Linnaean Society. There, because she was a woman, she was banned from working on the main floor; instead she completed her studies upstairs. In 885, Britton became unofficial curator of the Columbia College herbarium. By the 890s, she unofficially supervised doctoral students at Columbia who were working in her field of mosses and ferns. She never received pay or an official appointment for these efforts. In 89, after a trip to the British Botanic Gardens at kew, Britton spearheaded a committee that succeeded in establishing the New York Botanical Gardens (NYBG). She worked as director of the NYBG’s gardens for 33 years. In 902, Britton organized the founding of the Wild Flower Preservation Society of America. She became secretarytreasurer of that organization. In recognition of her intensive and varied work in the field of botany, Britton became one of 25 founding members of the Botanical Society of America in 893. She was given the high honor of being appointed to an international committee to determine moss nomenclature by the Botanical Congress in 905. In 906, her name was included with a star in the first edition of American Men of Science. The “starred” scientists were those whom the editors considered the top ,000 scientists in the United States. Elizabeth Britton died of a stroke at age 76 on February 25, 934, in New York City.


Broca, Pierre-Paul
(824–880) French Surgeon, Anthropologist Paul Broca helped develop modern physical anthropology with his study of human craniums, comparing features such as the form, structure, and topographical characteristics of skulls belonging to different races and comparing contemporary skulls to prehistoric skulls. Broca also studied living subjects; by that method he developed a theory of cortical localization by finding the seat of articulate speech in the left frontal lobe of the brain, which was named the convolution of Broca after him. Broca was born on June 28, 824, in Sainte-Foy-laGrande, France, near the Bordeaux region. His father was Benjamin Broca, a Huguenot doctor, and his mother was the daughter of a Protestant preacher. Broca married the daughter of a Paris physician named Lugol. Broca received a bachelor’s degree from a local college in mathematics and physical sciences before beginning his study of medicine at the University of Paris in 84. In 843 he became an extern, or nonresident medical student; the next year he became an intern. By 848 Broca had become a prosector of anatomy, making dissections for anatomical demonstrations, and in 849 he earned the M.D. degree, with specialties in pathology, anatomy, and surgery. In 847 he was a member of a commission reporting on the findings of the excavations of the cemetery of the Celestins. Broca developed methods for measuring and comparing skulls, and his findings supported charles robert darwin’s theory of evolution. In 853 Broca became an assistant professor in the Faculty of Medicine and a surgeon of the Central Bureau; in 868 the Faculty of Medicine promoted him to professor of clinical surgery. Broca announced his discovery of cortical localization in 86 when he identified a brain lesion on the left inferior frontal gyrus, later known as Broca’s convolution, of a patient with aphasia, a disease that impairs one’s ability to articulate words. Subsequent research revealed that the exact location of the lesion was not the area Broca had surmised; nevertheless, his assertion of hemispheric zones of the brain controlling different functions came to be widely accepted. Broca also left his stamp on his field by founding organizations that survived him. In 858 he founded an anthropology laboratory at the École des Hautes Études in Paris. The next year he helped establish the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris. He also acted as a founder of a journal for the field he helped create, Revue d’anthropologie. He helped found the École d’Anthropologie in Paris and subsequently was its director. The five volumes of Mémoires d’anthropologie, published between 87 and 878, constituted Broca’s major

written achievement. He also published a two-volume text on tumors, Traité des tumeurs, as well as a text in 853 on strangulated hernias and a text in 856 on aneurysms. He also contributed a paper, “La splanchnologie,” to the Atlas d’anatomie. Overall, Broca advanced the understanding of anatomy, pathology, surgery, cerebral functions, and anthropology, publishing a total of 223 papers between 850 and his death on July 9, 880, in Paris.

Broglie, Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, prince and seventh duc de
(892–987) French Theoretical Physicist Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond de Broglie’s significance in the development of human understanding of reality cannot be overstated. Physicists acknowledge him as the father of wave mechanics. De Broglie was the first to apply the notion of the dual nature of particle properties and wave properties to matter. At the time experiments showed that both properties applied to light, but it was a vast leap to posit that matter can behave in two different ways. The wave properties of matter apply at the subatomic level, invisible to the eye, so this duality of matter is not apparent. However, the fact that particle properties and wave properties do not always coincide opens the door to the possibility of randomness and unpredictability in matter, a proposition that disturbed de Broglie himself, though he could not find a scientific solution to this conundrum. De Broglie was born on August 5, 892, in Dieppe, France. His father, who died when de Broglie was 4, was Duc Victor, and his mother was Pauline d’Armaille. The family carried two titles of distinction—in 740 Louis XIV granted the title of duc to the family and in the Seven Years War the family earned the title of prinz from the Holy Roman Empire. De Broglie inherited both titles in 960, when his older brother and scientific collaborator, Maurice, died. After the traditional familial education de Broglie matriculated at the Sorbonne, where he earned dual baccalaureates in philosophy and mathematics in 909. He then earned his Licencié ès Sciences from the Faculty of Science at the University of Paris in 93. He spent the entirety of World War I in the military as a radio operator at the Eiffel Tower. After the war he resumed his scientific research, focusing his doctoral investigation on the question of whether matter might exhibit the same dual properties of waves and particles that light exhibits. De Broglie presented his dissertation, “Investigations into the Quantum Theory,” to an advisory committee befuddled by the complexity of the theory. On their advice he sent a copy to



who recognized that de Broglie’s theory solved one of the basic mysteries of science. The journal Annales de Physique published the paper in its entirety in 925. Proof of the theory’s validity came from two fronts. Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer located what became known as de Broglie waves by using slow electrons, and George Paget Thomson did the same with fast electrons in 927. erwin schrödinger proceeded to formulate the mathematical function known as the Schrödinger equation by which these properties worked, thus helping to establish quantum mechanics. In 927 de Broglie attended the seventh Solvay conference, where prominent physicists took up the question posed by his theory—Is there determinacy in quantum mechanics? De Broglie defended the position that there must be some organizing principle behind quantum mechanics, proposing his “double solution” of a “pilot wave” as an answer. Further investigation revealed holes in this solution, leaving no option but to accept the random nature of the probabilistic theory. The Faculty of Science at the University of Paris appointed de Broglie as a professor of theoretical physics in 928, and in 933 a special chair in theoretical physics was created for him at the Henri Poincaré Institute. He won the 929 Nobel Prize in physics. Subsequently many distinguished societies included him in their membership, including the Academy of Sciences in 933, the Académie Française in 944, the National Academy in the United States in 947, and the Royal Society of London in 953. De Broglie died of natural causes on March 9, 987.

albert einstein,

Brongniart, Alexandre
(770–847) French Geologist, Paleontologist Alexandre Brongniart pioneered stratigraphic geology with his study of the Paris Basin when he arranged and chronologically ordered the geologic layers from the Tertiary period, dating as far back as 66 million years ago. Brongniart dated each stratum according to fossils he found in that layer. Interestingly, he found evidence of alternating layers between salt water and fresh water, suggesting an ebb and flow of oceans in that region. He also subdivided reptiles into four classifications. Brongniart was born on February 5, 770, in Paris, France. His father was the renowned Parisian architect Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart, and his mother was Anne-Louise Degremont Brongniart. He married the politician and scientist Charles-Étienne Coquebert de Montbret’s daughter, Cécile. Their only son, Adolphe-Théodore Brongniart, went on to become a famous botanist, having his father’s scientific bent from the very beginning.

Alexandre Brongniart attended the École des Mines and then the École de Médécine. Next he served as an assistant to his uncle, Antoine-Louis Brongniart, a professor of chemistry at the Jardin des Plantes. His next position was as a mining engineer in 794, and he was later promoted to chief mining engineer in 88. In 797 the École Centrale des Quatre-Nations in Paris named him a professor of natural history. Brongniart’s final academic appointment lasted the rest of his life. He held the position of professor of mineralogy at the National Museum of Natural History from 822 until 847. Brongniart published his first scientific paper in 79. In 800 he published his “Essay on the Classification of Reptiles,” in which he broke down the class Reptilia into four groups: Chelonia, Ophidia, Sauria, and Batrachia. The first three groupings survived into modern classification systems, but even at the time Brongniart recognized that the reproductive systems of the members of the fourth group differed significantly from those of the other three groups. In 804 Pierre Latreille confirmed this distinction by classifying batrachians as a completely separate group, otherwise known as amphibians. Despite this correction, Brongniart’s classification system marked an important step in scientific thinking. In 804 Brongniart commenced the work that brought him the most recognition, the study of fossil-laden strata in the Paris Basin, which he conducted in collaboration with georges-léopold-chrêtien-frédéric-dagobert cuvier. Together they presented their paper, “Essay on the Mineralogical Geography of the Environs of Paris,” on April , 808, and the work was published in June 808. An appended version of the paper, which added “A Geological Map and Profiles of the Terrain” to the title, was published in 8. Although Cuvier’s name appeared first in the byline, the majority of the geological work reportedly was done by Brongniart. In 800 Brongniart was named the director of the Sevres Porcelain Factory, a position he retained the rest of his life, devoting most of his energy in the latter part of his career to the study and perfection of porcelain-making techniques. The Academie des Sciences elected Brongniart as a member in 85. He died on October 7, 847, in Paris. It is surmised that Brongniart would have wielded even greater influence in scientific history if he had not been so cautious in his theorizing, but Brongniart refused to venture beyond the boundaries of his own certainty. Even his most cautious work, however, created breakthroughs in the world of science.

Brønsted, Johannes Nicolaus
(879–947) Danish Physical Chemist



Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted advanced the field of physical chemistry by applying thermodynamic theory and practice to electrochemical reactions, thus discovering important aspects of chemical interactions. He contributed to the understanding of chemical affinities as well as ionic principles. Most significantly, he refined the definitions of acids and bases in accordance with their atomic status as protonrich or proton-deficient, a theory he published simultaneously with Thomas Lowry based on independent research. For this work, he received the 928 Ørsted Medal. Brønsted was born on February 22, 879, in Varde, in the Jutland region of Denmark. His mother died soon after his birth, and his father, a civil engineer with the water dynamics corporation Hedeselskabet, remarried shortly thereafter. In 89, when Brønsted was 2, the family moved from a Society for Cultivation of Heaths farm to the city of Aarhus. Two years later, his father passed away, and his stepmother decided to move Brønsted and his sister to Copenhagen, where they would have access to the best education within the financial constraints of a fatherless household. Brønsted attended secondary school at the Metropolitan School, graduating in 897 to the Polytechnic Institute, where he honored his father’s legacy by studying engineering. After earning an engineering degree in 899, he continued with graduate studies in chemistry. He earned a magister scientiarum degree in 902, and the next year, he married his fellow chemical engineering student, Charlotte Louise Warburg. The couple moved to Birkerød, where Brønsted worked as an electrical engineer for several years. In 905, Brønsted returned to academia as an assistant in chemistry at the University of Copenhagen, while simultaneously conducting doctoral studies. As a dissertation, he submitted a paper (the last of a trio on chemical affinities in reactions) reporting measurements of reactions between water and sulfuric acid. In 908, the university awarded him a doctorate, and appointed him as a professor of chemistry (a post he retained throughout the remainder of his career.) He taught elementary inorganic chemistry at his alma mater, the Polytechnic Institute, for a decade, until 99, when the university exempted him from classroom instruction to free his time for research. In 92, Brønsted published Outlines of Physical Chemistry, a concise textbook that he revised in the 930s to reflect advances in the application of thermodynamics to the field of physical chemistry. He occupied himself with this line of investigation, publishing 3 important papers on the thermodynamics of chemical affinities between 906 and 98. Throughout the last five of these years, he concentrated on measuring specific heat, counting the amount of calories burned in raising one gram of a substance one degree Celsius, as well as on examining the ability of solutions to dissolve substances.

In the 920s, Brønsted examined the intersection of thermodynamics and electrochemistry by investigating the mechanics of kinetic reactions (including the rates and intermediary steps of reactions). In 92, he published “The Principle of the Specific Interaction of Ions,” a paper proposing that the interaction between ions in solutions depends on the attraction of opposite charges. His collaborative experimentation with Victor k. La Mer yielded solubility measurements that confirmed the Debye-Hückel theory proposed by petrus debye and erich hückel, as reported in “The Activity Coefficients of Ions in Very Dilute Solutions” in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. He also conducted experiments using cobaltammines that his lab inherited from S. M. Jørgensen. In 923, Brønsted and the British chemist Thomas Lowry published papers simultaneously reporting on research conducted independently of one another that reached the same conclusion. Both investigators proposed a new theory of acids and bases, refining the definition of acids as substances that release protons, while bases accept protons. Thus the status of a substance as an acid or base depends on the atomic configuration of its protons. International recognition of the significance of this theory brought Brønsted increasing influence in the field of physical chemistry. Yale University invited him to the United States as a visiting professor from 926 through 927. While stateside, he applied to the International Education Board for funding to finance the construction of modernized laboratory facilities in Copenhagen. The board granted his request, allocating sufficient funds to establish the new University Physicochemical Institute under the umbrella of the University of Copenhagen. In 930, Brønsted moved not only his laboratory, but also his family’s residence, into the new facilities. Brønsted turned his attention to politics after World War II, running for the Danish Parliament on the issue of Schleswig, as both Denmark and Germany claimed sovereignty over this region in peninsular Jutland. On October 28, 947, the electorate voted him into the position, but he died on December 7, 947, before he got the chance to occupy the office. Two years later, the British Chemical Society (which had initiated him as an honorary fellow in 935) organized a memorial lecture in his name.

Brooks, Harriet
(876–933) Canadian Physicist An early researcher in the field of atomic physics, Harriet Brooks had to fight for her right to practice her profession at a time when women were generally not welcomed on university faculties. Despite such opposition, Brooks



distinguished herself in a short career by playing a pivotal role in the discovery of a new element, the gas radon. The second child of George Brooks, a traveling salesman for a flower company, and Elizabeth Brooks, a homemaker, Harriet Brooks was born in Exeter, Ontario, on July 2, 876. Brook’s elementary and secondary education was punctuated by the frequent moves the family made as a result of her father’s sales job. Nonetheless, Brooks stood out as a student. She won a scholarship to attend McGill University, one of the leading institutions of higher learning in Canada. She studied mathematics, physics, and languages at McGill and graduated with honors from there in 898. In 907, Brooks married Frank Pitcher, a physicist. She had two children. Immediately after her graduation, Brooks began teaching physics part-time at the Royal Victoria College, a recently founded women’s college affiliated with McGill University. She also started work at the Macdonald Laboratory, McGill’s atomic physics workshop. Fortunately for Brooks, the lab had just acquired a new director in Ernest Rutherford the year she graduated. Rutherford was a New Zealand–born British physicist who had no problems working with women scientists like Brooks. At the Macdonald Lab, Brooks joined with Rutherford and other scientists in their famous experiments to examine and classify the types of rays being emitted by radium, which had just been discovered by Pierre and marie curie in Paris. The Rutherford team was able to determine that radium emitted several different kinds of radiation, which were named alpha and beta rays. While working in the Macdonald Lab, Brooks also earned her M.A. in physics from McGill in 90, becoming the first woman to win a master’s degree at that institution. Brooks’s specialty during her time at the Macdonald Lab was the study of radon, one of the unusual “emanations” that resulted from the radioactive breakdown of radium. Through her experiments, Brooks was able to determine that radon was not an isotope, or slightly different atomic variant, of radium but was instead a separate element. Her master’s thesis, and a paper published in 90, were significant because they showed for the first time that one element can change into another through the process of radioactive decay. In her investigations of the decay of radium into radon, Brooks stumbled on an atomic phenomenon that she labeled “recoil,” which occurs in the emission of particles from radioactive atoms. Through these recoil studies, Brooks explored the process of radioactive decay of radium and the element actinium, a silvery, metallic radioactive element discovered by AndréLouis Debierne at Madame Curie’s laboratory in Paris in 899. After completing her master’s degree in Canada, Brooks spent a year’s study at the famous Cavendish Lab at Cambridge University in England. At Cavendish,

Brooks fell in love with a physicist from Columbia University and followed him back to New York City in 905. For a while, she took a teaching job at Barnard, Columbia’s women’s college. However, when she announced her engagement, she was fired from Barnard’s faculty because of the policy then in place at most American universities forbidding a husband and wife from working at the same institution. Brooks vehemently protested, saying, “It is a duty I owe to my profession and my sex to show that a woman has a right to practice her profession and cannot be condemned to abandon it merely because she marries.” Probably as a result of this controversy, Brooks broke off her engagement. She traveled to Europe and studied for a time at Marie Curie’s Radium Institute. In 907, after marrying a fellow physicist, she returned to Canada and quit her career to raise her children. Because of her truncated career, which she abandoned at age 3, Brooks did not garner the awards and recognition she deserved. However, she was remembered by her mentor, Nobel Prize winning physicist Ernest Rutherford, as “next to Mme. Curie, . . . the most prominent woman physicist in the [study] of radioactivity.” She died at the relatively young age of 56 on April 7, 933.

Brown, Rachel Fuller
(898–980) American Biochemist Rachel Fuller Brown, working in Albany, New York, collaborated long-distance with elizabeth hazen, who worked in New York City, to discover the antifungal antibiotic that they christened nystatin after the New York State Department of Health, which employed them both. Instead of pocketing the proceeds from this discovery, Brown and Hazen established a nonprofit corporation to distribute the profits from nystatin sales to scientists conducting research. Brown was born on November 23, 898, in Springfield, Massachusetts. Her family moved to Webster Groves, Missouri, where her father, real estate and insurance agent George Hamilton Brown, left her mother, Annie Fuller. Fuller returned the family to Springfield, where she raised the family alone from 92 on. The generosity of a wealthy family friend financed Brown through Mount Holyoke College in western Massachusetts, near Springfield. There, Brown double majored in history and chemistry for her 920 A.B. She then did graduate study at the University of Chicago for her master’s degree in organic chemistry. She worked, teaching chemistry and physics at the Francis Shimer School, to earn money for doctoral work on organic chemistry and bacteriology. She submitted her thesis in 926 but did not receive her Ph.D. until



seven years later when she finally got the chance to take her oral examination, which she readily passed. In the meanwhile, she had taken on a job at the New York State Department of Health, where she remained for 42 years. Her first major accomplishment there was to help develop a pneumonia vaccine that continues to be used. In 948, she and Hazen commenced their work searching for a fungal antibiotic by testing soil samples. A sample taken at a friend of Hazen’s dairy farm in Virginia yielded a specific actinomycete microorganism, later named Streptomyces norsei, that produced two antifungal elements—one too toxic for humans, but the other quite safe, as it turned out. Brown prepared an antibiotic of small white crystals from the second antifungal substance that proved effective against fatal fungal attacks on the lungs and central nervous system as well as against more common attacks, such as vaginal yeast infections and athlete’s foot. Brown and Hazen presented their results at the 950 meeting of the National Academy of Sciences, and they established a nonprofit organization, called the Research Corporation, through which they applied for a patent. After Food and Drug Administration approval, while the patent was pending, E. R. Squibb and Sons secured the license to develop and market a commercial version of the antibiotic that it called Mycostatin, first available in 954. Patent number 2,797,83 officially registered Brown and Hazen’s antifungal antibiotic on June 25, 957. The Research Corporation earned more than $3 million in royalties until the patent expired; Brown and Hazen donated all of those funds to support scientific research. Interestingly, nystatin proved effective against fungal attacks not only on humans but also on trees, treating Dutch elm disease, and on artwork, restoring paintings damaged by water and mold. The pair also collaborated to discover two other antibiotics, phalamycin and capacidin. Brown died on January 4, 980. Fourteen years later, the National Inventors Hall of Fame inducted both Brown and Hazen into its legions in recognition of their significant contribution to medical science with the development of nystatin.

Browne, Barbara Moulton
(95–997) American Bacteriologist Barbara Moulton Browne is best remembered for her 960 testimony to a Senate subcommittee regarding her concerns about the manner in which the federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved or rejected new drugs. Shortly before the hearing, Browne had resigned her post at the FDA in order to voice her concerns about

the cozy relationships between drug manufacturers and many FDA employees responsible for overseeing the drug evaluation process. Due in large part to her comments, Congress enacted a law placing tighter controls on the FDA’s procedures for approving new drugs. Born on August 26, 95, in Chicago, Illinois, Barbara Moulton Browne was the younger of her parents’ two children. Harold Moulton, her father, was a professor of economics at the University of Chicago. The family later moved to Washington, D.C., when Harold was named president of the Brookings Institution. Browne had a rather peripatetic undergraduate career, taking classes at both Smith College and the University of Vienna before eventually obtaining her bachelor’s degree from the University of Chicago in 937. After graduating, Browne spent two more years at the University of Chicago, exploring the subject of bacteriology in general and infectious diseases in particular. Recapitulating her father’s geographical pattern, she then enrolled at George Washington University in Washington, D.C., from which she earned a master’s degree in 940 and a medical degree in 944. She completed her surgical residency at Chicago’s St. Luke’s Hospital and at Suburban Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, between 945 and 947. At the end of her residency, Browne again returned to George Washington University when she took a position as an anatomy instructor. After a year, she went into general practice, simultaneously serving at the student health service of Washington State College. Browne left Washington, D.C., again in 950 when she went back to Illinois to become Illinois State Normal University’s assistant director of student health. She subsequently transferred to Chicago’s Municipal Contagious Diseases Hospital, where she was named assistant medical director. She also acted as a medical instructor at the University of Illinois in 953. Browne joined the FDA in 955 as a medical officer. At the time, the FDA was a subdivision of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Browne’s duties included examining the veracity of claims made by drug manufacturers on behalf of their new products. But she quickly became frustrated by the tremendous influence those drug companies routinely wielded over the process as well as by the FDA’s own internal procedures that tipped the scales heavily in favor of approval. (A medical officer was allowed to approve a drug without obtaining the permission of her superiors, but rejecting a drug required the blessing of at least three and sometimes as many as five higher-ups, including the FDA commissioner.) Unwilling to accede to this one-sided scheme that favored drug company profits over consumer safety, Browne resigned in 960. Later that year, she appeared as a key witness before the kefauver Senate Subcommittee on Monopoly and Antitrust, which was probing the conduct of the drug industry and of the FDA’s antibiotics division chief (who 



was suspected to have taken over a million dollars in drug company money over a seven-year period). Thanks in no small part to Browne’s testimony, Congress revamped the drug approval process, reducing the power drug companies could exercise over it. In 96, Browne found employment with the Bureau of Deceptive Practices at the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Working as a medical officer with the Division of Scientific Opinions, Browne continued to call attention to practices that she believed posed the risk of fraud or deception to consumers. In 962, she married E. Wayles Browne Jr., who was an economist on the kefauver Subcommittee when Browne testified before it. Browne remained at the FTC for the rest of her career. She died on May 2, 997, of Alzheimer’s disease. Her efforts were widely recognized during her lifetime. A member of many scientific and professional organizations, including the American Public Health Association, the American Society of Microbiology, the American Society of Hematology, and the American Medical Women’s Association, Browne was also named a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 963. In addition, she received the Federal Woman’s Award in 967. Her impact can still be felt in the more stringent rules controlling government approval of new medicines and in the myriad consumer protection groups that now exist.

Browne, Marjorie Lee
(94–979) American Mathematician Marjorie Lee Browne and evelyn boyd granville were the first two African-American women to receive Ph.D. degrees in mathematics in the United States. Browne then devoted her life to teaching: Not only did she become a college professor, but she also ran programs to teach secondary school teachers as a means of strengthening the whole scope of mathematical education. She also supported the entrance of women and minorities into the field of mathematics. Browne was born on September 9, 94, in Memphis, Tennessee. Her mother died when she was two years old, and Brown was raised by her stepmother, Lottie Taylor Lee. Her father, Lawrence Johnson Lee, was a transportation mail clerk who had attended some college—an anomaly for an African American in the early 20th century. Browne attended LeMoyne High School, a private school for African Americans established by the Methodists after the Civil War, and she graduated in 93. She then matriculated at Howard University, supporting herself through scholarships, loans, and jobs. She graduated cum laude

with a B.S. degree in mathematics in 935, after which she taught mathematics and physics for a year at the Gilbert Academy in New Orleans. Browne proceeded to the University of Michigan, where she earned her M.S. degree in 939. From 942 through 945, she worked as an instructor at Wiley College in Marshall, Texas. She then returned to the University of Michigan as a teaching fellow, earning her Ph.D. in mathematics in 949. That year, Granville also earned her doctorate from Yale University, making these two the first African-American doctors of philosophy in mathematics in the United States. Browne wrote her dissertation on one-parameter subgroups in certain topological and matrix groups, and she edited her dissertation into a paper published in the American Mathematical Monthly in 955 entitled “A Note on the Classical Groups.” Although Browne applied to many colleges and universities, most rejected her politely with racist undertones. North Carolina Central University (NCCU) accepted her, and she remained there throughout her career, rising to the status of professor and heading the mathematics department from 95 until 970. Browne considered herself a “pre-Sputnik mathematician,” referring to the time when mathematicians and scientists conducted “pure” research, before the space race transformed the laboratory and the library into marketplaces. Browne continued to focus her research on topology, regardless of its commercial applicability. Throughout her career, Browne received numerous fellowships and awards. From 952 through 953, she received a fellowship from the Ford Foundation to attend Cambridge University in England. From 957 on, she served as the principle investigator and lecturer for the Summer Institute for Secondary School Science and Mathematics Teachers at NCCU, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF supported her throughout her career: In 964 through 965, she directed the first Undergraduate Research Participation Program at NCCU; she studied differential topology as an NSF fellow at Columbia University from 965 through 966; and she studied computing and numerical analysis at the University of California at Los Angeles as an NSF Faculty Fellow. In 960, Browne received a $60,000 grant from IBM to set up a digital computer center, one of the first at a minority university. In 974, Browne was the first to receive the W. W. Rankin Memorial Award from the North Carolina Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Browne died of an apparent heart attack at home in Durham, North Carolina, on October 9, 979. At the time, she was writing a monograph applying a postulational approach to the development of the real number system. The year of her death, four of her former students established the Marjorie Lee Browne Trust Fund at NCCU to support the Marjorie Lee Browne Memorial Scholar-



ship and the Marjorie Lee Browne Distinguished Alumni Lecture Series. In 996, the National Association of Mathematics, a group devoted to the advancement of African Americans in the field of mathematics, renamed its lecture series as the Granville-Browne Session of Presentations by Recent Doctoral Recipients in the Mathematical Sciences to honor the first two African-American women doctors in mathematics.

Buchner, Eduard
(860–97) German Chemist Best known for his breakthrough discovery of cell-less fermentation, Eduard Buchner is recognized as the founder of the chemistry of enzymes. Buchner’s findings refuted the generally accepted theory that fermentation of carbohydrates from sugar to alcohol was the result of the presence of live yeast cells, a theory supported by prominent scientists, including louis pasteur. Buchner also found that the catalyst for fermentation was an enzyme, thus sparking the field of enzyme chemistry. For his outstanding work on fermentation Buchner was awarded the 907 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Born on May 20, 860, in Munich, Germany, Buchner was a member of an old family of academics. Buchner’s father, Ernst Buchner, was a professor of obstetrics and forensic medicine and edited a medical journal. His mother was the former Friederike Martin. Buchner’s brother, Hans, became a bacteriologist, and Buchner later worked closely with him in his research. After attending high school in Munich, Buchner spent some time in the field artillery. He then attended the Technical College in Munich to study chemistry. He took a leave of absence as a result of lack of funds and worked in canneries for four years. When Buchner’s brother, Hans, gave him financial assistance, Buchner returned to school; he entered the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in Munich in 884. There he studied under the organic chemist Adolf von Baeyer. During this time Buchner also worked at the Institute for Plant Physiology under karl von Nägeli. It was at the institute that Buchner first became interested in alcoholic fermentation. In 886 he published a paper on the subject in which he diverged from Pasteur’s view that an oxygen-free environment was a requirement for fermentation. After Buchner received his doctorate in chemistry in 888, he became Baeyer’s teaching assistant and carried on with his research on fermentation. Buchner’s brother, Hans, who was studying extracts from bacteria, assisted Buchner in his fermentation experiments. After Buchner began teaching at the University of kiel in 893, his brother’s assistant demonstrated an extrac-

tion method in which Buchner would be able to grind down yeast cells with sand to produce a cell-free extract. During the course of his research Buchner found that this extract decomposed quickly, and thus to preserve the extract, he added sugar to the mixture. Buchner, his brother, and his brother’s assistant then observed the process of fermentation, which occurred even though there were no yeast cells present. Buchner’s experiment successfully disproved the long-standing theory that fermentation required yeast cells. In 897, after taking a position as professor at the University of Tübingen, Buchner published his findings in the paper “Alcoholic Fermentation without Yeast Cells.” In 898 Buchner acquired a position at the Agricultural College in Berlin. There he continued his studies of the fermentation process, producing 5 papers on the topic. One paper, “The Zymase: Fermentation,” detailed his discoveries and called the catalyst in the cell extract zymase. Buchner later discovered that zymase was an enzyme; enzymes often act as biochemical agents. In 900 he married Lotte Stahl, the daughter of a mathematician, and the couple had three children. Buchner received the 907 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on fermentation, and in 909 he took a job at the University of Breslau. He moved once again two years later when he was offered a position at the University of Würzburg. Buchner entered the army during World War I and died in combat in 97.

Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm
(8–899) German Chemist A versatile experimentalist with diverse scientific interests, Robert Wilhelm Bunsen made many contributions to chemistry. He influenced the field of spectrum analysis and discovered, with Gustav kirchhoff, the elements cesium and rubidium. Bunsen also discovered an antidote to arsenic poisoning and researched the composition of gases. He is most often remembered as an inventor and modifier of numerous devices, including the well-known Bunsen burner, which he developed in 855. Born on March 3, 8, in Göttingen, Germany, Bunsen was the youngest of four children. His father, Christian Bunsen, was a linguistics professor and chief librarian at the University of Göttingen. Bunsen’s mother was the daughter of a British-Hanoverian officer. Many of Bunsen’s relatives held positions in public office. After completing high school studies at Holzminden in 828, Bunsen entered the University of Göttingen, where he studied chemistry, physics, mathematics, and mineralogy. Bunsen’s dissertation topic was hygrometers, and in 830 he received a doctorate in chemistry. In the 



Robert Bunsen, who developed the well-known Bunsen burner in 1855 (Smith Collection, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania)

Edward Frankland, who later made important discoveries about organic compounds containing metal. Beginning in the late 830s, Bunsen researched the composition of gases emitted from industrial furnaces. He found that charcoal-burning furnaces in Germany lost more than 50 percent of their heat through escaping gases. The coal-burning furnaces in Britain lost more than 80 percent. Bunsen then developed methods for retrieving and using the lost gases and detailed his findings in his only book, Methods in Gas Measurement, published in 857. In the 840s Bunsen turned toward the modification of batteries. In 84 he developed a battery using carbon as the negative pole. Carbon cost less than the commonly used platinum or copper. The battery was later known as the Bunsen battery. The Bunsen burner, a laboratory instrument producing a hot flame, was not invented by Bunsen but modified by him to assist in his research identifying metals and their salts. Bunsen and kirchhoff’s studies of light and spectra in the early 860s proved instrumental in the development of spectroscopy, and spectral analysis led to Bunsen’s discovery of cesium and rubidium. Bunsen also created a grease-spot photometer, the filter pump, and the ice calorimeter. Highly interested in geology, Bunsen went on an Icelandic expedition and collected the gases from volcanic gaps. He also studied geysers. A very popular and charismatic instructor, Bunsen taught at the University of Heidelberg from 852 until his retirement in 899. He died shortly thereafter. Among the honors Bunsen received were the Royal Society of London’s Copley Medal, the English Society of Arts’ Albert Medal, and the first Davy Medal. Bunsen never married.

early 830s Bunsen traveled around Europe, meeting numerous notable scientists and exploring various scientific topics, including geology. Among the scientists Bunsen worked with during his journeys were the German chemist Justus von Liebig and the French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac. Bunsen also visited a number of industrial plants and factories. After his return he took a teaching position at the University of Göttingen. One of Bunsen’s first discoveries was a remedy for arsenic poisoning, which he found while investigating metal salts of arsenic acid in 834. Bunsen observed that hydrated ferric oxide worked as an antidote and noted that it was effective because ferric oxide joined with arsenic to form a mixture that could not be dissolved in body fluids or in water. In 837 Bunsen embarked on his only work in organic chemistry. Studying the compounds of cacodyl, an organic compound containing arsenic that was very toxic, Bunsen lost the sight in one eye from an explosion and nearly killed himself twice from arsenic poisoning. After obtaining derivatives of cacodyl, such as chloride, iodide, cyanide, and fluoride, Bunsen abandoned organic chemistry for inorganic chemistry. His work, however, influenced his students, including

Burbank, Luther
(849–926) American Plant Breeder Luther Burbank developed over 800 new strains of plants, focusing his efforts on those varieties that would prove most successful commercially. For example, of the 3 different varieties of plums and prunes that he bred, 20 strains have retained their commercial viability. His techniques helped establish plant breeding as a branch of science. Burbank was born on March 7, 849, in Lancaster, Massachusetts. His parents were Olive Ross and Samuel Walton Burbank. He remained a bachelor until late in life; he married Elizabeth J. Waters on December 2, 96. He also conducted most of his scientific research with no more than a high-school education from Lancaster Academy; he received his Sc.D. degree from Tufts University late in life, in 905. Burbank educated himself, reading charles robert darwin’s The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domes-



tication early in his intellectual development, and this text proved to be particularly influential. In 870 at the age of 2, when most college students would be completing their undergraduate degrees, Burbank bought a 7.3-acre farm near Lunenberg, Massachusetts, which served as his experiential classroom. Here Burbank commenced his plantgrafting career, which continued for the next 55 years. Within about a year Burbank had developed a significant new strain of potato (later named the Burbank potato) that proved instrumental to countering blight in Ireland. Burbank sold the rights to this potato for $50, money he used to migrate west in 875 to establish Burbank’s Experimental Farm, with a nursery garden and greenhouse, in Santa Rosa, California. Burbank’s methods, combined with the favorable climate of California, yielded much success in developing promising hybrids. In order to maximize his efficiency, Burbank would cross multiple native and foreign strains simultaneously, and then he would graft these seedlings onto mature plants so that he could assess their viability sooner. He developed a sixth sense for spotting characteristics that would prove commercially successful. In fact, this sense led him to refute johann gregor mendel’s 90 principle of heredity, as Burbank’s experience suggested that some characteristics could be acquired rather than inherited. Besides the eponymous potato, Burbank developed multiple varieties of different fruits: Gold, Wickson, Apple, October, Chalco, America, Santa Rosa, Formosa, Beauty, Eldorado, and Climax plums; Giant Splendor, Sugar, Standard, and Stoneless prunes; and Burbank and Abundance cherries. He even hybridized a new fruit, the Plumcot. He developed not only commercial fruits but also plants, such as Peachblow, Burbank, and Santa Rosa roses. He also served as a special lecturer on evolution at Leland Stanford Junior University. Burbank published extensively in his career. Between 893 and 90 he published descriptive catalogs entitled New Creations. From 94 to 95 he published the 2volume series Luther Burbank, His Methods and Discoveries and Their Practical Applications. In 92 he published an eight-volume series, How Plants Are Trained to Work for Man. An autobiography coauthored by Wilbur Hall, Harvest of the Years, appeared a year after his death. Burbank died on April , 926, in Santa Rosa, California.

ian article called her “probably . . . the foremost woman astronomer in the world.” Eleanor Margaret Peachey was born on August 2, 99, in Davenport, England. Her father, Stanley, was a chemistry teacher at the Manchester School of Technology. Marjorie, her mother, had been one of his few woman students. Margaret first became interested in the stars at age four, when she saw them through a porthole during a trip across the English Channel. “They are so beautifully clear at night from a ship,” she recalls. When she was 2 she was delighted to learn that astronomy involved not only stars but her other favorite thing, large numbers. “I decided then and there that the occupation I most wanted to engage in ‘when I was grown up’ was to determine the distances of the stars.” Margaret Peachey majored in astronomy at University College, London; she earned a bachelor’s degree in 939 and a doctorate in 943. In 945 she applied for a grant to work at California’s Mount Wilson telescope but was turned down because the telescope’s administrators did not permit women to use it. She returned to University College two years later to take an advanced course in physics and met another student, Geoffrey Burbidge; they married on April 2, 948. Geoff, as he was known, started out as a physicist, but he, too, became an astronomer. After two years of work in the United States the Burbidges returned to Britain in 953 and began working with the British astronomer Sir fred hoyle and the nuclear physicist William Fowler on a theory that explained how elements were made inside stars. The theory came to be called the B2FH theory from the first letters of its creators’ last names. (Other astronomers referred to the Burbidges, who often worked together, as B2, or “B squared.”) It said that as stars age and exhaust their nuclear fuel, they go through a series of reactions that make heavier and heavier elements by fusing the atomic nuclei of the elements made in the previous reaction. Finally, if a star is large, it destroys itself in a violent explosion called a supernova,

Burbidge, Eleanor Margaret Peachey
(99– ) British/American Astronomer Margaret Burbidge helped to explain how chemical elements are created inside stars. She has also headed Britain’s most famous astronomical observatory. A 974 SmithsonE. Margaret Burbidge, whose work as an astronomer has contributed numerous insights into the nature of stars and galaxies (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives) 



creating the heaviest elements in the process. Gas from the supernova, containing all the elements that the star produced, drifts out into space and is eventually captured and reused by other stars and planets. To gather data to support their theory, the Burbidges braved Mount Wilson again in 955. They got Margaret in by pretending that she was Geoff’s assistant. She actually did most of the telescope work, spending nights high in the unheated observatory dome while pregnant with the couple’s only child, Sarah. She photographed the light of stars and analyzed it to show what elements the stars contained. The four astronomers presented the B2FH theory in 957, and the Burbidges won the Warner Prize in 959 for helping to devise and prove it. The writer Dennis Overbye says that the theory “laid out a new view of the galaxy as a dynamic evolving organism, of stars that were . . . an interacting community.” In the late 950s the Burbidges worked at the University of Chicago’s Yerkes Observatory in Wisconsin, studying different kinds of galaxies. The university hired Geoff as an associate professor, but antinepotism rules forbade hiring Margaret as well. (Such rules “are always used against the wife,” she says.) The most she could get was a research fellowship. It was little wonder that, when the newly established University of California at San Diego offered to hire both Burbidges in 962, they accepted. Margaret Burbidge became a full professor of astronomy there in 964. At San Diego the Burbidges studied quasars, or quasi-stellar radio sources. Astronomers still do not know exactly what these strange starlike objects are. When the Burbidges visited Britain in 97, the head of the country’s Science Research Council (SRC) asked a startled Margaret to become the director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, Britain’s most famous observatory. No woman had ever held this post. Geoff was offered a job there as well. The Burbidges accepted and moved back to England in 972. Unfortunately being head of the Greenwich Observatory entailed as much frustration as honor. For instance, the observatory director was normally given the title of Astronomer Royal, but Margaret, for unknown reasons, was not. The Burbidges also became involved in a dispute over whether the observatory’s largest telescope should be moved out of the country. Geoffrey published a blunt letter on the subject in the science journal Nature, which angered the SRC. After what Margaret calls a “bitter confrontation,” she resigned, after heading Greenwich for just 5 months. The Burbidges then returned to San Diego. Margaret Burbidge became the first woman president of the American Astronomical Society in 976. She was also president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 98. She headed a team that designed a faint object spectrograph, one of the instruments attached to the Hubble Space Telescope. She also directed San Diego’s Center for Astrophysics and Space

Sciences from the early 980s, when it was founded, until 988. Since 990, Burbidge has been a research professor in the physics department of the University of California at San Diego, investigating quasars using the spectrograph she helped to design.

Burnet, Sir Frank Macfarlane
(899–985) Australian Virologist Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet made notable contributions to the fields of immunology and virology and received the 960 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his work. Burnet researched bacteriophages, viruses that attack bacteria, and viruses. Through his studies Burnet developed a method for cultivating viruses in live chick embryos, a practice that later became a common laboratory technique. He also investigated the immune system, formulating a theory about immunological tolerance in living beings. Born on September 3, 899, in Traralgon, Australia, Burnet was the son of a Scottish immigrant, Frank Burnet, who worked as a bank manager. His mother was Hadassah Pollock Mackay. Burnet developed an interest in nature when he was a child and spent time studying birds and insects. He married a schoolteacher, Edith Linda Druce, in 928 and had three children. After the death of his wife in 973 Burnet married Hazel Jenkin. After attending Geelong College and studying biology and medicine, Burnet transferred to the University of Melbourne in 97. There he earned his undergraduate degree in 922 and his M.D. in 923. After working in Melbourne for a few years Burnet traveled to London on a fellowship to work at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine. There he studied viruses and bacteriophages and received a doctorate from the University of London in 927. Burnet then returned to Australia to work at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research at the Royal Melbourne Hospital. Though Burnet had studied viruses and bacteriophages for some time, it was during a year’s leave from the Hall Institute that Burnet made his first significant advance in virology. While working at the National Institute for Medical Research in London as a research fellow from 932 to 933, Burnet developed a method for cultivating viruses in chicken embryos. The technique allowed scientists to cultivate viruses readily; the task had previously been complicated and difficult. While working on the cultivation of viruses, particularly influenza viruses, Burnet became increasingly interested in studying the immune system. He had observed that adult hens infected with the influenza virus could readily develop antibodies against the virus. Chicks born



from the eggs in which the virus was cultivated, however, were unable to develop these antibodies. This led Burnet to contemplate how the body was able to recognize foreign substances and build defenses against them. Burnet also examined the development of the immune system to explore when the ability to produce antibodies began. Burnet worked on these questions for more than 20 years, discovering and presenting details about the way the body recognizes the difference between foreign cells and its own cells. Burnet also believed that the body’s ability to produce antibodies developed during the fetal stage. For his pioneering work on immunology Burnet shared the 960 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Peter Brian Medawar. Burnet became a fellow of the Royal Society in 947 and was knighted in 95. He received the Royal Society’s Royal and Copley Medals and the Order of Merit. Burnet also studied cancer, autoimmune disorders, and diseases including Murray Valley fever, Q fever, and myxomatosis.

Burton, Leone
(936– ) Australian Mathematician and Educator Trained as a mathematician and educator, Leone Burton has become an authority on the teaching of mathematics and the study of how particular societies at different times choose to emphasize certain approaches in mathematics over others. Burton has also written about why women have been underrepresented in mathematics, and she has spoken on math and math education at numerous international education conferences. Born in Sydney, Australia, in 936, Burton is the daughter of Scottish parents who had immigrated to Australia in the mid-930s. At least one of her parents was Jewish, and the family’s move was prompted by the rise of Nazism in Germany and official anti-Semitism throughout much of Europe in the 930s. In Sydney, Burton attended girls’ schools for her primary and secondary education. She did not take immediately to math and, in fact, was not tremendously motivated by school. After graduation from high school in 954, she attended an art school in Australia for a few years but dropped out when she fell ill. After recovering, Burton worked for a year to save money to travel. Burton traveled throughout the United States, making her way from California to New York. In New York, she left for England where she settled in with an uncle and aunt in London. Her first real exposure to mathematics came from the uncle, Hyman Levy, her mother’s brother, in whose house she was staying. Levy was a retired mathematician and left-leaning political activist. During her stay

with the Levys, Burton became much more acquainted with mathematical thought and leftist politics. In 959, she decided to return to university and enrolled as an undergraduate in the University of London. Here she started out as a history major but gradually shifted her interest to math and philosophy. knowing that these two subjects had been historically closely related, Burton immersed herself in readings about the two disciplines, including the famous work by Bertram Russell and Alfred Whitehead, Principia Mathematica. She also studied the social ground out of which Western mathematics had sprung. In 963, she was awarded a B.A. in mathematics from the University of London. After completing her undergraduate degree, Burton worked for several years as a teacher—first in a high school, then at the primary level. She was disheartened to find that the way math was taught at the secondary level emphasized rote learning rather than an exploration of ideas. This disillusionment prompted her to begin studying the educational system itself. In 968, she earned a B.A. in education from the University of London and began teaching education at Battersea College. Here she taught people who wanted to become mathematics teachers and took part in reforming the educational establishment from within. She also began teaching mathematics education at a number of English universities. By 980, Burton had earned her Ph.D. in education at the University of London. In books, magazine pieces, and journal articles, she has explored such topics as ethnomathematics, the ways mathematics are expressed in particular cultures. To do this, she has examined different number systems invented by various cultures as well as the concepts of zero and infinity, and more advanced mathematical systems. In recognition of her work, Burton was invited to serve on the steering committee of the International Organization of Women and Mathematics Education from 984 to 988. She has also spoken at many other international education conferences. Currently, she is a professor of mathematics and science education at the University of Birmingham in England.

Butenandt, Adolf
(903–995) German Biochemist The five years between 929 and 934 were fertile ones for Adolf Butenandt, who identified and isolated three sex hormones—female estrone and progesterone, and male androsterone—during that time period. His discoveries proved instrumental for the later developments of cortisone, a hormone-related substance used to counter 



arthritis, and birth control pills. Butenandt shared the ˇ 939 Nobel Prize in chemistry with leopold ružicka, who also conducted sex hormone research, though they did not receive the award until after World War II, in 949, because the Nazi government would not allow them to accept the prize. Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt was born on March 24, 903, in Bremerhaven-Lehe (now Wesermünde), Germany. His mother was Wilhelmina Thomfohrde, and his father, Otto Louis Max Butenandt, was a businessman. After graduating from the Bremerhaven Oberrealschule, he matriculated into the chemistry and biology programs at the University of Marburg in 92. In 924, he transferred to the University of Göttingen, where he studied biochemistry under Adolf Windaus (who went on to win the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 928). Butenandt switched dissertation topics when the constitution of thyroxin, the hormone he had focused on up to that point, was described in 926. In 927, he completed his dissertation on rotenone, a compound contained in insecticides, to receive his doctorate. Butenandt continued his hormone research at Göttingen, refocusing on sex hormones, as not much was known about them at that point. In 929, he identified a sex hormone that he found in pregnant women’s urine, and he subsequently isolated it in a pure crystalline form. In his announcement article in the October issue of Die Naturwissenschaften, he dubbed this hormone “progynon,” but he subsequently renamed it “folliculine” (after its source, ovarian follicles). Edward Doisy, an American biochemist, announced his discovery of the same hormone at a lecture in August 929, so the two clearly made the discovery simultaneously but independently. In the end, the hormone became known as “estrone,” as it originated in female estrogen. In 93, Butenandt collaborated with kurt Tscherning to isolate androsterone, a male sex hormone. They distilled a mere 50 milligrams of the hormone in crystalline form from 4,000 gallons of male urine. From this sample, they ascertained that the chemical composition of androsterone differed only slightly from that of estrone and later that sex hormones are classified as steroids. That same year, the University of Göttingen promoted Butenandt to head the organic and biochemical department of its chemistry laboratory. He also married his former research assistant, Erika von Ziegner, and together they had seven children—two boys and five girls. In 933, the Technische Hochschule in Danzig hired Butenandt as a professor of organic chemistry and director of its organic chemical institute. There he continued his sex hormone studies with assistance from the Rockefeller Foundation, a rare occurrence in the 930s, as the American philanthropic organization was pulling its funding from German projects, in opposition to the Nazi party.

In 934, he collaborated with Ulrich Westphal to isolate another female sex hormone, progesterone, from the corpora lutea of sows. In the process, they determined the close relationship between progesterone and pregnanediol, which Butenandt had discovered in the urine of pregnant women in 93. In 935, Butenandt turned down an invitation from Harvard University for a professorship, and a year later, the kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry in Berlin-Dahlem appointed him as its director (who oversaw all scientific research in Germany), while he held a simultaneous position as honorary professor at the University of Berlin. He maintained these positions until after World War II, when the kaiser Wilhelm Institute was dismantled and reconstructed as the Max Planck Institute in Tübingen (where he had moved it before the name change to remove it from the bombing of Berlin). The University of Tübingen also appointed him as a professor of physiological chemistry in 945. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded Butenandt and Leopold Ružicka the Nobel Prize in chemˇ istry in 939 for their work on sex hormones, but they did not actually receive the medal until a decade later, after Europe had settled from the war. During the war, Butenandt conducted research on the eye pigmentation of insects, and he extended this line of research at Tübingen. In 953, he isolated the first insect hormone, ecdysone, a chrysalitic hormone that induces a caterpillar to transmogrify into a butterfly. His colleague Peter karlson later demonstrated its relationship to mammalian sex hormones. Butenandt, in collaboration with Erich Hecker, also identified the first crystallized pheromone in silk spinners, bombykol, which is akin to sexual hormones. In 952, Butenandt moved to the University of Munich as a professor of physiological chemistry and director of its physiological-chemical institute. The Max Planck Institute followed him to Munich in 956, and in 960, he returned as its president. He retired from this position in 972, after retiring from his positions at the university the prior year. Butenandt received many honors in his lifetime, including the Grand Cross for Federal Services of West Germany and the Adolf von Harnack Medal of the Max Planck Society. The French Legion of Honor inducted him as a commander in 969. Butenandt suffered a long illness in the 990s and died on January 8, 995, at the age of 9.

Buys Ballot, Christoph Hendrik Diedrik
(87–890) Dutch Meteorologist Christoph Buys Ballot proposed the law that later bore his name, which described the dependence of the motion



of wind rotation on its proximity to low- or high-pressure weather patterns and its position in the Northern or Southern Hemisphere. Even more significant than Buys Ballot’s law was his influence on the efforts to organize and coordinate meteorological information throughout Europe. Buys Ballot was born on October 0, 87, in kloetinge, Netherlands. His parents were Geertruida Françoise Lix Raaven and Anthony Jacobus Buys Ballot, a Dutch Reformed minister. He attended the Gymnasium at Zaltbommel and the University of Utrecht and received his Ph.D. in 844. Buys Ballot married twice, and five of his eight children survived him. After earning his doctorate Buys Ballot remained at the University of Utrecht for the rest of his career, first as a lecturer in mineralogy and geology in 845, adding duties teaching theoretical chemistry the next year. In 847 the university appointed him as a professor of mathematics; two decades later the university named him as a professor of physics, a position he held until his retirement in 888. From 85 on Buys Ballot published yearbooks of synoptic weather observations, gathered simultaneously throughout Europe and then compiled onto charts and maps, with shaded areas corresponding to meteorological phenomena such as wind direction and speed and temperature anomalies. This effort was the first of its kind, and Buys Ballot spent the rest of his career organizing and coordinating the field of meteorology. In 854, for example, he founded the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, where he was later director.

In 857 Buys Ballot made the observations that led to the law named after him. He noticed that in the Northern Hemisphere wind circulated counterclockwise around low-pressure systems and clockwise around high-pressure systems; in the Southern Hemisphere they rotated in the opposite directions in those situations. These effects resulted from the deflecting force of the Earth’s rotation, though Buys Ballot himself did not make this connection, as William Ferrel had previously. He did, however, assert that wind speed is proportional to pressure gradient and that wind blows at right angles to the isobars. In 860 Buys Ballot established the first service for weather forecasts and storm warnings. During this period he also invented the aeroclinoscope, an instrument that pinpointed the center of a depression and its pressure gradient. After the 873 Congress of Vienna, Buys Ballot served as the chairperson of the International Meteorological Committee, charged with the responsibility of making recommendations on which meteorological instruments should be utilized for official observations, the form and format of weather messages and the system whereby these messages would be recorded, and the organization of a system of meteorological observation stations. Although Buys Ballot trained as a theorist and considered himself to be one, he made a much more significant contribution to the field of meteorology with his compilations of information and with his organization and coordination of efforts to record and disseminate meteorological information. Buys Ballot died on February 3, 890, in Utrecht, Netherlands.

Caldicott, Helen
(938– ) Australian Physician A pediatrician who has worked extensively with children who have cystic fibrosis, Helen Caldicott is best known as an antinuclear activist. She has used her knowledge of the medical effects of radiation and her impassioned rhetoric as an activist to inspire people around the world to lobby against nuclear armament and nuclear energy. In the early 970s, she organized opposition to the nuclear tests France was conducting in the South Pacific, which were in violation of the International Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty of 962. Her speeches publicizing the violation and educating the public about the effects of radiation, particularly on children, resulted in the French government ending these tests. She also was responsible for reviving the U.S.-based organization Physicians for Social Responsibility and leading it during a period of rapid expansion in the early 980s. The daughter of Philip Broinowski, a factory manager, and Mary Mona Enyd Coffey Broinowski, an interior designer, Caldicott was born in Melbourne, Australia, on August 7, 938. She attended public schools with the exception of four years spent at Fintona Girls School, a private secondary school in Adelaide. As an adolescent, she read Nevil Shute’s novel, On The Beach, and was significantly affected by its depiction of nuclear holocaust. She entered the University of Adelaide medical school when she was just 7, graduating in 96 with a B.S. in surgery and an M.B. in medicine (the equivalent of an American M.D.). The following year, she married William Caldicott, a pediatric radiologist, and the couple had three children—Philip, Penny, and William Jr. After completing a three-year fellowship in nutrition at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Caldicott returned to Adelaide and accepted a position in the 

renal unit of Queen Elizabeth Hospital. There, she completed her residency and a two-year internship in pediatrics. She also established a clinic for the treatment of cystic fibrosis.

Pediatrician Helen Caldicott, who is best known as an antinuclear activist and leader of Physicians for Social Responsibility (Photo by David Young, Carolyn Johns/All One Voice, Courtesy of W. W. Norton & Company)



It was after working with children in the cystic fibrosis clinic and having children of her own that Caldicott began to organize others and speak out against nuclear proliferation. Her first challenge concerned France’s illegal testing over Mururoa, a French colony in the South Pacific. Caldicott learned that in 972, following five years of testing by France, there were higher than normal radiation levels in drinking water and rain in Australia. She set about to educate the public on the effects of radiation. Her speeches in opposition to the testing inspired a mass popular movement that resulted in the Australian government taking legal action against France through the International Court of Justice and in France putting an end to its atmospheric testing. Caldicott also led a struggle against the commercial uranium industry. In 975, the Australian Council of Trade Unions passed a resolution banning the mining, transport, and sale of uranium, and the government implemented an export ban. But these measures prevailed only until 982, when international pressure forced the ban to be lifted. In the years following 975, Caldicott and her family spent an increasing amount of time in the United States. She held appointments at the Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Boston and became an instructor in pediatrics at Harvard Medical School. In 978, she became involved with Physicians for Social Responsibility, a group whose membership grew rapidly following the near meltdown of Pennsylvania’s Three Mile Island nuclear reactor on March 28, 979. In 980, Caldicott stopped practicing medicine in order to devote all her time to leading the organization. Her work involved lots of travel and public speaking to raise awareness among the general population. The organization made a documentary film, Eight Minutes to Midnight, which was often part of Caldicott’s presentation and was nominated for an Academy Award in 982. She also wrote Nuclear Madness: What You Can Do! with coauthors Nancy Herrington and Nahum Stiskin. Eventually Physicians for Social Responsibility lobbied for a more mainstream platform than what Caldicott espoused, and she resigned as president in 983. She went on to help found the Medical Campaign Against Nuclear War, the Women’s Party for Survival, and the Women’s Action for Nuclear Disarmament, among other organizations. She has written two other books: Missile Envy: The Arms Race and Nuclear War, which came out in 984, and If You Love This Planet: A Plan to Heal the Earth, which was published in 992. She also ran for Parliament in Australia in 990, losing by a very small margin. Her many awards and honors include the Humanist of the Year Award from the American Association of Humanistic Psychology in 982, the International Year of Peace Award from the Australian government in 986, a nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize in 985, and the Lannan Foundation 2003 Prize for Cultural Freedom.

Caldwell, Mary Letitia
(890–972) American Chemist Affiliated with Columbia University for more than 40 years, Mary Caldwell devoted her career to research and teaching. Her research centered on the study of enzymes, especially a family of enzymes called the amylases, but her teaching was equally important to her. She was a mentor to numerous students, male and female, but because many of her students were women, she is known for her role in encouraging women to enter the field of chemistry. Caldwell was born on December 8, 890, in Bogotá, Colombia, while her parents, Milton Caldwell and Sarah Adams Caldwell, were living in that South American country. Milton Caldwell, an Episcopal minister, had been sent there as a missionary preacher. Mary Caldwell and her four siblings grew up in Colombia, probably schooled by their mother, until they reached high-school age. At that point, the family returned to the United States so that the children could receive their secondary schooling in their home country. In 909, Caldwell enrolled in Western College for Women in Oxford, Ohio. At this time, because of formal and informal bans on women as students, it was still difficult, and sometimes impossible, for women to attend many colleges and universities in the United States. Western College for Women offered a general liberal arts education, which included science courses such as chemistry and physics. Caldwell won an A.B. degree from Western College in 93. For the next five years, she taught at her alma mater, first as an instructor, then an assistant professor in chemistry. In 98, she decided to continue her education by enrolling in the master’s program in chemistry at Columbia University in New York City. She received her M.S. degree from that institution in 98. Columbia offered her a fellowship to help her get her doctorate, which she was awarded in 92. At Columbia, Caldwell developed a close professional relationship with Henry Sherman, who taught what was then called nutritional and biological chemistry but which today we know as biochemistry. During her master’s and Ph.D. studies, she began to examine the way the amylase enzymes work in plants, animals, and the human body. In animals, the family of amylase enzymes are found mainly in saliva and the pancreas. Their function is to help the body digest food by breaking down carbohydrates, which are converted into the sugars glucose and maltose. Caldwell worked mainly with the pig pancreas, which produces relatively more amylase than other animals. However, she found it difficult to follow the chain of chemical reactions of amylase in her study because the other chemicals that were being used to track this process were not pure enough. Therefore, her first order of business was to 



refine the process of producing these support chemicals so that a true picture of the role of amylase in the pancreas and saliva could be seen. This she succeeded in doing during the 920s and 930s. Her techniques soon became standard practice for any biochemist engaged in the study of amylases. From 92 to 959, Caldwell taught chemistry at Columbia, beginning as an instructor and working her way up to full professor, a position she achieved in 948 (she was the only woman full or associate professor of chemistry at Columbia at that time). One of her main accomplishments was to mentor 8 women through their Ph.D. degrees at Columbia. For her efforts as a research scientist and educator, she was awarded the American Chemical Society’s Garvan Medal in 960. In 96, Columbia University granted her an honorary doctorate of sciences in recognition of her dedication to that institution. She died on July 3, 972, in Fishkill, New York.

Calvin, Melvin
(9–997) American Chemist Melvin Calvin elucidated the photosynthetic process, whose steps are now known as the Calvin cycle, by tracking radioactive carbon dioxide as it is transformed into carbohydrates. He discovered that photosynthesis proceeds in the absence of light, and later confirmed which primary elements formed the atmosphere from which primitive life formed. For these achievements, he received the 96 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Calvin was born on April 8, 9, in St. Paul, Minnesota. His mother was Rose Irene Hervitz, a Russian émigré, and his father, Elias Calvin, was a factory worker who had been well educated before emigrating from Russia. A job in the Cadillac factory moved the family to Detroit, Michigan, where Calvin attended the public schools. He graduated from high school in 927, and entered the Michigan College of Mining and Technology (now Michigan Technological University.) The Depression forced him to leave college after two years to work in a brass factory, where he practiced hands-on chemistry. He returned to earn his bachelor’s degree in 93, then pursued his doctorate in chemistry under George Glockler at the University of Minnesota. He wrote his dissertation on the electron affinities of halogens to earn his Ph.D. in 935. A Rockefeller Fellowship funded Calvin’s two years of postdoctoral work at the University of Manchester in England, where he studied catalytic reactions of metalloporphyrins (derivatives of chlorophyll and hemoglobin) under michael polanyi, thus commencing his study of the process of photosynthesis. He returned in 937 to instruct

in chemistry at the University of California at Berkeley, which promoted him to assistant professor in 94. The next year, he married Marie Jemtegaard, a social worker of Norwegian descent, and together the couple had two daughters, Elin Bjorna and karole Rowena, and one son, Noel Morgen. In World War II, Calvin contributed to the cause by serving as an investigator on the National Defense Research Council, and then as a researcher obtaining pure oxygen, uranium, and plutonium for the Manhattan Project. After the war, the university promoted Calvin to associate professorship in 945, and to full professorship in 947. In the intervening year, Berkeley’s Bio-Organic Chemistry Group of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (later renamed the Laboratory of Chemical Biodynamics) appointed him its director, a position he retained until 980. After World War II, a radioactive isotope of carbon, carbon-4, became available; Calvin capitalized on this by fusing it with oxygen to form CO2, the necessary component of photosynthesis. This carbon left a radioactive trace as it traveled through the photosynthetic process, making it feasible to track its progress. Calvin exposed chlorophyll and other byproducts of the photosynthetic process to paper chromatography and photographic negatives simultaneously, to capture both the chemical composition of the compound on paper and the radioactive carbon on film. By comparing the progression of the carbon through various chemical compositions at different times (he took samples from the chlorella alga at intervals of less than a second), Calvin was able to establish the chemical transformations enacted by photosynthesis. The steps in the process are collectively called the Calvin cycle, in his honor. Calvin discovered that photosynthesis, or the transformation of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, does not depend on light, as was previously believed, since the process progresses even in light’s absence. For elucidating such a complex process as photosynthesis, Calvin received the 96 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The year before, Berkeley had named him director of its Laboratory of Chemical Biodynamics. In his late career, Calvin continued to pursue interesting research; he experimentally established hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and water as the chemical components from which life springs by bombarding them with radiation, resulting in their transformation into organic molecules. Calvin also won many garlands in his late career: he received the 964 Davy Medal from the Royal Society; the 978 Priestley Award and the 98 Oesper Prize from the American Chemical Society; and the 989 National Medal of Science. Calvin served his field in turn by acting as president of the American Society of Plant Physiologists from 963 through 964, and as the president of the American Chemical Society in 97. He retired as


a university professor in 980 but continued to conduct research on the generation of hydrocarbon fuel as a potential energy source, among other topics. He died on January 8, 997, at Alta Bates Hospital in Berkeley, California.

Cambra, Jessie G.
(99– ) American Engineer Jessie G. Cambra, a pioneer in the development of California’s transportation systems, forged a trail for women to follow in both her educational and professional pursuits. The first woman to graduate from the University of California at Berkeley School of Engineering, Cambra went on to be the first female engineer licensed by examination in California. She made major contributions to many public works projects during her 30-year career, but she is probably best known for designing and supervising the first successful highway reconstruction project in California and the first computerized traffic signal system at a major arterial intersection. Born to Blanch Preneville, a bookkeeper, and Andrew Giambroni, a businessman and banker, on September 5, 99, in Oakland, California, Cambra was one of five children. She has commented that having brothers instilled in her the belief that she could do anything they could do, including pursuing the male-dominated field of engineering. In 942, she graduated from the University of California at Berkeley School of Engineering with a B.S. degree in civil engineering. One year later, on November 6, 943, she married Manuel S. Cambra. The couple had two sons, the first born in 947 and the second in 957. When Jessie Cambra entered the job market, engineers were in sharp demand since so many men were enlisted to fight in World War II. She was hired immediately as a field engineer by a San Francisco firm called Bechtel, McCone & Parons. Five months after starting, she was promoted to assistant civil engineer as a result of her outstanding work on a major Standard Oil Company refinery. In 944, Cambra left this job to go to work for Alameda County, California. One year later, she was promoted to civil engineer and became the first licensed woman engineer in the state. As an engineer with the county, Cambra worked on road design and drainage systems. She was chosen to join the Public Works Association in 947 and later became its first female director. Cambra was promoted to senior civil engineer in 95, which meant that she took charge of several road and bridge construction projects. In less than two years, she was promoted again to supervising civil engineer, and in 953 she was appointed principal civil engineer in charge of the engineering division of the Alameda County Road Department. For the next 20

years, Cambra managed her staff through the transition from manual to computerized operation. She initiated numerous technological advances, including the development of a computer program that improved efficiency and increased the number of design options available to engineers in the department. In 960, Cambra was the first female to join the County Engineers Association of California. She served as a representative to the California transportation commission of the California State Legislature. When the deputy director of the Road Department where she worked became terminally ill, Cambra was appointed assistant chief to act in his place. In November 974, she was appointed deputy director of public works and became head of the Alameda County Road Department, which had a budget of $2 million, 200 employees, and 547 miles of county road to manage. In addition to overseeing the planning and construction of boulevards, concrete-reinforced bridges, rehabilitation projects, and signalized intersections in Alameda County, Cambra started and administered the Federal Aid to Urban Highways Program. In 977, Cambra received the Samuel A. Greeley Award for her outstanding public service in the field of public works, and in 978 she received recognition from the Hayward Boy’s Club for her fund-raising efforts. She received an Achievement Award from the Society of Women Engineers in 979. She was also ranked by the American Public Works Association as a top-ten engineer and named as an Outstanding Alumna by Tau Beta Pi, her engineering fraternity at the University of California at Berkeley. Cambra retired from the Alameda County job in 980 and opened her own business as a consulting engineer. She worked on estimates and prepared qualifying plans for public works subcontractors and tract developments. In a career that included many firsts for women, Cambra certainly proved that women could be as successful as men in the field of engineering.

Campbell-Swinton, Alan Archibald
(863–930) Scottish Engineer, Inventor Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton provided the theoretical basis for electronic television some two decades before the technology existed to implement his theories. He readily acknowledged the impossibility of realizing his “Distant Electric Vision” theory in practice, yet this did not discourage him from anticipating the invention of such technology. In the 930s, electronic television supplanted mechanical television as the standard for broadcast in Britain and subsequently became the standard worldwide. 



Campbell-Swinton can thus be considered one of the fathers of television, an idea that was spawned in many different parts of the world simultaneously and that now affects all the world by disseminating information and entertainment. Campbell-Swinton was born on October 8, 863, at kimmerghame, in Berwickshire, Scotland. A mere two years after alexander graham bell invented the telephone, 5-year-old Campbell-Swinton had managed to wire a telephone connection between two houses, an early indication of his engineering skills. After graduating from the Cargilfield Trinity School, he attended Fettes College in Edinburgh from 878 through 88, then spent a postgraduate year touring France. In 882, Campbell-Swinton commenced an engineering apprenticeship at Sir William George Armstrong’s works at Elswick in Newcastle. During his five-year tenure there, he solved a problem with insulating electrical wires onboard ships by encasing them in lead. In 887, he left Newcastle bound for London, where he established his own electrical contracting business. He aided guglielmo marconi in gaining an audience for his telegraphic invention by sending a letter of introduction to the chief engineer of the British Post Office, William H. Preece, who invited Marconi to demonstrate his instrument in 896. Also in 896, soon after Wilhelm Röntgen announced his discovery of X-rays, Campbell-Swinton was one of the first scientists to conduct research into the possibility of using radiography for medical applications. He experimented extensively with Crookes tubes (see william crookes), the same apparatus Röntgen had used to discover X-rays, reporting no ill effects on his eyes after many hours of exposure. However, the hazardous effects of X-rays and radiation generally was later established, prompting scientists to take precautionary measures while working with X-rays and radiation. Before the discovery of X-rays, Crookes tubes were used to transmit and receive cathode rays. Campbell-Swinton realized a possible application for these functions—the transmission and reception of images. As early as 903, he commenced preliminary experiments that eventually led to the development of television transmission, though he initially employed not a Crookes tube but a Braun oscilloscope tube, which similarly transmitted and received cathode rays. The next year, he dissolved his company to work independently as an engineering consultant while simultaneously continuing his work on television. His developing theory incorporated the scanning of images by means of electron beams, as well as the synchronization of the transmitter with the receiver. In its June 8, 908, edition, the prominent British science journal Nature published a letter from CampbellSwinton under the headline “Distant Electric Vision” (a precursor to the term “television.”) In it, he explained

how a Nipkow scanning disk (see paul nipkow) could capture magnetic deflections off an image and transmit them line-by-line from one set of cathode-ray tubes to a receiver containing another set, which could display this image on a phosphorus-coated screen. However, he also acknowledged the impossibility of employing his theory in practice within the limitations of electronics technology of that day. Three years later, in his vice-presidential address to the Röntgen Society in London, Campbell-Swinton described an all-electronic television system, replacing the mechanical Nipkow disk with a electron gun that neutralized the charge to create a varying current. However, 20 years passed before the technology caught up with his theory, allowing for the implementation of electronic television. In the meanwhile, Campbell-Swinton worked as an engineer with the W. T. Henley Telegraph Works Company, charles parsons’s Marine Steam Turbine Company, and Crompton Parkinson, Ltd., where he became a director. Campbell-Swinton also spent the end of his career contributing to his field by serving numerous professional societies. He served as manager of the Royal Institution from 92 through 95; as president of the Radio Society of Great Britain from 93 through 92; as vice president and chairman of the council of the Royal Society of Arts from 97 through 99 and 920 to 92; as the vice president of the Institution of Electrical Engineers from 92 through 925; and as a member of the council of the Royal Society in 927 and 929. Campbell-Swinton died in February 930 in London. Two years later, in 932, engineers W. F Tedham and J. D. . McGee developed an all-electronic television system based on Campbell-Swinton’s theory in experiments kept secret even from their bosses at Electric and Musical Industries, Ltd., who had ordered them not to pursue such a line of investigation. The Marconi Company assisted in further development, and by early 937, this electronic system had replaced John Logie Baird’s mechanical system as the standard of television transmission and reception on the British Broadcasting Company (BBC).

Canady, Alexa I.
(950– ) American Neurosurgeon On the first day of her neurosurgery residency at the University of Minnesota, a high-level administrator breezed past her and quipped, “Oh, you must be our new equalopportunity package,” Alexa Irene Canady has recalled. Despite obstacles like this, Canady succeeded in becoming the first African-American female neurosurgeon in



the United States and has been honored along the way by many professional and academic organizations. Her career has included several teaching positions and an appointment as director of neurosurgery at Children’s Hospital of Michigan in Detroit. Born November 7, 950, in Lansing, Michigan, to Elizabeth Hortense Golden Canady, an educational administrator, and Clinton Canady Jr., a dentist, Canady has three brothers: Clinton III, Alan, and Mark. She attended a secondary school where she was the only black girl and described the racism she encountered there in an interview with Brian Lanker, which was published in I Dream A World: Portraits of Black Women Who Changed the World. Canady stated, “During the second grade, I did so well on the California reading test that the teacher thought it was inappropriate for me to have done that well. She lied about what scores were mine, and ultimately, she was fired.” Despite such experiences, Canady’s academic prowess was unscathed, and she was recognized as a National Achievement Scholar by the time she reached high school in the 960s. At the University of Michigan, she started out studying mathematics but switched her emphasis after attending a minority health careers program. She graduated with a B.S. in 97 and an M.D. in 975. While in school, she received the American Medical Women’s Association citation and was elected to Alpha Omega Alpha, an honorary medical society. She completed an internship at New Haven Hospital in Connecticut in 975–76 before moving to the University of Minnesota for her neurosurgery residency, which she completed in 98. Immediately following her residency, Canady was awarded a fellowship in pediatric neurosurgery at Children’s Hospital in Philadelphia, where she also taught neurosurgery at the University of Pennsylvania College of Medicine. In 982, Canady returned to Michigan and took a job in neurosurgery at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit before transferring the following year to pediatric neurosurgery at Children’s Hospital of Michigan. In 986, she was appointed assistant director of neurosurgery, and in 987, she became the director of pediatric neurosurgery. In addition to treating patients and serving in these administrative positions, Canady has also taught at Children’s Hospital of Michigan and was named Teacher of the Year there in 984. In 985, she took a position as a clinical instructor at Wayne State University School of Medicine and then in 987, she accepted a clinical associate professorship there. In June 988, she married George Davis. In 986, Canady was named Woman of the Year by the Detroit chapter of the National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women’s Club. That same year, she was the recipient of the Candace Award, given by the National Coalition of 00 Black Women. She received the University of Michigan Alumnae Council’s 995 Athena

Award. Canady has continued to teach neurosurgery and to treat patients while also mentoring minority students pursuing careers in medicine.

Cannizzaro, Stanislao
(826–90) Italian Chemist Amid the turbulence of political strife in his homeland and in his profession, Stanislao Cannizzaro discovered an unknown chemical reaction, later known as Cannizzaro’s reaction. More importantly Cannizzaro recognized the difference between atomic and molecular weights, a difference that eluded chemists as a result of the limitations imposed by their politicized views of their field. While trying to simplify the contemporary understanding of chemistry for a course he taught, Cannizzaro traced the historical development of atomic chemistry and realized that the distinction between atomic and molecular

Stanislao Cannizzaro, who successfully asserted the validity of Amedeo Avogadro’s discovery of the difference between atomic theory and molecular weights (Smith Collection, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania) 



weights had been made by lorenzo romano amedeo carlo avogadro in 8 but was unrecognized by all save andré-marie ampère, whose sole voice of support was insufficient to save this discovery from obscurity until Cannizzaro asserted its validity convincingly at the 860 Chemical Congress in karlsruhe, Germany. Cannizzaro, the youngest of 0 children, was born on July 3, 826, in Palermo, Sicily. His father was Mariano Cannizzaro, a magistrate and minister of the Palermo police department, and his mother was Anna di Benedetto, of noble Sicilian lineage. Cannizzaro’s family largely supported the Bourbon regime, which ruled Sicily from Naples, but Cannizzaro himself followed in the footsteps of his politically liberal maternal uncles by joining the Sicilian revolution in January 848. By April 849 the rebellion had lost its momentum, and Cannizzaro fled from a death warrant to Marseilles and eventually to Paris. In 856 or 857 Cannizzaro married Henrietta Withers in Florence. The couple had a daughter and a son who became an architect. Cannizzaro’s education in the sciences began in earnest in 84, when he entered medical school at the University of Palermo. Michele Foderà introduced Cannizzaro to biological research, as the two collaborated on a study of the differences between centrifugal and centripetal nerves. At the University of Pisa from 845 until 847 Cannizzaro served as a laboratory assistant under Rafaelle Piria, who first prepared salicylic acid. After Cannizzaro’s flight from Sicily he worked in Michel-Eugène Chevreul’s laboratory in the Jardin des Plantes in Paris, assisting Stanislaus Cloëz in preparing cyanamide. Also in 85 the Technical Institute of Alessandria appointed Cannizzaro as a professor of physics, chemistry, and mechanics. Two years later he discovered the reaction named after him by combining benzaldehyde with a concentrated alcoholic hydroxide, creating equivalent amounts of benzyl alcohol and salt of benzoic acid. Cannizzaro moved on in 855 to a chemistry professorship at the University of Genoa, where he concentrated on teaching because of the school’s lack of laboratory facilities. His mind thus occupied, he focused his attention on clarifying the history and present status of chemistry for his course lectures. In 858 he wrote a letter to Sebastiano de Luca, attempting to simplify the complexities of the previous half-century of developments in the field of chemistry. Cannizzaro published this letter under the title “Sunto di un corso di filosofia chimica fatto nella Reale Università di Genova” in the journal Nuovo cimento that year and as a pamphlet the next year. The subsequent year Cannizzaro expressed the views stated in the letter at the Chemical Congress in karlsruhe, and copies of the pamphlet, which explicated his argument step by step, were distributed after his departure. His message sank in, and the discipline finally adopted Avogadro’s principles after Cannizzaro had championed them so persuasively.

Cannizzaro served as a professor of inorganic and organic chemistry at the University of Palermo from 86 until 87, when he moved to the University of Rome as a professor of chemistry. Cannizzaro represented Palermo in the Italian Senate from 872, and he later became the vice president of the assembly. In 89 the Royal Society of London awarded him the Copley Medal. He died on May 0, 90, in Rome, Italy.

Cannon, Annie Jump
(863–94) American Astronomer Annie Jump Cannon studied more stars than any other person—some 350,000 of them. She perfected a system for classifying stars according to patterns in their light and produced a giant star catalog that astronomers still consult. harlow shapley, director of the Harvard Observatory, called her “one of the leading women astronomers of all time.” Annie Cannon, born on December , 863, spent a happy childhood in a large family in Dover, Delaware. Her father, Wilson, was a wealthy shipbuilder, and her mother, Mary, taught her to recognize constellations, using a textbook from her own school days. The two built a makeshift observatory in their attic, and Annie sometimes climbed through the attic’s trapdoor to watch the stars from the house’s roof. She then returned to bed to read by candlelight, making her father afraid she would start a fire. Even though college education for women was a new and rather shocking idea, Wilson Cannon recognized his daughter’s intelligence and encouraged her to attend Wellesley, a new women’s college in Massachusetts. Annie enjoyed her years there, but she was not prepared for the chilly New England winters. During her first year she had one cold after another. The illnesses damaged her eardrums, producing deafness that became worse as she grew older. After graduation in 884 Cannon returned to her home in Delaware and led a carefree social life. That life ended abruptly when her mother died in 893. The two had been very close, and Cannon could not bear to stay in the places they had shared. She decided to go back to Wellesley instead. She took a year of graduate courses there, then enrolled in 895 as a special student in astronomy at Radcliffe, the women’s college connected with Harvard University, so she could use Harvard’s observatory. To Cannon’s surprise she found a number of other women working at the observatory, including williamina paton stevens fleming. Edward C. Pickering, the observatory’s director, was making a gigantic survey of all the stars in the sky, and he made a point of hiring women to help him. Publicly he stated that he preferred women because they had more patience than men, a better eye for



detail, and smaller hands that could more easily manipulate delicate equipment. However, he also pointed out to the Harvard trustees in 898 that women “were capable of doing as much good routine work as [male] astronomers who would receive much larger salaries. Three or four times as many assistants can thus be employed . . . for a given expenditure.” Pickering’s survey depended on a device called a spectroscope, which converted light from stars or other sources into rainbowlike patterns called spectra. Astronomers had learned to combine a spectroscope, a camera, and a telescope to take pictures of the spectrum made by each star’s light. By studying these spectrograms, as the pictures were called, a trained observer with a magnifying glass could find out which elements the star contained, how hot it was, how big it was, and how fast it moved through space. Annie Cannon joined the Harvard Observatory staff in 896. Pickering by then had accumulated 0 years’ worth of spectrograms, each of which contained the spectra of hundreds of stars, and analyzing them became Cannon’s job. No two stars’ spectra were exactly alike, so she used each star’s spectrum to identify it. She also grouped stars with similar spectra. She refined a classification system that Williamina Fleming had devised, eventually dividing stars into classes that, in order of their surface temperature from hottest to coolest, are designated O, B, A, F G, k, and M. (Generations of astronomy students have , memorized this list by means of the rather sexist sentence “O Be a Fine Girl, kiss Me.”) By 90 astronomers everywhere were using her system. Cannon examined the spectra of an unbelievable 350,000 stars during her lifetime. “Each new spectrum is the gateway to a wonderful new world,” she once said. She grew so expert that she could classify three spectra a minute. She also calculated each star’s position. Her work became the core of the giant Henry Draper Star Catalogue, issued in nine volumes between 98 and 924, and its two extension volumes, issued in 925 and 949. Harlow Shapley, who became director of the Harvard Observatory after Pickering, said that Cannon’s contributions to astronomy make “a structure that probably will never be duplicated . . . by a single individual.” It is still a standard reference for astronomers all over the world. Cannon earned her master’s degree in 907 from Wellesley. In 9 she took over Williamina Fleming’s job as curator of photographs at the Harvard Observatory, a post she held for 27 years. She was also named the William Cranch Bond Astronomer at Harvard in 938, one of the first women to be given a titled appointment by the university. She was elected an honorary member of Britain’s Royal Astronomical Society. Cannon won many awards, including the first honorary doctorate given to a woman by Britain’s prestigious Oxford University (925). She won the Draper Medal of the National Academy of Sciences in 93 (the first gold

Annie Jump Cannon, whose work formed the core of the Henry Draper Star Catalogue, which was published between 1918 and 1949 and is still a primary reference for astronomers (Harvard College Observatory)

medal awarded to a woman by this group) and the Ellen Richards Prize of the Society to Aid Scientific Research by Women in 932. She used the money that came with the Richards Prize to fund an award of her own, the Annie Jump Cannon Prize, to be awarded every third year by the American Astronomical Society to a woman who had given distinguished service to astronomy. Cannon died of heart disease on April 3, 94, at the age of 77.

Cantor, Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp
(845–98) Russian/German Mathematician Although much of Georg Cantor’s work was scorned during his lifetime, his ground-breaking theories are now recognized as the basis of modern mathematical analysis. 



Cantor was the father of set theory—the study of the relationships existing among sets. Through his research in this area he discovered the theory of infinite sets and transfinite numbers (now termed infinite numbers). Prior to Cantor mathematicians deliberately excluded the concept of infinity from their work. Cantor, though, delved into the study of infinite sets and was the first to distinguish between types of infinity, when he posited that there were countable infinite sets and sets having the power of a continuum. As the founder of the Association of German Mathematicians he also played an essential role in promoting the exchange of ideas among German scientists. The Cantor set and the Cantor function are named in his honor. Cantor was born in St. Petersburg, Russia, on March 3, 845, to Georg Waldemar and Maria Böhm Cantor. In 862 Cantor matriculated at the University of Zurich; he transferred to the University of Berlin after his father’s death in 863. He received his doctoral degree in 867. Cantor married Vally Guttmann in 874; with her he had five children. In 869 Cantor took a post at the University of Halle, where he remained until his death. His early work dealt with trigonometric series. In 872 he defined irrational numbers in terms of convergent sequences of rational numbers. The following year he proved that rational numbers are countable—that they can be placed in one-to-one correspondence with natural numbers. In 874 he published a revolutionary paper in Crelle’s Journal that was the foundation of set theory. Any collection of objects is termed a set, and Cantor recognized that studying the relationship of the elements within and between sets could define and clarify several aspects of mathematics. This 874 paper also introduced Cantor’s notion of infinite numbers. Infinity was not a concept invented by Cantor (Zeno of Elea had noted the problem of the infinite in b.c. 450), but his genius lay in his careful application of the concept to mathematics. Prior to Cantor’s 874 treatise, infinity was considered a taboo topic among mathematicians. For instance, karl friedich gauss denied the efficacy of any use of infinity as a mathematical value. Cantor ignored this injunction and proposed two distinct types of infinity. He considered infinite sets not merely as collections of numbers going on “forever” into some nebulous void; instead he viewed them as completed entities, which possessed an actual—though infinite—number of members. He called these actual, infinite numbers transfinite numbers. Cantor’s first enunciation of these concepts yielded a full professorship at Halle in 879, though it also won him the undying enmity of Leopold kronecker, who was so opposed to the ideas that he strove thereafter to stymie Cantor’s career. In a series of papers published between 874 and 897 Cantor proved several of his theories. He determined that the set of integers (the positive and negative numbers , 2, 3, and so on, or 0) had the same number of members

as the sets of even numbers, squares, cubes, and roots to an equation. He proposed that the number of points in a line segment is equal to the number of points in an infinite line, a plane, and all mathematical space. He proved that the number of transcendental numbers (values that can never be the solution to any algebraic equation) was much larger than the number of integers. In addition, Cantor constructed a set (now called the Cantor set) that is self-similar at all scales: That is, a magnified portion of the set is identical to the entire set. He also conceived the Cantor function, a distribution function to define measures of the Cantor set. From 884 Cantor suffered bouts of severe depression. He was repeatedly institutionalized, and eventually he died in an asylum in 98. He received little formal acknowledgment of his work during his lifetime. Nevertheless, his theoretical inventions provide the basis for modern mathematics. He ignited further research into what are now considered fundamental principles. Cantor is considered one of the greatest modern mathematicians.

Cardús, David
(922–2003) Spanish/American Physician The physician David Cardús, a professor of statistics at Rice University in Houston, Texas, was known for his work on experimental exercise, sports medicine, and respiratory processes. Cardús specialized in cardiology and biomathematics, the application of mathematical principles to biological functions. He used computers and mathematical applications to investigate the functions of living organisms. Much of his career was dedicated to studying the physical effects of space travel on humans. He headed a NASA project to develop a spinning sleeping chamber that simulated gravity. Born on August 6, 922, in Barcelona, Spain, Cardús was the son of Jaume and Ferranda Pascual Cardús. In 95 Cardús married Francesca Ribas. The couple had four children. Cardús attended the University of Montpellier in France and earned his B.A. and B.S. degrees in 942. He then entered the University of Barcelona and received his M.D. in 949. Cardús’s medical internship was carried out at the University of Barcelona’s Hospital Clínico, and he completed his residency at Barcelona’s Sanatorio del Puig d’Olena. Cardús then traveled to Paris as a research fellow funded by the French government. He spent two years in Paris studying cardiology then returned to the University of Barcelona for a diploma in cardiology. Cardús then received another research fellowship—a British fellowship to study at the Royal Infirmary at the University of Manchester.



After working at the Royal Infirmary, Cardús moved to the United States. He began work as a research associate at the Lovelace Foundation in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in 957. In 960 Cardús joined the team at Baylor College of Medicine’s Institute for Rehabilitation and Research in Houston, Texas. Not only did he teach in the rehabilitation and physiology departments in the medical school, but he also headed the biomathematics department and the exercise and cardiopulmonary laboratories. Cardús made significant advances in the use of computer technology and telecommunications in rehabilitation, staging a demonstration of such applications in 972 that resulted in a gold medal from the U.S. International Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Cardús was an adjunct faculty member in the department of statistics and mathematical sciences at Rice University and professor of physical medicine and rehabilitation at Baylor College of Medicine. He acted as a planning consultant to the U.S. Public Health Service in the design and construction of health facilities. An active member of a number of professional organizations, he served as president of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology in 993 and was the vice-chairman of the Gordon Conference on Biomathematics in 970. Cardús received many honors and awards from professional societies in both the United States and his home country of Spain, including top prizes from the International American Congress of Rehabilitative Medicine and the American Urological Association. He was also recognized by the American Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation with a writing award. Though Cardús became a U.S. citizen in 969, he remained active in programs with Spain. He served as the president of Spanish Professionals in America and was the chairman of the board of the Institute for Hispanic Culture in Houston. For his scientific contributions Cardús received honors from Spain’s Generalitat de Catalunya and the Instituto Catalan de Cooperación Iberoamericana Fundación Bertran. He died on June 2, 2003, in Houston.

Sadi Carnot, one of the founders of thermodynamics (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives)

Carnot, Nicolas-Léonard-Sadi
(796–832) French Physicist Sadi Carnot’s scientific significance is built upon his only publication, an abstract consideration of an idealized frictionless steam engine that attracted little attention in 824 but subsequently gained much notoriety in connection with the law of conservation of energy as well as the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Both the Carnot cycle and Carnot’s theorem arose from this paper. Carnot was born on June , 796, in the Palais du Petit-Luxembourg in Paris, France. His father, Lazare

Carnot, was known as the “Organizer of Victory” for the French Revolution in 794. Carnot the elder was named as Napoleon’s minister of war in 799; he resigned from political life in 807 to devote himself to science and the education of his children, Sadi and his younger brother, Hippolyte, father of France’s fourth president under the Third Republic. In October 85 the elder Carnot was exiled by the Restoration. After his father’s instruction Carnot attended the École Polytechnique from 82 until October 84, when he graduated sixth in his class. He then matriculated at the École du Génie at Metz as a student second lieutenant, a rank he attained upon graduation in late 86. In 89 Carnot escaped the tedium of his military duties by appointment to the army general staff corps, which allowed him time to attend courses at the Sorbonne, the Collége de France, the École des Mines, and the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers. Carnot’s reputation rests solely on one work, Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, which was published on 



June 2, 824. On June 4 the paper was formally presented to the Académie des Sciences, and on July 26 a favorable review of the text was read to the academy. This review was later published in the August issue of Revue encyclopédique. Carnot was inspired as much by nationalist pride as by scientific curiosity, as the British had established themselves as the primary innovators of the steam engine. Carnot recognized the inefficiency and lack of theoretical foundation of the British work on steam engines, so he set out to address both shortcomings in his own treatise. Carnot based his hypotheses about heat production in a steam engine on the caloric theory of heat, which was later disproved. This basis did not undermine the validity of his results, however. Most significantly Carnot deduced that the efficiency of the engine depended only on the temperature at the heat source and at the heat sink, and not on the temperature of the working substance. The first deduction amounted to the Carnot cycle; the second was known as Carnot’s theorem. It is not known why Carnot’s paper did not generate more initial interest. Émile Clapeyron, a railroad engineer, picked up on Carnot’s ideas in 834, extending his hypotheses. Not until 849 was the true scientific significance of Carnot’s paper fully acknowledged by scientists of the status of William Thomson and Rudolph Clausius. From that time forward Carnot was credited as a founder of thermodynamics. Unfortunately he was not alive to enjoy this recognition, as he had died of cholera on August 24, 832, in Paris.

Carothers, E. (Estella) Eleanor
(882–957) American Zoologist and Geneticist In a peripatetic career that took her from her home state of kansas to Pennsylvania to Iowa and back to kansas, Eleanor Carothers focused her studies on the cellular development and genetic makeup of grasshoppers. She also taught zoology at the University of Pennsylvania before devoting more than 36 years as a laboratory researcher. E. Eleanor Carothers was born in Newton, kansas, a small prairie town near Wichita, on December 4, 882. There is no information about her family other than the names of her parents, Z. W. Carothers and Mary Bates Carothers. She apparently never married nor had children. Carothers began her studies at Nickerson Normal College but transferred to the University of kansas where she completed her undergraduate degree, a liberal arts course of studies in which she would have had the standard science courses such as chemistry and biology. She graduated from the University of kansas in 9 and the following year earned a master’s degree in zoology from the Univer-

sity of kansas. Carothers won the University of Pennsylvania’s Pepper Fellowship in 93, which helped her begin her doctoral studies at that institution. She studied and did lab work for three years at the University of Pennsylvania, completing her Ph.D. in zoology in 96. As part of her studies, she did fieldwork in the American Southwest in 95, probably collecting grasshoppers, which were becoming the focus of her research. From 94 to 936, Eleanor Carothers served as an assistant professor of zoology at the University of Pennsylvania. Teaching took part of her time and lab work all the time that remained. A lot of Carothers’s lab work was done on an independent contract basis for the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory in Massachusetts. Carothers’s zoological specialty was entomology, the study of insects, which she narrowed down even further to the study of Orthoptera, an insect order characterized by biting mouths, two pairs of wings, and incomplete metamorphosis. These include grasshoppers, crickets, and mantises. Carothers chose to study grasshoppers. Her work on grasshoppers centered on the genetics and cytology of these creatures. She looked at the differences in heteromorphic homologous chromosomes among different species of grasshoppers and gathered data and offered suggestions about the influence of cytology on heredity. Carothers published papers that summarized the findings of her research in the Journal of Morphology, Quarterly Review of Biology, Proceedings of the Entomological Society, and Biological Bulletin. Descriptions of Carothers’s work for Woods Hole were published annually by the Marine Biological Laboratory. In 936, Carothers left the University of Pennsylvania to return to the Midwest where she became a research associate at the University of Iowa’s zoology department. At the University of Iowa, Carothers did research on the physiology and cytology of normal cells. Funding for this research came from a grant that she received from the Rockefeller Foundation. Carothers worked at the University of Iowa until 94 when she moved to kingman, kansas, a small town on the Great Plains not far from where she was born. From kingman, she continued to work as a researcher for the Marine Biological Lab at Woods Hole until her death in 957. For her work in zoology and genetics, Carothers was cited with a star, an indication of especially high status, in the 927 American Men of Science.

Carothers, Wallace Hume
(896–937) American Chemist Wallace Hume Carothers helped to establish the study and synthesis of polymers, or sets of large molecules in long,



repetitive chains. He discovered a synthetic rubber, which the DuPont Company, where he worked for the last decade of his career, dubbed “neoprene.” His theoretical and laboratory work resulted in the discovery of nylon by his team of researchers after his death. He was responsible for more than 50 patents, a testament to his scientific creativity. Carothers was born on April 27, 896, in Burlington, Iowa, the eldest of four children born to Mary Evalina McMullin. His father, Ira Carothers, taught in a country school from the age of nineteen, working his way up to eventually become the vice president of the Capital City Commercial College in Des Moines, Iowa. His favorite sister, Isobel, went by the name “Lu” in the musical trio that became popular on radio, Clara, Lu, and Em. Carothers graduated from North High School in Des Moines in 94, and matriculated at his father’s institution, the Capital City Commercial College, where he studied accounting. He completed the requirements in accounting in a mere year, graduating in 95. Tarkio College in Missouri offered him a teaching assistantship in accounting while he studied science. After Carothers completed all the chemistry courses in the school’s curriculum, the head of the chemistry department, Arthur M. Pardee, departed for World War I. Carothers, who failed his physical examination and hence could not serve in the military, took over the helm of the chemistry department in Pardee’s absence. He graduated from Tarkio in 920 with a bachelor of science degree. Carothers pursued graduate study at the University of Illinois, completing his master of science degree in chemistry in one year. He again secured a teaching position thanks to Pardee, who offered him a one-year appointment at the University of South Dakota. Carothers returned to the University of Illinois in 922 to continue with doctoral study. In 923 and 924, the chemistry department granted him its highest award, the Carr fellowship. He wrote his dissertation under Roger Adams on aldehydes in reactions catalyzed by platinum. After earning his Ph.D. in 924, the department of chemistry offered him a position, so he stayed on at the University of Illinois. Also in 924, Carothers published one of his first papers, “The Double Bond,” in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, in which he applied physicist Irving Langmuir’s notions of the double bonds in atoms to organic chemistry. Two years later, Harvard University hired Carothers as an instructor in organic chemistry; in his second year there, he lectured and served as a lab leader. In 928, the chemical firm E. I. DuPont de Nemours hired him as director of a new research program in charge of a team of chemists at its experimental station in Wilmington, Delaware. In 93, within three years of Carothers’s arrival, DuPont marketed his team’s first major discovery, a polymer that combined vinylacetylene with a chlorine compound to create a rubber analogue commercially dubbed “neoprene.” Next, he attempted to synthesize polymers through polycondensation, or the removal of water (or

similar liquids) from a substance. He experimented with combinations of dibasic acids and dihydroxy compounds, producing numerous unmarketable polyesters and leaving other samples for future analysis. Over his nine years with DuPont, he published 62 technical papers, 3 of which collectively presented his theory of polymer generation and his vocabulary for this new form of chemical synthesis. He also filed for 69 patents, receiving more than 50. In 936, the National Academy of Sciences inducted Carothers into its fellowship, the first industrial chemist in its ranks. On February 2, 936, Carothers married Helen Everett Sweetman, a fellow DuPont employee. She became pregnant the next year. However, Carothers did not live to see the birth of their child. The death of his favorite sister, Isobel, triggered a downward spiral in his manic-depressive tendencies. A colleague noticed him taking home a vial of cyanide but did not realize that he intended to commit suicide. On April 29, 937, Carothers ingested the poison and died in Philadelphia. Two of Carothers’s creations appeared posthumously: On November 27, 937, his wife gave birth to their only daughter, Jane; and in September 938, DuPont first marketed nylon, which had been called “Tiber 66” as an untested sample in Carothers’s lab. He had combined adipic acid with hexamethylene-diamine to create a dualstranded polymer with six carbons on each side (hence the numeration). Nylon has since transformed the world with its versatility, and DuPont has continued to earn billions of dollars a year on the product of Carothers’s genius.

Carr, Emma Perry
(880–972) American Chemist A desire to understand the molecular structure of organic compounds led Emma Carr to study the new technique of spectroscopy. During her career she became known as the leading American specialist in ultraviolet spectroscopy. Her research in this field yielded valuable new information about the chemical structure of complicated organic substances such as hydrocarbons. In addition, Carr was the guiding force in building a well-regarded chemistry department at Mount Holyoke College. Emma Carr was born on July 23, 880, in Holmesville, Ohio, the third child of Edmund Cone Carr, a physician, and Mary Jack Carr. Her family encouraged their children to pursue college education. Her brother James followed in his father’s footsteps by becoming a doctor. Another brother, Edmund, became a businessman. Emma was the only one of three sisters who earned an advanced degree and went into a profession. She never married. Carr’s university education began with a year’s study at Ohio State University in 898–99. She then transferred to 



Emma Perry Carr, who was the leading American specialist in ultraviolet spectroscopy during her career (The Mount Holyoke College Archives and Special Collections)

Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts where she studied chemistry and also worked as an assistant in the chemistry department to help pay for her tuition. She attended the University of Chicago for one year (904–05) and attained a B.S. in chemistry there. Carr returned to Mount Holyoke to teach for two years before going back to the University of Chicago to get a Ph.D. in chemistry. She was helped in her doctoral work by Mary E. Wolley Fellowship and Lowenthal Fellowship grants. She was awarded a Ph.D. in 90. After getting her doctorate, Carr returned to Mount Holyoke as an associate professor of chemistry. By 93, at the age of 33, she had been appointed to full professor and head of the chemistry department. Carr proved a popular administrator and teacher. She set up exacting but exciting standards for undergraduates and made herself accessible to the students, living as a head of one residence hall for a while and frequently attending dinners with the students in their dormitories. She also plunged into research. Early on, Carr decided to investigate the use of a newly invented instrument, the spectrograph. Before 920, this instrument, which had originated in Europe, was generally unavailable in the United States. Carr recalled that “I knew nothing about the technique except what I had read in the foreign journals but we went ahead and ordered our first Hilger spectrograph and began work in 93.” She and her students used an ultraviolet spectrograph to get absorption information about cyclopropane, pentenes, and other organic compounds. The spectrograph allowed them to gather more exact information about how these complex molecules bonded.

Carr had wanted to travel to Europe to study how European scientists worked with spectrographs, but she had to wait until the end of World War I to make her first professional visit there. In 99, she studied at Alfred Walter Stewart’s laboratory at Queen’s University in Belfast, Northern Ireland, to learn more about the latest theories and techniques in ultraviolet spectroscopy. By 924, Carr was so proficient in this technique that she was asked to be one of three specialists who would put together a book of absorption spectra data for the International Critical Tables group. She spent a year doing this work at the labs of Victor Henri at the University of Zurich. She also represented the United States at meetings of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists in 926, 927, and 937. By the 940s, Carr’s work with ultraviolet spectroscopy on carbon-carbon bonds caught the attention of the petroleum industry. She gave talks about her work to several petroleum industry groups. Carr taught at Mount Holyoke until 946. During her time as chairwoman of the department, 43 of her undergraduate students went on to get Ph.D.s. Emma Carr was repeatedly honored for her work. In 937, she was the first woman to be presented the American Chemical Society’s (ACS) Garvin Award. She also received honorary degrees from Allegheny College (939), Russell Sage College (94), and Hood College (957). In 957, she and her friend and colleague, mary sherrill, were awarded the James Flack Norris Award for excellence in teaching by the northeastern section of the ACS. Carr died on January 7, 972, at the age of 92, in Evanston, Illinois.

Carrel, Alexis
(873–944) French Surgeon, Biologist Outspoken and controversial, Alexis Carrel was a pioneering surgeon who developed techniques for suturing together blood vessels. Carrel also studied organ and blood vessel transplantation and researched tissue culture, working toward the artificial maintenance of tissues and organs. His research advanced the study of viruses and facilitated the development of vaccines. For his breakthrough work on vascular ligature and the grafting of organs and blood vessels Carrel was awarded the 92 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. Born on June 28, 873, in Sante-Foy-les-Lyon, France, Carrel was the oldest of three children born to Anne-Marie Ricard and Alexis-Carrel Billiard, a textile manufacturer. Carrel’s family was devoutly Roman Catholic, and after the death of his father when Carrel was only five years old, he and his siblings were raised by their caring mother. Carrel



developed an early interest in science and medicine, dissecting birds and conducting chemistry experiments. After attending Jesuit schools and earning two bachelor’s degrees, Carrel entered the University of Lyons in 89 to study medicine. He spent nine years gaining his education, and in addition to his classwork he gained hands-on experience working as an army surgeon and in local medical facilities. After receiving his M.D. in 900, Carrel remained at the University of Lyons, hoping to gain a permanent position. Carrel began investigating methods for suturing severed blood vessels back together shortly after earning his medical degree. After teaching himself how to sew with a needle and thread, he developed ways to minimize the risk of infection and blood clots. Carrel publicized his discoveries in a medical journal in 902. Because his work was not well received by French colleagues, Carrel traveled in 904 to Montreal, Canada. Soon he was offered a position in physiology at the University of Chicago, where he worked from 904 to 906. During that time Carrel continued his studies of vascular surgery. His suturing methods led him to consider organ transplantation and blood transfusion, and Carrel conducted numerous experiments on dogs, successfully transplanting kidneys. Carrel’s recognition grew as a result of these transplants. In 906 Carrel accepted a position at the new Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University) in New York City. The facility was dedicated solely to medical research and allowed Carrel to extend his work on blood vessels. At the time, because it was not known how to prevent blood from clotting, storage of blood was impossible; Carrel’s methods made blood transfusions feasible. He also began to consider the possibility of keeping human tissues and organs alive outside the body. Of particular interest to Carrel was the process of pumping blood through an organ via artificial means to keep the organ viable, the technique known as perfusion. In 92 he extracted the heart tissue of a chicken embryo; he kept it alive in the laboratory for 34 years. During World War I Carrel directed an army hospital for the French government. There he and the biochemist Henry D. Dakin developed a technique for cleaning deep wounds to stop infection. This technique, known as the Carrel-Dakin method, helped stave off gangrene in wounded soldiers. After the war Carrel returned to the Rockefeller Institute to continue his tissue culture research. With the aviator Charles A. Lindbergh, Carrel developed a socalled artificial heart, or perfusion pump, that was able to keep organs alive up to several weeks. In addition to the Nobel Prize, Carrel was awarded the 93 Nordhoff-Jung Cancer Prize. After retiring from the Rockefeller Institute in 939, he returned to France. Carrel was married to a surgical nurse, Anne-Marie Laure de Meyrie, a Roman Catholic widow with one son, from 93

until his death in 944. They had no children. Although he led a somewhat controversial life, his contributions to medical science are undeniable. His research resulted in a number of new options for the medical community and greatly advanced vascular surgery

Carruthers, George R.
(939– ) American Astrophysicist The astrophysicist George R. Carruthers is known for his development of a camera/spectrograph that utilized ultraviolet light to photograph the Earth’s atmosphere from the Moon’s surface. His invention was taken aboard Apollo 16 in 972 and traveled to the Moon. The images captured during this mission provided new insight into interstellar gases and the amount of pollution in the Earth’s atmosphere. Carruthers has also worked on electronic telescopes and computer-controlled space cameras. Born on October , 939, in Cincinnati, Ohio, Carruthers showed an early interest in physics and astronomy. His father, whose name was also George, was a civil engineer, and his mother was Sophia Carruthers. The family moved to Milford, Ohio, a suburb of Cincinnati, when George was seven years old. There Carruthers became more interested in space exploration, influenced at first by comic books and later by his father’s astronomy texts; it was his father who encouraged his interests and provided additional scientific books for Carruthers to study. Carruthers built his first telescope when he was 0 years old. When Carruthers was 2 his father died, and the family moved to Chicago, Illinois. In 957, after excelling in science courses in high school, Carruthers entered the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, where he combined the study of astronomy with aeronautical engineering. He earned his bachelor’s degree in physics in 96 and his master’s degree a year later. During his graduate studies at the University of Illinois, Carruthers built a type of rocket engine called a plasma engine and worked on spacecraft design topics. After completing his dissertation on atomic nitrogen recombination, he received his doctorate in aeronautical and astronautical engineering in 964. That same year he became a National Science Foundation fellow and journeyed to Washington, D.C., to study rocket astronomy at the Naval Research Laboratory. While working at the Naval Research Laboratory, Carruthers began investigating how to make imaging instruments that would provide detailed information about outer space. He was chiefly interested in spectroscopy and the measurement of ultraviolet light. Carruthers developed a device for detecting electromagnetic radiation, which he 



patented in 969, then created the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph, an imaging device that could provide information about deep space and about the Earth’s atmosphere. Because the camera was designed to be mounted on the Moon, the resulting images would be free of the distortions caused by the Earth’s atmosphere. The camera was taken on the Apollo 16 mission and collected more than 200 images of space. One significant finding was the discovery of hydrogen in deep space. The photographs also revealed information about the amount of pollution in the Earth’s atmosphere. The camera was subsequently used on Skylab 4 and in other missions to measure the thickness of the ozone layer, an important detail in the planning of environmental regulations. Carruthers continues his research at the Naval Research Laboratory and in past years has worked on the development of electronic telescopes for satellite use, as well as computer-controlled imaging devices. Carruthers teaches occasionally and is active in organizations encouraging young minority students to pursue careers in science and mathematics. He has received numerous honors for his work in astrophysics, including the Arthur S. Fleming Award in 97, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal in 972, the Warner Prize, and the National Civil Service League Exceptional Achievement Award. Carruthers is also a member of a number of professional societies, including the American Astronomical Society. In 2003 Carruthers was inducted into the National Inventor Hall of Fame in Akron, Ohio, and in 2004 he was selected one of the 50 most important blacks in research science. Carruthers married in 973.

Carson, Benjamin S.
(95– ) American Brain Surgeon Benjamin Carson gained acclaim in 987 when he performed surgery to separate a pair of Siamese twins connected at the back of the head. These twins shared a common blood supply to support both of their brains, as well as the rest of their vital organs, so the main challenge of the operation was to establish independent cardiac systems in each. With this achievement Carson overcame the prejudice that his African-American heritage might hamper the scope of his career. Carson was born on September 8, 95. His parents were divorced when he was eight years old. His father was an automobile factory worker and made a comfortable living, but Carson and his older brother, Curtis, lived with their mother, who could not afford to live in the family house that she had won in the divorce settlement. As a

result she had to rent it out to make mortgage payments. She moved the family to Boston for two years to live with her sister before moving her sons back to Detroit to live in a racially integrated neighborhood. After a vision problem was identified, Carson excelled in school. Like his older brother, Carson joined the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) in high school, ascending to the highest rank among ROTC students in the Detroit region. Carson turned down offers of financial support and scholarships to West Point and the University of Michigan in order to attend Yale University. Carson balanced the cerebral and sophisticated atmosphere at Yale with summer jobs such as supervising a trash crew for the Wayne County Highway Department, inspecting line work at an auto assembly plant, and operating a crane at a steel mill. Before graduation in 973 Carson met Candy Rustin, a fellow Yale student from Michigan, and the couple married in 976. Carson was then in his third year of medical school at the University of Michigan, when he developed an easier technique that allowed brain surgeons to locate hidden parts of the brain, thus shortening the duration of brain surgery. Carson earned his M.D. in 977. Although most internships take two years, Carson completed his in one, after which he beat out 30 other applicants for the only available residency in brain surgery, at Johns Hopkins University Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. In his last year of residency Carson developed a method of inducing brain cancer in rabbits, which facilitated the study of treatments. Carson turned down an offer to stay on at Johns Hopkins and accepted an offer from Queen Elizabeth II Medical Center in Perth, Australia, where his first child was born. When Carson returned to the United States, he accepted the offer from Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, where he became an associate professor. It was there in 987 that Carson performed the operation to separate the Siamese twins born earlier that year in Germany. This surgery required consummate skill, as he had to administer 60 blood transfusions and cool the twins’ bodies down to 68 degrees Fahrenheit to slow their bodily functions. The operation also required great endurance, as it lasted 22 hours. Carson awakened both babies after 0 days of induced sleep to find them healthy. The success of this operation earned Carson the reputation as a world-class brain surgeon. Since 984 Carson has been director of the division of pediatric neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins. He is also professor of neurosurgery, plastic surgery, oncology, and pediatrics and codirector of the Johns Hopkins Craniofacial Center. He has written more than 90 neurosurgical publications, been awarded 24 honorary degrees and dozens of national citations of merit. He is also the author of three best-selling books—Gifted Hands, Think Big, and The Big Picture.



Carson, Rachel Louise
(907–964) American Marine Biologist, Ecologist Rachel Carson combined a professional knowledge of science (she trained as a marine biologist) with poetic writing skill to create best-selling books about the sea. Her impact on history, however, resulted from a book she did not really want to write: a warning that unless human exploitation of the environment were curbed, much of nature might be destroyed. Carson’s book Silent Spring introduced the idea of ecology to the American public and almost singlehandedly spawned the environmental movement. Rachel Carson was born in Springdale, Pennsylvania, on May 27, 907. Her father, Robert, sold insurance and real estate. Her family never had much money, but the 65 acres of land around their home near the Allegheny Mountains was rich in natural beauty, which her mother, Maria, taught her to love. “I can remember no time when I wasn’t interested in the out-of-doors and the whole world of nature,” Carson once said. When Carson entered Pennsylvania College for Women (later Chatham College) on a scholarship, she planned to become a writer. A biology class with an inspired teacher made her change her major to zoology, however. She graduated magna cum laude in 929 and obtained another scholarship, to do graduate work at Johns Hopkins University. She also began summer work at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Carson had always loved reading about the sea, and Woods Hole gave her a long-awaited chance not only to see the ocean but also to work in it. She obtained a master’s degree in zoology from Johns Hopkins in 932. Carson taught part-time at Johns Hopkins and at the University of Maryland for several years. Then in 935 her father died suddenly and her mother moved in with her. A year later her older sister also died, orphaning Carson’s two young nieces, Virginia and Marjorie. Carson and her mother adopted the girls. Needing a full-time job to support her family, Carson applied to the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries. In August 936 she was hired as a junior aquatic biologist—one of the first two women employed there for anything except clerical work. Elmer Higgins, Carson’s supervisor, recognized her writing ability and steered most of her work in that direction. He rejected one of her radio scripts, however, saying it was too literary for his purposes. He suggested that she make it into an article for Atlantic Monthly, and it appeared as “Undersea” in the magazine’s September 937 issue. An editor at Simon & Schuster asked Carson to expand her article into a book. The result, Under the Sea Wind, appeared in November 94. Critics liked it, but the United States entered World War II a month later, and

Rachel Carson, whose book Silent Spring is often cited as the inspiration for the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University)

book buyers found themselves with little interest to spare for poetic descriptions of nature. The book sold poorly. Carson continued her writing for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, created in 940 when the Bureau of Fisheries and the Biological Survey merged. She became editor in chief of the agency’s publications division in 947. In 948 she began work on another book, drawing on information about oceanography that the government had obtained during the war. That book, The Sea around Us, described the physical nature of the oceans. It was more scientific and less poetic than Carson’s first book. Published in 95, it became an immediate bestseller, remaining on the New York Times list of top-selling books for a year and a half. It also received many awards, including the National Book Award and the John Burroughs Medal. Suddenly Rachel Carson found herself famous and, for the first time, relatively free of money worries. In June 952 she quit her U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service job to write full-time. A year later she built a home on the Maine coast, surrounded by “salt smell and the sound of water, and the softness of fog.” She shared it with her mother; her niece, Marjorie; and Marjorie’s baby son, Roger. When Marjorie died in 957, Carson adopted Roger and raised him. 



Carson’s third book, The Edge of the Sea, described seashore life. Published in 955, it sold almost as well as The Sea around Us and garnered its own share of awards, including the Achievement Award of the American Association of University Women. The book that gave Rachel Carson a place in history, however, was yet to be written. It grew out of an urgent letter that a friend, Olga Owens Huckins, sent to her in 957 after a plane sprayed clouds of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) over the bird sanctuary that Huckins and her husband owned near Duxbury, Massachusetts. Government officials told Huckins that the spray was a “harmless shower” that would kill only mosquitoes, but the morning after the plane passed over, Huckins found seven dead songbirds. “All of these birds died horribly,” she wrote. “Their bills were gaping open, and their splayed claws were drawn up to their breasts in agony.” Huckins asked Carson’s help in alerting the public to the dangers of pesticides. Silent Spring appeared in 962. It took its title from the “fable” at the book’s beginning, which pictured a spring that was silent because pesticides had destroyed singing birds and much other wildlife. The health of the human beings in her scenario was imperiled as well. This was the only fiction in the book. Carson’s book did more than condemn pesticides. These toxic chemicals, she said, were just one example of humans’ greed, misunderstanding, and exploitation of nature. “The ‘control of nature’ is a phrase conceived in arrogance born of the . . . [belief] . . . that nature exists for the convenience of man.” People failed to understand that all elements of nature, including human beings, are interconnected and that damage to one meant damage to all. Carson used the word ecology, from a Greek word meaning “household,” to describe this relatedness. The reporter Adela Rogers St. Johns wrote that Silent Spring “caused more uproar . . . than any book by a woman author since Uncle Tom’s Cabin started a great war.” The powerful pesticide industry claimed that if Carson’s supposed demand to ban all pesticides—a demand she never actually made—were followed, the country would plunge into a new Dark Age because pest insects would devour its food supplies and insect carriers such as mosquitoes would spread disease everywhere. The media portrayed Carson as an emotional female with no scientific background, ignoring her M.S. degree and years as a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologist. Many scientists took Carson’s side, however. President John F kennedy . appointed a special panel of his Science Advisory Committee to study the issue, and the panel’s 963 report supported most of Carson’s conclusions. Rachel Carson died of breast cancer on April 4, 964. The trend she started, however, did not die. It resulted in the banning of DDT in the United States and the creation

of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Most importantly, it reshaped the way that the American public viewed nature.

Carver, George Washington
(ca. 865–943) American Agricultural Chemist Born in slavery just before the end of the Civil War, George Washington Carver became an agricultural scientist internationally renowned for his role in the diversification of southern agricultural practices, particularly in the peanut and sweet potato crops. He conducted experiments in crop rotation and the restoration of soil fertility, worked with hybrid cotton, and invented useful products from peanuts, sweet potatoes, and Alabama red clay. His successful testimony before the House Ways and Means Committee in 92 on the importance of protecting the U.S. peanut industry earned him an identity as the peanut wizard and resulted in a tariff that protected the domestic peanut crop. Carver’s mother, Mary, was a slave on the farm of Moses and Susan Carver when Carver was born. Although his exact birth date is unknown, it is generally thought that he was born in the spring of 865. His father was said to have been a slave on an adjacent farm, who was killed in an accident soon after Carver’s birth. When Carver was still a young child, his mother disappeared, and Carver and his brother were brought up by Moses and Susan. Even as a child Carver developed a reputation as the neighborhood “plant doctor,” collecting plants and keeping a small plant nursery. Leaving home at the age of 2, Carver began a long journey in search of education that would take him through three states, Missouri, kansas, and Minnesota. In each place Carver found a black family willing to take him in and provide room and board in exchange for chores, while allowing him to attend school during the day. By 89 Carver was enrolled in the Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanics in Ames, Iowa. Here he found success and recognition for his diverse skills. A painting he did during these years, Yucca and Cactus, was exhibited in Cedar Rapids and selected as an Iowa representative for the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 893. Among his fellow students Carver was known as the “doctor” for his way with plants. Awarded his bachelor’s degree in 894 and his master’s degree in 896 by the college now known as Iowa State University, Carver left Iowa to accept a teaching position at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, where he spent the next 47 years. As a researcher at Tuskegee, Carver worked on many projects to improve the prospects for poor southern farm-



ers. He experimented with crop rotation, worked with organic fertilizers, and developed more than 300 products that could be made from peanuts, a staple crop that became even more important when the cotton boll weevil invaded the South, ruining fields of cotton and forcing farmers to grow even more peanuts. He also was instrumental in establishing the first successful agricultural extension programs to teach good farming practices. Carver received many awards during his life, including an invitation to serve on the advisory board of the National Agricultural Society; the Spingarn Medal, awarded by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 923; the Franklin Roosevelt Medal in 937 for “Distinguished Research in Agricultural Chemistry”; and several honorary doctorates. After Carver’s death on January 5, 943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed legislation designating Carver’s Missouri birthplace a national monument.

Caserio, Marjorie Constance Beckett
(929– ) British/American Chemist As a researcher and a teacher, Marjorie Caserio has made significant contributions to the discipline of chemistry. A specialist in physical organic chemistry, Caserio has studied the reactions of carbocyclic ring compounds, bonding and reaction mechanisms of organic sulfur compounds, and has coauthored a standard chemistry textbook, Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry (964). She has also blazed trails for women who want to teach chemistry at the university level. Born in Cricklewood, England, on February 26, 929, to Herbert Cardoza Beckett and Doris May House Beckett, Marjorie Beckett was the second of two children. Her father owned a business that manufactured hotel and restaurant equipment, and the family was prosperous. Beckett was encouraged to pursue a basic education, but university studies did not seem to be included in her family’s plans for her. She married Fred Caserio, also a chemist, in 957 and has two children, Alan and Brian. After graduating from a well-regarded private girls’ school in 944, Marjorie Caserio entered Chelsea College, a technical school that offered vocational studies, courses that prepared its students for university, and an undergraduate college program. Caserio finished her preuniversity courses in 946 and applied for, but was rejected by, the University of London. She then studied chemistry at Chelsea College. She won her B.S. from that institution in 950. Because she received so little support and encouragement from colleges and businesses in the United kingdom, Caserio applied for a grant that would fund study

for a master’s degree in chemistry at a university in the United States. She got this grant and studied at Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania under physical chemist Ernst Berliner. She was awarded an M.A. from Bryn Mawr in 95. Caserio returned to the United kingdom in 95, but again, because she was a woman, she had a hard time finding a job. She worked for a year as the only woman chemist at a research institute but felt stifled and isolated. In 953, she returned to Bryn Mawr to study for a Ph.D., which she won in 956. Caserio’s first job after attaining her Ph.D. was as a postdoctoral researcher at the California Institute of Technology, a position she held from 956 to 965. Working with John D. Roberts, a physical organic chemist, Caserio studied the way three- and four-membered carbocyclic ring compounds reacted with other chemicals as well how diazomethane reacted with alcohols. In 965, Caserio was finally able to land a tenure-track teaching position. She was given an assistant professorship at the University of California (U.C.) at Irvine, near her home of Laguna Beach. She became a full professor there in 972. At U.C. Irvine, Caserio studied the reaction of allenes to other chemicals. She also was one of the first researchers to use nuclear magnetic resonance and ion cyclotron resonance techniques in her studies. Caserio began to take on work in the administration of studies in California. She was chairperson of the U.C. Irvine chemistry department from 986 to 990. In 990, she became vice chancellor of academic affairs at the University of California at San Diego. In 995, she served as interim chancellor prior to retiring in 996. She is a professor emeritus at the University of California, San Diego, and a consultant to the American Chemical Society on graduate education. For recognition of her efforts to advance knowledge in chemistry, Caserio won a Distinguished Teaching Award from U.C. Irvine in 974. She also was awarded a John S. Guggenheim Fellowship in 975, the same year she won the Garvan Award from the American Chemical Institute. Now retired from academia and research, she believes that “nothing we ever do is lost. It comes back to profit us in unexpected ways. It has always been a most gratifying experience to meet the occasional student years later, who volunteers how much s/he enjoyed [a] course or the book [I wrote]. . . . This is what makes a career as an educator so worthwhile.”

Cassini, Giovanni Domenico
(625–72) Italian/French Astronomer Cassini’s laws, expressed in 693, proposed several rules of rotation for the Moon, including that its revolution 



around its own axis coincides with its daily revolution around the Earth and that its tilt remains constant. Cassini also proposed the ovals of Cassini, refuting johann kepler’s claim of elliptical planetary orbits, and observed a gap in the ring system encircling Saturn, which became known as Cassini’s division. Perhaps his most important achievement was his calculation of the astronomical unit, or AU, representing the distance between the Sun and the Earth. Cassini was born on June 8, 625, in Perinaldo, in Imperia, Italy. His parents were Jacopo Cassini, a Tuscan, and Julia Crovesi Cassini. Giovanni Cassini’s son, Jacques; his grandson, César-François; and his great-grandson, Jean-Dominique, all succeeded him as director of the Paris Observatory, a position he held for some 40 years. Cassini was educated at the Jesuit college in Genoa and at the abbey of San Fructuoso. He was persuaded against pursuing astrology by Pico della Mirandola’s pamphlet Disputationes Joannis Pici Mirandolae adversus astrologiam divinatricem. Cassini was also influenced by Giovanni Battista Riccioli, the Jesuit who published Almagestum novum in 65, and Francesco Maria Grimaldi, whose work, De lumine, was published posthumously in 665. These two thinkers instilled in Cassini the importance of precise observation, as well as an intellectual conservatism. The construction of a new meridian, an instrument for solar measurements, to replace the one atop the church of San Petronio in Bologna, which had been blocked by new construction, allowed Cassini to make extremely accurate solar observations. He was invited in 650 by the Bolognese senate to occupy a vacant chair in astronomy at the university. Over the next two decades Cassini made many important astronomical observations. In 656 he published Specimen observationum Bononiensium, in which he recorded information gathered with the new meridian. In 659 he proposed a planetary system that was consistent with the hypotheses of the Danish astronomer tycho brahe. In 66 he developed a way to predict successive phases of solar eclipses by using a method based on the work of johannes kepler. And in 668 he published Ephemerides Bononieses mediceorem siderum, charting the movements of the Medici planets, otherwise known as Jupiter’s moons, which Galileo discovered. Olaus Römer used these tables in 675 to calculate the speed of light. Cassini departed Bologna on February 25, 669, and arrived in Paris on April 4 to fill his new position as the director of the newly constructed Paris Observatory, a post he maintained for the next 40 years. In 673 he became a French citizen, cementing his commitment to the observatory. Here he calculated the rotational periods for Jupiter, Mars, and Venus. He took advantage of the powerful new aerial telescopes to locate four new satellites orbiting Saturn—Iapetus in 67, Rhea in 672, and Dione and Tethys in 664. The next year he confirmed the gap in

Saturn’s rings that William Balle had noticed 0 years earlier. Most importantly, Cassini calculated the astronomical unit, or mean distance between the Sun and the Earth. His figure—87 million miles—gave a much more precise sense of the size of the universe than earlier estimates made by Brahe of 5 million miles and by kepler of 5 million miles. Cassini’s blindness in 70 prevented him from making further observations, and he died two years later, on September 4, 72, in Paris, France. Though he made great contributions to astronomy, many scientists have suggested that had he hypothesized more about the significance of his observations, his contributions might have been even greater.

Cauchy, Augustin-Louis, Baron
(789–857) French Mathematician Sixteen mathematical concepts and theorems bear the name of Cauchy, testimony to his enduring effect on mathematics. He contributed to the understanding of calculus, complex functions, error theory, differential equations, and mechanics. He also introduced a commitment to rigor and exactitude that benefited the field far beyond his specific contributions. Though his extreme political and religious conservatism put him at odds with most of his contemporaries, his professional work did not bear any stains from these conflicts. Cauchy was born on August 2, 789, in Paris, France. His father, Louis-François Cauchy, was a police lieutenant in Paris and the first secretary to the Senate, and his mother, Marie-Madeleine Desestre Cauchy, bore four sons and two daughters. During the Reign of Terror the Cauchy family escaped to the village of Arcueil, where the founders of the Société d’Arcueil surrounded the young Cauchy. The mathematician the marquis pierre-simon de laplace, author of Mécanique celeste, and the chemist Claude-Louis Berthollet particularly influenced him to pursue study of the sciences and mathematics. After the Terror subsided, Cauchy attended the École Centrale du Panthéon. At the age of 6 in 805 he matriculated at the École Polytechnique, and in 807 he moved on to the École des Ponts et Chaussées. In 809 Cauchy became an engineer, working on the Ourcy Canal and the Saint-Cloud bridge that year and the harbor of Cherbourg the next year. In 8 he solved the problem posed to him by Joseph Lagrange as to whether the faces of a convex polyhedron determine its angles. In 82 he solved Fermat’s problem of polygonal numbers. The elegance of his solutions helped establish his reputation as a promising mathematician, so that the École



tutor the duke of Bordeaux, grandson of Charles X. Cauchy returned to France in 838, and his exemption from the oath, because he was an academician, allowed him to resume his teaching positions. In 848 he took up a chair at the Sorbonne. The extremity of Cauchy’s political and religious commitments was matched only by the extremity of his production of mathematical papers. The Academy of Sciences limited the length of paper submissions in response to Cauchy’s prodigious output. He died on May 22 or 23, 857, in Sceaux, France, having promised the academy that in his next paper he would explain the meaning of his previous paper at greater length.

Cavendish, Henry
(73–80) English Physicist, Chemist Henry Cavendish was a wealthy aristocrat who could afford to be odd. His eccentricity extended to his scientific experimentation in that he did not publish much of his own work, which, it was later discovered, anticipated future scientific developments and discoveries. The Cavendish experiment, which measured the density and mass of Earth, was well publicized and earned him a reputation as an important scientist. He also developed the scientific understanding of the composition of air, the composition of water, the nature and properties of hydrogen, and the properties of electricity, to name a few. His work sometimes confused more than it clarified, though, as he confounded his readers by referring to his own unpublished results in published papers. After his death, scientists such as james clerk maxwell delved into his papers to make known and available his prodigious output. Cavendish was born on October 0, 73, in Nice, France. His parents’ marriage joined two aristocratic families, as both his grandfathers were dukes. His father, Lord Charles Cavendish, was the fifth son of the second duke of Devonshire, and his mother, Lady Anne Grey, was the fourth daughter of the duke of kent. She died in 733 of complications that occurred during the birth of Cavendish’s brother Frederick. Cavendish never continued the lineage, however, as he was an infamous misogynist, avoiding contact with women at all costs. Cavendish matriculated at the Hackney Seminary in 742. Between 749 and 753 he studied at Peterhouse College of the University of Cambridge, but he took no degree, because he would have been required to make a statement of adherence to the Church of England. Cavendish did not necessarily require a degree, however, as he inherited a fortune from his uncle, securing his independence. He devoted

Augustin-Louis Cauchy, a mathematician known for the rigor and fervor with which he pursued mathematical problems (The Image Works)

Polytechnique appointed him as a répétiteur in 85; in 86 he was promoted to full professor of mechanics, and the Faculty of Sciences and the Collège de France followed suit with similar appointments. That year he won the Grand Prix from the Institute of France for a paper on wave propagation. In 88 Cauchy married Aloise de Bure, the daughter (or granddaughter) of his publisher. Their two daughters both married counts—the viscount de l’Escalopier and the count of Saint-Pol. Cauchy published a string of important works in the 820s. In 82 he published “Courses on Analysis from the École Royale Polytechnique.” In 822 his work set the foundation for the mathematical theory of elasticity, the contribution that carved his name in the history of scientific discovery. In 823 he published “Résumé of Lessons on Infinitesimal Calculus,” and between 826 and 828 he published “Lessons on the Applications of Infinitesimal Calculus to Geometry.” In the wake of the July Revolution of 830 Cauchy exiled himself rather than swear an oath to the monarch who deposed Charles X. The University of Turin offered him refuge with a chair of mathematical physics, which he held only until 833, when he departed to 



Celsius, Anders
(70–744) Swedish Astronomer Anders Celsius made significant contributions to the field of astronomy, but his lasting significance stemmed from his innovation of the thermometric scale that bore his name. This scale was adopted into the metric system of measurement, as it was based on 00 gradations. Celsius was born on November 27, 70, in Uppsala, Sweden. His father was a professor of astronomy at the University of Uppsala, where Celsius’s uncle and grandfather had held positions. Celsius attended the University of Uppsala himself, studying astronomy, mathematics, and experimental physics. After completing his course of study there, Celsius was appointed secretary of the Uppsala Scientific Society. After graduation from the University of Uppsala, Celsius remained at the university as a professor of mathematics. In 730 the university appointed him to the position of professor of astronomy, and Celsius followed in his father’s footsteps. That year he published one of his first papers, “A Dissertation on a New Method of Determining the Distance of the Sun from the Earth.” In 732 he embarked on a tour of Europe to visit the centers of scientific inquiry—Berlin, Nuremberg, Italy, Paris, and London. While in Nuremberg in 733 Celsius published his collection of 36 observations made between 76 and 732 by him and others of the phenomenon of aurora borealis, otherwise known as northern lights. At the end of this tour in 736 Celsius took part in an expedition to Lapland led by Maupertuis of the Paris Academy of Sciences to measure the arc of the meridian there, in Tornea, Sweden. The guiding principle of this expedition was the goal of verifying Sir isaac newton’s theory that the Earth flattened at the poles, thereby disproving the opposing Cartesian view of the Earth. Similarly in 738 Celsius published his “Disquisition on Observations Made in France for Determining the Shape of the Earth,” a broadside that argued against the views of Jacques Cassini. In 740 Celsius oversaw the construction of the Uppsala observatory, and two years later he supervised the move into the new facility. Celsius subsequently served as the director of the observatory. In 742 he presented a paper before the Swedish Academy of Sciences wherein he laid out his proposal for his new thermometer, based on a scale of 00 intervals or degrees. This scale became known as the Celsius scale as well as the centigrade scale, because of its 00 gradations. Celsius died on April 25, 744, in Uppsala. Five years after his death his colleagues at the Uppsala Observatory inverted the Celsius scale so that 0 degree corresponded to the freezing point of water and 00 degrees corresponded

The Cavendish experiment, which measured the density and mass of the Earth, earned Henry Cavendish a reputation as an important scientist in the late 18th century. (Smith Collection, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania)

much of his wealth to science, acquiring an extensive scientific library and a laboratory filled with scientific apparatus, both of which he made available to other scientists and the general public. Despite the fact that Cavendish kept many of his important discoveries to himself, he did publish many important works. In 766 he published “Three Papers Containing Experiments on Factitious Airs,” in which he called hydrogen “inflammable air” and carbon dioxide “fixed air,” distinguishing these gases as separate from common air. In 784 he published “Experiments on Air,” describing experiments wherein he exploded hydrogen and air, resulting in water with no apparent weight loss. In 798 he used torsion balance to calculate the mean density of the Earth, a method that came to be known as the Cavendish experiment. The preponderance of Cavendish’s work on heat and electricity was not published until 879, when Maxwell collected an edition of his unpublished experiments and papers. In 87 the seventh duke of Devonshire endowed the Cavendish Laboratory, ensuring that Cavendish’s legacy would continue well after his death. Cavendish received recognition in his own lifetime as well, having been elected to the Royal Society in 760 and named one of only eight foreign associates of the Institute of France in 803. Cavendish died on February 24, 80, in London, England.



to the boiling point. The innovation of the Celsius scale was a very important development in science; it standardized temperature recordings and provided a base-0 scale, thus representing a simplification over the existing Fahrenheit scale, which ran from the freezing point of water at 32 degrees to the boiling point of water at 22 degrees.

Chadwick, Sir James
(89–974) English Physicist Sir James Chadwick, in collaboration with his former mentor and fellow nuclear physicist ernest rutherford, hypothesized the existence of neutrally charged ions orbiting the nucleus of atoms, but only after 2 years of searching did Chadwick make the discovery that confirmed the existence of the neutron. This discovery opened the door for new applications of nuclear power, and with the approach of World War II efforts focused on unleashing that immense power through weaponry. Though Chadwick participated in these efforts to devise atomic bombs, he later conceded that this use of his discovery could not justify its negative consequences. In this sense Chadwick’s role as a diplomat and spokesperson proved to be as important as his role as a pure scientist. Chadwick was born on October 20, 89, in Bollington, near Manchester, England. His parents were Ann Mary knowles and John Joseph Chadwick. His father owned a laundry business in Manchester. In 925 Chadwick married Aileen Stewart-Brown, and together the couple had twin daughters. At the age of 6 Chadwick entered the University of Manchester on a scholarship. He pursued physics as a result of incorrect paperwork that he was too unassuming to correct—he had intended to study mathematics. He graduated with first honors in 9 and continued at the university for his master’s degree in 93. He then studied at the Technische Hochschule in Berlin under Hans Geiger, but he was interned for the duration of World War I, during which time he carried out rudimentary experiments to keep his mind occupied. He returned to England to earn his Ph.D. in 92 from the University of Cambridge. Rutherford retained Chadwick at Cambridge in the Cavendish Laboratory as a fellow of Gonville and Caius College and later as an assistant director of research. Together they studied the transmutation of elements by bombarding them with alpha particles. Their results always revealed an inconsistency between the atomic number of the element and its atomic weight. The existence of a neutrally charged particle with a mass equal to a proton’s would solve the problem, so Chadwick and Rutherford searched for years with no luck. In 930

James Chadwick, whose work confirmed the existence of the neutron, opening the door to new applications of nuclear power (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, William G. Myers Collection)

walther wilhelm georg bothe and Hans Becker found unusual radiation emissions, thought to be gamma rays, from beryllium bombarded with alpha particles. Chadwick combined this information with an experiment conducted in 922 by frédéric joliot-curie and irène joliot-curie in which beryllium knocked off hydrogen protons from the absorbing material, paraffin. Chadwick realized that a neutron would have the necessary mass to displace the proton, so he set out to disprove the gamma ray theory and then prove the existence of neutrons. He published his results and explanation in the journal Nature with an article modestly titled “Possible Existence of a Neutron.” Chadwick acted as the spokesperson for the Maud Committee of Britain’s Ministry of Aircraft Production, the group attempting to build an atomic bomb. Chadwick then proceeded to the Manhattan Project, and he later negotiated between the United States and Britain over the rights to joint stockpiles of uranium after the war. Chadwick first 



supported British self-sufficiency with nuclear capabilities, but he later realized the futility of nuclear weapons and worked for disarmament. Chadwick won the 935 Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery of the neutron. He also won the Medal of Merit from the U.S. government in 946 and the Copley Medal from the Royal Society in 950. He died on July 24, 974, in Cambridge.

Chain, Sir Ernst Boris
(906–979) German/British Biochemist Sir Ernst Boris Chain joined the pathologist howard walter florey to isolate, purify, and perform the first clinical trials on penicillin, which had been discovered by Sir alexander fleming in 928. The Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the trio of Chain, Florey, and Fleming the 945 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their work with penicillin. Chain continued to advance the use of penicillin, promoting more efficient means of producing mass quantities and studying related problems, such as bacterial development of immunity to the antibiotic. Chain was born on June 9, 906, in Berlin, Germany. His father, Michael Chain, a Russian immigrant who became a chemical engineer, died in 99. His mother, Margarete Eisner Chain, then supported the family by transforming their home into a guest house. Chain’s mother and sister died in Nazi concentration camps. In 948 Chain married Anne Beloff, a fellow biochemist, and the couple had three children. Chain graduated in 930 from Friedrich-Wilhelm University with degrees in chemistry and physiology. He proceeded to work at the Charité Hospital and the kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin from 930 to 933, when Hitler came to power. Fearing not for his life, as he believed Hitler would eventually be deposed, but for his professional advancement, Chain immigrated to England. He worked under Sir Frederick G. Hopkins at the University of Cambridge from 933 until 935, when Hopkins recommended Chain to Florey, who had just become head of the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology at the University of Oxford. In collaboration with Norman Heatley, Florey and Chain traced Fleming’s work on antibodies back from his discovery of lysozyme to his discovery of penicillin in Penicillium notatum, though Fleming had not been able to identify the active agent. With the assistance of a Rockefeller Foundation grant, Chain, Florey, and Heatley began searching in 938 for this key to penicillin’s efficacy, concentrating large amounts of the mold into tiny amounts

of penicillin powder—25 gallons of mold broth was required to produce one tablet of penicillin. In 94 they finally produced enough of the isolated penicillin to conduct an eight-patient trial that yielded promising results. Chain spent the years during and after World War II advocating the unrestricted use of penicillin. Between 948 and 96 Chain worked as the director of the International Research Center for Chemical Microbiology at the Superior Institute of Health in Rome, which gained an excellent reputation during his tenure. Chain then returned to England to become a professor of biochemistry working at the Wolfson Laboratories of the Imperial College of Science and Technology at the University of London from 96 to 973, when he retired to emeritus status, though he continued on as a senior research fellow until 976. In the 960s Chain discovered penicillinase, an enzyme produced by some bacteria that destroyed penicillin. Throughout his career Chain also studied snake venom, insulin, and tumor metabolism. Besides the Nobel Prize, Chain won the 946 Berzelius Medal and the 954 Paul Ehrlich Centenary Prize. In 969 Queen Elizabeth II knighted him. He died of heart failure on August 2, 979, in Ireland.

Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan
(90–995) Indian/American Astrophysicist Chandrasekhar, or Chandra as he referred to himself, startled astrophysicists in the 930s with his theory on the development of stars, in which he suggested other evolutionary possibilities besides white dwarfs, such as neutron stars and black holes. Resistance to his revolutionary theory within the field delayed its acceptance by two decades and Chandra’s receipt of the Nobel Prize in physics by a half-century; he finally received it in 983 in conjunction with william alfred fowler. Chandra defined the stars that would not devolve into white dwarfs as those larger than .44 times the size of the Sun, a figure also known as the Chandrasekhar limit. Chandra was born on October 9, 90, in Lahore, India (now Pakistan). His father was C. Subrahmanyan Ayyar and his mother was Sutakakshmi Balakrishnan. Chandra was the first son in a large family, with two older sisters, four younger sisters, and three younger brothers. Chandra became interested in science early, following the precedent set by his uncle, Sir chandrasekhara venkata raman, winner of the 930 Nobel Prize for physics. In 937 Chandra wed Lalitha Doraiswamy, in a rare love marriage of two members of the Brahman caste. Chandra attended the Presidency College in Madras as an honors physics student, though he also indulged his



Chicago’s Yerkes Observatory at Williams Bay in Wisconsin, interrupted only by a brief stint at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, where he performed research for the military during World War II. Chandra was promoted to assistant professor of astrophysics in 938, associate professor in 942, professor in 943, and Distinguished Service Professor in 946. In 952 Chandra assumed the title of Morton D. Hull Distinguished Service Professor of Astrophysics in astronomy and physics. In 953 he became a U.S. citizen. Chandra served as the editor in chief of Astrophysical Journal between 952 and 97. He also published many important texts, including Principles of Stellar Dynamics (942), Radiative Transfer (950), Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (96), Truth and Beauty: Aesthetics and Motivations in Science (987), and The Mathematical Theory of Black Holes (983). Chandra’s research included work on the system of energy transfer within stars, stellar evolution, stellar structure, and theories of planetary and stellar atmospheres. Besides the Nobel Prize, Chandra received the 953 Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society and the 962 Royal Medal of the Royal Society. He died on August 2, 995, in Chicago, Illinois.

Chang, Min-Chueh
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, the astrophysicist who introduced the notion of black holes in the 1930s (The University of Chicago.)

(908–99) Chinese/American Biologist Min-Chueh Chang’s development of oral contraception with Gregory Goodwin Pincus and John Rock transformed human society by divorcing sex from childbearing more effectively than previous forms of contraception. Chang also worked on in vitro fertilization, which led to the advent of test-tube babies, and on embryo transfer, which allowed for more control over farm-animal reproduction. Chang was born on October 0, 908, in Taiyuan, China. His parents were Gen Shu Chang and Shih Laing Chang. Chang married Isabelle C. Chin on May 28, 948, and the couple had three children. Chang’s postsecondary education began at Tsing Hua University in Beijing, where he graduated in 933 with a B.S. degree in animal psychology. He then proceeded to Cambridge University in England to work on animal breeding. He earned his Ph.D. in 94 and stayed on at Cambridge’s School of Agriculture for postdoctoral work in John Hammond’s research group from 94 through 945. In 945 Chang immigrated to the United States to work as a research associate at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, where he remained for the rest of his career. He became a U.S. citizen in 952. In 954 the foundation appointed him as senior and principal scientist. Chang had joined

passion for pure mathematics with the enthusiastic consent of his professors. He earned his M.A. in 930 and proceeded to Trinity College at the University of Cambridge on a scholarship from the Indian government. Over the next several years, Chandra studied internationally with scientific luminaries: In 93 he studied at the Institut für Theoretische Physik in Göttingen, Germany, with max born, and in 932 he studied in Copenhagen, Denmark, under niels henrik david bohr before returning to Trinity, where he earned a fellowship in 934. In 935 he presented a paper to the Royal Astronomical Society outlining his theory on white dwarfs, supernovas, neutron stars, and black holes. The incredulous reception by the prominent astronomer and physicist Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington set the tone for the general rejection of this theory, though other prominent physicists such as Bohr, wolfgang pauli, and paul adrien maurice dirac accepted it. Instead of drawing out that debate, Chandra published his theory in the 939 text An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure. Between 935 and 936 Chandra served as a visiting lecturer in cosmic physics at Harvard. In 937 he commenced a long relationship with the University of 



the faculty of Boston University in 95, and in 96, the university promoted him to the position of professor in reproductive biology. Chang and Pincus commenced their research on oral contraception for humans in 95, focusing on the hormone progesterone, which regulates menstruation. They realized that boosting progesterone levels in the blood could prevent ovulation. After experimenting with many different formulations, they arrived at a combination of three steroid compounds, including both progesterone and estrogen derived from the wild Mexican yam. They then called upon the expertise of John Rock of the Rock Reproduction Clinic in Brookline, Massachusetts, to collaborate with them on further research into the issue. Their attempt to eliminate estrogen from the mix failed, but after reintroduction of estrogen, human trials yielded a 99 percent effectiveness rate. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the pill for mainstream use in 960. Chang also collaborated with Cyril Adams in the 950s on the process of embryo transfer, which was ultimately used for fertilizing farm animals. This line of research also led to Chang’s innovation of in vitro fertilization, or test-tube fertilization followed by the implantation of the fertile egg into the uterus of an infertile woman. Robert Edwards and Patrick Steptoe performed the first successful implantation of a test-tube baby in 978. Chang won multiple awards for his pioneering work. In 950 he received the Ortho Award, followed in 96 by the Ortho Medal. In 954 he won the Lasker Foundation Award. The British Society for the Study of Fertility awarded him its Marshall Medal in 97, and in 983 he received the Pioneer Award from the International Embryo Transfer Society. In 990 he was elected to the U.S. National Academy of the Sciences. Chang died of heart failure on June 5, 99, in Worcester, Massachusetts.

Chang, Sun-Young Alice
(948– ) Chinese/American Mathematician Sun-Young Alice Chang received the 995 Ruth Lyttle Satter Prize in Mathematics from the American Mathematical Society (AMS) in recognition of her “deep contributions” to the understanding of mathematics. This prize specifically honored women for their scientific research, and Chang encouraged women to follow in her footsteps by pursuing advanced study and research in the sciences. Chang was born on March 24, 948, in Ci-an, China. She attended the National University of Taiwan, where she earned her B.S. in 970. She then traveled to the United States to pursue her doctorate at the University of California at Berkeley. She received her Ph.D. in 974, the year

after she entered a marriage that has produced two children. Chang then filled a series of assistant professorships, first at the State University of New York at Buffalo for one year after receiving her doctorate. In 975, the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) appointed her as its Hedrick Assistant Professor of Mathematics, a position she retained until 977. That year, she moved to the University of Maryland at College Park, where she remained until 980 when she returned to UCLA as an associate professor, eventually rising to the rank of full professor. She held a concurrent professorship at the University of California at Berkeley from 988 through 989. For the next two years, she served as the vice president of the AMS. During her first year at UCLA, she filled a Sloan Fellowship for the National Academy of Sciences. A decade later, she served on the academy’s Board of Mathematical Sciences from 990 through 992. During that same period, she was a member of the Advisory Panel for the Mathematical Sciences of the National Science Foundation. At that time, Chang also served on the selection committee for the Noether Lectures of the Association for Women in Mathematics, from 99 through 994. She herself was selected as the featured speaker at the meeting of the International Congress of Mathematicians held in Berkeley in 986. Chang focused her research on geometry and topology, specifically studying nonlinear partial differential equations and isospectral geometry. In January 995, Chang received the Ruth Lyttle Satter Prize in Mathematics from the American Mathematical Society at its 0st annual meeting held in San Francisco. Mathematician joan birman of Columbia University established the prize in 990, named in the memory of her sister, who was a research botanist at the University of Connecticut. The AMS awarded the $4,000 prize every two years to a woman who made an outstanding contribution to the mathematical research in the previous five years. dusa mcduff received the first prize in 99, and 993 recipient lai-sang young served on the selection committee that chose Chang. Chang produced her prizewinning work in collaboration with Paul Yang, Tom Branson, and Matt Gursky, who she thanked in her acceptance speech. This team studied partial differential equations on Riemannian manifolds, specifically focusing on extremal problems in spectral geometry and the compactness of isospectral metrics within a fixed conformal class on a compact 3manifold. Chang focused subsequent research on extremal functions of Sobolev inequalities. After receiving the Satter Prize, Chang served a three-year term on the Editorial Boards Committee of the AMS that ended in 998. In 996 through 997, Chang participated in the University of Texas’s Distinguished Lecturer Series, which addressed graduate students. Chang has encouraged women in particular to pursue mathematics at the graduate level.



Charpak, Georges
(924– ) Polish/French Physicist Georges Charpak’s invention of the multiwire proportional chamber particle detector allowed many other scientists to research particles much more efficiently than they had been able to with previous devices such as the bubble chamber and the cloud chamber, which relied on photographic tracking instead of computerized tracking. Both samuel chao chung ting, who won the Nobel Prize in physics in 976 for his discovery of the J/psi meson, and Carlo Rubbia, who won the Nobel Prize in 984 for his discovery of the W and Z particles, used Charpak’s multiwire chamber in their experimentation. The Swedish Academy of Sciences finally recognized Charpak with a Nobel Prize in physics in 992, almost a quarter-century after he first constructed the device. Charpak was born on August , 924, in Dabrovica, Poland. He migrated to France in 929 with his father, Maurice Charpak, and mother, Anna Szapiro Charpak. Charpak joined the resistance during World War II, but the Vichy government accused him of terrorism and imprisoned him in 943, sending him to Dachau, where he remained until the concentration camp was liberated. He became a French citizen in 946 and married Dominique Vidal in 953. The couple had two sons and one daughter. Upon his return to France Charpak completed his degree in civil engineering at the École des Mines. In 948 he commenced graduate studies in nuclear physics at the Collège de France in Paris, working in the lab of frédéric joliot-curie and earning his Ph.D. in 955. He worked on nuclear physics at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in France before being recruited in 959 by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, where he remained for the rest of his career, with the exception of an appointment as the JoliotCurie professor at the School of Advanced Studies in Physics and Chemistry in Paris, which he accepted in 984. Charpak built his first multiwire proportional tracking chamber in 968. Previous particle chambers relied on photographic tracking of particles, which handled only a fraction of the output of the new particle accelerators. Charpak designed the multiwire chamber with charged wires separated by .2 millimeters and then layered in a gas-filled container. The central wires were charged positively, and the outer wires were charged negatively, so that when particles passed from one charge to another, this activity could be recorded by a computer. The device could handle  million nuclear events per second. This chamber spawned several similar designs, such as the drift chamber and the time projection chamber.

Charpak received numerous honors besides the Nobel Prize in his career. In 985 he was voted a member of the French Academy of Science. In 989 he received the High Energy and Particle Physics Prize from the European Physical Society. Later in his career Charpak devoted his attention to medical and aerospace research. He also founded the SOS committee at CERN to help those imprisoned, as he was, by repressive governments. His work aided, among others, Andrei Sakharov, whose civil rights had been violated by the government of the former Soviet Union. In 200, Charpak received the European Grand Prix for Innovation Award in medical and biological engineering.

Chase, Mary Agnes Meara
(869–963) American Botanist Although lacking a college degree and university training, Agnes Chase made a name for herself as a botanical illustrator and practicing botanist. Her first work in the field of botany was as an illustrator for a private botanist and the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. Chase eventually used this skill to get a job with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). There she learned about the science of botany on the job and eventually became senior USDA botanist. Mary Agnes Meara was born in Iroquois County, Illinois, on April 29, 869, the daughter of an Irish immigrant and blacksmith, Martin John Chase, and Mary Brannick Meara. She was the second youngest of six children. After the death of her father when she was two, Agnes Meara moved with her family to Chicago. Meara studied for a time at a Chicago elementary school but was forced into the job market at a relatively early age to help support her family. She never attended college. While a proofreader and typesetter at a newspaper called the School Herald, Meara met and later married (in 888) the paper’s editor, William Ingraham Chase. Unfortunately, William Chase, who was 5 years older than Agnes Meara, already suffered from an advanced case of tuberculosis. He died within a year of their marriage. While working as a proofreader at another paper, the Inter-Ocean, Chase met the Reverend Ellsworth Hill, a retired minister and part-time bryologist (student of mosses). Chase began accompanying Hill on his field expeditions, and Hill began teaching Chase the basics of botany, especially the identification of mosses. When he discovered that she had a talent for drawing, he put her to work as an unpaid illustrator of the species he collected. This job lead to another unpaid illustrating position, this time with Charles Frederick Millspaugh, the curator of 



botany at the Field Museum of Natural History. In 90, the Reverend Mr. Hill got Chase a better-paying job with the USDA as a meat inspector at the Chicago stockyards. Because of her experience as a botanical illustrator, Chase then applied for and won a job in 903 as a botanical artist at the USDA’s Bureau of Plant Industry in Washington, D.C. She would spend the rest of her working career at the Washington headquarters of the USDA. In 905, Chase was promoted as illustrator for Albert Spear Hitchcock, a senior USDA botanist whose specialty was agrostology, the study of grasses. Again Chase was fortunate in having a mentor who was unconcerned with her lack of formal education. Hitchcock trained Chase in agrostology, and she gradually left illustration work behind for the practice of botany. In 907, she was promoted to the position of scientific assistant; by 923, she had become assistant botanist, then in 925 associate botanist. Following Hitchcock’s death in 935, Chase was made senior botanist for agrostology. In 937, she was appointed custodian of grasses for the U.S. National Museum, a job that required her to oversee the U.S. grass herbarium. Chase was immensely proud of her career, and she also took politics very seriously. At a time when women were discouraged from participating in politics, she became actively engaged as a campaigner for socialist causes, women’s suffrage, and prohibitionism. She once promised to burn any of Woodrow Wilson’s speeches that had the words freedom and liberty in them so long as women were denied the right to vote. She was an early member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the International League of Peace and Freedom. For her scientific work, Chase was given a Certificate of Merit in 956 by the Botanical Society of America. She was awarded a medal by the government of Brazil in 958 for her work in botany in that country, and in 96, she was made a fellow of the Linnaean Society in London. She also finally received her university degree, an honorary D.Sc. from the University of Illinois, in 958. A woman of huge energy, Chase continued to take frequent botanical field trips after her retirement from government service in 939. She died of heart failure on September 4, 963, at age 94.

Chasman, Renate Wiener
(932–977) German/Israeli Physicist As a young refugee from Nazi Germany, Renate Wiener Chasman eventually moved to Israel where she studied physics at the university level. Most of her contributions

to the field were made in the United States, the country in which she lived and worked for most of her adult life. Chasman is best known for her research on atomic particle physics. She studied beta decay in atomic nuclei and later worked on several generations of particle accelerators at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York State. Born on January 0, 932, in Berlin, Germany, to Hans Wiener and Else Scheyer Wiener, Chasman grew up in a Jewish family that suffered the indignities and threats to livelihood and life imposed by the Nazi regime that took power in Germany in 933. Her father, Hans, was a lawyer and founding member of Germany’s Social Democratic party. Even though he wanted to stay in Germany and conduct a political struggle against the Nazis, by 938 he knew that he and his family were in danger of being arrested and sent to a concentration camp. The family fled to Sweden in December 938. After her arrival in Sweden, Renate Chasman and her sister lived in a girls’ home in the north of Sweden for several years. By the time she was of high school age, she had moved back to the capital of Stockholm, where she attended a public school. By the time she entered high school, Chasman knew she wanted to study mathematics and physics. She was encouraged in her intellectual pursuit by her high school math teacher, Gunnar Almquist, who taught her advanced math and physics. After graduation from high school in 950, Chasman decided to move to Israel and attend Hebrew University in Jerusalem. She earned her M.S. in physics from Hebrew University in 955, and in 959, she was awarded a Ph.D. in experimental physics from that same institution. During her doctoral studies, Chasman concentrated on problems associated with beta decay in the atomic nucleus. She developed what are termed Wiener coefficients to express phenomena of parity nonconservation in beta decay mathematically. Chasman’s work on beta decay gained the attention of chien-shiung wu, a professor of physics at Columbia University in New York City and a renowned woman physicist. Wu invited Chasman to work with her at Columbia, so in 959, she moved to the United States. Chasman worked as a research associate in Wu’s lab until 962 when she moved to Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, with her new husband, Chellis Chasman, whom she met while working at Columbia and married in 962. The Chasmans stayed at Yale for only a year before moving again, this time to the Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island. Chasman was to remain at Brookhaven for the rest of her career. By 965, Chasman was working at Brookhaven’s Accelerator Department. She began to conduct theoretical research on the building of a new and improved particle accelerator, a device used to study atomic properties by smashing atomic nuclei and observing the reaction



of the nuclei’s constituent particles. Chasman was a key figure in the redesign of the accelerator’s injector, which boosted the power of the machine. Chasman’s later work at Brookhaven involved theoretical work on the design of lattice configurations that would work with the design of superconducting proton storage rings used in protonproton colliders. She also worked to convert electron synchrotrons to dual uses by tapping ultraviolet and Xray emissions to study phenomena in solid-state physics, chemistry, and biology. In recognition of her work, Chasman was selected to sit on a review committee at the Fermi National Accelerator Lab in Illinois to work as an adviser and visiting scientist at the European CERN accelerator in Switzerland. She died of complications of melanoma on October 7, 977.

Châtelet, Gabrielle-Emilie du
(706–749) French Physicist and Mathematician A daughter of the French aristocracy during the height of the Bourbon monarchy in the 8th century, Emilie du Châtelet’s intellectual audacity stood in marked contrast to the roles women were expected to play in that era. At the age of 27, she became a close friend of the philosopher François Voltaire, who introduced her to the works of Sir Isaac Newton. Châtelet passed Newton’s ideas on to the French public by translating some of his works. She also published several books in which she speculated about the nature of fire and offered an overview of the advances made in physics during her lifetime. Born on December 7, 706, in Paris, Gabrielle-Emilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil was the daughter of LouisNicolas Tonnelier de Breteuil, chief of protocol at Louis XIV’s royal court, and Gabrielle-Anne de Froulay. Both of her parents were from the nobility, and the family owned extensive tracts of land in several provinces of France. In 725, she married Florent-Claude du Châtelet, like Emilie an aristocrat. They had three children. Emilie du Châtelet was unusual for her time in that she was given a thorough and extensive education as a child by private tutors. This was the same education that was provided to boys from wealthy or aristocratic families and included studies in Latin and other European languages, mathematics, and, unusual even for boys, physics. Châtelet’s marriage to her husband was arranged for money and family prestige. There was apparently little love between the two of them. This was not unusual for aristocrats of that time, and it left Emilie du Châtelet with lots of time to read and pursue her studies. The defining moment in her intellectual and emotional life came in

November 733 when she became reacquainted with the famous writer and philosopher, François Voltaire (she had briefly met him as a child). Voltaire and Châtelet immediately recognized that they shared an intellectual and physical attraction. They became lovers, and Voltaire moved into the Châtelet estate at Cirey. This arrangement was acceptable to Florent-Claude du Châtelet because he was often away from the estate with his military career and he also took lovers. During the first year he stayed at Cirey, Voltaire introduced Châtelet to the writing of Isaac Newton. Voltaire had just published his controversial book, Lettres Anglais ou philosophiques (733), which advocated social and political liberalism and got him into hot water with the conservative monarchy in Paris. For Voltaire, Newton’s scientific approach was just as revolutionary as political liberalism. It asserted that scientific truth had to be derived from observation and measurement of the physical world and that theories about the material world should be based on these measurable observations. This approach, backed up by impressive results, confronted a long-standing approach that had been espoused by the French mathematician rené descartes that the world was made from a predetermined, mathematical order that could be understood, without experimentation, through logic and mathematical formula. Emilie du Châtelet immediately rejected her old scientific training and embraced Newton’s ideas. Châtelet’s earliest work was a book about experiments she conducted with fire. The work, Dissertation sur la nature et la propagation du feu (737), was an attempt to understand the process by which mass is converted into energy. The next year, to help spread word of Newton’s insights, Châtelet and Voltaire collaborated on a book about the English scientist entitled Eléments de la philosophie de Newton (738), a work that was officially attributed to Voltaire but that was probably more the product of Châtelet. She followed this in 740 with a physics history and text called Institutions de physique, which examined Newton’s work as well as that of the German mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz. Châtelet spent the last part of her life translating Newton’s Philosophie naturalis principia mathematica into French. This book was published posthumously in 759. Emilie du Châtelet was very much a player in the debate about science and, through her books, an educator to the general public about work that was being done in the sciences during her lifetime. For her efforts, she was voted membership in the Bologna Institute in Italy. She assessed herself accurately when she said, “Judge me for my own merits, or lack of them, but do not look upon me as a mere appendage to this great general or that renowned scholar. . . . I am in my right a whole person, responsible for myself alone.” 



Cherenkov, Pavel Alekseyevich
(904–990) Russian Physicist In 934 Pavel Cherenkov observed a faint blue light emanating from water that was absorbing radiation. At first he presumed this to be the well-established phenomenon of luminescence, but on further investigation he discovered by passing gamma rays through different liquids that the light was not a function of the medium, as with luminescence, but rather a function of the radiation. In 937 ilya mikhailovich frank and igor evgenievich tamm ascertained, by developing and testing a mathematical theory as proof, that the light was emitted by radioactive particles moving faster than the speed of light through liquid. The trio shared the 958 Nobel Prize in physics for their identification and verification of what was called Cherenkov radiation. Understanding of this phenomenon led to the development of the Cherenkov counter, which measures high-energy particles and gained wide usage in physics experiments measuring Cherenkov radiation. Cherenkov was born on July 28, 904, in Novaya Chigla in the Voronezh region of Russia. His parents were Russian peasants. He attended Voronezh University and graduated in 928 with a degree in physics and mathematics. After teaching high school for two years, he commenced graduate studies in physics at the Institute of Physics and Mathematics under Sergei I. Vavilov. The institute relocated to Moscow and was renamed the P. N. Lebedev Institute of Physics. Cherenkov earned his doctorate there in 940 and remained at the institute for the rest of his life. In 953 the institute named him a professor of experimental physics, then promoted him to the position of senior scientific officer. He later headed its department of high-energy physics. Cherenkov gauged the light output from the radiated liquids with unprotected eyes, so he increased his sensitivity to light by blinding his eyes from light for an hour before commencing the experiments, which he performed repeatedly. Using elementary laboratory equipment, Cherenkov exposed weak gamma rays to different liquids and observed the mysterious blue light in every trial, thus verifying the radiation and not the liquids as the source of the light. Furthermore Cherenkov differentiated this radiation from luminescence, which dimmed with additives and was polarized. Frank and Tamm joined Cherenkov in 937 to explain the source of the blue light, which they hypothesized was the visual equivalent of a sonic boom in sound. In other words, light travels fastest in a vacuum, but in a liquid, light travels slower, and this radiation proved fast enough to overtake light. The immediate response to their findings was not promising, but with the escalation of World War II and the

cold war in its wake interest in nuclear physics grew exponentially. Cherenkov counters were commonly used in satellites and balloons studying cosmic rays and in research on radiation under the polar ice caps. In 946 the trio of Cherenkov, Frank, and Tamm won the State Prize from the Soviet government before winning the Nobel Prize. In 970 Cherenkov himself became a member of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. He died on June 6, 990.

Chinn, May Edward
(896–980) American Physician May Edward Chinn confronted dual discrimination as an African-American woman physician, though she persevered to break down barriers preventing her from practicing medicine and conducting research. She was the first African-American woman to graduate from Bellevue Hospital Medical College and the first African-American woman to intern at Harlem Hospital. In her private practice, she provided care for patients who would not otherwise receive treatment due to racism or classism. Later in her career, she performed pioneering research on cancer, helping to develop the Pap smear test for cervical cancer. Chinn was born on April 5, 896, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Her father, William Lafayette, was the son of a plantation slave and her owner; at the age of , he escaped from this Virginia plantation. Her mother, Lulu Ann, was the daughter of a slave and a Chickahominy Native American. She worked as the live-in cook at the Long Island mansion of the Tiffany family of jewelers, who treated Chinn as a family member. Growing up, she attended musical concerts in New York City and learned to play piano, accompanying the singer Paul Robeson in the early 920s. The Tiffany family also taught her the German and French languages. Chinn’s mother, who valued education, saved enough money from cooking to send Chinn to the Bordentown Manual and Training Industrial School, a New Jersey boarding school, until Chinn contracted osteomyelitis of the jaw. Chinn remained in New York City after her surgery there, but she was too poor to finish high school. Despite her lack of a diploma, she took the entrance examination to Columbia Teachers College and passed it, matriculating in 97. Chinn studied her first love, music, until a professor mocked her race as unfit for playing classical music. At the same time, she received high praise for a scientific paper she wrote on sewage disposal, so she changed her major to science. In her senior year, she secured a fulltime position as a lab technician in clinical pathology, so she completed her course work at night to graduate with



a bachelor’s degree in science in 92. She proceeded to study medicine at Bellevue Medical College, becoming its first African-American woman graduate in 926. Rockefeller Institute was prepared to offer Chinn a research fellowship until it learned of her race. Harlem Hospital was the only medical institution in the city that offered Chinn an internship. Although Chinn broke a barrier as the first African-American woman to intern there and to accompany paramedics on ambulance calls, she confronted another obstacle when the hospital refused her practicing privileges there. Chinn established a private practice instead, seeing patients in her office and performing procedures in their homes. This experience prompted her to earn a master’s degree in public health from Columbia University in 933. In 940, Harlem Hospital finally granted Chinn admitting privileges, in part due to Mayor Fiorello La Guardia’s push for integration in the wake of the 935 Harlem riots. Then, in 944, the Strang Clinic hired Chinn to conduct research on cancer, and she remained there for the next 29 years. The Society of Surgical Oncology invited her to become a member, and in 975, she established a society to promote African-American women to attend medical school. She maintained her private practice until the age of 8. While attending a reception at Columbia University in honor of a friend, Chinn collapsed and died on December , 980.

Cho, Alfred Y.
(937– ) Chinese/American Electrical Engineer During his research in the field of solid-state electronics Alfred Cho utilized what he called his “Oriental patience” to do the painstakingly slow and methodical work behind the technology that drives Western culture. His work affected such everyday inventions as the microwave and the compact disk player. Specifically Cho developed a semiconductor preparation process, labeled molecular beam epitaxy, whereby engineers can create synthetic crystalline structures layer by atomic layer. Cho was born on July 0, 937, in Beijing, China. His parents were Mildred Chen and Edward I-Lai Cho, a professor of economics. Cho attended Pui Ching high school in Hong kong until he immigrated to the United States in 955. That year he commenced studying general science at Oklahoma Baptist University. However, Cho wished to study electrical engineering, so he transferred to the University of Illinois in 956. There he earned his bachelor’s degree in 960 and his master’s degree one year later. In 96 Cho moved to Burlington, Massachusetts, to become a research physicist at the Ion Physics Corpora-

tion. The next year in nearby Boston he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. That year he moved on to TRW’s Space Technology Laboratory in Redondo Beach, California, where he worked until 965, at which time he returned to the University of Illinois to pursue a doctorate in electrical engineering. Cho received his Ph.D. in 968, and in June of that year he married Mona Lee Willoughby in Illinois. Together the couple had four children. Also in 968 Cho commenced a long-term relationship with AT&T when he joined the technical staff at the AT&T Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey. He was promoted to the position of department head in 984, and three years later he was named the director of the Materials Processing Research Lab. In 990 he made a parallel move within the company to become the director of semiconductor research. Cho also held a position as an adjunct professor at the University of Illinois. Cho has written over 400 articles about solid-state electronics, most concerning his specialty of molecular beam epitaxy in semiconductors. His periodical publications include “Epitaxy by Periodic Annealing” in Surface Science in 969, “Film Deposition by Molecular Beam Techniques” in Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology in 97, “Growth of Periodic Structures by the Molecular Beam Method” in Applied Physics Letters in 97, and “Growth of III-V Semiconductors by Molecular Beam Epitaxy and Their Properties” in Thin Solid Films in 983. President Bill Clinton presented Cho with the 993 National Medal of Science, and the next year he received a Medal of Honor from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. In addition Cho has received awards from the Electrochemical Society, the American Physical Society, and the Chinese Institute of Engineers. Cho has served on the board of directors of Instruments SA in Edison, New Jersey, and he holds over 40 patents related to molecular beam epitaxy.

Chu, Paul Ching-Wu
(94– ) Chinese/American Physicist Paul Chu is considered one of the most important superconductivity scientists for his 987 discovery of a combination of materials that could conduct electricity at temperatures high enough to allow for cheap, efficient energy production. In 9 Heike kamerlingh Onnes had discovered superconductivity, or the phenomenon whereby metals lose all electrical resistance as they approach the temperature 0 kelvin, creating an extremely efficient electrical system. The use of rare and expensive liquid helium as a medium allowed scientists to reach slightly higher temperatures of superconductivity, but the threshold temperature was 77.4 kelvin, or 



the temperature at which nitrogen liquefies, since nitrogen is plentiful and thus cheap. Chu’s combination of yttrium, barium, and copper proved capable of sustaining superconductivity at 93 kelvin, well above the threshold temperature for nitrogen, thus ushering in a new age of electrical energy production. Chu was born on December 2, 94, in Hunan Province of China. His parents were members of the Nationalist Party and fled to Taiwan in 949. Chu received his baccalaureate of science in 962 from the Cheng kung University. In 965 he received his master of science from Fordham University, in Bronx, New York. He then studied physics at the University of California at San Diego as a research assistant to Bernard T. Matthias, the acknowledged grandfather of superconductivity. In 968 Chu received his Ph.D. in physics, and the same year he married May P. Chern; the couple had two children, Claire and Albert. In 970 Cleveland State University hired Chu as an assistant professor of physics, promoting him to the position of professor of physics by 979, when he departed. That year the University of Houston offered him a professorship of physics, and he soon became the director of the Texas Center for Superconductivity. Besides these university appointments, Chu worked for Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama; and the Los Alamos Science Lab in Los Alamos, New Mexico. In 986 Chu came across a report in Zeitschrift für Physik by k. Alex Müller and Johannes Georg Bednorz on a ceramic material composed of barium, lanthanum, and copper oxide that was able to superconduct at temperatures as high as 35 kelvin. Chu followed this lead in the attempt to break the threshold of 77.4 kelvin, which would allow nitrogen to be used as the medium for superconductivity instead of helium. In the March 2, 987, edition of Physical Review Letters, Chu published his discovery of a mixture of rare earth oxide ceramics that could superconduct electricity at temperatures as high as 93 kelvin. Chu patented what he called “compound -2-3,” or the mixture of yttrium, barium, and copper, as the most efficient superconductor known to humans at the time. Chu’s announcement of his discovery at the March 8, 987, annual meeting of the American Physical Society in New York City was greeted with enthusiasm. Chu received the 988 National Medal of Science and the Comstock Award from the National Academy of Science for his work with superconductivity. In July 200, Chu became president of Hong kong University of Science and Technology and professor of physics there. He is a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Chinese

Academy of Sciences, Academia Sinica, and the Third World Academy of Sciences. His work has resulted in the publication of more than 460 scientific papers.

Clapp, Cornelia M.
(849–934) American Zoologist and Marine Biologist Clapp was an early leader in the investigation of the biological sciences in the United States. Beginning as a gym and math teacher at Mount Holyoke College, she followed her boundless curiosity to become a professor of zoology. She worked in the field of embryology until the opening of Woods Hole Marine Biology Laboratory in Massachusetts, at which time she threw herself into marine biology. She was also a gifted teacher who mentored several generations of women in the biological sciences. Born on March 7, 849, in Montague, Massachusetts, to Richard C. Clapp and Eunice Amelia Slate Clapp, Cornelia Maria Clapp was the oldest child in a family of seven. Because both of her parents were teachers, education was given a high priority in the family. Along with her three brothers and three sisters, she attended primary and secondary schools in Montague. She never married. In 868, at 9, she enrolled in Mount Holyoke Seminary, an early women’s college. At Mount Holyoke, she earned a general liberal arts degree in 87. In 874, after she became interested in biological science, Clapp enrolled in the late (d. 873) famed Harvard biologist louis agassiz’s school on Penikese Island. She studied there, absorbing Agassiz’s methods, for a year. In 889, Clapp earned a Ph.D. from Syracuse University, and in 896, she earned another Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. Clapp began her teaching career immediately after graduating from Mount Holyoke in 87. For a year, she taught Latin at Potter Hall, a boys’ school in Pennsylvania. She then returned to Mount Holyoke to teach but found “to my consternation, I didn’t know what I was to teach.” Her first year she taught math, but by the second year she had switched to biology. She also taught gymnastics until 89. During her first year as a teacher at Mount Holyoke, Clapp collaborated with her former teacher and now colleague, lydia shattuck, on the study of amoebas. They studied these and other microorganisms that they had collected at a pond under the school’s microscope. Clapp’s year on Penikese Island was a turning point in her life and career. Here she received confirmation that she was on the right track: It was best to study nature not out of texts but directly by observation. “I had an opening of doors at Penikese,” she later remembered. “. . . Everybody was talking. Discussions in every corner. I felt my mind going in every direction.” After her stay in Penikese,



Clapp relied much less on standard natural history texts to teach her courses at Mount Holyoke. Instead, she began to immerse her students in direct observation. She had them study the development of a chicken embryo by obtaining a hen and removing an egg every day of the 2-day gestation cycle. The embryo was removed from the egg so that the students could study its daily development. At Penikese, Clapp also got hooked on marine life as a research subject. By the late 880s, she had made this the primary subject of her studies. She spent her first summer of study at Woods Hole in 888 and came back each summer until her death. Because Clapp did not publish many papers about her research, it is not possible to assess her accomplishments as a research scientist. However, it is clear that she was a dedicated and inspiring teacher, and a persistent, if unpublished, student of marine biology. Her peers recognized her effort and talent. She was a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Society of American Zoologists, and Association of American Anatomists. In 906, she was included in American Men of Science, one of only six women selected that year. And in 923, Mount Holyoke named its new science laboratory building, Clapp Laboratories, after her. She died on December 3, 934, at the age of 85.

Clark, Eugenie
(922– ) American Marine Biologist Fascinated by fish and underwater life from an early age, Eugenie Clark has built a career around the study of fish and marine mammal behavior. She was the first to discover the mechanism by which fish such as blowfish puff themselves up for self-protection, and she has discovered and classified many kinds of rare and exotic fish in the Red Sea and Micronesia. She has devoted considerable time to studying shark behavior, and she has become well known to lovers of marine life through her popular writings for a general audience about life in the sea. The only child of Charles Clark and Yumico Mitomi Clark, Eugenie Clark was born on May 4, 922, in New York City. Her father was a barber who died when Eugenie was two. Yumico Clark then raised Eugenie by herself while working as a swimming teacher and a sales clerk behind the counter of a newspaper and cigar stand in a New York athletic club. One of Clark’s first memories of being entranced with fish came when her mother would leave her at the New York Aquarium for several hours on Saturday mornings. While her mother was at work, Eugenie stared transfixed at “the glass tanks with moving creatures in them. . . . I brought my face as close as possible

to the glass and pretended I was walking on the bottom of the sea.” In 95, Clark married Ilias Papakonstantinou, a Greek-born doctor. She had four children with Papakonstantinou, her daughters Hera and Aya, and her sons Tak and Niki. Clark entered Hunter College in New York City in 938 and received a B.S. in zoology there in 942. She had planned to get a job after graduation as an ichthyologist, but the entry of the United States into World War II prevented this from happening. Instead, while she worked as a chemist in a plastics company in New Jersey, she continued her education at night at New York University. She received a master’s degree from there in 949 and a Ph.D. in marine biology in 950. After the war, Clark did her first diving at the Scripps Institute at La Jolla, California. In 949, she was sent by the U.S. Navy to the newly acquired Pacific islands of Guam, Saipan, and the Palaus to inventory the kinds of fish life found in the waters around these islands. The navy wanted to know especially which fish were poisonous. From 950 to 952, Clark was involved in a study of the marine life of the Red Sea from the small Egyptian port town of Ghardaqa. She collected 300 species of fish, including 40 poisonous ones. In 952, she won grants that allowed her to take time to write the first of her books. Entitled Lady with a Spear, it was about her experiences cataloging fish in the Red Sea. From 955 to 975, Clark received 5 grants from the National Science Foundation and other scientific organizations to study fish life around the world. Clark’s book was a commercial success, and in 954, two of its readers, William H. and Anne Vanderbilt, offered Clark a marine biology lab of her own on Florida’s west coast. Clark accepted and in 955 opened the Cape Haze Marine Laboratory in Placida, Florida. Here Clark first began an intensive study of shark behavior. She devised a series of experiments, the first of their kind, designed to show that sharks had intelligence equal to other animal forms such as rats or pigeons. She devised a contraption in the shark tanks that the sharks had to bump with their noses if they wanted food. Within only a few days the sharks had learned how to ask for food. Clark also studied the sexual behavior of groupers and learned that this type of fish can actually change its gender in as fast as 0 seconds, a behavior that helps ensure its survival as a species. From 968 to 992, Clark taught marine biology as a professor at the University of Maryland, where she remains a senior research scientist and professor emerita in the Department of Biology. Since 986, she has also been a consultant and director emerita at the Mote Marine Laboratory. She has won a gold medal from the Society of Women Geographers (975), the John Stoneman Marine Environmental Award (982), the Explorer’s Club Lowell Thomas Award (986), the National Geographic Society’s 



Franklin L. Burr Award (993), and an Emmy Award from Maryland Public Television (996), among many others. She also wrote another popular science book in 968 entitled The Lady and the Shark, telling the general public about her research and trying to allay fear about the shark as a dangerous species. “I think I have tried to give a better reputation to sharks,” Clark has said, “and I feel this is my most worthwhile contribution.”

Clark, Josiah Latimer
(822–898) English Chemist, Electrical and Civil Engineer Josiah Latimer Clark contributed to the advancement of science in diverse ways: He invented the Clark cell; he innovated the pneumatic transfer system; and he founded a company that laid thousands of miles of telegraph cable. While his developments helped promote the dissemination of information, he also served as a repository of information, collecting texts important to the history of scientific thought as well as the ephemera that defined scientific thought in his day—the journals and reports issued by his contemporaries. Clark was born on March 0, 822, in Great Marlow, England. His brother, an engineer named Edwin, helped establish him in the scientific field by offering him a job on the Britannia Tubular Bridge in Wales in 847. His work on this project prompted his promotion to assistant engineer on the Menai Straits Bridge project the next year. Clark went on to distinguish himself as an engineer, concentrating his efforts on developing applications for the emerging field of electrical engineering. As an electrical engineer, Clark invented the “double bell” insulators that safeguarded telegraph wires from overload, an innovation that used to adorn all utility poles. He further advanced telegraphy by founding a company to manufacture telegraph cable. The company produced and laid more than 00,000 miles of submarine cable, creating a global telegraphic network. Clark advanced the short-range transfer of physical objects by inventing the pneumatic transfer tube system. This system, which persists at bank drive-up windows, revolutionized the trading of stocks by allowing for transactions to occur at some distance. In 854, the city of London installed the first pneumatic mail system, a oneand-a-half-inch-wide tube running the 220 yards between the London Stock Exchange and the Central Telegraph Office. A steam engine powered the pneumatic transfer of message cylinders at 20 feet per second, thereby relieving the traffic on the overloaded telegraph lines. Within six years, the system expanded into the R. S. Culler/ R. Sabine radial pneumatic telegraph and mail

system throughout London. Similar systems sprouted throughout Europe: The Berlin stock exchange installed his system in 865, and the city of Paris established a pneumatic mail system in 868. Most major European cities followed suit: Hamburg, Vienna, Prague, Munich, Rome, Naples, Milan, Marseilles, and even Rio de Janeiro in South America all installed the Clark pneumatic system to transfer information faster than previously possible. Clark applied his practical skills to the field of electrochemistry by inventing the Clark cell, familiar to all second-year chemistry students, who recreate his experiment to learn hands-on of its multifold thermodynamic implications. The Clark cell consists of a zinc amalgam anode and a mercury cathode both submerged in a solution saturated with zinc sulphate. Upon heating, the cell generates a constant electromotive force (emf) of .4345 volts at 5 degrees Celsius. Clark effected his lasting impact on science not only through his own experimentation and innovations but also as a bibliophile, ravenously collecting and meticulously chronicling the texts that defined the development of scientific thought. His collection of nearly 6,000 items included some 200 texts dating back to the advent of scientific thought—reporting on the seemingly magical powers of lodestar, the mechanics of the mariner’s compass, and early theories attempting to explain electricity and magnetism. The early collection included works by seminal thinkers from Pliny to Descartes; Clark also chronicled the writings of his near-contemporaries—Franklin, Priestly, Aepinus, and Coulomb, as well as electrophysical treatises by the likes of Volta and Maxwell. Clark also recorded the current development of his field, collecting more than 00 sets of American and European electrotechnical periodicals dating from the 840s to the turn of the century, as well as journals covering telephony, electroplating, and electromagnetic motors. Of course he kept abreast of his own field of specialization, telegraphy. He also collected such obscure documents as regulations, reports, trade catalogs, price lists, and annual reports of telegraphic companies. Clark died on October 30, 898. His library fell into the hands of the American electrical engineer, Schuyler Skaats Wheeler, who purchased the collection in its entirety when it went up on the auction block in 90. Wheeler transported it across the Atlantic to New York City, where he donated it to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. His deed of gift stipulated the cataloguing of the collection, which was to be made available to the public in a reference library. Andrew Carnegie matched Wheeler’s donations to fund the cataloguing effort, and added another $ million on top of that to construct a library to house the collection. In 93, the Wheeler collection joined other collections to form the core of the Engineering Societies Library. In early 995, this library was split up, with the bulk of the collection



transferring to the Linda Hall Library in kansas City, while the Wheeler Collection remained (as stipulated by its donator) in New York City, housed in the Rare Book Collection of the New York Public Library, where it remains.

Clarke, Edith
(883–959) American Electrical Engineer Edith Clarke helped to initiate the technological revolution as a human computer, prefiguring modern computers. In order to facilitate the computation process, Clarke devised charts graphing the functions of technical equations to eliminate the need to solve the problem every time anew. Like a personal computer, she had a strong memory, aiding in her ability to perform long, involved solutions. She entered the field of engineering as the one discipline that proved as interesting intellectually as duplicate whist, an intricate card game. Clarke was born on a farm near Ellicott City, Maryland, on February 0, 883, one of nine children born to Susan Dorsey Owings. When her mother and father, John Ridgely Clarke, a lawyer, died in 897, Clarke attended boarding school and then in 904 spent her inheritance educating herself at Vassar College. She graduated Phi Beta kappa and with honors with A.B. degrees in both mathematics and astronomy in 908. She taught mathematics for the next three years, first at a private girls’ school in San Francisco and then at Marshall College in Huntington, West Virginia. In 9, Clarke returned to her education with the School of Civil Engineering at the University of Wisconsin. However, she forsook her education for work: Her job as a computing assistant under research engineer George A. Campbell for the American Telephone and Telegraph company (AT&T) proved more interesting than school. Clarke spent World War I leading a group of women calculators for the Transmission Department of AT&T while simultaneously taking night courses on radio at Hunter College and electrical engineering at Columbia University. Clarke continued her graduate education at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology starting in 98; the next year, she became the university’s first woman to receive a master’s degree in electrical engineering. Though she could not secure a position as an engineer, she did commence her 26-year relationship with General Electric (GE) by leading a group of human “computers” in the turbine engineering department. In 92, she devised a solution to electrical power transmission line problems with a “graphical calculator,” which she patented. That year, she took a leave of absence from GE to take up a professorship of physics at Constantinople Women’s College (now Istan-

bul American College); upon her return, GE promoted her to the position of engineer. Clarke focused her research on the transmission of electrical energy, writing extensively on the topic. Her first publication, “Transmission Line Calculator,” (which appeared in the June 923 General Electric Review), exemplified her methodology of expediting the work in her industry by charting key calculations. In 932, she won the distinction of writing the best paper in the Northeastern District of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE). She became the first woman to read her paper, entitled “ThreePhase Multiple-Conductor Circuits,” before the congregated AIEE (which elected her a member in 948.) However, her paper had not only intellectual interest but also practical application, addressing the issue of circuit overloading by considering the benefits and detriments of various combinations of multiple conductors. In 943, Clarke published the first volume of her landmark textbook, Circuit Analysis of AC Power Systems, adding a second volume in 950. Five years earlier, she had retired from GE to a farm in Maryland, but she soon found herself back in the scientific community as the first woman appointed by the University of Texas as an electrical engineering professor. Before retiring in 955, she received the Achievement Award from the Society of Women Engineers. Clarke died on October 29, 959, in Olney, Maryland.

Clay-Jolles, Tettje Clasina
(88–972) Dutch Physicist Tettje Clasina Clay-Jolles led a short but significant career as a physicist before she devoted herself to familial duties. She collaborated with her husband to discover that atmospheric radiation varies according to geographic latitude, an assertion that was hotly contested but ultimately proved correct. Clay-Jolles also was one of the first woman scientists in the Netherlands. Clay-Jolles was born in 88 in Assen, in the Netherlands. Her mother was Eva Dina Halbertsma, her father was Maurits Aernout Diederick Jolles, and her two older sisters were Hester and Leida. Clay-Jolles was the first and only girl to attend the local gymnasium, or secondary school. At the end of her six years there, she took both the alpha and beta series examinations, testing her knowledge of the humanities and the sciences, respectively; she passed both tests, an unusual occurrence. Clay-Jolles continued her education at the prestigious University of Groningen, commuting from Assen daily by train. In 903, she transferred to the University of Leiden, where she became one of a very few women studying 



physics. She studied under Heike kamerlingh Onnes, who directed her doctoral research on low-temperature physics. Clay-Jolles met and fell in love with another one of kamerlingh Onnes’s students, Jacob Clay, and the couple married in June 908. She continued writing her thesis until December of that year, when she devoted her life to child-rearing. The couple had three children—a daughter and two sons— that Clay-Jolles raised over the next dozen years. The Institute of Technology in Bandung, Java, appointed Jacob Clay as a professor of physics in 920, so he moved his family there. Clay-Jolles worked as an assistant in a well-appointed laboratory conducting research on vacuum pumps, a technology that she had studied in her days as a graduate student. She assisted her husband by editing (and typing) all of his publications. In 92, the Nobel laureate Hendrik Antoon Lorentz hired her to edit a volume of his lectures for publication, an assignment that acknowledged her expertise as an exacting scientist and scholar. Throughout the 920s, Clay-Jolles collaborated with her husband studying the nature of cosmic rays, radiation in the ultraviolet solar spectrum, and the intensity of atmospheric radiation. This last topic proved controversial, as Clay-Jolles and her husband contended that geographic latitude determined variations in radiation readings, attributing this phenomenon to the differing degree of ultraviolet penetrability in the upper atmosphere and the ozone layer. Jan Boerema and Maarten Pieter Vrij contended that ultraviolet radiation penetrated the atmosphere at the tropics, in contrast to the husband-and-wife team’s findings. Attempting to solve this dispute, Clay-Jolles and her husband measured ultraviolet light at their location in the tropics with a cadmium electrocell, then compared their readings to those recorded by their former colleague from Leiden, Cornelius Braak, who had been the director of the Batavia Observatory. In 933, Clay-Jolles published these findings in the East Indian scientific journal, Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indië, opposite Maarten Vrij’s publication of his findings. That same year, ClayJolles and her husband jointly published an article entitled “Measurements of Ultraviolet Sunlight in the Tropics” in the Proceedings of the Amsterdam Academy of Sciences. Four years earlier, in 929, Jacob Clay had accepted a position as a professor of experimental physics at the University of Amsterdam. Clay-Jolles abandoned her scientific career when the family returned to their homeland. She died in Amsterdam in 972.

Claypool, Edith Jane
(870–95) British/American Pathologist and Zoologist A selfless and dedicated scientist, Edith Jane Claypool was one of the first women to enter the field of medical

pathology. She did valuable research on the cell structure of human blood and tissue that helped doctors diagnose certain infections that appeared similar to tuberculosis. She also worked on a project to develop an improved vaccine for typhoid fever. During this experimentation, she became infected and died of the disease. One of a pair of twins, Edith Claypool was born in Bristol, England, on January , 870. In 879, at age nine, she moved with her twin sister, Agnes (later Agnes Mary Claypool Moody, also a well-known scientist), and her mother and father to the United States. Her father, Edward Waller Claypool, was a professor of natural sciences who had been hired to teach at Buchtel College in Akron, Ohio. Her mother, Jane Trotter Claypool, was a homemaker. Edith Claypool never married. Edith and her sister were given a primary and secondary education at home by their parents, and in 888, Edith enrolled in Buchtel College where she earned an undergraduate degree in biology in 892. The sisters, who were close, then both enrolled in master’s programs at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. They also both took summer seminars at Woods Hole Marine Biology Lab in Massachusetts and eventually ended up teaching together at Wellesley College. At Cornell, Edith began studying blood cells. She won her M.A. from that institution in 893. By 899, Edith Claypool had decided to become a doctor. She entered Cornell University’s medical school and spent two years there before moving to Los Angeles, California, to take care of her dying mother. She finished her medical degree at the University of California, Southern Branch (later UCLA), in 904. Claypool’s career began the year after she finished her M.A. at Cornell. Following an established professional path for women scientists and professionals, she took a teaching job at Wellesley College in 894. Few, if any, jobs were open to women at the older, traditional men’s universities, and fewer jobs still were available to women in business and the professions. Claypool taught zoology, physiology, and histology (animal cellular research) at Wellesley College, and for several years, she also served as head of the department of zoology. By 899, she realized that her true vocation lay in medicine, and she resigned from Wellesley to enroll in the medical school at Cornell. After she moved to California in 90, Claypool again took up teaching for a time at the Throop Polytechnic Institute in Pasadena while she decided what move to make next. In 902, at the same time she enrolled at the University of California medical school, she also began working part-time as a pathologist at a hospital in Los Angeles. She stayed at this hospital after she received her M.D. As a pathologist working for other doctors and surgeons, Claypool gained valuable experience with work being done on vaccines and diagnosing bacterial diseases. By 92, she felt it was time to push herself into new challenges again and left her pathology job in Los Angeles for



laboratory research work at the University of California at Berkeley. For three years at the department of pathology in Berkeley, Claypool worked on techniques to diagnose and cure various lung infections. Her work on a new typhoid vaccine began after the outbreak of World War I in 94. This disease was killing thousands of Allied troops in France, and Claypool and her colleagues were trying to produce a vaccine that was more effective than the one then available. Her death at the too-young age of 45 shocked and saddened her friends and associates, who set up a memorial research fund in her name. The Edith J. Claypool Memorial Fund gives annual grants for research into infectious diseases.

and their findings were kept secret. Thus Cleopatra probably came from a priestly family. She may even have been a priestess in one of the pagan Greek sects whose most important deity was Hermes.

Cobb, Jewel Plummer
(924– ) American Cancer Researcher Jewel Plummer Cobb has excelled not only as a scientist, conducting research and teaching, but also as a college administrator. Born on January 7, 924, in Chicago, she grew up in a family who discussed “science things at the dinner table.” Her father, Frank, was a physician. Carriebel, her mother, taught physical education. Jewel became interested in biology in high school, when she looked through a microscope for the first time. “It was really awe inspiring,” she said. Plummer earned her B.A. at Talladega College in Alabama in 944 and her master’s degree (947) and Ph.D. (950) at New York University. She then joined the Can-

Cleopatra the Alchemist
(ca. fourth century) Egyptian Alchemist, Chemist, and Philosopher Historically, little is known about Cleopatra. She probably lived in the thriving multicultural city of Alexandria sometime during the fourth century. At least one thing about her is known for sure: She was not the much more famous woman who shares her name, the Cleopatra who was a princess of the Ptolemaic dynasty and who loved and betrayed the Roman general Marc Anthony. Cleopatra the Alchemist is known for one surviving work, A Dialogue of Cleopatra and the Philosophers, a record of a conversation she had with a priest and a philosopher about the nature of the alchemical endeavor. In all likelihood, this book is not a verbatim record of an actual conversation but a work of art in which such a conversation is simulated so that the author can make known her beliefs. Because so little is known about the actual Cleopatra, it is impossible to know what education she received. However, assuming she lived in Alexandria, some speculations can be made about the milieu she lived in and her likely education. Although the origins of alchemy undoubtedly run far back in several cultures, including Western culture, western alchemy seems to have come together as a coherent idea around the third century b.c. Originally, the main focus of alchemy was to find chemicals that would simulate gold when applied to various metals. Thus alchemy was, from the beginning, an early form of experimentation in the science of chemistry. It also seems to have been a con game in that in its earliest manifestations, its practitioners seem to have been engaged in trying to pass off alloys of other metals as gold. Later, these mundane concerns disappeared, and alchemy became both a philosophical quest and an ongoing chemical experiment. Also mixed into this practice was worship of the Greek god Hermes, mythical inventor of arts and sciences. The practice was strictly controlled by priests,

Jewel Plummer Cobb, who is renowned as both a cancer researcher and college administrator (Jewel Plummer Cobb) 



cer Research Foundation of Harlem Hospital in New York City, where she worked under another African-American woman scientist, Jane Wright. Wright and Plummer tried to develop a way to test anticancer drugs on cells from a patient’s tumor in the laboratory to determine the best dose to give to the patient. Plummer did the lab work, studying cells under the microscope and making timelapse films to show how they changed after drugs were added. Although the project did not succeed, the researchers learned valuable information about how the drugs affected cancer cells. Plummer left full-time research in 952 and began teaching at the University of Illinois. In 954 she married Roy Cobb, an insurance salesman, and they had a son, Jonathan. She moved to Sarah Lawrence College in 960. There, in addition to teaching, she did research on skin cells, both normal and cancerous, that contain the dark pigment melanin. The Cobbs were divorced in 967, leaving Jewel Cobb with a young son to raise alone. In 969 she became dean of Connecticut College and thus began a third career, that of college administrator. She eventually had to give up research because of the time it demanded. Cobb became dean of Douglass College, the women’s college of Rutgers University, in 976. Then in 98 she became president of the California State University campus at Fullerton. No other African-American woman had headed such a large public university on the West Coast. While there she established two new schools—one of communication and one of engineering and computer science—as well as the campus’s first residence hall. As of 2004, Cobb was president and professor of biological science, emerita, at California State University at Fullerton and trustee professor at California State University, Los Angeles. From her office in Los Angeles she oversees a center that works to improve science education for minority students. She once told an interviewer that she wanted to be remembered as “a black woman who cared very much about what happens to young folks.” In 993, she received the Lifetime Achievement Award or Contributions to the Advancement of Women and Underrepresented Minorities from the National Science Foundation.

Cohen, Stanley H.
(922– ) American Biochemist Stanley Cohen applied his biochemical expertise to the experiments of the Italian-American neurobiologist rita levi-montalcini to discover and identify both nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), substances produced by the body to stimulate the development of

nerve and skin tissue. The pair won the 986 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for this pioneering work. Cohen was born on November 7, 922, in Brooklyn, New York. His parents were Fannie and Louis Cohen, Russian immigrants both. His father was a tailor. Cohen suffered from polio contracted as a child. He developed a permanent limp at this time but eventually overcame the disease. Louis Cohen saved enough money to send his four children to high-quality colleges. Stanley attended Brooklyn College; in 943 he earned a B.A. in chemistry and zoology. He received a scholarship to pursue his master’s degree at Oberlin College, where he received a master’s degree in zoology in 945. Cohen then attended the University of Michigan on a teaching fellowship; he received his Ph.D. in 948 in biochemistry. Between 948 and 952 Cohen worked for the University of Colorado School of Medicine in Denver. In 952 he was appointed as the American Cancer Society postdoctoral fellow in the radiology department at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. The next year he became a research assistant in the zoologist Victor Hamburger’s laboratory, where he worked until 959 alongside Levi-Montalcini. That year he departed for Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, where he served as an assistant professor of biochemistry. In 962 the university promoted him to associate professor status, and in 967 he attained full professorship. When Cohen arrived in St. Louis, Levi-Montalcini had just proved the existence of NGF by injecting tumor cells of male mice into chicken embryos. By 956 Cohen had isolated NGF but he found it a difficult substance to , work with. A fellow biochemist, arthur kornberg, suggested adding snake venom to the extract; the addition not only made the substance easier to handle but also stimulated nerve growth, accelerating the experimental process. Coincidentally Cohen found that the salivary glands of male mice, which were related to the venom sacs of snakes, harbored copious amounts of NGF It was not . until after Cohen’s funding ran out at Hamburger’s lab that a full analysis and identification of the amino acid chains of NGF were completed by other researchers at Washington University in 970. Cohen himself continued his work on growth factors at Vanderbilt, discovering EGF and fully analyzing and identifying its amino acid chains by 972. EGF proved important for burn healing and skin grafting. That Cohen and Levi-Montalcini’s work was largely unrecognized for decades was both a blessing and a curse. They escaped the limelight that can distract scientific concentration, but they lacked acknowledgment of the importance of their work. This recognition did finally come in 982, when Cohen won the Alfred P. Sloan Award. Full recognition followed the awarding of the Nobel Prize in 986, when Cohen also won the National Medal of Sci-



ence and the Albert Lasker Award. Cohen also received institutional recognition that year, when Vanderbilt named him a distinguished professor.

Cohn, Mildred
(93– ) American Biochemist A student of and partner with several future Nobel Prize– winning chemists, Mildred Cohn contributed to humankind’s understanding of biochemical processes through her study of chemical reactions within animal cells. She pioneered the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) devices to study biochemical mechanisms within enzyme reactions. She also studied energy transduction and cellular reactions to the organic substance adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Born in New York City on July 2, 93, Cohn was the second of two children of Isidore Cohn and Bertha klein Cohn, both of whom immigrated from Russia to the United States just after the turn of the century. The education of their children was important to the Cohns. With her parents’ encouragement and because she was a bright child, Mildred moved rapidly through the New York public school system. She graduated from high school in the Bronx in 927 when she was 4 years old. In 938, Cohn married Henry Primakoff. They have three children. Because Cohn came from a poor family, she decided to go to Hunter College in Manhattan. Part of the City College system, it charged its students no tuition. Cohn had realized in high school that she wanted to become a scientist, but she was not sure which scientific discipline to pursue. She liked physics and chemistry equally well. Because Hunter offered a major in chemistry but not physics, she decided on the former. Graduating from Hunter in 93 at the beginning of the Great Depression, Cohn tried but failed to get a scholarship for graduate chemistry studies. She then took the savings she had accumulated from several part-time jobs and entered Columbia University in New York City. There she studied under future Nobel laureate Harold Urey, who inspired her with his passion for chemistry. Because of lack of money, Cohn had to drop out of graduate school after one year. She then took a job with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, a scientific research arm of the federal government. By 934, she had accumulated enough money to return to graduate studies at Columbia. She won her Ph.D. in organic chemistry in 937. After completing her doctorate, Cohn landed a job with biochemist Vincent du Vigneaud at Washington University in St. Louis. Cohn was valuable to du Vigneaud because she had experience at Columbia working with isotopic tracers to examine biochemical reactions in human

and animal cells. At du Vigneaud’s lab, she worked intensively on an assignment given her by her boss, charting the progress of isotopic tracers through the metabolism of sulfur-amino acids. This study enabled Cohn to determine what kinds of chemical reactions were occurring during this cellular process. Cohn worked with du Vigneaud for nine years and followed him when he was offered a job in the New York area. In 946, Cohn returned to Washington University to take a job with a pair of future Nobel laureates, Carl and gerty cori, biochemists who were working on the study of enzymes. This time, Cohn extracted a promise that she could do research on projects of her own choosing. She began using an NMR to track phosphorus as it reacted with ATP, a study that revealed considerable information about the biochemistry of ATP. By 960, Cohn had moved again, this time to the Department of Biophysics at the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania. She became a full professor there in 96 and taught and did research full time until 982, when she retired. For a career of outstanding work, Cohn was awarded the Garvan Medal from the American Chemical Society in 963, the Franklin Institute’s Cresson Medal in 975, the Norwegian Rachel Carson Prize in 999, the Blue Planet Prize in 2000, the National Medal of Science in 983. She holds numerous honorary doctorates from American universities.

Colborn, Theodora
(927– ) American Zoologist and Ecologist Trained her youth as a pharmacist, Theodora Colborn returned to university studies in her fifties to earn a degree in zoology. She was a leader in a series of studies that examined pollutants that seemed to be causing reproduction problems among animals that ate fish from the Great Lakes. As a researcher at the World Wildlife Fund, Colborn has urged that the federal government and state legislatures do more to determine the cause of these pollutants and take actions to stop their use. Theodora Colborn was born on March 28, 927, in New Jersey. She graduated from Rutgers University with a degree in pharmacy, and for 5 years, she worked as a pharmacist in her home state. In 964, she decided to change her life radically by moving to Colorado to become a sheep farmer. In Colorado, she began to connect deeply with nature, and by 98, she had become interested enough in the ecological challenges facing humans and other species that she enrolled in a doctoral zoology program at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. She won her Ph.D. in zoology in 984. 



After earning her Ph.D., Colborn moved to Washington, D.C., and began working with environmental groups. At the Conservation Foundation (which later merged with the World Wildlife Fund), she collaborated on a book that assessed the environmental condition of the Great Lakes. Colborn noted that the amount of industrial pollution that ended up in the lakes had decreased considerably since the 960s. Nonetheless, after a review of scores of scientific papers that had been written about pollution and wildlife along the lake, Colborn noticed that a number of animals that ate fish and lived near the lakes were experiencing problems reproducing healthy offspring. A handful of zoological and ecological studies had examined this problem, and a surprising number of them had determined that these species were producing a high number of sick or deformed babies. The cause of this high mortality among the young of these species, Colborn speculated, might be found in chemicals that affected the hormone production in these animals. Too much or too little hormone production during pregnancy can cause birth defects or the birth of animals with insufficient immune protection. In the latter case, offspring are much more likely to die of diseases that would cause only mild illnesses in healthy animals. Colborn then began looking at the kinds of pollutants that still could be found in the waters of the Great Lakes. In 99, she met and corresponded with a group of scientists to examine which pollutants might affect hormone production in animals. After sifting through stacks of scientific data, Colborn’s group narrowed down a list of 5 chemicals that were likely to have an adverse effect on the hormones of the affected animals. These were chemicals that are used in plastics, pesticides, and common household objects. What these chemicals do when ingested by an animal is mimic the action of a hormone, thus upsetting the delicate hormonal balance in the creature that is needed to produce healthy offspring. The parents of the offspring appear normal; the poisonous effects of the chemicals can be seen only in the offspring. As happened with rachel carson in the 960s, industry groups and other scientists were quick to dispute Colborn’s findings. The argument made against her was that the data was insufficient to clearly establish a link between these chemicals and the birth defects. In the meantime, Colborn continues her research as a senior scientist with the World Wilflife Fund, where she directs the Wildlife and Contaminants Program.

Colden, Jane
(724–766) American Botanist Given a general education that far surpassed that of most women of her time and encouraged in the study of bot-

any by her father, Jane Colden became one of the most celebrated early North American botanists. She was well versed in the botanical classification system established by Carl von Linné (also known as linnaeus), and she discovered and classified a number of plants that grew in New York, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Born on March 27, 724, in Coldengham, the estate of her family in New York’s Hudson River valley, Jane Colden grew up in an illustrious family. Her father, Cadwallader Colden, was a Scot who had been trained in London as a physician. He emigrated to Philadelphia in 70 to establish his medical practice. In 75, he returned to England for a year, during which time he married Alice Christie. Cadwallader and Alice Colden both returned to the British North American colonies in 76; by the early 720s, they were living in the province of New York where Cadwallader had built a successful political career. He became surveyor general of New York and eventually would become lieutenant governor of the province. Jane Colden was the second of 0 children. She did not marry until she was 35, which was late for a woman of her time. Her husband was the physician William Farquhar. The Colden household was typical of the small group of colonial aristocratic intellectuals to which they belonged. There was a fairly substantial library that contained works of philosophy and science as well as some literature. Jane Colden was educated at home in Coldengham by her mother, Alice. There were no public schools then in that relatively remote region of New York. Thus only children of the wealthy received an education, and usually of these privileged children, only the boys were educated. Cadwallader Colden, however, believed that all his children deserved an education. After Jane had received her basic education from her mother, her father gave her an advanced education that centered on the sciences and, in particular, botany. Colden began her training in botany by reading the works of Linnaeus, which her father had translated from Latin to English. From her late teens, that is, from around the early 740s, until 759, Colden sought out plants from the region in which she lived. Because it was then deemed unsuitable for a woman to embark alone on collection expeditions, she probably seldom ventured out to collect plants by herself. But she undoubtedly accompanied others when they went into the fields and woods, and she certainly solicited plant samples from her friends and neighbors. Because of her frequent correspondence with American botanists John and William Bartram, and English botanists Alexander Garden, John Ellis, and others, Colden was aware of the discoveries being made during her life. She compiled a catalog of more than 300 local plants and is credited with the discovery of the northern golden thread and the gardenia, which she named after Alexander Garden. Both of these were at about the same time discovered and named by other, male botanists, so Colden received no credit for these finds.



Colden seems to have ended her botanical research after her marriage to William Farquhar. She died on March 0, 766, after giving birth to a baby that also died. Her work was praised by Alexander Garden as being “extremely accurate.” She was the only woman botanist whose work was included in Linnaeus’s botanical masterwork Species Plantarum.

Cole, Rebecca J.
(846–922) American Physician Rebecca J. Cole was the first African-American woman to graduate from the Women’s Medical College and the second African-American woman in the United States to earn a medical degree, a major accomplishment in the wake of the Civil War. Cole devoted her career, which lasted for 50 years, to improving the health care of women and children, especially those in destitute circumstances. Cole was born on March 6, 846, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She was the second of five children. At a time when education was discouraged for African Americans, Cole studied at the Institute for Colored Youth (now Cheney University). She graduated in 863, and then she taught for a year before pursuing medical studies at the Women’s Medical College (now part of the Allegheny University of the Health Sciences) in Pennsylvania. When she received her M.D. in 867, she was only the second African-American woman to do so (Rebecca Lee Crumpler had graduated from the New England Female Medical College in Boston a mere three years earlier, in 864). The year she earned her medical degree, she moved to New York City, where she went to work as a resident physician for the New York Infirmary for Women and Children. This hospital had been founded in the 850s by women physicians, who both owned and operated it. Hospital cofounder elizabeth blackwell, the first white woman to earn a medical degree in the United States, assigned Cole to the position of sanitary visitor, whereby she educated the poor in their homes throughout the city, demonstrating proper hygiene, prenatal and infant care, and health maintenance. With the mushrooming urban population, Cole’s services were in constant demand, and her caregiving and information dissemination clearly improved the conditions of the poverty-stricken families she visited. Although this work was both physically and emotionally arduous, Cole persevered in this position because she saw that her efforts produced tangible results, raising the standard of living for the families she visited. After her time in New York City, Cole moved to Columbia, South Carolina, where she practiced medicine briefly. She then moved to Washington, D.C., to serve as a superintendent of the Government House for Children

and Old Women. After this stint, she returned to her hometown, Philadelphia, where she set up a private practice in the city’s impoverished South section. In 873, she collaborated with Charlotte Abby, another female physician, to establish the Women’s Directory Center to serve the underprivileged. The mission of this initiative was to provide medical and legal services to women and children throughout the city of Philadelphia who could not otherwise afford these services. In 896, Cole founded the National Association of Colored Women. That year, Cole published an article entitled “First Meeting of the Women’s Missionary Society of Philadelphia” in the October and November edition of The Women’s Era. Cole practiced medicine for 50 years, continuing to provide care for the destitute and overlooked until her death. Cole died in Philadelphia on August 4, 922.

Colmenares, Margarita Hortensia
(957– ) American Environmental Engineer Margarita Colmenares achieved many firsts in her career as an environmental engineer: She was the first Hispanic engineer to serve a White House Fellowship, and she was the first woman president of the Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers (SHPE). In addition, she was often the first woman or the first Latina that many of her colleagues ever worked with; her expertise, efficiency, and excellent communication skills convinced them of the complete competence of women and Hispanics as workers in one of the most challenging professions, engineering. Colmenares was born on July 20, 957, in Sacramento, California, the eldest of five children. Her parents, Luis S. Colmenares and Hortensia O. Colmenares, were immigrants from Oaxaca, Mexico, and believed in education as the key to self-betterment. Despite the financial strain, they sent their daughter to a private all-girls Catholic school, where Colmenares founded a Mexican-American student coalition. She commenced her undergraduate career studying business at California State University in Sacramento but found she was more interested in engineering, so she transferred to Sacramento City College to study chemistry, physics, and calculus, prerequisites for degrees in engineering. She simultaneously worked part-time at the California Department of Water Resources inspecting dams and water-purifying plants. The Engineering School at Stanford University accepted her transfer application, and she financed her study there with five different scholarships. Besides her studies, she also found time to teach, direct, and perform Mexican folk dance with the Stanford Ballet Folklorico. In 98, when she earned her B.S. in 



civil engineering, her mother also received her bachelor’s degree in education after 2 years of part-time study. Between her junior and senior years at Stanford, Colmenares worked for the Chevron Corporation in Texas and California through its Cooperative Education Program. After graduation, she remained with Chevron, where she worked her way up through the ranks from recruiting coordinator at the San Francisco office to field construction engineer in Salt Lake City to foreign trade representative to compliance specialist in Houston. In 986, she became the lead engineer directing an $8-million environmental cleanup project at the Chevron refinery in El Segundo, California, where she then remained after 989 as an air-quality specialist. In 982, Colmenares founded the San Francisco chapter of the SHPE, and seven years later, in 989, the SHPE elected her as its first woman president. She filled this position for one year while still working, but she convinced Chevron to name her executive-on-loan for the next year, granting her a paid leave of absence. Chevron granted her another paid leave from 99 through 992, when she became one of 6 to win a White House Fellowship, the first Hispanic engineer to receive this honor. The White House assigned her to the Department of Education, where she served as a special assistant to deputy secretary David T. kearns. After returning to Chevron in 992 to work on international operations in Latin America, the Department of Education hired Colmenares back in 994 as the director of corporate liaison. In this position, she sought to enhance educational opportunities in collaboration with the industry sector. Although Colmenares’s career is still in its early stages, she has already received numerous honors: In 989 alone, Hispanic Engineer magazine granted her its Community Service Award, Hispanic magazine named her its Outstanding Hispanic Woman of the Year, and the SHPE named her its Hispanic Role Model of the Year. Hispanic Business magazine listed her twice (in 990 and 992) as one of its 00 most influential Hispanics in the United States. In another first, she was the youngest recipient of the California Community College League’s Outstanding Alumni Award.

Colwell, Rita Rossi
(934– ) American Microbiologist Beginning her career as a geneticist, Rita Colwell eventually focused her scientific curiosity on the fields of marine microbiology and biotechnology. She has studied the microbiology of the oceans and estuaries, looked at

how pathogens such as Escherichia coli live in water, and explored ways for humans to harvest marine life such as seaweed. She is also deeply involved in efforts to understand and preserve healthy marine ecology. Born on November 23, 934, in Beverly, Massachusetts, Rita Rossi is the daughter of Louis Rossi and Louise DiPalma Rossi. She married another scientist, Jack Colwell, in 956. She has two daughters. Colwell excelled in chemistry in high school, and even though she was advised by her high school counselors that chemistry was not a field for women, she enrolled in Purdue University in 952 intent on becoming a chemist. After taking large and poorly taught chemistry classes at Purdue, she decided to switch her major to bacteriology; she was awarded a B.S. in this field in 956. After finishing her undergraduate degree, Colwell was accepted into the doctoral program in genetics at the University of Washington. She received her Ph.D. in that field in 96. From 96 to 964, Colwell taught at the University of Washington as an associate professor. She then moved to Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., where she served as an assistant, then associate professor from 964 to 972. She completed her career at the University of Maryland where she began her career as a professor of microbiology. Beginning with her doctoral studies at the University of Washington and continuing through her work at Georgetown University and the University of Maryland, Colwell focused on the study of marine bacteria. She studies all types, those that are harmful to fish life and humans, and those which are beneficial to these life-forms. The dangerous organisms she has studied are the bacteria E. coli, sometimes found in estuary shellfish, and harmful, even deadly, if eaten by humans. She has also looked at the ecology of Vibrio chlorae and the process by which it transmits the disease cholera. She has devised computer programs that help marine microbiologists identify these bacteria. Many of her studies looking at bacteria and the state of the marine ecological systems in which these bacteria are found have centered on the Chesapeake Bay, the most prominent estuary that borders her home state, Maryland. Her studies on the Chesapeake Bay are thorough; they are concerned with not only the bacteria in the bay but the health of its fish and shellfish and the effects of chemical and animal-produced waste that have ended up in the bay. As director of the University of Maryland Sea Grants Program, Colwell has studied and promoted studies that look at the possibility of harvesting medicinal bacterial and plant life from the sea. She believes that the seas are greatly underused as sources of compounds that could yield new drugs, and she has also studied new ways to harvest fish from sea farms and use marine biotechnology to recycle waste. Colwell became director of the National Science Foundation in 998.



For her work in marine microbiology, Colwell has been awarded the Fisher Award from the American Association of Microbiologists (985), the Gold Medal of the International Biotechnology Institute (990), and the Purkinje Gold Medal Achievement Award from the Czechoslovakian Academy of Sciences (99). Her alma mater, Purdue University, awarded her an honorary doctorate in 993.

Colwin, Laura North Hunter
(9– ) American Biologist Fusing her early interest in protozoology with the study of embryology, Laura Colwin became known for her work on the fertilization and reproduction of microscopic organisms such as Protozoa. These are unicellular creatures, many of which occupy an ecological niche as parasites of larger creatures. She also worked on embryology problems for worms and sea creatures such as sea cucumbers. During these studies, she discovered that some of the existing ideas about how these creatures are fertilized were incorrect; her work gave a more accurate description of their reproduction mechanisms. Born on July 5, 9, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Laura Hunter was the daughter of Robert John Hunter, a physician, and Helen Virginia North Hunter, a housewife. Both of Hunter’s parents were well educated (Helen Hunter had majored in German and Latin at Bryn Mawr), and Laura was encouraged to pursue her studies. From an early age, she learned about the natural world by attending lectures and exhibits with her parents at the museum of the University of Pennsylvania. In 940, she married Arthur Lentz Colwin, an embryologist. Colwin attended a public primary school in Philadelphia, but at 3 she enrolled in the Phoebe Anna Thorne School, a private school for girls. The Thorne School was informally affiliated with Bryn Mawr, a women’s college near Philadelphia that Colwin’s mother had attended. Like her mother, Laura Colwin decided to attend Bryn Mawr, enrolling in an undergraduate program there in 928. After taking an introductory biology course, Colwin realized that she wanted to study that discipline. She graduated with a major in biology from Bryn Mawr in 932. She has described this undergraduate experience as “lively, austere, merry . . . irritating [and] invigorating,” something that “marked [her] for life.” Hunter then enrolled in a doctoral program at the University of Pennsylvania. She decided to specialize in protozoology and began studying cilia, protozoans with hairlike strings that float from their bodies and help propel them through their liquid environment. Her mentor in these studies was the protozoologist

D. H. Wenrich. She won an M.A. degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 934 and her Ph.D. in protozoology from the same institution in 938. Colwin’s interest in marine life began when she attended the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Massachusetts in 933. She returned to Woods Hole in 938. A summer institute for the study of ocean life, Woods Hole introduced Colwin to the study and collection of marine organisms. From 936 to 940, Colwin taught biology at Pennsylvania College for Women (now called Chatham College). In 940, after she married Arthur Colwin, she took a job as an instructor of zoology at Vassar College in New York, where she remained until 943. At the end of World War II, Colwin got a job as an untenured instructor at Queen’s College, where her husband also worked. She remained at Queens College until she retired in 973. At Queens College, and during the summers at the MBL in Woods Hole, Colwin concentrated on her research, which she did in collaboration with her husband. Her first project was to study the development of the acorn worm (Saccoglossus kowalevskii) from an embryo into the early part of its life cycle. In doing this work, she realized that information about how the acorn worm’s eggs are fertilized was inaccurate. She pioneered the study of this process in the acorn worm and other organisms through the use of an electron microscope, taking thousands of photos of the fertilization process through this device. In this way, she noted that the sperm of these creatures does not penetrate the egg, but that sperm and egg fuse. For her years of work at their university, the administrators of Queen’s College finally made Laura Colwin a full tenured professor of biology in 966. She is also a member of the American Society for Developmental Biology and the New York Academy of Sciences. From 97 to 975, she was a trustee of the MBL at Woods Hole. In 2002, Laura and Arthur Colwin established the Laura and Arthur Colwin–endowed Summer Research Fellowship fund at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole with a gift of $2.3 million.

Comstock, Anna Botsford
(854–930) American Entomologist The first woman to become a professor at Cornell University, Anna Botsford Comstock was a prominent entomologist and science educator. She was instrumental in advancing the study of nature in schools, and she authored a best-selling book on natural cycles and processes—Handbook of Nature Study. In addition, she edited a scholarly journal and cofounded Comstock Publishing Company with her husband, John Henry Comstock. 



The only child of Marvin and Phoebe Botsford, Anna Comstock was born in 854 in New York State. When she enrolled at Cornell University in 874, she intended to study English. However, she took a class in invertebrate zoology taught by John Henry Comstock and became fascinated by the subject of entomology (the study of insects). She married her professor in 878, and the couple moved to Washington, D.C. While her husband served as chief entomologist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Anna Comstock helped him with clerical, editorial, and laboratory work. She also illustrated his books on entomology with detailed drawings that won her praise. The couple returned to Cornell in 880, and Comstock completed her bachelor’s degree in natural history five years later. She then immersed herself in matters of science education. In 895, she became a spokesperson for the nature study movement, which sought to instruct children about the relationship between farming and the study of nature. She also lectured about science education at several teachers’ colleges in New York State. Anna Comstock made history in 899 when she was appointed assistant professor at Cornell, becoming the first woman to join the university’s faculty. Unfortunately, several of Cornell’s conservative trustees objected to her rank, and she was demoted to the position of lecturer in 900. In 9, she wrote her most famous work, Handbook of Nature Study, in which she discussed natural events and cycles. She was reinstated as an assistant professor at Cornell in 93 and was promoted to full professor in 920. Comstock exerted considerable influence on her field through her writing. Along with her seminal book, she authored many articles and contributed to a diverse array of publications. In addition, she edited the journal Nature Study Review from 97 to 923. Comstock retired from full-time teaching in 922, although she remained active as a part-time professor at Cornell until 930. Her legacy was profound. Through her tireless efforts in the nature study movement, she influenced science education policy. Moreover, her writings popularized natural history for a lay audience. The Handbook of Nature Study became a best-seller, printed in 25 editions and eight languages. The book was especially popular among gardeners, farmers, teachers, and others interested in the outdoors. Moreover, the Comstocks left behind a successful publishing enterprise, Comstock Publishing Company, which printed books on entomology. The business was later incorporated into Cornell University Press. Anna Comstock also furthered the cause of women in science. Through her struggle to remain a professor at Cornell University, she broke down barriers and paved the way for future women to enter academia. She died in August of 930 at the age of 75.

Conway, Lynn Ann
(938– ) American Electrical Engineer Lynn Ann Conway pioneered significant advancements in the architecture of computers that revolutionized their construction; in essence, her two major innovations sped up the arrival of the digital age. She first worked with a team that integrated computer circuitry design, streamlining the process that previously required multiple engineers, each with specialized knowledge. Second, she simplified the process for fabricating computer chip prototypes, thereby greatly reducing the time it took to test newly invented software and hardware. She collaborated with Carver Mead to publish this protocol, called very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit design, in the 980 textbook Introduction to VLSI Systems, which instantly became a classic. Conway was born on January 2, 938, in Mount Vernon, New York. Her excellent performance in high-school mathematics and physics courses prompted her to major in physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), which she left in her third year to travel the United States. In the early 960s, she finished her undergraduate degree at Columbia University, where she earned her B.S. in 962. She remained there for graduate work, receiving her M.S. in electrical engineering in 963. Conway impressed a visiting professor with a software system design, leading him to convince IBM to offer her a research position at its Yorktown Heights, New York, research facility in 964. The next year, she worked on the IBM-ACS (Advanced Computer Systems) team that developed the first “superscalar” computers; although IBM abandoned ACS as incompatible with its 360 line, her invention of “dynamic instruction scheduling” survived as the platform technology incorporated by Intel, Hewlett-Packard, Sun, and Compaq in their processors. In 968, IBM fired Conway when it learned of a medical condition she had for which she was participating in controversial experimental treatments that ultimately solved her problem. In 969, Conway secured a position as a senior staff engineer with Memorex Corporation, where she remained until 973, when the Xerox Corporation hired her as research engineer at its prestigious Palo Alto Research Center. There, she collaborated with Mead and a team of colleagues to simplify the relationship between digital system architecture and microelectronics, resulting in the development of the VLSI chip design methodology. As a visiting associate professor of electrical engineering and computer science at MIT from 978 though 979, she designed a VLSI course that became the prototype for similar courses nationwide, using her book as the text. Her MIT students designed their own chips by her methodology, then sent the blueprints to Xerox over the ARPA-



Lynn Conway, a pioneer in the advancement of computer architecture (Lynn Conway)

net (a predecessor to the Internet); Xerox contracted with Hewlett-Packard Research to fabricate the chips, which it returned to the students six weeks later, an amazingly quick turnaround time. In 983, the United States Department of Defense hired Conway as the chief scientist and assistant director of strategic computing for the Defense Advisory Research Projects Agency. She helped orchestrate the department’s Strategic Computing Initiative during her two years there, then she moved on to the University of Michigan in 985 as a professor of electrical engineering and computer science and as the associate dean of the College of Engineering. Conway’s many honors include the 984 Harold Pender Award from the Moore School at the University of Pennsylvania, the 985 John Price Wetherill Medal from the Franklin Institute, the 985 Meritorious Civilian Service Award, presented by the Secretary of Defense, and the 990 National Achievement Award from the Society of Women Engineers. In 998, she retired to emerita status at the University of Michigan, though she remained active conducting research in her field.

Conwell, Esther Marly
(922– ) American Physicist Esther Conwell was honored early in her career with the Society of Women Engineers Achievement Award in 960.

Almost four decades later, in 997, she became the first woman to receive the Edison Medal from the Institute of Electrical Engineers in recognition of her career of meritorious achievement in the electrical arts and sciences. Conwell focused her research on solid-state physics, conducting pioneering work on the transmission of electronic signals through semiconductors, research that ushered in the technological and digital age. Conwell was born on May 23, 922, in New York City. She remained in the city for her undergraduate studies at Brooklyn College, where she received her bachelor’s degree in 942. She then moved upstate to do graduate work at the University of Rochester, where she conducted her research under Victor Weisskopf. Together, they devised the Conwell-Weisskopf theory, describing how “impurity ions,” which carry electricity by emitting electrons, actually impede the flow of electrons. Her master’s thesis was considered sensitive material, and thus it was locked away until after World War II, when it was finally published in 950. She received her master’s degree in 945. Conwell performed doctoral work at the University of Chicago, where she earned her Ph.D. in physics in 948 while simultaneously teaching physics at Brooklyn College from 946 until 95. She then spent a short year on the technical staff at Bell Telephone Laboratories before transferring to GTE Laboratories, where she remained for the next two decades. She started as an engineering specialist, before GTE promoted her to manage the physics department in 963 when she returned from a year as a visiting professor at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. Over the next seven years, she directed the solid-state physics group and subsequently managed the electro-optics program. In 972, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology appointed Conwell to the Abby Rockefeller Mauze Chair for one semester, and thereafter the Xerox Corporation hired her as a principal scientist. In 98, Xerox promoted her to the rank of research fellow. While at Xerox, she focused much of her research on the physics of xerography, specifically on how photoconductors transport electrical charges. In 990, while still working for Xerox, she taught at the University of Rochester as an adjunct professor and acted as the associate director of the university’s Center for Photoinduced Charge Transfer, which was funded by the National Science Foundation. When she retired from Xerox 998, she joined the university fulltime in its chemistry department. Conwell was the only professor at the University of Rochester to be a member of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. She was also a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Physical Society. Throughout her career, she received four patents for her inventions; her publications included more than 200 papers, one 



monograph on high field transport in semiconductors in the solid-state physics series, and she edited two other books.

Conybeare, William Daniel
(787–857) English Geologist, Paleontologist William Daniel Conybeare was one of the first scientists to examine cross sections of the Earth to discover the geologic progression of time, as each layer signifies a subsequent historical period. Throughout England and Wales, Conybeare studied the stratigraphic characteristics of the Carboniferous system, so named after the copious amount of carbon deposited in these layers some 280 million to 345 million years ago. Conybeare’s overall geologic perspective combined progressionism with catastrophism. Conybeare’s career synthesized his father’s legacy in the clergy with his own interest in science. Conybeare was born on June 7, 787, at St. Botolph, in West Sussex, England. His father, the Reverend William Conybeare, served as the rector of St. Botolph’s, exerting a religious influence over his youngest son. Conybeare attended Westminster School, then Christ Church at Oxford University. More important in his intellectual development was his joining of the Geological Society of London in 8. In 84 Conybeare married and also accepted the curacy in Suffolk. This year also marked his first scientific publication, On the Origin of a Remarkable Class of Organic Impressions Occurring in Nodules of Flint. This convergence of events set the precedent for Conybeare’s subsequent development. His clerical career traced a steady progression that was notable in its own right, but beneath this thrived a scientific life that distinguished him more than his official life in the clergy. In 82 Conybeare published a tract on the ichthyosaurus, representing the first description of this animal. Three years later he reconstructed a plesiosaur from excavated remains, and he claimed that this skeleton represented the link between the ichthyosaurus and modern crocodiles. The year 822 marked another convergence in Conybeare’s career, when he accepted the position of rector of Sully in Glamorganshire and published his most influential work, Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales, which he composed in collaboration with William Phillips. Conybeare and Phillips dated the geologic layers by identifying fossils embedded in each layer, which allowed them to pinpoint the period when that layer settled. Conybeare planned to follow up on this work with a second study in collaboration with Adam Sedgwick, which never materialized. Conybeare later collaborated with William Buckland on a geologic study of the coal fields surround-

ing the Bristol area. Conybeare adopted Buckland’s view that natural disasters accounted for the disappearance of species, a view that countered Sir charles lyell’s position. In 829 Conybeare published Hydrographical Basin of the Thames. Conybeare was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London in 832. Four years later he became the vicar of Axminster in Devon. In 839 Oxford named him the Bampton Lecturer, and in 845 he was appointed the dean of Llandaff in Wales. Conybeare died on August 2, 857, in Itchen Stoke, in Llandaff, Wales. The scientific world remembers Conybeare for his clear, precise, and accurate descriptions of geological phenomena.

Cooper, Leon Neil
(930– ) American Physicist Together with John Bardeen and john robert schrieffer, Leon Neil Cooper formulated the path-breaking BCS theory of superconductivity in 957. Although the trio shared the 972 Nobel Prize in physics for their work, it was Cooper who conceived a central tenet of the theory. In seeking to explain how electricity flows without resistance through a superconductor, Cooper postulated the existence of what came to be known as Cooper pairs of electrons. Whereas electrons normally repel one another, Cooper posited that at extremely low temperatures two electrons located among positive ions in a metal lattice would develop an attraction to one another and thus bind together. They would then not be affected by electrical resistance as they traveled through the lattice in the same direction. Cooper radically shifted direction after making this influential discovery. He cofounded the Center for Neural Sciences at Brown University and has devoted much of the rest of his career to understanding the human brain. Born on February 28, 930, in New York City, Cooper was the son of Irving and Anna Zola Cooper. During his senior year at the Bronx High School of Science, he won the Westinghouse competition for a research project on penicillin-resistant strains of bacteria. Upon graduating from high school, Cooper enrolled at Columbia University, where he earned his A.B. in 95 and his Ph.D. in 954. His thesis on the mu-mesonic atom earned him a position as a National Science Foundation Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He continued his research at Princeton until 955. Because of Cooper’s growing reputation as a quantum theorist, he was invited to join John Bardeen’s team at the University of Illinois. From 955 until 957 he served as Bardeen’s research assistant and also collaborated with



John Robert Schrieffer. Together the trio attempted to account for the phenomenon of superconductivity (the fact that certain metals lose all resistance to the flow of electrical current when they are cooled to temperatures approaching absolute zero), which had first been reported in 9 by the Dutch physicist Heike kamerlingh Onnes. Cooper posited that because the electrons in superconductive metals are embedded in positive ions, they attract, rather than repel, each other, and form pairs. Cooper’s concept of paired electrons—Cooper electrons—was a pillar of the BCS theory of superconductivity proposed by the trio of researchers. They published their results in the December , 957, issue of Physical Review, and revolutionized the understanding of superconductivity. His work at Illinois complete, Cooper joined the faculty of the physics department at Ohio State University in 957; there he investigated liquid helium-3 and concluded that the substance was a superfluid. Despite his triumphs in the field of physics, Cooper radically changed direction in 958 when he accepted a post at Brown University. After his appointment as a full professor in 962 he continued to pursue theoretical physics and published an acclaimed textbook, An Introduction to the Meaning and Structure of Physics, in 968, but he also diversified his areas of research and became increasingly involved in neurology. Cooper married kaye Anne Allard in May 969, and the couple had two daughters. Since 973 he has directed Brown’s Center for Neural Sciences; he founded the Institute of Brain and Neural Systems in 992. At the Center for Neural Sciences he brought together an interdisciplinary team of biologists, linguists, mathematicians, and physicists to study human memory and brain structure and function. As director of the Institute of Brain and Neural Systems he has sought to create intelligent systems for use in electronics and communications. For instance, Cooper helped invent software introduced in 987 by International Business Machines (IBM) that can convert handwritten letters into typed characters. Cooper is also cofounder and cochairman of Nestor, Inc., an industry leader in applying neural-network systems to commercial and military applications. Cooper’s multifaceted research has been frequently acclaimed. In addition to the 972 Nobel Prize he shared with Bardeen and Schrieffer, he and Schrieffer were jointly awarded the Comstock Prize from the National Academy of Sciences in 968. Cooper also received the John Jay Award from Columbia College in 985. Cooper’s multidisciplinary legacy is considerable. Not only did he increase understanding of the workings of superconductors (helping to increase the practical applications of superconductors), he has also played a role in the development of new cognitive theories. Cooper has received many other awards, including the 974 Award of Excellence from the Graduate Facul-

ties Alumni of Columbia University, the 977 Descartes Medal Academie de Paris from the Universite Rene Descartes, and the 985 John Jay Award of Columbia College. He holds seven honorary doctorates. Cooper’s significant publications include An Introduction to the Meaning and Structure of Physics (968), Introduction to Methods of Optimization (970), and Methods and Applications of Linear Programming (974).

Copernicus, Nicolaus
(473–543) Polish Astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus helped to found modern astronomy and revolutionize science with his bold assertion that the Earth was not the stationary center of the universe but rather was in motion around a fixed Sun. This heliocentric hypothesis provided a much simpler explanation of astronomical phenomena than the prevailing geocentric theory, which failed to correlate accurately with observations. Copernicus’s proposed system created its own inaccuracies because it postulated circular planetary orbits and did not allow for elliptical orbits. However, his theory itself carried enough credence to overturn not only scientific but also religious and social paradigms of the time. The fact that human beings did not occupy the central location in the universe carried far-reaching implications. Copernicus was born on February 9, 473, in Toruñ, Poland. His father, a merchant, died in 483 and Copernicus’s uncle, who later became the bishop of Varmia, raised him. In 49 he entered the University of kraków. In 496 he proceeded to the University of Bologna and later to the University of Padua to study canon law, at his uncle’s behest. In 497 Copernicus’s uncle plied his influence to secure a canon of the cathedral chapter of Frombork for his nephew. Though this amounted to blatant nepotism, it provided a comfortable income and required only modest administrative duties of Copernicus, freeing him to devote his time to astronomical observations and calculations. On May 3, 503, Copernicus earned his doctorate in canon law from the University of Ferrara. As early as March 9, 497, Copernicus recorded his first astronomical observation, and on November 6, 500, he recorded a lunar eclipse. He thus had commenced his astronomical career while studying for his career in canon law. It is believed that Copernicus devised his heliocentric theory throughout the first dozen years of the 6th century, but the first evidence of it was dated May , 54, when the anonymous work De hypothesibus motuum caelestium a se constitutis commentariolus was cataloged by a kraków professor. Copernicus distributed this pamphlet discreetly to friends and knowledgeable individuals, but 



to be fixed, should actually appear to move if the Earth is in fact in constant motion. Copernicus countered that the stars were too far away for their motion to be observed. Bessel finally measured parallax of the stars in 838, thus fully confirming Copernicus’s theory of heliocentrism.

Cori, Gerty Theresa Radnitz
(896–957) American Biochemist With her husband, Carl Cori, Gerty Cori established how the body stores and uses food, a process called metabolism that was not well understood until the Coris began studying it in the late 920s. For this work, and for her later study of enzymes, proteins that cause physical changes in the body, Gerty Cori, with Carl Cori and an Argentine doctor named Bernardo Houssay, was awarded the 947 Nobel Prize for medicine. Gerty Cori was born Gerty Theresa Radnitz in Prague on August 5, 896. She was the oldest of three daughters of Otto and Martha Radnitz, German-speaking Jews who lived in what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which was ruled by the last of the Hapsburg dynasty from the imperial capital of Vienna. Otto Radnitz was a prosperous chemist who managed a sugar-beet refining business. Otto arranged for Gerty to be tutored at home. When she was 0, she was sent to a girls school for the rest of her secondary education. (Later, after she had become an American citizen, Cori had one child, Carl Thomas, born in 936.) Although her father had not intended for her to continue her studies in a university, Gerty Radnitz insisted on studying at a medical school. After studying a year for a difficult entrance examination, Cori passed the exam and entered Carl Ferdinand University in Prague in 94. Even though World War I began in the summer of her first year, the city was physically untouched by the war and Gerty Radnitz studied here for six years, finally earning her medical degree in 920. She also met karl Cori, a medical student from the Adriatic port city of Trieste. The two realized that they shared remarkably similar imaginations and were married in the summer after their graduation. Gerty Cori’s first job after medical school was as a researcher at Vienna’s karolinen Children’s Hospital. karl Cori had taken a job as a teacher at the University of Graz. Both Coris were by now disillusioned about their chances of professional success and personal happiness in war-ravaged Europe. Anti-Semitism was still an obstacle to their careers, one that could have affected karl because Gerty was from a Jewish family. In 922, karl took a job as a pathologist at the New York State Institute for Malignant

Nicolaus Copernicus, whose assertion that the Earth is in motion around a fixed Sun revolutionized science in the 16th century (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives)

he did not claim it in his own name because of the controversial stance the hypothesis took: In essence it overturned the astronomical views asserted by ptolemy in his text Almagest from the second century a.d. Copernicus delayed the actual publication of his theory until 543, on the eve of his death. Reportedly he saw a copy of his masterwork, On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres, on his deathbed. Copernicus died on May 24, 543, in Frauenberg, East Prussia (now Frombork, Poland). Acceptance of his theory was also delayed. Not until 609 did galileo galilei confirm Copernicus’s heliocentrism by observation of Jupiter’s moons. That same year johannes kepler asserted elliptical planetary orbits, refuting Copernicus’s theory of circular orbits but allowing the accurate calculations that confirmed heliocentrism. In 66 the Catholic Church banned Copernicus’s book as inconsistent with the Bible and Catholic theology; the ban lasted until 835. Three years later Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel refuted the last major stumbling block to Copernicus’s theory. In Copernicus’s time tycho brahe criticized the heliocentrism theory, arguing that the stars, which appear



Diseases in Buffalo. Six months later, he persuaded his bosses to hire Gerty as the institute’s assistant pathologist. Even though they were supposed to be working to find parasites that the institute’s director believed caused cancer, Gerty and Carl (he changed the spelling of his name after he moved to the United States) instead began devoting most of their time trying to figure out how the body converted carbohydrates into energy for the body. In 922, Canadian physician Frederick Banting had discovered the hormone insulin, which he began using to treat people with diabetes. Banting and other doctors knew that insulin worked for diabetics, but they did not know why it worked. Gerty Cori, with Carl, decided this was a promising area for research. By studying the effects of glucose, the sugar converted by the body from carbohydrates, and glycogen, a variant of glucose stored in the body’s fat and muscles, in laboratory animals, they described how the body cycles these substances to store and use energy. This discovery, known as the Cori cycle, was announced in 929. In 93, Gerty

and Carl moved to Washington University in St. Louis. As before, Carl was hired as a professor, while Gerty was given a more lowly job even though she was a full partner with her husband in their research. In St. Louis, they refined the study of glucose and glycogen and identified several previously unknown enzymes that aid the body in burning carbohydrates as fuel. For her work in understanding the biochemistry of the human body, Cori was elected to the National Academy of Science and the National Science Foundation board. In 947, after she had received the Nobel Prize, she was finally made a full professor at Washington University. That same year, she learned that she had myelofibrosis, a cancer of the bone marrow. She struggled valiantly, continuing her work for the next 0 years before succumbing to the disease in 957. A good summation of her contribution to science can be found in the words of the Nobel Foundation: She unraveled “the intricate patterns of chemical reactions in the living cells, where everything appears to depend on everything else.”

Coriolis, Gustave-Gaspard
(792–843) French Engineer, Mathematician The law known as the Coriolis force explains how a rotating body exhibits the effects of motion differently than a stable body. Though it is essentially a law of physics, its implications spill over into many other fields of science: In meteorology it controls the rotation of storms and the direction of prevailing winds; in oceanography it predicts sea currents; in astrophysics it explains stellar dynamics, such as the direction that sunspots rotate; in ballistics it governs the trajectory of spinning bullets. The practical implications of Coriolis’s discovery far outreach its theoretical importance. Coriolis was born on May 2, 792, in Paris, France, the son of a loyalist officer of Louis XVI, who later became an industrialist. Coriolis avoided marriage because of his ill health, which plagued him throughout his life. In 808 he entered the École Polytechnique in Paris, from which he graduated second in his class. In 86 Coriolis became a tutor of mechanics at the École Polytechnique, which later appointed him as an assistant professor of analysis and mechanics. He maintained his relationship with this school for the rest of his life. In 829 he added a chair of mechanics at the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. In 836 he filled the open position in applied mechanics at the École des Ponts et Chaussées, even though this robbed him of time to devote to his own theoretical work. He gave up his teaching duties at the polytechnique in 838 to take on the

Gerty Cori, the first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine (Bernard Becker Medical Library, Washington University School of Medicine) 



position of director of studies there, a role he excelled in by placing utmost importance on the physical condition of the learning environment. Coriolis’s first publication in 829, On the Calculation of Mechanical Action, introduced important terminology into the scientific vocabulary, specifically the terms kinetic energy and work. This latter term proved particularly important, as it not only traced its roots back to Greek but also created affinities with other areas of theoretical and practical application, namely, economics, in the midst of the rise of industrialism and the response of Marxism. However, Coriolis did not choose the terms simply for their theoretical aptness—he chose them because they were very practical expressions of physical realities. These terms simplified the connection between scientific abstractions and scientific realities. In 835 Coriolis published his Mathematical Theory of the Game of Billiards as well as his masterwork, On the Equations of Relative Motion of Systems of Bodies, in which he proposed the notion of Coriolis force. This theory expounded that inertial force acts upon rotating bodies at a right angle to the direction of motion, resulting in a curved instead of a straight path of motion. The importance of this theory is greatly compounded by the fact that the Earth is a rotating body in motion; thus calculations involving the motion of the Earth must take into consideration Coriolis force. Coriolis published one other important work, Treatise on the Mechanics of Solid Bodies, which appeared posthumously. Coriolis died in Paris on September 9, 843. His achievements remain notable because they so successfully married theory with practice.

Cornforth, John Warcup
(97– ) Australian Biochemist John Cornforth shared the 975 Nobel Prize in chemistry with vladimir prelog for their independent research on the stereochemistry of enzymatic reactions. Cornforth made what the Royal Swedish Academy of Science called “an outstanding intellectual achievement” despite the fact that he was almost completely deaf since his twenties. John Warcup Cornforth was born on September 7, 97, in Sydney, Australia. He was the second of four children born to Hilda Eipper, the descendent of a German minister who settled in New South Wales in 832; Cornforth spent some of his childhood there, at Armidale. His father was an English-born graduate of Oxford. At the age of 0, Cornforth’s hearing began to deteriorate due to otosclerosis. At the age of 4, he set up a makeshift chemistry laboratory at home. He studied chemistry at the Sydney

Boys’ High School under Leonard Basser, who encouraged him to pursue the subject as a career in which he could communicate through his research. At the age of 6, Cornforth matriculated at the University of Sydney, where he earned the University Medal in organic chemistry upon his graduation with first class honors in 937. He remained at the university to conduct graduate research under J. C. Earl on chemical compounds found in Australian plants to earn his Master of Science degree in 938. After a year of postgraduate research, he was one of two Australian students to win the 85 Exhibition scholarship for study at Oxford; the other was Rita Harradence, an organic chemist from Sydney. The couple collaborated throughout their careers after marrying in 94 (she aids in his communication), and together, they have three children. At Oxford, Cornforth researched the laboratory synthesis of steroids under the organic chemist (and later the 947 Nobel laureate in chemistry) robert robinson to earn his D.Phil. degree in 94. During World War II, while working as a Medical Research Council (MRC) Research Scholar from 942 through 946, he identified amino acid D-penicillamine as the major component of penicillin, and he was the first to synthesize it. He also contributed to the writing of the 949 text, The Chemistry of Pencillin. After the war, he remained with the MRC at the National Institute for Medical Research, first in Hampstead, and then in Mill Hill. During those years, Cornforth conducted research on the chemotherapy of tuberculosis and leprosy, on the process by which enzymes transform acetic acid into squalene, then cholesterol, in the liver, and on the synthesis of cortisone sialic acid, and squalene. However, he made his lasting impact on scientific history with his research into the stereochemistry of enzymatic reactions, prompted by Alexander Ogston in a brief note in 948. In collaboration with his wife and George Popják, Cornforth conducted this research using isotopes of hydrogen to determine the possible mechanisms by which the reactions take place. In 962, Shell Research Ltd. hired Cornforth and Popják as codirectors of its Milstead Laboratory of Chemical Enzymology at Sittingbourne in kent, where he continued his stereochemical research. He focused on mevalonic acid, the parent of most steroids as well as of terpenes, which is the foundation of the flavor and odor components of plants. The departure of Popják from Milstead in 968 left Cornforth as the sole director of the laboratory. Cornforth continued his line of stereochemical investigation, now collaborating with Herman Eggerer on the chiral methyl group. Cornforth held concurrent visiting professorships at the University of Warwick from 965 through 97, and at the University of Sussex from 97 through 975. On October 7, 975, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences



announced its awarding of the Nobel Prize in chemistry to Cornforth and Prelog on December 2. That year, Cornforth departed his position at Milstein and accepted the University of Sussex’s offer of the Royal Society research professorship, a post he retained until 982, when he retired to emeritus status. Throughout his career, several prestigious organizations inaugurated Cornforth into their membership: The Royal Society inducted him into its fellowship in 953; in 977, the Australian Academy of Science made him a coordinating member; and in 978, both the American Academy of Sciences and the Royal Netherlands Academy of Science made him a foreign associate. The Royal Society of London granted him three of its most prestigious awards: the 968 Davy Medal (with Popják), the 976 Royal Medal, and the 982 Copley Medal. The same year he received the Nobel, he was named the Australian Man of the Year, and two years later, Queen Elizabeth II knighted him as Sir John Cornforth. Finally, in 99, his homeland of Australia named him Companion of the Order of Australia.

Cousteau, Jacques-Yves
(90–997) French Oceanographer Jacques Cousteau popularized the study of the world beneath the water’s surface with his books, films, and television series. Though not a scientific expert, Cousteau gained his appreciation of the seas through experience, and he experimented with cinematographic media to try to recreate a hands-on experience for his audience. Later in his career he used his vast influence to raise environmental awareness in hopes of curbing the destruction wrought on the natural environment by its human inhabitants. Cousteau was born on June , 90, in St. Andréde-kubzac, France. His mother was Elizabeth Duranthon; his father was Daniel Cousteau, a legal adviser. Cousteau suffered from chronic enteritis, a painful intestinal condition, for his first seven years. A 936 car accident mangled his left arm, but he opted against amputation in favor of rehabilitation, during which time he experienced a spiritual connection with the sea. On July 2, 937, he married Simone Melchior and had two sons: Jean-Michel was born in March 938, and Phillipe was born in December 939. Though both sons worked extensively with their father, Phillipe was slated to inherit his father’s role before he died in a plane crash on June 28, 979, near Lisbon, Portugal. Cousteau attended the École Navale, graduating second in his class in 933. After a military stint in Shanghai,

China, he returned to the aviation academy and graduated in 936. He served as a second lieutenant and a gunnery officer in the French navy before World War II. During the war he used his oceanographic experimentation as cover for his participation in the resistance movement, for which he was awarded a Croix de Guerre with a palm after the war. In 942 Cousteau produced an 8-minute underwater film entitled Sixty Feet Down, commencing his career as an underwater filmmaker. As a pioneer in this field he had to pave his own way. For example, with Emile Gagnan he invented the Aqualung, which they patented in 943, increasing the mobility and facility of underwater diving. In 947 Cousteau set the world freediving record at 300 feet. On July 9, 950, he purchased the Calypso, an old U.S. minesweeper that he converted into an oceanic laboratory and film studio. Thus outfitted, Cousteau produced a steady stream of award-winning films from the Calypso. In 955 he filmed a version of his 953 book The Silent World, which sold over 5 million copies worldwide. The 90-minute film won the prestigious Palme D’Or, or Grand Prize, at the 956 Cannes International Film Festival and a 957 Oscar from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Over the next three decades Cousteau produced a string of successful television programs and series, including ABC’s The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau, which ran from 968 through 976; PBS’s Cousteau Odyssey, which commenced in 977; and TBS’s The Cousteau Amazon, which ran in 984. More than 40 Emmy nominations were bestowed on Cousteau’s television programs, often for their informational content. The Cousteau Society was founded in the 970s as a nonprofit peace and environmental awareness initiative. Several awards honored Cousteau’s lifetime achievements, starting with the National Geographic Society’s Gold Medal in 96 and its Centennial Award in 988. In 985 the French government awarded him the Grand Croix dans l’Ordre National du Mérite and the U.S. government awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Though scientific purists sometimes allude to Cousteau’s lack of training and qualifications, few scientists have done more to raise worldwide awareness of scientific issues than Cousteau. He died at home, in Paris, on June 25, 997, after suffering a respiratory infection and heart problems.

Cowings, Patricia Suzanne
(948– ) American Research Psychophysiologist Astronauts nicknamed Patricia Cowings the “baroness of barf,” because she induced nausea in them in order to 



study their physiological and psychological reactions to space motion sickness. She then trained them in biofeedback techniques to control their biological responses to “zero-gravity sickness syndrome.” Cowings was the first woman that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) trained to be an astronaut, though she never served as one in space. Cowings overcame obstacles due not only to her gender and race, as an African American, but also due to her youth, as she earned her doctorate at the age of 23 and was not taken seriously early in her career. Cowings was born on December 5, 948, in New York City. Her father, Albert S. Cowings, owned and ran a grocery store, and her mother, Sadie B. Cowings, was an assistant teacher after earning her A.A. degree at age 65. With three brothers (now a two-star army general, a jazz vocalist, and a musician), Cowings learned early on that she could do anything that males could. By the age of nine, she became interested in science and particularly in becoming an astronaut, in part due to her love of Star Trek. She hated mathematics, though, and had to discipline herself to master statistics, which she called “sadistics.” Cowings studied psychology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, where she earned a research assistantship in 968. She graduated cum laude with psychology honors in 970 and proceeded to graduate study at the University of California at Davis, where she was a graduate research assistant. She received the Distinguished Scholarship Award in 97. That summer and the next, she participated in the NASA-Summer Student Program, commencing her lifelong relationship with the governmental agency. She wrote a paper proposing self-regulation to overcome biomedical problems in space for her professor, Dr. Hans Mark, who directed NASA’s Ames Research Center (ARC) at the time. Upon her graduation in 973 with both an M.A. and a Ph.D. in psychology, she received a National Research Council Post-Doctoral Associateship, which funded her research at ARC for two years, until 975. After spending two years as a research psychologist at San Jose State University Foundation, Cowings returned to ARC in 977 as a research psychologist and a principal investigator in the Psychophysiological Research Laboratory. She was a scientist astronaut candidate early in her career and received training as a payload specialist, though she never traveled on a mission. Cowings’s research focused on training astronauts to control their biological and psychological reactions to space travel. She conducted an experiment conducted in 2 half-hour sessions training 50 volunteers to control their bodies, raising their own body temperature and relaxing certain muscles when they experienced motion sickness. These techniques aided 65 percent of this group to suppress motion-sickness symptoms altogether, and

another 20 percent experienced improvements. None in the control group, which received no training, had relief from their symptoms. Cowings’s techniques were finally employed in the September 992 Spacelab-J mission with the space shuttle Endeavor. In January 997, Cowings spent a month in Star City, Russia, training Russian cosmonauts autogenic-feedback training exercises with the assistance of her husband, fellow ARC scientist William B. Toscano. The couple has one son, Christopher Michael Cowings Toscano. The next month, she received the Government Award for Outstanding Technical Contribution at the Black Engineer of the Year Conference. This award recognized her as one of the year’s top 30 African Americans working in the fields of science and technology. Earlier in her career, she had won the 993 NASA Individual Achievement Award and the 99 Black United Fund of Texas Award.

Cox, Geraldine Anne Vang
(944– ) American Environmental Scientist Geraldine V. Cox has specialized in developing policies regarding environmental issues, especially hazardous waste and water pollution. In response to the explosion of a plant in Bhopal, India, Cox drafted the guidelines in 985 for the Community Awareness and Emergency Response, a protocol that was adopted first by the chemical industry in the United States and later served as the blueprint for federal law and international standards enforced by the United Nations. Cox was born on January 0, 944, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She spent her entire academic career at Drexel University, where she studied environmental science. She earned both her bachelor’s and master’s degrees there before receiving her Ph.D. in 970. She worked in the chemical industry for six years before filling a White House Fellowship as special assistant to the secretary of the U.S. Department of Labor for one year in 976. After graduating from Drexel, Cox accepted a position as technical coordinator of environmental programs at the Raytheon Company, commencing her career of interacting between the private and public sectors on environmental issues, from water pollution to environmental health to ecological damage assessment. Cox commenced her contributions to the public sector in 974 by joining the Program Committee of the Water Pollution Control Federation, a membership she maintained until 979. In 975, she founded the Marine Water Quality Committee, chairing it until 980. After her stint at the White House, Cox became a member of the National Academy of Sciences Environ-



mental Measurement Panel of the National Bureau of Standards from 977 until 980. Also in 977, she worked for the American Petroleum Institute as an environmental scientist. In 979, the Chemical Manufacturing Association appointed her as its vice president and technical director, continuing her role as liaison between the industry and the government. In 99, Cox accepted a vice presidency at Fluor Daniel, a subsidiary of the international Fluor Corporation. In the wake of the opening up of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, Eurotech Ltd. was established in 995 to market state-of-the-art technologies from these regions through environmentally sound strategies; Cox became the publicly held company’s chief operating officer. She simultaneously helped start up AMPOTECH Corporation, which sought to decrease greenhouse gas emissions by producing power with hydroponics and other advanced technologies. Cox served as the company’s chairman and chief executive officer. Cox has received much recognition for her initiatives that have improved the quality of our environment and reversed the destruction of it. In 984, the Society of Women Engineers granted her its highest honor, its Achievement Award, in recognition of her work on controlling water pollution. The United States Coast Guard also recognized Cox’s efforts to stem the tide of water pollution with its 99 Meritorious Public Service Award, the highest honor bestowed on civilians by the Coast Guard. She had worked with the Coast Guard throughout the 980s, chairing its Marine Occupational Safety and Health Committee and working as a member of its Transportation Advisory Committee. In addition, Cox served numerous other organizations, including the American Society for Testing and Materials, the Water Pollution Control Federation, and the American National Standards Institute.

Cox, Gertrude Mary
(900–978) American Statistician Gertrude Mary Cox exerted incalculable influence on the field of statistics. She coauthored the classic textbook in experimental statistics and acted as a trailblazer for women in the field, becoming a full professor and heading an academic department at a time when women with doctorates (which Cox lacked) struggled to secure promotions. Cox also established several institutes for the study of statistics. Cox was born on January 3, 900, in Dayton, Iowa. Her parents were John William Allen and Emmaline (Maddy) Cox. She intended to become a deaconess in the Methodist Episcopal Church after graduating from Perry

High School in 98. She worked at an orphanage in Montana in preparation for her career of social service, but in 925, she changed the course of her future by attending Iowa State College in Ames to study mathematics. After earning her B.S. in 929, she remained at the college to conduct graduate study in statistics under George Snedecor. In 93, she earned the first M.S. in statistics awarded by Iowa State. The University of California at Berkeley employed Cox as a graduate assistant while she studied psychological statistics there. Two years after leaving Iowa State, Cox returned at Snedecor’s invitation to work in the new statistical laboratory. Cox’s work designing statistical experiments diverted her attention from doctoral studies, but the college appointed her as an assistant professor in 939 regardless. She eventually obtained her status as a doctor at Iowa State’s centennial celebration on March 22, 958, when it granted her an honorary doctorate of science. In 940, the North Carolina State College School of Agriculture in Raleigh solicited nominations for candidates to head its new department of experimental statistics from Snedecor, who left Cox’s name off the list despite her obvious qualifications, assuming the hiring committee would not consider a woman. At her request, he appended her name, and that year she became North Carolina State’s first female full professor and the first woman department head simultaneously. Cox proved herself in short order, establishing the North Carolina State Institute of Statistics in 944, acting as its first director. Within two years, the University of North Carolina joined the institute to teach statistical theory, leaving North Carolina State responsible for teaching methodology only. The main mission of the institute was to spread throughout the South the “gospel according to St. Gertrude,” or her application of statistical analysis to diverse fields, such as plant genetics, quality control, and agricultural economics. She accomplished this objective through work conferences and summer conferences that brought statisticians to North Carolina from around the world. In 947, she helped found the Biometrics Society, an extension of the work she performed as the editor of both Biometrics Bulletin and Biometrics for the decade between 945 and 955. In the middle of this tenure, she collaborated with William G. Cochran to revise their class notes from Iowa State into a textbook, entitled Experimental Designs, which became a classic in the field immediately after its 950 publication. Before retiring from North Carolina State in 960, she coordinated the formation of the Research Triangle Institute, a consortium of the University of North Carolina, North Carolina State, and Duke University. Upon her retirement, she took up the directorship of the institute’s statistics section. She retired from this duty in 964, only 



to take up another post at the University of Cairo in Egypt, where she spent a year helping to found its Institute of Statistics. She spent the rest of her retirement traveling, continuing to promote statistics internationally, notably in Thailand. In 959, the year before her first retirement, she received the Oliver Max Gardner Award, and the year of her retirement, Gamma Sigma Delta granted her its distinguished service award. Long after her final retirement, she continued to contribute to her field, acting as the president of the Biometrics Society from 969 through 970. Cox died of leukemia in Durham, North Carolina, on October 7, 978. Cox’s influence on the field of statistics continued to be acknowledged long after her death. In 989, the American Statistical Association’s Committee on Women in Statistics established the Gertrude Cox Scholarship, a $,000 prize to promote women to enter graduate programs in statistically oriented fields. A decade later, in 999, the Research Triangle Institute honored its founder by naming a new building after Gertrude Cox.

Cremer, Erika
(900–996) German/Austrian Chemist Trained as a physical chemist, Erika Cremer worked with the Nobel Prize-winning chemist Otto Hahn on early isotope separation experiments in Germany. Because she was a woman, she was told that she would never get a faculty position in Germany. However, during World War II, Germany and Austria suffered from an extreme manpower shortage, and Cremer landed a job as a chemistry professor and researcher at the University of Innsbruck. There, at the end of the war, she developed the first methods of gas chromatography. Born in Munich, Germany, on May 20, 900, Erika Cremer was the only daughter of Max Cremer, a scientist and the inventor of the glass electrode, and Elisabeth Rothmund Cremer, a housewife. During her secondary schooling, Cremer’s father moved to Berlin to teach. The switch to the more rigid Prussian schools was difficult for Cremer, but she managed to adapt and graduated from high school in 92. She never married. Cremer entered the University of Berlin in 92. At that time, German universities, and especially the science departments of these universities, admitted few women students. There was almost no chance for a woman to develop a career as a professor at the university level in the sciences. German universities simply did not hire women as university professors. Ignoring these obstacles, Cremer plunged into her work. The teachers were some of the

most talented scientists of their day, men like Fritz Haber (Nobel Prize, 98), Max Planck (Nobel Prize, 98), and Albert Einstein (Nobel Prize, 92). Cremer studied under physical chemist Max Boderstein and concentrated on the kinetics of chemical reactions. She won her Ph.D. with honors in 927. Because of her well-received Ph.D. dissertation, Cremer was invited to work at the University of Leningrad by Nikolai Semenov, who would receive the Nobel Prize in 957 for his work on kinetics in chemical reactions. Perhaps because of the political baggage attached to this offer, Cremer turned Semenov down. Instead, in the late 920s and early 930s, she did research work at the kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and the Institute for Physical Chemistry at the University of Freiburg. During this time, she applied the new quantum theories of physics to the study of photochemistry. She then returned to Berlin to work with Fritz Haber, but Haber’s Institute for Chemistry was closed by the Nazi government in 933. After four years without work, Cremer found a job in 937 with Otto Hahn at the kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry. Here she worked with Hahn on isotope separations and learned from him in 938 about the first theoretical speculations concerning the possibility of nuclear fission. The beginning of World War II in 940 opened up a job for Cremer at the University of Innsbruck in Austria. There she could at last pursue her own projects, one of which was to see if it would be possible to separate and analyze gases through chromatography. From 940 to 944, she worked on the theoretical as well as practical sides of this project. The practical element consisted of building a device with long tubes that would allow gases to flow through a stationary, nonvolatile solid or liquid. As the gases passed through the tubes, they would separate and their composition would be read by the temperature and thermal conductivity. Her first experiment involved the separation of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Cremer remained at the University of Innsbruck until she retired in 97. She received the Wilhelm Exner Medal in 958, the Erwin Schrödinger Prize from the Austrian Academy of Sciences (970), and the M. S. Tswett Chromatography Award (972) from the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. She died in Innsbruck in 996.

Crick, Francis Harry Compton
(96–2004) English Molecular Biologist Francis Crick, in conjunction with the American zoologist james dewey watson, created a model that explained the structure and suggested the replication process of deoxyri-



bonucleic acid, or DNA, the building block of life. Watson and Crick built upon the existing knowledge about DNA, particularly the concurrent work of maurice hugh frederick wilkins and rosalind elsie franklin. Once Watson and Crick had established the model, a flurry of activity in the new field of molecular biology ensued, seeking to ascertain the complete makeup and the replication procedure for DNA. In 962 Crick shared the Nobel Prize in medicine with Watson and Wilkins. Crick was born on June 8, 96, in Northampton, England, to Anne Elizabeth Wilkins and Harry Crick, who ran a shoe and boot factory with his brother. Crick married Ruth Doreen Dodd in early 940, and the birth of their son, Michael, occurred during an air raid on November 25, 940. Crick and Dodd divorced in 947, and Crick married Odile Speed in 949. Crick entered University College in London in 934, and he graduated early, in 937, with a second-classhonors degree in physics, accompanied by work in mathematics. World War II interrupted his academic progress, but in 947 he commenced his graduate work, funded by the Medical Research Council at Strangeways Research Laboratory of Cambridge University. In 949 he transferred to the new Medical Research Council Unit at Cavendish Laboratory of Cambridge University. In 95 the 23-year-old Watson arrived at the Cavendish as a member of the visiting Phage Group, which was studying bacterial viruses. Watson and Crick clicked immediately and set about finding the foundation of genes. Whereas Wilkins and Franklin approached the problem of discovering DNA’s structure experimentally, Watson and Crick preferred a more theoretical method of model building, based on linus carl pauling’s solution to the structure of the alpha helix in protein. In 953 they came up with a model of protein strands that intertwined in a spiral, connected by bases of paired nucleotides. Watson and Crick reported their findings and hypotheses in four papers, the first of which was published on April 25, 953, in the journal Nature. Remarkably, Watson and Crick did not brag about the implications of their findings but simply suggested the possibility of genetic replication based on DNA. Crick could not follow up on this discovery immediately, as he had to finish his doctoral dissertation, which he completed in late 953. He spent much of the rest of his career tracing the chemical makeup of DNA and deciphering gene replication. In 957 he announced his “Central Dogma” in the paper “On Protein Synthesis,” which stated that genetic transcription occurs from DNA to ribonucleic acid (RNA) to protein. Once a genetic transfer takes place, it cannot be reversed. Crick also suggested that bases group themselves in triplets, known as codons. Crick thus mapped the genetic code whereby life passes unto life. In 977 the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California, made Crick a distinguished professor.

Crick recorded his impressions of his ground-breaking research in the 966 book Of Molecules and Men, and in 988 he published an autobiography, What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery. Crick’s greatest scientific gift was his ability to pierce through irrelevant information straight to the heart of a matter, and to convey this understanding in a clear and uncluttered way. Frances Crick died on July 28, 2004, from colon cancer.

Crookes, William
(832–99) English Physicist, Chemist Sir William Crookes developed excellent experimental techniques that he applied prodigiously throughout his long and wide-ranging career. He also developed a keen sense for synthesizing others’ unformed ideas into his own hypotheses and theories. He is best known as the editor of the important journal Chemical News and for his discovery of the element thallium. In the process of this discovery he invented the Crookes radiometer, which converted light radiation into rotary motion and illustrated the kinetic theory of gases, though it had little other practical use. The latter half of his career is characterized by controversy, as he tried to apply hard scientific methods to spiritualism and psychic phenomena. Crookes was born on June 7, 832, in London, England, the eldest son of 6 children. His father was Joseph Crookes, a successful tailor, and his mother was Mary Scott, the second wife of Joseph. In 856 Crookes married Ellen Humphry of Darlington, with whom he had 0 children. In 848 Crookes commenced studying at the Royal College of Chemistry, where he earned the Ashburton Scholarship. Between 850 and 854 he served as A. W. Hofmann’s personal assistant. Under the influence of michael faraday, Charles Wheatstone, and George Stokes, Crookes veered away from classical chemistry and toward chemical physics. Wheatstone helped secure Crookes his first position as superintendent of the meteorological department of Radcliffe Astronomical Observatory at Oxford. The next year Crookes secured a position teaching chemistry at the College of Science in Chester. In 856 he inherited a large sum from his father, freeing him to devote the rest of his life to scientific experimentation and theory. Crookes established the influential journal Chemical News in 859, serving as its proprietor and editor until 906. While investigating selenium in 86, using a spectroscope recently invented by robert wilhelm bunsen and Gustav kirchoff, Crookes discovered a new element, thallium, which he then isolated, noting its properties and 



calculating its atomic weight in 873. His experiments on thallium led to the invention of the Crookes radiometer. Many other scientific discoveries and innovations bear his name, including the Crookes tube, an improved vacuum tube; the Crookes glass, used by industrial workers to protect their eyes from radiation; and the Crookes dark space, or the dark area surrounding a cathode when electricity is discharged through rarefied gas. In general Crookes divided his time and attention between the theoretical and the practical worlds of experimentation. Though he inherited a large sum, his 0 children and avid experimentation required a large income, so he focused a portion of his scientific efforts on experiments that might yield profitable results. The other portion of his time he devoted to pure experimentation, following his instinct. The many subjects of his experiments included the derivation of sugar from beets, the dyeing of textiles, the formation of diamonds, the maintenance of soil fertility, electrical lighting, and sanitation. He also anticipated the discovery of electrons by J. J. Thomson 20 years later. At the time Crookes realized only that he was observing negatively charged particles, an assertion that came under attack by German physicists. Crookes ended his career with a long study of spiritualism and psychic phenomena, a controversial undertaking. Crookes was knighted in 897, and in 90 he received that Order of Merit. He died on April 4, 99, in London.

Crosby, Elizabeth Caroline
(888–983) American Neuroanatomist In a career that spanned more than 60 years, Elizabeth Crosby taught thousands of medical students, trained 39 doctoral candidates, and supervised more than 30 postdoctoral scientists in her laboratory at the University of Michigan Medical School. She is known for her work studying the human brain and nervous system. Born in Petersburg, Michigan, on October 25, 888, Elizabeth Caroline Crosby was the daughter of Lewis Frederick Crosby and Frances kreps Crosby. She never married, but during the 940s, she adopted two young girls whom she raised as her children. At the time of her death, she was survived by five grandchildren and one great-grandchild. She studied at the public schools in Petersburg and, in 907, began her undergraduate studies at Adrian College in Adrian, Michigan. After receiving her B.S. in mathematics in only three years at Adrian, she continued her studies at the University of Chicago. She completed her master’s degree in anatomy at Chicago in 92 and her Ph.D. in neuroanatomy in 95. Her

mentor at Chicago was C. Judson Herrick. Crosby’s dissertation was a study of the forebrain of the alligator. Between 95 and 98, Crosby suspended her research career to care for her ailing mother. At the same time, she held down the jobs of teacher, principal, and superintendent at Petersburg’s high school. On the death of her mother in 98, she was appointed instructor of anatomy at the medical school of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Crosby worked on a steady stream of research about mammalian brains during her career at Michigan. At the same time, she maintained a demanding course load. She usually taught anatomy courses in the mornings from Monday to Saturday, and in the afternoons she held back at least two hours for discussions with graduate students. The rest of the afternoons and a good portion of the evenings were reserved for work in her laboratory. By the late 930s, Crosby’s work had become so well known that she was frequently tempted with offers to work at other universities. During 939–40, she went to Aberdeen, Scotland, to help Marischal College establish a neuroanatomy teaching and research program. At the University of Michigan Medical School, she frequently did rounds with medical students, guiding them in clinical work that involved patients with neurological disorders. By 936, she had become a full professor of anatomy at the University of Michigan and the first woman professor at Michigan’s medical school. Told by a mentor at the University of Michigan that is was not proper for women to speak at professional meetings, Crosby shunned speaking engagements until she was 58. In 946, she gave her first public talk about anatomy as the first woman recipient of the Henry Russell Lectureship. In the early 960s, she collaborated with another anatomist to write a standard text on neuroanatomy, and in 982, at the age of 94, she saw her book Comparative Correlative Neuroanatomy of the Vertebrate Telencephalon published. Toward the end of her career, one of her colleagues asserted that “no one in the world rivals Doctor Crosby’s knowledge of the entire nervous system of animals throughout the vertebrate phylum.” Crosby won numerous awards during her long career. These include the Henry Gray Award in Neuroanatomy given by the American Association of Neuroanatomists (972) and the prestigious National Medal of Science (979) given to Crosby by President Jimmy Carter. She died in 983.

Crutzen, Paul J.
(933– ) Dutch Atmospheric Chemist, Meteorologist Paul Crutzen shared the 995 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his identification of nitrogen oxides as catalytic converters of ozone in the stratosphere, a phenomenon that depletes



the ozone layer that is crucial to human survival on Earth. He shared the prize with mario molina and sherwood rowland, for their identification of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as the main threat to the ozone layer. Paul Josef Crutzen was born on December 3, 933, in Amsterdam, in the Netherlands. His mother was Anna Gurek, and his father, Joseph C. Crutzen, was a waiter who was often unemployed due to the Nazi occupation of Holland, which also interrupted Crutzen’s elementary schooling. After World War II, he qualified to attend high school (at a time when not all children could). Too poor to afford a university education, he attended a two-year college in Amsterdam to earn his civil engineering degree in 954. Crutzen worked for the next four years at the Bridge Construction Bureau of the City of Amsterdam, and during that period also fulfilled his two-year military service obligation to his country. While on vacation in Switzerland in 954, he had met Tertu Soininen, a Finnish student, and the couple married in 958. They moved to Gävle, Sweden, where he worked for a year in the House Construction Bureau and indulged his love of skating. The couple eventually had two daughters, Illona and Sylvia. In 959, the family moved to Stockholm, where Crutzen had landed a job as a computer programmer (with no experience in the field) in the department of meteorology at the Stockholm Högskola (renamed Stockholm University two years later.) He conducted graduate studies at the university simultaneously, earning his Filosofie kandidat (the equivalent of a master of science degree) in 963. Crutzen continued with doctoral studies under Bert Bolin, focusing his research on the distribution of different forms of oxygen in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere. He discovered that much of the chemistry of the stratosphere was based on guesswork, so he wrote his dissertation on the catalytic depletion of ozone with nitrogen oxide, among other things. He submitted his thesis, “Determination of parameters appearing in the ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ photochemical theories for ozone in the stratosphere,” to earn his Filosofie Licentiat (the equivalent of a Ph.D.) with highest distinction in 968, but he waited two years to publish his findings in a paper entitled, “The Influence of Nitrogen Oxides on the Atmosphere Ozone Content.” Crutzen served a two-year postdoctoral fellowship from the European Space Research Organization at the Clarendon Laboratory in the department of atmospheric physics at St. Cross College of the University of Oxford in England, where he continued to study the effects of nitrogen oxides (and hydrogen oxides) on atmospheric ozone under John Houghton and R. P. Wayne. He returned to the University of Stockholm in 97, and composed his dissertation, entitled “On the photochemistry of ozone in the stratosphere and troposphere and pollution of the stratosphere by high-flying aircraft.” He earned his Filosofie

Doctor (the equivalent of a doctor of science degree) with highest distinction in 973. From 974 through 980, Crutzen worked at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado, first as a research scientist in the Upper Atmosphere Project until 977, and then as a senior scientist and director of the Air Quality Division. During his early tenure, he also consulted for the Aeronomy Laboratory of the Environmental Research Laboratories at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Boulder. During his later tenure at NCAR, he also moonlighted as an adjunct professor in the Atmospheric Sciences Department at Colorado State University in Fort Collins. His research during this period focused on the atmospheric effects of the burning of savannah grasses and agricultural waste in the tropics, mainly in Brazil. In 980, the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany, appointed Crutzen as the director of its Atmospheric Chemistry Division. At this time, the journal Ambio commissioned Crutzen and John W. Birks, a chemistry professor from the University of Colorado at Boulder on sabbatical in Mainz, to consider the effects of nuclear war on the Earth’s atmosphere. By 982, the pair had ascertained that the actual nuclear explosions would pale in their destructive capabilities when compared to the havoc wreaked by carbon soot sent into the atmosphere by the ensuing fires, which would block 99 percent of the sunlight from the Earth’s surface. They coined the term “nuclear winter” to describe this phenomenon, and Discover magazine named Crutzen its 984 Scientist of the Year in recognition of the significance of this theory. At that time, he was serving a two-year term as the executive director of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, from 983 through 985. The next year, he published a booklength report of his and Birks’s findings, Environmental Consequences of Nuclear War 1985. When susan solomon, a senior scientist at NOAA and a former research student of Crutzen’s, verified the existence of a hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica in 986, Crutzen was one of the first scientists to identify aerosol as one of the causes. He based this on his work from the 970s, in which he identified that carbonyl sulfide produced in the soil or perhaps in the ocean rises to the stratosphere, where it is oxidized to sulfur dioxide and then to sulfuric acid, a phenomenon that leads to the depletion of ozone from the atmosphere. The sum of Crutzen’s work on the threats to the atmosphere earned him the 995 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Crutzen divided the latter part of his career between multiple institutions: While maintaining his appointment at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, he also served as a part-time professor in the department of geophysical sciences at the University of Chicago from 987 through 99, a part-time professor at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California at La Jolla 



from 992 on, and a part-time professor at the Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences of Utrecht University in his homeland from 997 through 2000. In November 2000, he retired to emeritus status.

Curie, Marie Sklodowska
(867–934) Polish/French Physicist Of Polish origin but for most of her life a resident of France, Curie was the first woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize. The award in 903 for her work in physics was shared with her husband, pierre curie, and antoinehenri becquerel for their discovery that the atoms of

Marie Curie, the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the first scientist to win the prestigious prize twice. Shown here with her husband, Pierre Curie, with whom she shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in physics. (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives)

certain elements emit particles from their nuclei, a property that Marie Curie named radioactivity. Curie won an unprecedented second Nobel Prize in 9, this time in chemistry, for isolating a quantity of the radioactive element radium. Marie Sklodowska was born in Warsaw, Poland, on November 7, 867, the youngest of five children. She came from a family that prized education: Her father, Wladislaw, and mother, Bronislawa, both were teachers. At that time, Poland was ruled by Russia, and Wladislaw Sklodowska’s participation in anti-Russian activities got him fired from his job in 873. For almost 5 years, the family was desperately poor, but still Marie Sklodowska graduated from secondary school at the top of her class in 883. Sklodowska did not have the money to begin her university studies immediately. Instead, she took a job as a governess for a wealthy Polish family and used her income to help support her sister, Bronia, who had traveled to Paris to study medicine. By 89, Marie joined her sister in the French capital to begin her own studies. Marie Sklodowska, one of only a very few female students at the Sorbonne, graduated first in her class in physics in 893. Now aided by a scholarship from the Polish government, she immediately began work on a master’s in mathematics at the Sorbonne, which she completed in 894. She would later add a Ph.D in physics, also from the Sorbonne, in 903. In 894, while she was completing her master’s degree, Marie Sklodowska met Pierre Curie, a French physicist who had been working on magnetism and piezoelectricity, the relationship between electrical currents and the structure of crystals such as quartz. Curie was an idealistic young scientist. “It is necessary to make a dream of life,” he wrote Sklodowska, “and make a dream of reality.” Marie Sklodowska fell in love with him, and in 895 they married and began working together as well as raising a family (they had two children, Irène, born in 897, and Eve, born in 904). In 896, stimulated by wilhelm röntgen’s discovery of X-rays and the discovery by Henri Becquerel of “rays” being emitted from uranium, the Curies turned their attention to finding out more about the properties of this phenomenon and these substances. Marie Sklodowska, now Marie Curie, speculated that the ability of a substance to emit radioactivity, a term she coined in 898, was a property of the atoms of the elements of that substance. Thus she and Pierre attempted to separate the various elements of pitchblende, which was known to contain uranium but was so radioactive that the Curies suspected that it also contained other as yet undiscovered radioactive elements. Even as she labored to extract these still mysterious substances from pitchblende, Marie also worked with her husband to establish their existence theoretically. This they did in 898 when they announced the theoretical discovery of two new elements—polonium, named after Marie Curie’s native land,



and radium. Working long hours in a derelict shack provided them by the stingy French government, Marie Curie eventually managed to extract a small amount of radium in 902. From 900 to 906, in addition to the long hours spent in the laboratory, Marie Curie was forced to work as a teacher at a secondary school for girls in order to help support her family. Not even the Ph.D. and Nobel Prize awarded her in 903 prompted the French intellectual establishment to give her a university teaching job or well-paying job as a scientist. This changed only with Pierre’s sudden death in a street accident in 906, after which Marie Curie was appointed to Pierre’s job of professor of physics at the Sorbonne. Belatedly realizing its negligence of Curie’s work, the French government funded the Institute of Radium, with Marie Curie as its head, in 92. Curie devoted the last part of her life to making the institute a center of atomic research and a training ground for new scientists, many of them women, to follow in her footsteps. At the end of her life, she wrote, “I am one of those who think that science has great beauty. A scholar in the laboratory is not just a technician; he is also a child face to face with natural phenomena that impress him like a fairy tale.” Marie Curie died in 934 from leukemia, which was the result of her long exposure to radiation.

Curie, Pierre
(859–906) French Physicist Even before his award-winning work on radioactivity with his wife, marie sklodowska curie, and antoine-henri becquerel, Pierre Curie had performed important work in physics, studying crystal symmetry. In collaboration with his brother, Jacques, Curie discovered the phenomenon of piezoelectricity and applied it to their invention of the piezoelectric quartz electrometer. Though this work drew some recognition, Curie worked throughout his career in woefully inadequate laboratories, with excessive teaching duties hanging over his head. Curie was born on May 5, 859, in Paris, France. His mother was Sophie-Claire Depouilly Curie, the daughter of a prominent manufacturer, and his father was Eugène Curie, a physician. Curie’s education began at home, with first his mother, then his father and his brother as teachers. In 875 at the age of 6 Curie earned his bachelor of science degree. He then entered the Faculty of Sciences at the Sorbonne to earn his master of physical sciences degree in 877. The next year he worked as a laboratory assistant to Paul Desains at the Sorbonne. In 882 he started a 22-year relationship with the new Municipal School of

Industrial Physics and Chemistry in Paris as the head of its laboratory. He was later appointed a chair of physics there, but this promotion did not garner him a laboratory of his own or a decent salary. Curie’s career was plagued by his disdain for the sordid politics of academia, which he avoided vehemently. This cost him several promotions to higher professional positions. In 898 the Sorbonne passed him over for a chair in physical chemistry, and in 903 it rejected his bid for a chair in mineralogy. A year earlier his election bid for membership in the French Academy of Sciences had failed. In 900 he accepted an assistant professorship at the Polytechnic Institute, though this appointment added little prestige and much more work to his life. That year the Sorbonne did grace him with a chair in physics, largely as a result of the intervention of jules-henri poincaré. Despite his lack of adequate laboratory facilities, Curie produced an astounding amount of original research. He and his brother published their discovery of piezoelectricity in 880. In 884 Curie published his findings on crystal symmetry; in 885 he published his theory of the formation of crystals. This line of research and publication culminated in 894 with his publication of a general principle of symmetry. That year Curie met Marie Sklodowska, a graduate student in physics. His letters to her in Poland when she visited home that summer convinced her of his ardent love, and the couple married on July 25, 895. Curie earned his doctorate that year with a dissertation on the magnetic properties of substances at varying temperatures. Marie was just commencing her doctoral research under Becquerel, studying his recent discovery, what she later named radioactivity. Curie postponed his own return to work on crystals in order to assist with this promising research. Together the Curies discovered two new radioactive elements, polonium and radium, in 898. They verified the discovery of radium in 902 by isolating it to determine its atomic weight, thus establishing its status as an individual element. They won the 903 Nobel Prize in physics in conjunction with Becquerel for their work with radiation. Also in 903 they won the Royal Society’s Davy Medal, and the Legion of Honor decorated Curie, though he refused the award. Together they also refused to patent their radium-extraction process on moral grounds, though this course would have proved extremely lucrative. Curie, however, did accept a new chair from the Sorbonne in 904 with the stipulation that the university outfit him in a well-appointed laboratory with Marie as his chief assistant. Curie had scant opportunity to take advantage of this long-awaited luxury, though, as a wagon killed him in a freak traffic accident on April 9, 906. His wife carried on his legacy by filling his vacant chair at the Sorbonne and continuing their commitment to finding positive applications for radioactivity, lest this potent energy be 



harnessed toward destructive ends, as he warned in his speech of acceptance for the Nobel Prize.

Cuvier, Georges-Léopold-Chrêtien-FrédéricDagobert, Baron
(769–832) French Zoologist, Comparative Anatomist, Paleontologist Baron Georges Cuvier helped establish the sciences of comparative anatomy and paleontology as distinct fields of study. His scientific methodology prioritized facts over general theories. He eschewed the evolutionary model, supporting instead catastrophism, or the belief that natural disasters controlled the progress of species more than any other factors. Cuvier was born on August 23, 769, in Montbéliard, France, the son of a Swiss soldier. Between 784 and 788 he studied comparative anatomy at the Académie Caroline in Stuttgart, Germany. Cuvier served as a tutor for seven years after his graduation, during which time he studied mollusks. He sent some of his original research to Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire at the Museum of Natural History in Paris, the world’s largest scientific research facility at the time, and Geoffroy responded by arranging an assistantship for Cuvier with the professor of comparative anatomy in 795. Initially Cuvier and Geoffroy collaborated, producing a joint tract

Baron Georges Cuvier, who helped establish the sciences of comparative anatomy and paleontology as distinct disciplines (Smith Collection, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania)

on the classification of mammals that same year. Eventually, though, their views on anatomical functions diverged. In 797 Cuvier published his first book, Elementary Survey of the Natural History of Animals, which proved successful. In 798 Napoleon invited him to fill the position of naturalist on an expedition to Egypt that would last until 80, but Cuvier chose instead to continue his zoological research at the museum. He accepted a professorship of natural history at the Collège de France in 799, and in 802 the Jardin des Plantes granted him a professorship as well. Cuvier published one of his more important works, Lessons on Comparative Anatomy, which he based on his lectures, between 800 and 805. In this work he advanced his notion of the “correlation of parts.” Cuvier believed that the organs of animals were internally interrelated, each complementing the function of the other. Further, he believed that animals’ anatomies suited the functions those animals performed: that form followed function. This theory caused the split between Cuvier and Geoffroy, who believed that function followed form—that animals’ anatomies determined what functions they would be able to perform. The rift between the two scientists grew wider as their careers progressed. Cuvier expanded his work to include educational reform, acting as the imperial inspector of public instruction and helping organize the provincial university system in France. In 80 he published his assessment of scientific instruction throughout Europe, entitled Historical Report on the Progress of the Sciences Since 1789. He also diversified his scientific research, extending his anatomical and zoological classifications to fossils, thereby developing a more comprehensive view of comparative anatomy. Cuvier first published his paleontological findings in 82 in the text Researches on the Bones of Fossil Vertebrates. He later expanded his theory in the 825 text Discourse on the Revolutions of the Globe, in which he expounded his notion of catastrophism, or the belief that natural catastrophes accounted for the progression or extinction of species. In 87 Cuvier published The Animal Kingdom, Distributed According to Its Organization, in which he extended carl linnaeus’s classification system by adding another level, the phylum. Cuvier divided this level into four large groupings—vertebrates, mollusks, articulates, and radiates. This theory exacerbated the antagonism between Cuvier and Geoffroy, which culminated in a public debate in 830, when Cuvier defended his division of the animal kingdom into four groups, while Geoffroy maintained that all animals are of one class. The issue remained unresolved until the advent of Darwinism. Cuvier’s other important contributions to science included the naming of the pterodactyl and the addition of some 3,000 zoological skeletons to the Museum of Natural History’s collection. Cuvier’s administrative work with France’s educational system earned him the title of chevalier in 8. Cuvier died on May 3, 832, in Paris.

Daily, Gretchen
(1964–  ) American Biologist Gretchen  Daily  practices  “population  biology,”  a  discipline  she  helped  create  in  collaboration  with  Paul  and  Anne  Ehrlich  by  applying  scientific  research  to  the  issue  of overpopulation. Overpopulation is not a future problem  but rather a present reality, the three pointed out, requiring a radical shift in political and economic policy as well  as  personal  behaviors.  Daily  uses  an  interdisciplinary  approach, fusing the voices of science, law, business, and  government, to promote the notion of sustainability. Interestingly, Daily and the Ehrlichs profess “equity,” or equal  consideration  for  all  humans  as  well  as  for  other  species  and the environment, as the key to the survival of a lifesustaining world. Gretchen  C.  Daily  was  born  on  October  19,  1964,  in  Washington,  D.C.  Her  mother,  Suzanne  R.  Daily,  was  an  antique  dealer,  and  her  father,  Charles  D.  Daily,  was  an  ophthalmologist.  Daily  attended  high  school  in  West  Germany, then returned to the United States for her postsecondary education, which she conducted exclusively at  Stanford  University.  She  received  her  bachelor  of  science  degree in 1986, then earned her master of science degree  a year later. Daily continued at Stanford, conducting doctoral work  in  biological  sciences  under  Paul  Ehrlich,  the  renowned  author  of  The Population Bomb.  The  two  commenced  a  partnership  that  continued  throughout  the  1990s,  focusing their research on the issue of populations, both animal  and human. Their coauthored papers focused on detailed  microcosms  (such  as  a  1988  paper  on  the  feeding  habits  of  Red-naped  Sapsuckers)  as  well  as  generalized  macrocosms  (such  as  a  1990  paper  on  the  effects  of  rapid  climate change on the world food situation, published in the 

prestigious  Proceedings of the Royal Society).  By  the  time  Daily  received  her  Ph.D.  in  1992,  she  had  already  developed  into  a  distinguished  and  respected  scholar,  earning  the Frances Lou Kallman Award for Excellence in Science  and Graduate Study upon graduation. Daily  joined  the  University  of  California  at  Berkeley’s  Energy  and  Resources  Group  while  continuing  joint studies  with  Ehrlich.  In  1994,  she  received  a  concurrent  appointment at Stanford’s Center for Conservation Biology  as a Pew Fellow in Conservation and the Environment, a  position created expressly for her. That year, she collaborated with Ehrlich and his wife, Anne Ehrlich, in writing  an influential paper, “Optimum Human Population Size,” published in the July issue of the academic journal Population and Environment. In this paper, Daily and the Ehrlichs extrapolated the  ideal  number  of  human  inhabitants  based  on  their  own  common-sense  criteria  for  the  impact  the  Earth  can  sustain.  They  set  a  relatively  high  standard  of  living,  about  comparable  to  that  enjoyed  by  Swedes  or  French,  while  also  allowing  for  the  preservation  of  natural  ecosystems,  such  as  stretches  of  wilderness  populated  by  diverse  animal  species,  necessary  for  the  survival  of  an  inhabitable  planet. Based on these variables, they calculated an “optimum  human  population”  of  between  1.5  billion  and  2 billion  people,  which corresponded  to the  population  of  1900  through  1930.  In  other  words,  the  current  human  population already exceeds the Earth’s ability to sustain a  decent standard of living, and we are presently in a state of  acute overpopulation. The  Ehrlichs  and  Daily  expanded  this  paper  into  a  book,  The Stork and the Plow: The Equity Solution to the Human Dilemma,  published  in  1995.  They  based  their  argument on the notion of “equity.” For example, instead  of  “throwing  condoms  at  women”  as  a  means  of  family planning, the equity solution promotes sexual equality  in  the  household  and  in  society  as  a  better  way  to  lower 


birth rates. Having no more than two children is the most  fundamental way to reduce overpopulation. Other critical  factors  include  recycling  and  reduced  consumption,  and  adopting a political stance in favor of sustainability. Published  in  1997,  Daily’s  second  book,  Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems,  resulted  from  her  Pew fellowship:  She  acted  as  editor,  soliciting  chapter contributions from 18 other Pew fellows discussing the issues of biodiversity and ecosystem conservation.  From 1997 through 1998, Daily served on the subcommittee  of  the  Presidential  Committee  of  Advisors  on  Science  and Technology, and in 1999, she served as a fellow in the  aldo leopold Leadership Program. Daily  remains  on  the  Stanford  faculty  as  the  Bing  Interdisciplinary  Research  Scientist  in  the  department  of  biological  sciences.  She  also  continues  to  conduct  field  research at sites in Costa Rica and Mexico, studying bird,  butterfly,  and  insect  populations  and  their  response  to  earth  changes  brought  about  by  human  overpopulation.  She is married to Gideon W. Yoffe.

mathematics  and  natural  philosophy  at  the  New  College,  established by the Presbyterians as an alternative to Cambridge and Oxford, which required oaths to the Church of England. Dalton published his first book, Meteorological Observations and Essays,  based  on  his  journal  of  meteorological  observations  started  in  1787,  in  1793.  The  next  year  he  published  Extraordinary Facts Relating to the Vision of Colours,  an  issue  of  personal  concern  as  he  was  colorblind. In 1800 the Manchester Literary and Philosophical  Society  appointed  Dalton  as  secretary,  and  he  read  most  of  his  papers  there  throughout  his  lifetime.  In  1817  the  society appointed him president, a position he maintained  until his death. Dalton presented four important papers to the society  in 1801. “On the Constitution of Mixed Gases” expounded  his  law  of  partial  pressures;  “On  the  Force  of  Steam”  discussed  the  dew  point  and  represented  the  founding  of  exact  hygrometry;  “On  Evaporation”  proposed  that  the  quantity  of  water  evaporated  was  proportional  to  the  vapor pressure; and “On the Expansion of Gases by Heat”  stated that all heated gases expand equally. This last prin-

Dalton, John
(1766–1844) English Physicist, Chemist John  Dalton  changed  the  course  of  the  human  understanding  of  physical  makeup  with  his  atomic  theory  of  matter, which states that all elements are made up of minute,  indestructible  particles,  called  atoms.  Dalton  arrived  at  this  theory  by  considering  the  properties  of  gases.  Dalton’s  law,  or  the  law  of  partial  pressures,  states  that  the  total  pressure  of  mixed  gases  amounts  to  the  sum  of  the  pressure  of  each  individual  gas.  Dalton  also  contributed to the understanding of the aurora borealis, the origin  of  the  trade  winds,  the  barometer,  the  thermometer,  the hygrometer, the dew point, rainfall, and cloud formation.  His  limited  educational  background  freed  him  from  academic prejudice, and he carefully guarded his freedom  of  thought  against  undue  influence  by  accepted  theories.  Dalton  trusted  his  own  observations  and  experience  to  guide his scientific research. Dalton was born on September 6, 1766, in Eaglesfield,  in Cumberland, England. His parents were Mary Greenup  Dalton and Joseph Dalton, a Quaker weaver. The younger  Dalton  inherited  his  family’s  modest  farm  in  1834  when  his older brother, Jonathan, died. Dalton devoted himself  exclusively to his work and his religion, never marrying. By  the  age  of  12  Dalton  had  acquired  enough  education  to  commence  teaching  in  Cumberland’s  Quaker  School.  At  age  14  he  moved  to  Kendal,  where  he  taught  with  his  brother  at  the  Quaker  School  for  the  next  12  years. In 1793 he moved to Manchester, where he taught 

John Dalton, whose atomic theory of matter states that all elements comprise minute, indestructible particles called atoms (Smith Collection, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania)


ciple  is  known  as  Charles’s  law,  as  Jacques  Charles  discovered  the  effect  in  1787,  though  Dalton  published  his  statement first. In 1802 Dalton presented his paper “On the Absorption  of  Gases  by  Water,”  to  which  he  appended  the  first  table  of  atomic  weights.  In  a  December  1803  lecture  to  the  Royal  Institution,  Dalton  explicated  for  the  first  time  his atomic theory, which held that all atoms of a particular element are alike, having the same atomic weight. Dalton published this theory in his 1808 text A New System of Chemical Philosophy, which he revised in 1810 and 1827. Dalton  received  a  Gold  Medal  from  the  Royal  Society  in 1826, but it was not until after his death that  stanislao cannizzaro  in  1858  reasserted  lorenzo romano amedeo carlo avogadro’s  theories  from  a  half-century  earlier,  which  confirmed  Dalton’s  atomic  theory  undisputedly.  Even without this final confirmation Dalton’s influence was  immense, as evidenced by the 40,000 people who attended  his Manchester funeral after his death on July 27, 1844.

Daly, Marie Maynard
(1921–2003) American Biochemist Marie  M.  Daly  was  the  first  African-American  woman  to  earn a doctorate in chemistry. She spent her career studying the heart and arteries, specifically investigating harmful  effects  on  them.  Late  in  her  career,  she  established  a  scholarship  at  her  alma  mater,  Queens  College,  to  help  poor students afford a college education. Daly was born on April 16, 1921, in Corona, a neighborhood  of  Queens,  in  New  York  City.  Her  mother  was  Helen Page, and her father, Ivan C. Daly, moved from the  British West Indies to the United States, where he attended Cornell University to study chemistry on a scholarship  until his funds ran out after the first semester. He became  a  postal  clerk  in  New  York  City.  Daly  attended  Hunter  College High School, an all-girls school with an all-female  faculty, where she determined to fulfill her father’s destiny  by  becoming  a  chemist  herself.  She  studied  chemistry  at  the  newly  formed  Queens  College,  graduating  with  honors in 1942. The college offered Daly a fellowship and a part-time  job as a laboratory assistant while she pursued a master’s  degree  at  New  York  University,  which  she  earned  in  one  year.  She  continued  to  work  at  Queens  College,  tutoring  chemistry,  until  she  saved  enough  money  to  enroll  at  Columbia  University,  where  she  studied  biochemistry  under  mary l. caldwell.  In  1948,  she  became  the  first  African-American woman to earn her Ph.D. in chemistry. Daly  accepted  a  temporary  position  at  Howard  University,  where  she  taught  introductory  physical  science 

under  Herman  Branson,  while  she  awaited  a  grant  from  the  American  Cancer  Society  to  fund  her  research  at  the  Rockefeller  Institute  of  Medicine  in  New  York  City  (now  Rockefeller  University.)  She  obtained  this  fellowship,  which lasted from 1948 through 1951, when she became  an assistant in general physiology under A. E. Mirsky. In 1955, Daly became an associate in biochemistry at  the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University,  where  she  worked  with  Quentin  B.  Deming.  This  team  discovered  a  correlation  between  the  incidence  of  heart  attacks  and  cholesterol.  Daly  later  investigated  the  correlation  between  cigarette  smoking  and  lung  diseases.  She also studied the role of the kidneys in human metabolism as well as hypertension and atherosclerosis. In  1958,  Daly  accepted  a  concurrent  position  as  an  established  investigator  for  the  American  Heart  Association through 1963. In 1960, she became an assistant professor  of  biochemistry  at  the  Albert  Einstein  College  of  Medicine at Yeshiva University in New York. In 1961, Daly  married  Vincent  Clark.  In  1962,  she  was  appointed  to  another concurrent position as a career scientist with the  Health Research Council of New York, a post she retained  for the next decade. In 1971, Yeshiva University promoted  her to associate professor of biochemistry and medicine, a  position she retained until her 1986 retirement. In  1988,  Daly  established  a  scholarship  fund  at  Queens  College,  which  she  earmarked  for  minority  students  who  intended  to  pursue  physics  or  chemistry.  She  dedicated this scholarship to the memory of her father, as  it would keep students the likes of her father from falling  through the cracks. Marie Daly died on October 28, 2003.

Dana, James Dwight
(1813–1895) American Geologist, Mineralogist, Zoologist Much of Dana’s most significant work grew out of his role  as the team geologist and marine zoologist on the Wilkes  Expedition,  which  circumnavigated  the  globe  from  1838  to  1842.  Not  known  for  his  seamanship,  Dana  excelled  in  observational  and  descriptive  abilities.  He  also  distinguished  himself  with  his  coral  reef  theories,  which  coincided  with  those  of  charles robert darwin,  and  with  his geosynclinal theory, which proposed that sedimentary  deposits in the Earth’s surface could compress into mountain  ranges.  With  this  theory  Dana  introduced  the  term  geosyncline into the scientific lexicon. Dana  was  born  on  February  12,  1813,  in  Utica,  New  York. His mother was Harriet Dwight Dana, and his father  was  James  Dana,  a  saddler  and  hardware  merchant.  Dana  attended  Yale  College  from  1830  to  1833;  there  Benjamin  Silliman  took  the  young  Dana  under  his  wing.  Silliman 


directed Dana toward natural history and its more specialized fields of geology and mineralogy. Silliman collaborated  with Dana on the latter’s first book, A System of Mineralogy,  published in 1837. Dana’s  first  job  upon  graduation  foretold  his  future  path, as he secured a position as a teacher to midshipmen  aboard  the  U.S.S.  Delaware.  On  this  voyage  he  witnessed  volcanic activity that led to his first publication, “On the  Condition  of  Vesuvius  in  July,  1834.”  When  he  returned  from  this  year-long  cruise,  he  was  uncertain  whether  he  could  sustain  a  viable  career  in  science.  Silliman  helped  him  by  using  his  influence  to  garner  an  assistantship  for  Dana in a chemical laboratory at Yale in 1836. Between 1838 and 1842 Dana participated in the Wilkes Expedition, which explored the Pacific and Antarctica.  Though  the  voyage  lasted  only  four  years,  processing  all  of the findings into written form took 10 years. Dana published three monumental books from his experiences with  the  Wilkes  Expedition;  these  publications  established  his  enduring scientific significance. The first book, Zoophytes,  published  in  1846,  along  with  the  second  book,  Geology,  published  in  1849,  advanced  the  scientific  knowledge  of  coral  systems  and  animals  immensely,  as  very  little  was  known before these books appeared. Cataloging coral zoophytes  proved  particularly  time-consuming  for  Dana,  as  he had collected over 400 zoophytes unknown to science.  The last book, Crustacea, appeared in 1852. While  Dana  was  compiling  his  data  from  the  expedition,  he  also  worked  on  other  projects.  The  most  significant  of  these  was  his  announcement  in  1847  of  his  geosynclinal theory of the origin of mountains from sedimentary deposits that fold up into chains of mountains. In  1856 Yale appointed Dana to a chair in natural history, and  in 1864 it appointed him to a chair in geology and mineralogy, which he held until 1890. In 1864 Dana published  the comprehensive text Manual of Geology. In 1872 he followed  up  on  his  work  with  coral  from  the  Wilkes  Expedition  with  a  final  statement  on  the  subject  in  his  book,  Coral and Coral Islands.  This  book  particularly  pleased  charles robert darwin,  as  it  confirmed  the  subsidence  theory  he  had  proposed  30  years  earlier.  Dana  died  on  April 14, 1895, in New Haven, Connecticut.

Daniell, John Frederic
(1790–1845) English Chemist, Meteorologist John Frederic Daniell invented a voltaic cell, now named  the  Daniell  cell  after  him,  that  maintained  its  charge  much  longer  than  the  existing  electric  cells  at  the  time.  This  invention  bolstered  the  telegraph  industry  through  its  infancy,  allowing  for  sustained  transmissions  with  its 

constant  current.  Earlier,  he  had  invented  the  dew-point  hygrometer  to  measure  atmospheric  humidity.  In  testament  to  his  intelligence,  the  Royal  Society  inducted  him  into  its  ranks  at  a  very  early  age,  and  King’s  College  created a professorship in chemistry for Daniell, its first such  chair, despite the fact that he had never attained a postsecondary education. Daniell was born on March 12, 1790, in London, England. His father was a lawyer. Daniell’s relatives gave him  his first job at their sugar refinery and resin factory, where  he first encountered the chemical process. Chemistry lectures by William T. Brande inspired him to pursue his own  chemical  investigations.  The  excellence  of  this  independent research brought him to the notice of the prestigious  Royal  Society,  which  inducted  him  into  its  fellowship  in  1814, when he was a mere 23 years old. Daniell conducted meteorological research in addition  to his chemical studies, and in 1820, he invented a device  to  measure  the  humidity  of  the  atmosphere,  a  dew-point  hygrometer.  Three  years  later,  he  published  Meteorological Essays, a collection of his papers on the Earth’s atmosphere, the trade winds, and instructions for constructing  meteorological  instrumentation.  What  distinguished  this  text  was  Daniell’s  use  of  physical  laws  to  explain  atmospheric  phenomena,  as  well  as  his  meticulous  exactitude  in  meteorological  observations  and  measurements.  On  a  practical  note,  his  suggestion  that  the  moisture  of  hothouses required monitoring led to a transformation in the  management of hothouses. He revised this text to include  a  discussion  on  radiation  for  its  second  edition,  which  came out in 1827. In  1831,  King’s  College  in  London  appointed  Daniell  as  its  first  professor  of  chemistry  on  the  strength  of  his  research  and  writings,  and  despite  the  fact  that  he  lacked academic credentials. In the mid-1830s, he turned  his  attention  to  electric  cells  in  response  to  the  demand  for  more  consistent  and  longer-lasting  power  sources  for  the  burgeoning  telegraph  industry.  At  the  time,  telegraphy depended on the voltaic cell, invented by alessandro volta  in  1797,  which  lost  its  potential  once  the  energy  was drawn due to hydrogen bubbles gathering on the copper  plate  and  creating  resistance  to  the  free  flow  of  the  circuit. Voltaic cells thus had an extremely brief shelf-life,  forcing telegram messages to remain exceedingly short lest  the energy supply fail mid-message. In  1836,  Daniell  devised  a  new  type  of  cell  consisting  of  a  negative  zinc  amalgam  electrode  immersed  in  a  dilute solution of sulfuric acid contained in a porous pot,  surrounded  by  a  solution  of  copper  sulfate  contained  in  copper  with  a  positive  copper  electrode  immersed  in  it.  The  porous  pot  allows  hydrogen  ions  to  pass  through  to  the  copper  sulfate,  but  it  prevents  the  mixing  of  the  two  electrolytes.  This  cell,  now  known  as  the  Daniell  cell,  sustained  a  constant  current  over  long  periods  of  time, 


and thus served as a perfect energy source for telegraphy.  British  and  American  telegraph  companies  employed  the  Daniell  cell  exclusively,  though  other  constant-current  cells were developed thereafter (namely, Grove’s nitric acid  depolarized  cell  and  Sand  batteries).  Interestingly,  telegraph operators measured the cell’s power by the degree of  pain it induced upon contact with their nerves. In  1839,  Daniell  attempted  to  fuse  metals  by  means  of a 70-cell battery. However, this arrangement generated  such a powerful electric arc that the ultraviolet rays damaged Daniell’s vision, as well as harming the eyes of other  observers, who walked away from the experiment with an  artificial sunburn. He followed up on these investigations  more  carefully  to  demonstrate  that  a  metal’s  ion,  not  its  oxide,  carries  the  electric  charge  in  electrolysis  of  metalsalt solutions. Daniell  dedicated  his  1839  book,  Introduction to the Study of Chemical Philosophy,  to  the  eminent  chemist,  michael faraday, who was a close friend. The Royal Society granted Daniell its Rumford Medal in 1832, and then  after he had invented his eponymous cell, the society presented  him  its  Copley  Medal  in  1837.  He  died  on  March  13, 1845, in London.

Darden, Christine
(1942–  ) American Aeronautical Engineer Christine Darden conducts research for the National Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration  (NASA)  on  the  effects  of the sonic booms created by supersonic aircraft, such as  their  contribution  to  noise  pollution  and  their  potential  depletion  of  the  ozone  layer.  She  also  investigates  means  of  reducing,  if  not  altogether  eliminating,  these  negative  effects. In order to facilitate her research, she wrote a computer software program that simulates a sonic boom under  experimental conditions in a wind tunnel. Darden was born Christine Voncile Mann on September 10, 1942, in Monroe, North Carolina, the youngest of  five children. Her parents, both youngest children of large  families,  attended  college  with  the  financial  support  of  their  older  siblings.  Her  mother,  Desma  Cheney,  became  an elementary-school teacher, and her father, Noah Horace  Mann Sr., became an insurance agent with North Carolina  Mutual Life. They encouraged their daughter’s interest in  education and supported her through Allen High School,  a Methodist boarding school in Asheville, North Carolina. Mann studied mathematics at Hampton Institute, earning  her  B.S.  in  1962.  Upon  graduation,  she  taught  highschool mathematics. In 1963, she married Walter L. Darden  Jr., who was attending Virginia State College. In 1965, she  obtained a position at the college as a research assistant in 

aerosol  physics,  analyzing  air  quality  in  search  of  specific  types of pollutants. The next year, she became an instructor  in mathematics at the college. She also conducted graduate  study, earning her M.S. from Virginia State in 1967. That year, the Darden family moved to Hampton, Virginia, where Walter taught middle-school science. In addition  to  raising  three  children,  Christine  Darden  applied  for  three  jobs,  accepting  the  best-paying  offer  as  a  data  analyst with NASA at Langley Research Center. Her duties  consisted of doing very routine calculations for engineers,  but as the work integrated more and more computer technology, Darden began to write computer programs for the  engineers.  NASA  promoted  her  to  the  rank  of  aerospace  engineer in 1973. Darden  then  took  advantage  of  NASA’s  incentives  to  continue  her  education  by  conducting  doctoral  study  in  mathematics  and  engineering  science  with  George  Washington  University  in  Washington,  D.C.  She  earned  her  Ph.D.  in  1983  and  further  continued  her  education  by  attending management classes conducted by NASA to promote  employees  into  research  administration  positions.  Darden  achieved  this  goal  with  her  1989  promotion  to  lead the Sonic Boom Team. Darden  led  her  team  in  designing  and  testing  new  wing  designs  and  nose-cone  shapes  in  attempts  to  improve  aerodynamics  and  decrease  the  effects  of  sonic  booms. She published her findings in more than 40 journal  articles.  Two  of  her  better-known  publications  were  “The Importance of Sonic Boom Research in the Development  of  Future  High  Speed  Aircraft,”  in  the  winter  1992  issue  of  the  Journal of the National Technical Association,  and  “Study  of  the  Limitations  of  Linear  Theory  Methods  As  Applied  to  Sonic  Boom  Pressure  Signatures,”  in  the  November–December 1993 issue of the Journal of Aircraft.  Darden  also  generated  several  mathematical  algorithms  specifically oriented toward sonic boom research. Darden  has  been  recognized  for  the  excellence  of  her  research  with  the  1985  Dr.  A.  T.  Weathers  Technical  Achievement  Award  from  the  National  Technical  Association, several NASA Outstanding Performance and Achievement  Awards,  and  the  Women  in  Engineering  Lifetime  Achievement Award. In addition, Langley Research Center  awarded her with its Certificate of Outstanding Performance  three times, in 1989, 1991, and 1992. She is the director of  the Aeroperforming Program Management Office at NASA.

Darwin, Charles Robert
(1809–1882) English Naturalist Charles  Darwin’s  name  is  synonymous  with  his  theory  of  evolution,  known  as  Darwinism.  His  assertion  and 


documentation  of  this  theory  rocked  the  world,  as  it  allowed  no  room  for  divine  intervention  in  the  process  of  evolution.  Theologians  rejected  the  notion,  since  it  explained  the  historical  progression  of  species  in  purely  scientific terms, suggesting that nature controlled its own  progression without intervention by a Creator. However,  Darwin’s  methods  were  exacting,  making  it  difficult  to  punch holes in his theory. Darwinism continued to hold  sway as an explanation of evolution long after his death. Darwin was born on February 9 (or 12), 1809, at The  Mount, in Shrewsbury, England. His father, Robert Waring  Darwin, was a physician and the son of the famous physician  erasmus darwin.  His  mother,  Susannah  Wedgwood  Darwin,  the  daughter  of  the  potter  Josiah  Wedgwood  I,  died prematurely. Darwin was the couple’s fifth child and  their second son. Darwin’s  elder  sisters  educated  him  until  he  entered  the Shrewsbury School in 1818, studying under Dr. Samuel  Butler.  Darwin  moved  on  to  Edinburgh  University  in  1825  to  study  medicine,  which  he  found  utterly  boring.  His  father  made  a  last  stab  at  salvaging  his  young  son’s  education  and  future  by  enrolling  Darwin  at  Cambridge  in 1827 for clerical study. Darwin was not inclined toward  academics  and  barely  passed  his  exams  to  receive  his  degree in 1831. Darwin’s education truly commenced when he signed  on  as  the  unpaid  naturalist  for  H.M.S.  Beagle.  Both  his  father  and  Captain  FitzRoy  required  convincing  of  the  worthiness  of  this  project,  but  Darwin’s  uncle,  Josiah  Wedgwood,  supported  the  22-year-old’s  decision.  On  December  27,  1831,  the  Beagle  set  sail  on  its  five-year  voyage, forever affecting the history of science. The most  significant  location  the  ship  visited  was  the  Galapagos  Islands  off  the  western  coast  of  South  America,  as  these  islands were isolated from one another and from the mainland,  allowing  species  to  evolve  independently.  Species  that  existed  on  one  island  did  not  exist  on  another,  and  certain species, for example tortoises, developed distinctly  on the different islands. Though Darwin published the Journal of the journey  in  1839,  he  waited  another  two  decades  to  publish  his  broad  theory  of  evolution.  In  the  intervening  time  Darwin married his first cousin, Emma Wedgwood, on January 29, 1839, and together they had 10 children, seven of  whom  survived  past  childhood.  A  letter  to  Darwin  from  alfred russel wallace  in  Malaya  in  1858  expressed  a  similar hypothesis concerning evolution and spurred Darwin  into  action.  The  two  men  presented  a  joint  paper  to  the Linnean Society in London that year, announcing their  coinciding theories. The following year Darwin published  his immensely influential text, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.  In  this  book  he  set  forth  the  three  main  principles  of  Darwinism—variation,  heredity,  and natural selection.

Darwin’s later work, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex,  published  in  1871,  followed  up  on  his  theory  of  evolution,  but  he  also  made  contributions  outside the realm of evolution. In 1868 he published Variation in Animals and Plants under Domestication. His other work  included  the  study  of  barnacles,  atolls,  and  earthworms,  among  other  topics.  Darwin  died  on  April  19,  1882,  at  Down House in Kent, England.

Darwin, Erasmus
(1731–1802) English Physician Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of the naturalist  charles robert darwin,  distinguished  himself  not  so  much  as  a  physician, his main occupation, but as a scientific philosopher. In the field of medicine he stood out for his belief in  diagnoses that fit the individual, as well as for his recognition  of  the  role  of  heredity  in  disease  and  his  advocacy  of  public health issues. As a writer, however, he truly set himself apart with his versification of scientific philosophy. Darwin  was  born  on  December  12,  1731,  at  Elston  Hall in Nottinghamshire, England. His father was the barrister  Robert  Darwin.  Darwin  married  Mary  Howard  in  1757. Together they had three sons—Charles, who died at  the  age  of  20  in  1778  while  a  medical  student;  Erasmus,  who committed suicide at the age of 40; and Robert Waring,  the  physician  and  father  of  Charles  Darwin.  After  Mary  died  in  1770,  Darwin  had  two  illegitimate  daughters, for whom he reportedly wrote A Plan for the Conduct of Female Education in Boarding Schools  in  1797.  Darwin  married the widow Elizabeth Chandos Pole in 1781, taking  in  her  two  children  from  her  previous  marriage.  Together they had seven more children. Darwin attended St. John’s College at Cambridge from  1750  to  1754  on  the  Lord  Exeter  Scholarship.  He  then  attended  the  Edinburgh  Medical  School,  purportedly  for  his  M.D.,  though  no  evidence  exists  that  he  ever  earned  this  degree.  In  1755  he  returned  to  Cambridge  to  complete his education there. In 1756 Darwin set up a medical practice in Nottingham, but he soon moved it to Lichfield, where he proved  more  successful  after  treating  an  incurable  patient.  Darwin  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Royal  Society  in  1761.  In  1766  he  cofounded  the  Lunar  Society  with  Matthew  Boulton and Dr. William Small. Around that time he also  helped  found  the  Lichfield  Botanical  Society.  After  Elizabeth  Darwin  prevailed  upon  him  to  move  from  Lichfield  to  Derby,  he  founded  the  Derby  Philosophical  Society  in  1783. Darwin’s  lasting  fame  resulted  from  four  major  texts  he published late in his life. The first, The Botanic Garden, 


was published in two parts. Darwin published the second  part,  The Loves of the Plants,  in  1789;  he  published  the  first part, The Economy of Vegetation, in 1791. He reversed  the order because he felt the second part more accessible,  though  both  were  challenging  in  that  they  presented  scientific  ideas  in  verse  form.  Though  this  style  was  well  received in reviews, its radical format laid it open to mockery. In 1798 The Loves of the Triangles, a harsh parody, was  published,  making  it  difficult  to  read  the  original  in  earnest. Darwin abandoned his style of scientific versification  thereafter. Darwin’s three other important books were Zoonomia or the Laws of Organic Life,  the  first  volume  published  in  1794 and the second volume published in 1796; Phytologia: The Philosophy of Agriculture and Gardening, published  in 1800; and The Temple of Nature or the Origin of Society, published  posthumously  in  1803.  Darwin  was  a  radical  freethinker  whose  inclusion  of  paganism  in  his  writings  led  to  the  label  of  atheist,  though  his  writings  reveal  a  deep belief in a Creator and in biblical ethics. Reconciling  these beliefs with rational scientific thought was the challenge Darwin tried to meet in his writings. Darwin died on  April 18, 1802, at Breadsall Priory in Derby, England.

Ingrid Daubechies, whose mathematical analysis of wavelets has been used by software engineers to improve signal recognition and data storage (Ingrid Daubechies)

Daubechies, Ingrid
(1954–  ) Belgian/American Mathematician Ingrid Daubechies has worked on mathematical constructs  called  wavelets,  which  are  used,  among  other  things,  to  solve the problem of separating useful information—a signal—from  surrounding  noise,  or  random  data.  She  was  born in Houthalen, Belgium, on August 17, 1954, to Marcel, a civil mining engineer, and Simone, a criminologist.  As a child she was always interested in how things worked  and enjoyed such hobbies as weaving, pottery, and sewing  clothes for her dolls. Daubechies  earned  a  bachelor’s  degree  in  physics  from  the  Free  University  of  Brussels  in  1975,  followed  by  a  Ph.D.  in  1980,  and  remained  at  that  university,  rising to the rank of tenured assistant professor, until 1987.  In 1984 she won the Luis Empain Prize for Physics, given  once  every  five  years  to  a  Belgian  scientist  on  the  basis  of  work  done  before  age  29.  Her  early  work  was  on  the  application of mathematics to physics, especially to quantum mechanics, the laws that govern physics at very small  (atomic) scales. Daubechies’s career changed direction in 1985, when  she  first  became  interested  in  wavelets.  She  was  thinking  about  ways  in  which  to  reconcile  different  requirements  for wavelet constructions at the time she attended a conference  in  Montreal,  Canada,  in  February  1987.  She  had 

hoped to tour the city, but it was too cold to go out much.  “I was kind of forced to stay in my hotel room—and calculate,” she told the Discover magazine writer Hans Christian  von Baeyer  in  1995.  “It  was  a  period  of  incredibly  intense  concentration.”  Even  her  wedding,  scheduled  to take place in a few weeks, took a back seat to the ideas she  was having about ways to process information. The  19th-century  mathematician  and  physicist  JeanBaptiste  Fourier  worked  out  a  method  of  breaking  down  signals into groups of regular repeating waves in order to  analyze them; scientists have used his method ever since.  Unfortunately  this  method,  which  determines  the  pitch  of  a  note,  cannot  at  the  same  time  determine  when  it  is  struck. Compromise techniques must be used if someone  wants to have both types of information, and none of these  has been completely satisfactory. During her chilly stay in  Canada,  Daubechies  found  a  way  to  construct  wavelets  that has proved particularly effective in helping computers  solve this type of problem. Her method has set wavelets to  work in astronomy, physics, computer science, and other  fields; for instance, it can be used to analyze the complex  patterns in air streaming over a plane’s wing. Daubechies moved to the United States soon after her  discovery  about  wavelets  and  has  since  become  a  naturalized citizen. From 1987 to 1994 she worked primarily  at  AT&T  Bell  Laboratories.  She  then  went  to  Princeton  University and since 1993 has been a full professor in the  mathematics department and the program in applied and  computational mathematics. She also directed the program  from 1997 to 2001. A fellow of the John D. and Catherine  T. MacArthur Foundation from 1992 to 1997, Daubechies  has won two prizes from the American Mathematical Society and was elected to the American Academy of Arts and  Sciences  in  1993  and  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences  in  1998.  She  received  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences 


Medal in Mathematics and the Eduard Rhein Foundation  Basic  Research  Award  in  2000.  In  2004  she  was  awarded  the William R. Kenan, Jr., Professorship at Princeton. She  has continued to research wavelets and their applications,  working on such projects as a program to apply wavelets  to signals from biomedical devices.

Davis, Margaret B.
(1931–  ) American Paleoecologist Early  in  Margaret  B.  Davis’s  career  as  a  paleoecologist,  a  discipline  that  studies  past  ecologies  of  the  Earth  by  geological  evidence  in  fossils,  she  challenged  the  existing  paradigm  governing  the  correction  factors  employed  when  studying  pollen  production  by  various  tree  species  10,000  years  ago.  Paleoecologists  had  been  utilizing  correction factors between 4:1 and 35:1. Davis threw a monkey wrench in these calculations by suggesting correction  factors of as much as 24,000:1. Margaret Bryan Davis was born on October 23, 1931,  in  Boston,  Massachusetts.  She  remained  in  Boston  growing up and attended Radcliffe College, where she studied  floral physiology and ecology as well as stratigraphic pollen  deposits  from  the  late  Quaternary  period  under  the  renowned  paleobotanist  Elso  Borghoorn.  She  earned  her  A.B. degree in biology in 1953. Davis won a Fulbright Fellowship from 1953 through  1954  to  study  palynology,  or  the  research  of  pollen  from  ancient  plants,  at  the  University  of  Copenhagen  under  Johannes  Iversen  of  the  Danish  Geological  Survey.  She  conducted research on glacial plant pollen deposits, publishing her findings in her first paper, “Interglacial Pollen  Spectra from Greenland,” in a 1954 issue of a Danish geological journal. When she returned to Boston, she married  Rowland  Davis  in  1956  (the  couple  divorced  in  1970),  and  she  based  her  doctoral  dissertation  on  her  European  fieldwork to earn her Ph.D. in biology from Harvard University in 1957. Harvard  retained  Davis  as  a  National  Science  Foundation  postdoctoral  fellow  for  two  years,  after  which  she  transferred  this  fellowship  to  the  California  Institute  of  Technology to focus on geoscience for the next two years.  Davis then spent a year at Yale University as a research fellow, studying the correlation between vegetation composition and pollen sedimentation in lakes. In 1961, she joined  the Department of Botany at the University of Michigan as  a  research  associate,  commencing  a  dozen-year  relationship with the university. In a 1963 issue of the American Journal of Science, Davis  published  her  article,  “On  the  Theory  of  Pollen  Analysis,”  which turned her field on its head by bringing much more  precision  to  the  analysis  of  pollen  records  as  a  means  of 

interpreting the history of plant migration. She also mapped  the  migration  of  certain  tree  species  across  eastern  North  America over the past 14,000 years. In 1964, she obtained  a  concurrent  position  as  an  associate  research  biologist  with the Great Lakes Research Division. The University of  Michigan promoted her to an associate professorship in the  Department of Zoology in 1966, and in 1970, both institutions erased the “associate” before her title, promoting her  to the status of full professor and research biologist. Davis returned to Yale in 1973 as a professor of biology, remaining there for three years. In 1976, the University  of Minnesota appointed her as a professor and head of the  Department  of  Ecology  and  Behavioral  Biology.  In  1983,  the  university  named  her  the  Regents’  Professor  of  Ecology. She is now Regents’ Professor Emeritus in the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. In 1989, Davis  published her prediction that sugar maple trees will disappear from their southernmost range and will migrate eastward  in  Minnesota,  according  to  data  compiled  from  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration  and  the  National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. Throughout  Davis’s  career,  she  published  more  than  65  papers,  and  she  served  as  president  of  the  American  Quaternary  Association  from  1978  through  1980  and  of  the  Ecological  Society  of  America  from  1987  through  1988.  She  has  received  numerous  honors,  including  the  Ecological  Society  of  America’s  Eminent  Ecologist  Award  as  well  as  the  1993  Nevada  Medal,  which  awarded  her  $5,000  for  her  contributions  to  the  understanding  of  the  history, present, and future of environmental change.

Davis, Marguerite
(1887–1967) American Chemist Marguerite Davis discovered vitamins A and B, working in  collaboration  with  Elmer  Verner  McCollum,  a  biochemist  and  colleague  at  the  University  of  Wisconsin  at  Madison.  Scientists had come to the realization that certain elements  contained in specific foods proved necessary for sustenance  and  proper  nutrition,  but  the  identity  of  these  elements  remained a mystery until McCollum and Davis’s discovery. Davis  was  born  on  September  16,  1887,  in  Racine,  Wisconsin.  She  hailed  from  a  family  of  academics  and  activists: Her father, Jefferson J. Davis, was a physician and  a botanist who worked as a professor at the University of  Wisconsin.  Her  grandmother,  Amy  Davis  Winship,  was  a  women’s rights campaigner and a social worker. In 1906,  Davis matriculated at the school where her father taught,  but  she  transferred  from  the  University  of  Wisconsin  to  the  University  of  California  at  Berkeley  two  years  later,  and two years after that, in 1910, she earned her bachelor  of science degree there.


Davis returned to the University of Wisconsin to commence  graduate  studies,  but  she  never  did  complete  the  required coursework to receive her master’s degree. Instead,  she moved to New Brunswick, New Jersey, to work for the  Squibb Pharmaceutical Company. Before long, however, she  returned to her home state and to the University of Wisconsin, where she installed herself as a chemical researcher in  the same laboratory as McCollum. The biochemist had been  trying to identify the chemical keys to nutrition. Several  researchers  were  hot  on  this  trail  already:  Christiaan Eijkman, a Dutch physician, and Sir Frederick  Gowland Hopkins, a British biochemist, had come to the  realization that certain elements in food, which they could  not yet put their fingers on, must be required by the body  for survival. Casimir Funk, a Polish-American biochemist,  took their conjectures a step further by hypothesizing that  these elements were in fact amines, and thus he tacked the  Latin word for life, vita, in front, dubbing them vitamines.  McCollum  followed  these  men’s  trail  by  trying  to  isolate  the  most  basic  food  components  necessary  to  keep  animals alive, though his efforts did not yield a clear answer. In 1913, McCollum and Davis happened upon an element  in  butterfat  that  fit  the  life-sustaining  criteria  they  were  searching  for.  Their  discovery  differed  from  a  similar  discovery by Eijkman, so they distinguished the discoveries  by calling theirs fat-soluble A and Eijkman’s water-soluble B.  These substances became known as vitamins A and B, dropping the “e” from the end of the word when it was discovered  that  not  all  of  the  substances  were  amines.  Lafayette  Benedict Mendel, a physiological chemist from Yale University,  discovered  vitamins  A  and  B  simultaneously,  though  McCollum and Davis are credited with the discovery. Davis went on to establish the University of Wisconsin’s  nutrition  laboratory,  and  then  she  moved  to  Rutgers  University,  which  commissioned  her  to  establish  a  nutrition lab there. In 1940, she retired to her birthplace, where  she remained active as a chemistry consultant. She died in  Racine  on  September  19,  1967,  three  days  after  reaching  her 80th birthday.

Davy, Sir Humphry
(1778–1829) English Chemist Sir  Humphry  Davy  is  best  known  for  his  discovery  of  several  chemical  elements,  including  sodium  and  potassium. He established himself with a study of the effects of  nitrous  oxide.  Later  in  his  career  he  turned  his  attention  to practical concerns and invented the miner’s safety lamp.  For  his  achievements  he  was  knighted  on  April  8,  1812,  and further honored with the title of baronet in 1818. Davy  was  born  on  December  17,  1778,  in  Penzance,  England. His father, Robert Davy, a woodcarver, speculated 

unsuccessfully in farming and tin mining and died in 1794.  After his death Davy’s mother, Grace Millett, managed a milliner’s  shop  until  1799,  when  she  inherited  a  small  estate.  Davy married Jane Apreece, a widow, on April 11, 1812. Davy’s formal education was quite limited. He attended  grammar  school  in  Penzance  before  transferring  to  school  in Truro in 1793. In 1795 he apprenticed to a surgeon and  apothecary,  intending  to  enter  the  field  of  medicine.  He  proved  quite  adept  at  chemical  science,  and  in  1798  he  was appointed as the chemical superintendent at the Pneumatic  Institute  in  Clifton.  His  responsibilities  included  experimenting with gases to understand their effects. Davy  worked  with  nitrous  oxide,  which  came  to  be  known  as  laughing  gas  because  of  the  way  it  released  inhibitions  in  those  who  inhaled  it.  Since  his  name  was  associated  with  such a pleasant substance, Davy quickly established a positive reputation. In 1801 the newly organized Royal Institution of Great Britain in London appointed him as a lecturer.  His lectures, which became very popular, sometimes included  demonstrations  of  the  scientific  principles  discussed,  such  as  the  effects  of  nitrous  oxide.  Davy  had  friendships  with the socially elite, including the poets Samuel Coleridge  and William Wordsworth. In 1802 he was promoted to the  position of professor of chemistry. Davy subsequently turned his attention to the effects  of electricity on chemicals, a discipline known as electrochemistry. In 1806 Davy reported on some of his findings  in the paper “On Some Chemical Agencies of Electricity,”  which won the 1807 Napoleon Prize from the Institut de  France despite the fact that England and France were warring  at  the  time.  That  year  Davy  used  electrolysis  to  discover  sodium  and  potassium.  He  followed  this  with  the  discoveries  of  boron,  hydrogen  telluride,  and  hydrogen  phosphate. In 1812 he published the first part of the text,  Elements of Chemical Philosophy; however,  he never managed  to  complete  another  section  of  the  book.  In  1813  Davy published a companion piece, Elements of Agricultural Chemistry. In 1815 he put his experimental expertise to  use by inventing a safe lamp for mining. Besides  his  publications  and  lectures,  Davy  earned  recognition through awards and memberships. The Royal  Society elected him a fellow in 1803, appointed him secretary in 1807, and promoted him to president from 1820 to  1827. In 1805 he won the society’s Copley Medal. In 1826  Davy  suffered  a  stroke,  and  he  never  fully  recovered.  On  May 29, 1829, he died in Geneva, Switzerland.

Debye, Peter Joseph William
(1884–1966) Dutch/American Chemical Physicist Peter  Debye  was  awarded  the  1936  Nobel  Prize  in  chemistry  for  his  diverse  work  on  phenomena  such  as  dipole 

176    DELBRüCK, MAX

Peter Debye, whose name serves as the appellation for the base unit of the electric dipole moment, the debye (Smith Collection, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania)

moments,  X-rays,  and  light  scattering  in  gases.  His  name  serves  as  the  appellation  of  the  base  unit  of  the  electric  dipole moment, or the debye (D). It also graces the DebyeHückel  theory  of  electrolytes,  which  explains  mathematically the discrepancies between the apparent and the actual  number of dissolved particles in electrolyte solutions. Debye was born on March 24, 1884, in Maastricht in  the  Netherlands  to  Johannes  Wilhelmus  Debije,  a  foreman  at  a  metalware  manufacturer,  and  Maria  Anna  Barbara  Ruemkens,  a  theater  cashier.  He  had  one  younger  sister. On April 10, 1913, Debye married Matilde Alberer; the  couple  had  two  children.  Peter  Paul  Ruprecht,  who  became  a  physicist  and  collaborated  with  his  father,  was  born  in  1916,  and  Mathilde  Maria  Gabriele  was  born  in  1921. Debye became a U.S. citizen in 1946. In  1905  Debye  earned  his  degree  in  electrical  engineering  from  the  Technische  Hochschule  in  Aachen.  In  1910 he received his Ph.D. in physics from the University  of  Munich,  with  a  dissertation  on  the  effect  of  radiation 

on  spherical  particles  with  diverse  refractive  properties.  Debye stayed on as a lecturer at Munich for one year. Debye  managed  to  produce  impressive  results  from  his  research  despite  constant  professional  movement.  In  1911  he  occupied  the  chair  of  theoretical  physics  previously  held  by  albert einstein  at  the  University  of  Zurich.  He  moved  to  the  University  of  Utrecht  in  1912,  and  in  1914  he  became  a  professor  of  theoretical  and  experimental physics at the University of Göttingen. He  returned  to  the  University  of  Zurich  in  1920  as  a  professor  of  experimental  physics  and  the  director  of  the  physics laboratory at the Federal Institute of Technology.  From 1927 to 1934 he taught at the University of Leipzig  before  moving  to  the  University  of  Berlin,  where  he  assumed  the  position  of  director  of  the  Kaiser  Wilhelm  Institute for Theoretical Physics. Debye last moved to the  United States, where he became a professor of chemistry  and  the  department  chairperson  at  Cornell  University  from 1940 to 1950. In  1916  Debye  discovered  that  solid  substances  could  be  powdered  for  use  in  X-rays,  a  process  that  circumvented  the  more  difficult  process  of preparing  crystals for that purpose. In 1923 he collaborated with Erich Hückel  to  transform  svante august arrhenius’s  theory  of  the  partial  ionization  of  electrolyte  solutions  to  the  more  precise  version  of  complete  ionization  of  electrolyte  solutions  by  taking  into  account  the  fact that  charged  ions  could  interact  mutually  instead  of  exclusively. In 1923 he also developed a theory that explained  the Compton effect mathematically. Later in his career he  researched polymers and magnetism. Besides  the  Nobel  Prize,  Debye  won  a  slew  of  other  awards,  including  the  1930  Rumford  Medal  of  the  Royal  Society, the 1935 Lorentz Medal of the Royal Netherlands  Academy  of  Sciences,  the  1937  Franklin  Medal  of  the  Franklin  Institute,  and  the  1949  Faraday  Medal.  He  died  of  a  heart  attack  on  November  2,  1966,  in  Ithaca,  New  York.

Delbrück, Max
(1906–1981) German/American Molecular Biologist Max  Delbrück  is  recognized  as  the  founder  of  molecular biology  and  molecular  genetics.  Although  he  discovered  important  phenomena,  such  as  the  spontaneous  mutation of bacteria to become immune to bacteriophages, he  exerted even more influence by inspiring other scientists.  His collaborative work on bacteriophages, or viruses that  infect  bacteria,  with  alfred day hershey  and  salvador edward luria  earned  the  trio  the  1969  Nobel  Prize  in  physiology or medicine.


Delbrück  was  born  on  September  4,  1906,  in  Berlin,  Germany, the youngest of seven children. His father, Hans  Delbrück,  was  a  professor  of  history  at  the  University  of  Berlin and editor of the journal Prussian Yearbook, and his  mother  was  Lina  Thiersch,  granddaughter  of  Justus  von  Liebig, who was considered the founder of organic chemistry. Delbrück married Mary Adeline Bruce in 1941, and  the  couple  had  four  children—two  sons,  Jonathan  and  Tobias,  and  two  daughters,  Nicola  and  Ludina.  In  1945  Delbrück became a U.S. citizen. In 1924 Delbrück enrolled in the University of Tübingen,  but  he  transferred  first  to  the  University  of  Bonn  before  receiving  his  Ph.D.  in  physics  in  1930  from  the  University of Göttingen. He started his dissertation on the  origin of a type of star, but he then switched topics to the  differences  in  bonding  of  two  lithium  atoms,  as  opposed  to  the  much  stronger  bonding  of  two  hydrogen  atoms.  Delbrück performed postdoctoral studies under a research  grant  at  the  University  of  Bristol  in  England  focusing  on  quantum  mechanics.  A  Rockefeller  Foundation  postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Copenhagen allowed  him to continue his postdoctoral studies under niels hendrik david bohr. From  1932  through  1937  Delbrück  served  as  a  research  assistant  to  lise meitner  at  the  Kaiser  Wilhelm  Institute  for  Chemistry  in  Berlin.  A  second  Rockefeller  Foundation  fellowship  allowed  him  to  travel  in  1937  to  the United States, where he resided for the rest of his life.  From 1937 through 1981 he served on the faculty of the  California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, with a stint  at Vanderbilt University between 1940 and 1947. In 1945  he  commenced  his  tradition  of  offering  annual  summer  courses on bacteriophages at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York. In  1939  Delbrück  discovered  a  one-step  process  by  which  bacteriophages  multiplied  exponentially  within  one hour. In 1943 he helped organize the Phage Group,  which  included  both  Hershey  and  Luria,  and  the  members  began  to  meet  together  informally  to  discuss  bacteriophages.  That  year  Delbrück  and  Luria  jointly  published  “Mutations  of  Bacteria  from  Virus  Sensitivity  to  Virus  Resistance,”  an  article  that  represents  the  genesis of bacterial genetics. The next year the Phage Group  drew  up  the  Phage  Treaty  of  1944,  which  standardized  bacteriophage  research.  In  1946  he  and  Hershey  independently  discovered  that  different  kinds  of  viruses  can  combine  genetically  to  create  new  forms  of  viruses.  In  1947  at  the  request  of  George  Beadle,  head  of  the  biology  department  at  Caltech,  Delbrück  accepted  a  position  there.  By  1950  his  interests  began  to  shift  away  from  phage  and  toward  sensory  physiology,  though  he  did  help  launch  the  next  wave  of  viral  genetics—tumor  virology. Delbrück died on March 10, 1981, in Pasadena,  California.

Descartes, René du Perron
(1596–1650) French Mathematician, Philosopher of Science Although René Descartes is known as the father of modern  philosophy, his work in the history of science was equally  instrumental.  Descartes  developed  the  analytical  or  coordinate  system  of  geometry known  as  Cartesian  geometry,  which  transforms  geometrical  problems  into  algebraic  problems in order to solve them. Descartes also theorized  in  the  opposite  direction,  applying  geometrical  solutions  to algebraic problems. In a broader sense, he contributed  to the sciences in general with his notion of “method,” or  the  systematic  doubt  of  knowledge  until  it  is  confirmed  as true by a process of consideration that moves from the  simplest to the most complex considerations. Descartes  was  born  on  March  31,  1596,  in  La  Haye,  Touraine,  France.  His  father  was  a conseiller  to  the  parlement in Brittany. His mother, who died shortly after his  birth, left him both her noble name du Perron as well as an  estate in Poitou.

René Descartes, developer of Cartesian geometry, which translates geometrical problems into algebraic problems in order to solve them (AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives)


Between 1604 and 1612 the Jesuits at the Royal College  of  La  Flèche  gave  Descartes  a  modern  education  in  physics and mathematics, including the astronomical discoveries of Galileo. In 1616 Descartes graduated from the  University  of  Poitiers  with  a  degree  in  law,  but  his  independent wealth freed him from the necessity of practicing  law for a living, allowing him to travel instead. Descartes  served  in  the  military  after  his  schooling,  first under the prince of Orange in Holland in 1618. During this stint he encountered Isaac Beekman, who taught  him much about science. In 1619 Descartes served under  the duke of Bavaria. It was during this time that Descartes  experienced  a  series  of  visions  that  would  transform  the  future of science. He spent the day of November 10, 1619,  in a poêle, or an overheated room, and came to two realizations: that he must arrive at all knowledge through his  own senses, and that he must doubt all in order to prove  what  is  true  without  learning  of  prior  assumptions.  That  night he dreamed three dreams that prompted him down  the path in pursuit of discovering unshakable truths. Descartes’s awakening on this date, which he reported  in his  1637  text  Discourse on Method,  is  marked  as  the  birth  of  modernity by many. Descartes included several appendices that demonstrated his “method”—Météores, La dioptrique, and La géometrie.  This latter appendix proved pivotal to the science of mathematics, as it proposed the Cartesian coordinate system of  geometry.  He  further  defined  that  one  can  determine  the  position of a fixed point by the convergence of two or more  straight  lines.  In  1644  he  published  the  Principles of Philosophy,  which  included  his  theories  in  physics.  Descartes  reduced  the  world  to  a  single  mechanistic  system  in  this  work. He produced these, his most influential works, while  living in Holland between 1628 and 1649. In 1649 Queen Christina of Sweden enticed Descartes  to Stockholm to serve as her private tutor. She forced Descartes,  who  maintained  that  he  conceived  his  best  ideas  while  lounging  in  a  warm  bed,  to  rise  before  five  o’clock  in the morning for tutorials in the chill of Swedish winter.  Descartes died in Stockholm on February 11, 1650, of an  illness he contracted on these cold mornings. He is most  remembered  for  his  search  for  certainty,  which  led  him  to  attempt  to  apply  mathematical  method  to  all  knowledge and resulted in his famous Cogito, ergo sum, “I think,  therefore I am.”

De Vries, Hugo
(1848–1935) Dutch Plant Physiologist, Plant Geneticist At the beginning of the 20th century Hugo De Vries recovered  from  obscurity  the  laws  of  heredity  that  johann

gregor mendel  had  formulated  some  34  years  earlier.  Independently Karl Correns and Erich Tschermak von Seysenegg rediscovered Mendel’s work simultaneously. De Vries  also advanced the study of plant physiology by identifying  such processes as plasmolysis, or osmosis in plant cells. De Vries was born on February 16, 1848, in Haarlem,  Netherlands. His parents were Maria Everardina Reuvens,  who hailed from a family of scholars, and Gerrit de Vries,  who was a representative of the Provincial State of North  Denmark, a member of the Council of State, and the minister  of  justice  under  William  III.  De  Vries  studied  medicine  at  the  University  of  Leyden  from  1866  until  1870,  when  he  moved  to  the  University  of  Heidelberg,  where  he  studied  under  Hofmeister.  Reading  works  by  julius von sachs  and  charles robert darwin  influenced  him  tremendously,  and  in  1871,  when  he  moved  on  to  the  University  of  Würzberg,  he  had the  opportunity  to study  under  Sachs  with  whom  he  maintained  a  long-standing  professional relationship. Later  that  year  De  Vries  accepted  a  position  teaching natural history at the First High School in Amsterdam  while  continuing  to  research  in  Sachs’s  laboratory  in  the  summers.  In  1875  he  landed  a  position  with  the  Prussian Ministry of Agriculture in Würzburg, writing monographs  on  red  clover,  potato,  and  sugar  beets,  as  well  as  on the processes of osmosis in plant cells. This post lasted  two years, until he moved to the University of Halle as a  Privatdozent,  lecturing  on  the  physiology  of  cultivated  plants. De Vries resigned this position in favor of a lectureship  in  plant  physiology  at  the  University  of  Amsterdam  later in the year of 1877. His appointment represented the  first academic position in the field of plant physiology in  the Netherlands, and De Vries stayed on at the University  of Amsterdam for the remainder of his career. In 1878 the  university promoted him to the position of assistant professor of botany, and in 1881 he ascended to the status of  full professor. In  1886  De  Vries  commenced  his  research  in  plant  genetics  when  he  noticed  that  some  species  of  evening  primrose  differed  from  others  and  sought  to  explain  this  distinction. He reported his early findings in the 1889 book  Intracellular Pangenesis.  He  continued  to  work  with  plant  breeding until 1900, when he formulated the laws of heredity that restated Mendel’s work from 1866, though De Vries  discovered Mendel’s papers only after he had formulated his  own version of the same ideas. De Vries developed the theory of mutation, which held that there existed mutation periods,  which  represented  the  process  of  evolution.  De  Vries  described  progressive  mutants  as  productive  characteristic  transformations, whereas retrogressive mutants represented  changes  that  did  not  benefit  the  continuation  of  the  species. De Vries published this work in 1901 through 1903 in  the book The Mutation Theory, which appeared in 1910 and  1911 in an English translation.


In 1896 the University of Amsterdam named De Vries  a  senior  professor  of  botany,  and  in  1904  he  served  as  a  visiting lecturer at the University of California at Berkeley.  In 1912 he visited the Rice Institute in Houston, Texas, to  participate  in  its  opening  ceremonies.  De  Vries  retired  in  1918, though he continued to work in the field that made  him famous, plant genetics and plant physiology. De Vries  died on May 21, 1935, in Lunteren, Netherlands.

DeWitt, Lydia Maria Adams
(1859–1928) American Anatomist and Pathologist An interest in medicine led Lydia DeWitt into the fields of  pathology and anatomy around the turn of the 20th century. Her initial work focused on microscopic anatomy, especially nerve endings and the relationship of nerve endings  to  muscle  fibers.  DeWitt’s  later  work  centered  on  public  health  issues.  She  worked  on  methods  to  diagnose  and  treat  diphtheria,  typhoid,  and  tuberculosis,  endemic  and  life-threatening diseases during the early 20th century. Born  on  February  1,  1859,  in  Flint,  Michigan,  Lydia  Adams  was  the  daughter  of  Oscar  Adams,  a  lawyer,  and  Elizabeth  Walton  Adams.  She  had  two  siblings.  Adams’s  mother died in 1864, and she was raised by her stepmother,  who  was  her  mother’s  sister.  In  1878,  at  age  19,  she  married  Alton  DeWitt,  a  school  superintendent.  She  had  two children, Stella and Clyde. DeWitt  graduated  from  a  public  secondary  school  in  Flint and, in 1886, also graduated with a teaching degree  from  Ypsilanti  Normal  College.  Between  1886  and  1895,  she taught at several public schools in Michigan. In 1895,  DeWitt returned to college and enrolled in the University  of Michigan’s combined medical and science program. She  received an M.D. degree in 1898 and a B.S. degree in 1899.  In  1906,  she  went  to  the  University  of  Berlin  to  study  anatomy for a year. The  University  of  Michigan  was  DeWitt’s  first  professional  home.  She  began  as  a  demonstrator  in  anatomy  in  1896,  then  from  1897  to  1902  she  served  as  an  assistant in histology. She was an instructor of histology  from  1902  to  1910.  Much  of  DeWitt’s  research  work  at  the University of Michigan between 1896 and 1910 was  done in association with Carl Huber. This included comparative  studies  of  nerve  endings  of  different  species.  Later,  on  her  own,  she  investigated  the  transmission  of  nerve  impulses  to  heart  muscles  and  the  functioning  of  the  pancreas.  Her  studies  of  the  pancreas  were  important  steps  in  the  understanding  of  the  functions  of  this  organ.  By  1900,  medical  science  knew  there  was  a  link  between the pancreas and diabetes. However, because the  pancreas secretes a variety of enzymes, scientists had not 

been able to isolate these into discrete groups. By 1906,  DeWitt  had  managed  to  isolate  a  group  of  pancreatic  cells  known  as  the  islets of Langerhans.  She  concluded  that  this  group  of  enzymes  contained  the  critical  ingredients  necessary  for  controlling  the  metabolism  of  carbohydrates  in  the  body—in  short,  the  raw  material  that  could offer a cure to diabetes. Because of the inadequate  equipment  at  her  lab,  she  could  not  carry  her  experiments to the next steps of isolating insulin, a procedure  that was completed in 1921–22 by Canadian researchers  J. J. R. McLeod and Frederick Banting. In 1910, DeWitt left Michigan to become an instructor  of  pathology  at  Washington  University  in  St.  Louis.  There she worked with George Dock, one of her mentors  at Michigan, on studies of diphtheria and ways to diagnose  typhoid more accurately. As a result of this work, in 1912  DeWitt was given a job as assistant professor of pathology  at the University of Chicago’s Sprague Memorial Institute  to work on chemical treatments for tuberculosis. In 1918,  she  became  an  associate  professor.  She  remained  at  the  University of Chicago until her retirement in 1926. For her work in medicine, DeWitt was given an honorary doctorate from the University of Michigan. She was  also elected president of the Chicago Pathological Society  in  1924.  She  died  on  March  10,  1928,  at  her  daughter’s  home in Winter, Texas.

DeWitt-Morette, Cécile-Andrée-Paule
(1922–  ) French Physicist A key researcher in mathematical and theoretical physics,  Cécile-Andrée-Paule  DeWitt-Morette  has  had  a  rich  and  varied international career. As a graduate and postdoctoral  student,  she  was  fortunate  to  have  worked  with  many  Nobel laureates in physics in both France and the United  States. In the 1950s, she founded the first European summer  institute  for  theoretical  physics,  and  from  1945,  she  has  worked  at  a  number  of  American  and  European  universities as a theoretical physicist. Born  on  December  21,  1922,  in  Paris,  Morette  is  the  daughter  of  André  Morette  and  Marie-Louise  Ravaudet.  Her  father  was  an  engineer  and  industrial  manager  who  restored  a  large  steel  complex  in  Normandy  during  the  1920s. Her mother was an educated woman who had prepared  for  university  before  marrying  André  Morette.  In  1951, Morette married Bryce DeWitt, an American physicist. They have four daughters. DeWitt-Morette  entered  the  University  of  Caen  in  1940  and  transferred  to  the  University  of  Paris  in  1943.  She  spent  the  wartime  years  as  a  student.  By  1945,  she  was working as a theoretical physicist in the laboratory of 


Frédéric  Joliot  and  Irène  Joliot-Curie,  two  of  the  leading  French physicists of that era. After  the  war,  DeWitt-Morette  traveled  to  England  and Ireland where she met Nobel laureate Paul Dirac and  worked with Walter Heitler at the Institute for Advanced  Studies in Dublin. She worked in Dublin for several years  before accepting an invitation to work at the Institute for  Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen, headed by Niels Bohr.  DeWitt-Morette received her Ph.D. from the University of  Paris  in  1947.  In  1948,  she  traveled  to  the  United  States  where  she  took  a  position  at  Princeton  University’s  Institute for Advanced Study, then headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer.  She  remained  at  Princeton  until  1950.  Here  she  met and later married fellow physicist Bryce DeWitt. After her marriage to DeWitt, DeWitt-Morette turned  down several offers of tenured professorships from French  universities. She persuaded the French minister of education to give her money to open a summer institute for the  study of theoretical physics at Les Houches, a small town  in the French Alps near Mont Blanc. This institute, known  as  the  Les  Houches  School,  admitted  30  students  each  summer for advanced courses on standard topics in theoretical physics. Courses lasted for eight weeks, and many  of  the  teachers  and  students  were  past  or  future  Nobel  Prize winners. DeWitt-Morette directed this summer program until 1972. Since  1948,  most  of  DeWitt-Morette’s  life  has  been  spent in the United States. In 1952, she moved to Berkeley  where  her  husband  had  accepted  a  position  at  the  Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. DeWitt-Morette  took a position as lecturer in physics at the University of  California at Berkeley. When Bryce DeWitt became director  of  the  Institute  for  Field  Physics  at  the  University  of  North  Carolina  in  1956,  DeWitt-Morette  took  a  nontenured  position  as  visiting  research  professor  at  that  institution.  However,  the  university  would  not  give  her  a  full  position, citing nepotism rules as the reason. In 1971, DeWitt-Morette and her family moved again,  this time to Austin, Texas, where she and DeWitt accepted  positions  on  the  astronomy  and  physics  faculties  at  the University of Texas, Austin. There, she finally became  a  full  professor,  although  she  had  to  wait  until  1987  to  become a full-time faculty member. Beginning  in  the  1950s  at  Princeton  and  continuing  through  her  whole  career,  DeWitt-Morette  has  concentrated  her  attention  on  path  integration,  an  approach  to  understanding quantum physics first explored by Richard  Feynman  in  the  late  1940s  and  1950s.  DeWitt-Morette  expanded  the  concept  of  path  integration  by  new  mathematical concepts, especially introducing the semiclassical  expansion of the functional integral. She and her students  developed theoretical models to explain such phenomena  as glory scattering, orbiting, rainbow scattering, and scattering of waves by black holes.

For  her  work  as  an  educator  and  theorist,  DeWittMorette  was  awarded  the  Chevalier  de  l’Ordre  National  du  Mérite  and  the  Chevalier  dans  l’Ordre  de  la  Légion  d’Honneur  by  the  French  government  in  1981.  She  has  also  served  on  numerous  scientific  committees  and  has  supervised  22  graduate  students  during  their  doctoral  work. She continues to teach at the University of Texas at  Austin.

Diacumakos, Elaine
(1930–1984) American Biologist Although cell biologist Elaine Diacumakos developed the  first technique for inserting and removing material to and  from  cells,  her  accomplishments  were  not  recognized  for  most of her career. With geneticist French Anderson, she  later perfected her cell insertion technique so that it could  be applied in gene therapy. She is now credited with pioneering one of the early breakthroughs in that field. Diacumakos also explored cancer cells’ resistance to drugs. Born  on  August  11,  1930,  in  Chester,  Pennsylvania,  Diacumakos was one of Gregoris and Olga (Dezes) Diacumakos’s  two  children.  Diacumakos  received  her  bachelor’s  degree in zoology from the University of Maryland at College Park in 1951. She then began doctoral studies at New  York  University,  earning  her  master’s  degree  in  cell  physiology  and  embryology  in  1955  and  her  Ph.D.  in  1958.  While still a graduate student, she also worked as a research  associate  at  New  York  University.  She  married  James  Chimondies  in  1958,  the  same  year  she  won  the  prestigious  Founders Day Award from New York University. After  Diacumakos  completed  her  Ph.D.,  she  held  a  number  of  concurrent  positions.  She  remained  at  New  York  University  as  a  research  associate  until  1964.  From  1958 to 1960, she also held a two-year fellowship at Rockefeller  University,  where  she  began  a  fruitful  collaboration  with  Nobel  Prize–winning  geneticist  Edward  Tatum.  In  addition,  Diacumakos  worked  as  a  research  associate  at the Sloan-Kettering Division of the Graduate School of  Medical  Studies  at  Cornell  University  in  New  York  City  from  1959  to  1963,  when  she  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  instructor.  At  Sloan-Kettering,  she  investigated  cancer  cells  and  explored  the  phenomenon  of  a  cell’s  resistance  to drugs. Diacumakos returned to Rockefeller University in 1971  to  become  a  senior  research  associate  in  biochemistry  and  genetics.  While  teaming  up  again  with  Edward  Tatum  at  Rockefeller,  she  began  to  develop  her  cell  insertion  techniques. Since their research at that time focused on discovering whether the organelles of an individual cell contained  genetic  material,  it  was  necessary  for  the  duo  to  invent  a 


method  for  extracting  material  from  and  inserting  it  into  the  microscopic  entities.  Diacumakos  experimented  with  minuscule glass needles, which she made herself by bending glass she heated with her Bunsen burner. This method  allowed  her  to  create  glass  needles  that  were  thinner  than  a strand of human hair and could be used with incredible  precision. After Tatum died unexpectedly in 1975, Diacumakos was  promoted to head the Cytobiology Laboratory at Rockefeller.  She  was  unable  to  raise  funding  for  her  projects,  though,  and her work on genetic material stalled. In the mid-1970s,  French Anderson (a medical doctor and genetic researcher)  learned of Diacumakos’s success with her cell extraction technique. The two worked together for several years to adapt the  technique to the fledgling field of gene therapy. In 1979, Diacumakos’s  and  Anderson’s  efforts  were  rewarded  when  they  repaired a mouse’s genetic defect by placing a copy of a functioning  gene  (with  one  of  Diacumakos’s  glass  needles)  into  the damaged cell. A mere 11 years later, scientists conducted  the first successful gene therapy on a human. Diacumakos’s role in the development of gene therapy  was  acknowledged  only  a  week  before  her  death,  when  her research was commended by the Metropolitan Chapter  of the Association for Women in Science. During her lifetime, she was a member of the American Genetic Society,  the American Society for Cell Biology, and the Cell Cycle  Society.  Diacumakos  died  of  a  heart  attack  in  her  home  in Manhattan on June 11, 1984. Her cell extraction techniques are now widely used by other researchers.

Dicciani, Nance K.
(1947–  ) American Chemical Engineer Nance K. Dicciani made perhaps her most significant contribution to the sciences with her doctoral dissertation, a  research  project  drawing  on  the  resources  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  the  National  Science  Foundation,  and the government of the Soviet Union. In it, she applied  chemical engineering to medical imaging, resulting in the  later development of ultrasonic scanners that gained widespread use in examining pregnant women. She continued  to contribute to scientific research and marketing throughout her career in the chemicals industry. Dicciani  was  born  in  1947  in  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. Her mother, who was a homemaker, and her father,  who  was  a  industrial  engineer,  both  supported  Dicciani’s  interest  in  the  sciences,  which  began  in  the  fifth  grade.  With  such  encouragement,  Dicciani  never  considered  herself a lesser scientist than men. She remained in Philadelphia for college, studying chemical engineering at Villanova University. Her penchant for combining pure science 

with practical applications took hold in her undergraduate  years. Dicciani graduated with a B.S. in 1969. Dicciani  continued  her  education  at  the  University  of  Virginia,  where  she  earned  her  M.S.  in  chemical  engineering in 1970. She returned to her home city to work as the  superintendent  of  water  treatment  and  reservoirs  in  Philadelphia’s Department of Public Works. After four years, she  continued  her  education  with  doctoral  study  at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  where  she  wrote  her  influential  dissertation,  “Ultrasonically-Enhanced  Diffusion  of  Macro  Molecules in Gels.” Dicciani earned her Ph.D. in chemical  engineering in 1977, and in the 1980s she returned to the  University  of  Pennsylvania  to  pursue  studies  in  the  other  component of her career, business, to earn her M.B.A. from  the prestigious Wharton Business School in 1986. Dicciani  commenced  her  career  in  industry  in  1977  as  a  research  engineer  with  Air  Products  and  Chemicals,  Inc. She rose through the ranks there, becoming a research  manager  the next  year,  and  then  receiving  promotions to  become  the  director  of  research  for  the  process  systems  group  in  1981,  the  director  of  research  and  development  for her division in 1984, the general manager of her division  in  1986,  and,  finally,  the  director  of  commercial  development in 1988. During her 14 years with the company,  she  helped  develop  technologies  for  the  company’s  first  noncryogenic  process  for  separating  nitrogen  and  oxygen  from  air  as  well  as  identifying  a  new  catalyst  for  the production of benzene from coke. In  1991,  Rohm  and  Haas,  one  of  the  largest  chemical  companies  in  the  world,  hired  her  as  the  business  director  of its Petroleum Chemicals Division. In 1993, the company  elected her vice president, and from 1996 through 1998, she  headed the company’s worldwide Monomers business. In late  1998  and  early  1999,  the  company  named  her  senior  vice  president  and  appointed  her  to  the  executive  council.  Dicciani  became  president  and  CEO  of  Specialty  Materials,  a  strategic business group of Honeywell, in November of 2001. Dicciani has received numerous honors in her career,  including  the  1986  Professional  Achievement  Award  as  well  as  the  1994  J.  Stanley  Morehouse  Memorial  Award,  both  from  her  alma  mater,  the  University  of  Villanova,  where she is a member of the Board of Trustees. The Society  of  Women  Engineers  also  honored  her  with  its  1987  Achievement  Award.  Dicciani  is  a  senior  member  of  the  society and has served on its National Board of Advisors.

Dick, Gladys Rowena Henry
(1881–1963) American Physician and Microbiologist An  early  woman  physician  in  a  field  that  was  dominated  and  controlled  by  men,  Gladys  Dick  conducted  impor-


Gladys Dick, an early 20th-century physician who conducted breakthrough research into the causes of scarlet fever and eventually developed a vaccine for the disease (The Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives of the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, courtesy National Library of Medicine)

tant research on scarlet fever, a disease that was especially  deadly to  infants at the  beginning of  the  20th  century.  Dick  collaborated  with  her  husband  to  isolate  the  organism  responsible  for  the  disease.  She  later  developed  a  vaccine for scarlet fever, and at the end of her career, she  conducted research on polio. Gladys  Rowena  Henry  was  born  on  December  18,  1881, in Pawnee City, Nebraska. Her father was William  Chester  Henry,  a  prosperous  banker  and  grain  dealer,  and  her  mother  was  Azelia  Henrietta  Edson  Henry.  She  had two siblings. In 1914, Gladys Henry married George  Frederick  Dick,  a  physician.  They  raised  two  adopted  children. When she was just five years old, Gladys Dick accompanied her mother to visit a sick child in their neighborhood.  During  their  visit,  the  child  had  a  seizure.  This  prompted  an  intense  desire  in  Dick  to  know  more  about  the  treatment  of  diseases.  She  attended  public  schools  in  Lincoln, Nebraska, where her family moved when she was  a  child.  After  graduation  from  high  school,  she  attended  the University of Nebraska, graduating from there with a  B.S. in 1900. Because she was a woman, Dick had trouble 

finding a medical school that would admit her. She spent  three  years  teaching  and  taking  graduate  biology  courses  until she was finally admitted to the Johns Hopkins Medical School in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1903. Dick completed her M.D. at Johns Hopkins in 1907. She then worked  on an internship at Johns Hopkins and studied for a year  at the University of Berlin. In  1911,  Dick  took  her  first  job  in  medicine,  as  the  director of the laboratory at the Children’s Memorial Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. Here she met her future husband  and collaborative investigator, George Dick. By 1914, Dick  and  her  husband  had  moved  to  the  John  R.  McCormick  Memorial  Institute  for  Infectious  Diseases  in  Chicago.  They now turned completely to the study of scarlet fever.  Using  Koch’s  postulate  (which  gives  rules  for  isolating  a  disease-causing  organism)  as  their  guide,  they  began  trials  to  determine  the  cause  of  scarlet  fever.  At  that  time,  the disease killed 30 percent of children five years old and  under who contracted it. Those who did not die often had  to live with deafness or heart and kidney disease. Dick began trying to isolate hemolytic streptococci, an  organism that was usually found in scarlet fever patients.  They  began  trying  to  introduce  hemolytic  streptococci  into  animals,  but  this  did  not  work.  Animals  appeared  resistant  to  the  disease.  They  then  were  forced  to  introduce it into a trial batch of humans, including themselves  and many of their friends. Their work was interrupted by  World War I. George Dick had to go to Europe to serve as  an  army  doctor,  and  during  a  severe  bout  of  flu  in  1918,  Gladys  lost  the  strain  of  hemolytic  streptococci  they  had  been  working  on.  After  the  war,  they  began  again.  By  1923,  they  had  isolated  not  only  a  batch  of  hemolytic  streptococci  that  they  could  prove  caused  scarlet  fever,  but they had narrowed down the culprit to a specific toxin  that was produced by this bacteria. Knowing that the disease was caused by the toxin, they developed a test, called  the Dick test, that would tell if a patient had a susceptibility for scarlet fever. They then developed an antitoxin for  those  who  had  already  contracted  scarlet  fever,  and  they  later developed a vaccine for the disease. For  their  work,  they  were  nominated  for,  but  did  not  receive, the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1925. In 1926, they  won the University of Toronto’s Mickle Prize, and in 1933,  they  were  given  the  University  of  Edinburgh’s  Cameron  Prize for work in the field of therapeutic medicine. Gladys  Dick died on August 21, 1963, in Palo Alto, California.

Dicke, Robert Henry
(1916–1997) American Physicist Robert  Henry  Dicke  is  perhaps  best  remembered  for  his  theory  that  residual  radiation  from  the  big  bang  can 

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still  be  detected.  But  just  as  he  was  planning  an  experiment  to  prove  his  prediction  that  microwaves  from  that  cosmic  event  still  echo  in  the  universe,  he  learned  that  Robert  Wilson  and  Arno  Penzias  had  inadvertently  demonstrated the phenomenon. Dicke was not awarded a portion  of  their  Nobel  Prize.  Dicke  also  gained  notoriety  by  challenging  albert einstein’s  general  theory  of  relativity.  In the Brans-Dicke theory (which he formulated with his  graduate student Carl Brans) Dicke posited that the gravitational constant so central to Einstein’s theory was actually not a constant, but decreased infinitesimally each year.  Although the Brans-Dicke theory failed to gain widespread  acceptance,  Dicke  continued  to  assert  its  accuracy.  Dicke  also held at least 50 patents and is credited with verifying  Einstein’s equivalence principle. Dicke  was  born  to  Oscar  and  Flora  Peterson  Dicke  on  May  6,  1916,  in  St.  Louis,  Missouri.  In  1942  he  married  Annie  Henderson  Currie,  with  whom  he  had  three  children.  After  graduation  with  honors  from  Princeton  in 1939 Dicke pursued doctoral work at the University of  Rochester. He was awarded his Ph.D. in nuclear physics in  1941. Dicke’s first position was at the Radiation Laboratory  at  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology,  where  he  investigated radar from 1941 to 1946. He developed a radiometer that could detect weak radio waves. The device not  only aided the Allied war effort, but also became an essential tool in the field of radio astronomy. He then accepted  a faculty position at Princeton, where he remained for the  rest of his career. In 1955 he was named full professor, and  he served as the first Albert Einstein University Professor  of Science from 1975 until 1984. In  1961  he  proposed  the  controversial  Brans-Dicke  theory.  Whereas  Einstein  had  maintained  that  gravity  was  a constant force, Dicke held that gravity grew weaker with  each passing year, at a rate of 1 part in 1011. Dicke advanced  this radical reformulation because of what he perceived to  be  troubling  inconsistencies  between  the  calculated  age  of  the universe and the apparent age of objects (such as globular clusters of stars) that seemed much older. Dicke postulated that since gravity had been a stronger force in the past,  it had caused these stars to burn faster—and thus age more  quickly. This theory has not been widely adopted, however.  Dicke  tested  another  aspect  of  Einstein’s  theory  of  general  relativity during the 1960s as well. Building on the work of  Roland  von  Eötvös,  Dicke  conducted  experiments  to  confirm  a  central  tenet  of  relativity  theory—that  gravitational  mass (measured by weighing) and inertial mass (measured  by resistance to acceleration) are equivalent. After painstaking study Dicke concluded that the two types of mass were  indeed equivalent. In  1964  Dicke  began  to  explore  the  implications  of  the  big  bang  theory  of  the  origin  of  the  universe.  Since  that  explosion  was  believed  to  have  produced  temperatures  above  10  billion  degrees,  Dicke  hypothesized 

that  radiation  from  this  event  was  still  present  in  space.  With  his  colleague  P.  J.  E.  Peebles,  Dicke  calculated  that  this  vestigial  radiation  would  have  a  temperature  of  only  about  3  degrees  Kelvin  (very  near  absolute  zero),  would  be recognizable only in the form of weak microwaves, and  would  be  constant  throughout  the  universe.  Before  he  could  prove  his  theory,  however,  he  learned  that  Penzias  and Wilson had accidentally done so. Although  Dicke  often  made  grand  predictions  that  defied accepted notions, he remained rooted in the fundamentals of careful experimentation. Not coincidentally, he  held over 50 patents for an array of devices, most related  to radar. Although he did not share Penzias and Wilson’s  Nobel  Prize,  his  theory  on  the  echo  radiation  of  the  big  bang  provided  a  theoretical  underpinning  that  helped  establish  the  big  bang  as  an  accepted  scientific  doctrine.  Moreover,  even  though  his  work  on  gravitational  theory  did  not  undermine  the  belief  in  Einstein’s  gravitational  constant, he spurred further study into the matter. He was  honored  with  the  1970  Medal  of  Science  and  the  1973  Comstock  Prize  from  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences.  An emeritus professor at Princeton since 1984, Dicke died  of Parkinson’s disease on March 4, 1997.

Diels, Otto
(1876–1954) German Chemist Otto  Diels  collaborated  with  his  former  student,  kurt adler, to identify one of the most ubiquitous reactions in  nature—what became known as the Diels-Adler reaction.  This pair received the 1950 Nobel Prize in chemistry jointly in recognition of this work. However, Diels had already  distinguished  himself  as  an  important  chemist  before  his  work  with  Adler:  He  identified  carbon  suboxide,  a  previously  unknown  compound;  he  oxidated  cholesterol  to  create Diels acid; and he hydrogenated cholesterol to generate the Diels hydrocarbon. Otto  Paul  Hermann  Diels  was  born  on  January  23,  1876,  in  Hamburg,  Germany.  His  mother,  Bertha  Dübell,  was  the  daughter  of  a  district  judge,  and  his  father,  Hermann  Diels,  was  a  professor  of  classical  philology  at  the  University of Berlin. All three of their sons followed their  father’s footsteps into academia: Diels’s older brother, Ludwig, became a professor of botany at the University of Berlin, and his younger brother,  Paul, became a professor of  Slavic philology at the University of Breslau. Diels  attended  secondary  school  at  the  Joachimsthalsches  Gymnasium  in  Berlin  from  1882  through  1895,  when he graduated to the University of Berlin. He studied  chemistry  under  emil fischer,  who  won  the  Nobel  Prize  in  chemistry  in  1902.  After  serving  his  compulsory  year  of military service in 1896, he conducted his dissertation 


research on cyanuric compounds to earn his doctorate in  1899.  He  remained  at  the  university  into  the  next  century,  first  as  an  assistant  in  Fischer’s  Institute  of  Chemistry  lab,  and  then  as  a  lecturer  as  of  1904.  That  year,  he  rose  to international prominence by designing the gold-medal– winning  chemical  apparatus  display  in  Germany’s  chemistry  exhibit  in  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition  in  St.  Louis, Missouri. In  1906,  Fischer  effected  Diels’s  promotion  to  assistant  professor.  That  year  and  the  next,  Diels  performed  groundbreaking work by dehydrating diethylmalonic acid  with phosphorus pentoxide to produce a malodorous gas  that  he  subsequently  realized  was  an  unidentified  compound, which he dubbed carbon suboxide. Also in 1907,  Diels  published  his  classic  textbook,  Einführung in die Organische Chemie,  which  went  through  22  editions  and  remained  in  print  continuously  through  1966.  He  later  published an elementary inorganic chemistry lab manual,  in 1922. In 1909, Diels married Paula Geyer, the daughter of a  government official, and together the couple had five children—three sons and two daughters. In 1913, the University of Berlin appointed Diels as the head of its chemistry  division, and then in 1916, he moved to a professorship at  Christian Albrecht University in Kiel, where he remained  for the rest of his career as the director of its Institute of  Chemistry. Diels  focused  his  research  on  the  oxidation  of  cholesterol,  a  method  by  which  he  discovered  what  is  called  Diels  acid,  a  dicarboxylic  acid  that  has  a  high  melting  point. He subsequently shifted methods from oxidation to  dehydrogenation of cholesterol, using selenium to remove  the  hydrogen  by  forming  hydrogen  selenide  gas.  By  this  process,  he  identified  a  hydrocarbon  that  became  known  as Diels hydrocarbon, a basic component of cholesterol as  well  as  many  other  natural  compounds,  such  as  steroids.  He reported this work in 1927. The next year, he and Alder published their work on  the  reaction  between  acrolein  and  butadiene,  a  specific  version  of  what  became  known  as  the  Diels-Alder  reaction. This process conjoins a dienophile (acrolein, in this  case),  or  a  double-bonded  molecule,  with  a  conjugated  diene  (butadiene,  in  this  case),  or  a  molecule  containing  two adjacent double bonds. Over the next 16 years, Diels  published 33 further papers on this type of reaction. World War II devastated Diels: In the winter of 1943  through 1944, two of his sons (Hans Otto and Klaus) were  killed  within  three  months  of  each  other  on  the  Russian  front; in 1944, Allied bomb raids destroyed both his laboratories and his home; and in 1945, his wife died. In the  wake  of  these  tragedies,  Diels  requested  an  early  retirement,  which  the  university  granted  in  1945.  However,  Diels remained on the staff until his successor was named  in 1948, and he continued to lecture until 1950. Thereaf-

ter, his health deteriorated due to arthritis, and on March  7,  1954,  he  died  of  a  heart  attack  at  the  age  of  78.  Two  years earlier, he had received the Grosskreuz des Verdienstordens  der  Bundesrepublik  Deutscheland,  and  in  1931,  he  had  received  the  Adolf  von  Baeyer  Memorial  Medal  from the Society of German Chemists.

Diesel, Rudolf
(1858–1913) French German Mechanical Engineer/Inventor Rudolf  Diesel  invented  the  engine  that  bears  his  name,  a  design that ignites a variety of fuels, which spontaneously  combust  when  introduced  into  the  cylinder  to  meet  the  intense heat generated by air pressure. The high compression ratio of the diesel engine allowed for the burning of  low-grade  fuels,  which  was  incredibly  efficient  and  economical,  but  also  highly  pollutant,  as  these  less-refined  fuels  burned  with  impurities,  such  as  nitric  oxide,  and  produced copious soot. Diesel died before the applications  for his innovation became more universal: Submarines in  World  War  I  used  diesel  engines  almost  exclusively,  and  the  diesel  locomotive  overtook  the  steam  engine  as  the  primary  source  of  power  in  the  railroad  industry  after  World War II. Rudolf  Christian  Karl  Diesel  was  born  on  March  18,  1858,  in  Paris  of  Bavarian  parents.  When  the  Battle  of  Sedan  started  the  Franco-Prussian  War  in  1870,  Diesel’s  family was expelled to England, where they lived in poverty. Diesel went to live with an uncle in his father’s native  town  of  Augsburg,  Germany,  where  he  attended  secondary school. In 1875, he enrolled in the Technisches Hochschule  in  Munich,  where  he  studied  thermodynamics  under Carl von Linde. Upon  his  graduation  in  1880,  Diesel  moved  back  to  Paris, where Linde had secured him a job in his buildingrefrigeration  plant.  Within  a  year,  Diesel  was  promoted  to  plant  manager.  In  1885,  Diesel  set  up  his  own  laboratory  to  design  and  test  an  expansion  engine  fueled  by  ammonia,  as  an  alternative  to  the  huge,  expensive,  and  inefficient  steam  engine  that  powered  most  industrial  applications  at  the  time.  Although  this  particular  design  proved unsuccessful, it paved the way for his later innovation of the engine named after him. In  1890,  Linde’s  company  transferred  Diesel  to  Berlin.  At  that  same  time,  Diesel  conceived  of  a  new  engine  design, which he patented in 1892. The next year, he published  a  paper  entitled  “Theorie  und  Konstruktion  eines  rationellen  Wäremotors”  (“Theory  and  Construction  of  a  Rational  Heat  Motor”)  describing  his  innovation:  theoretically, the four-stroke engine could burn any fuel, ignited  not  by  a  spark  but  by  the  intense  temperature  (about 


1,000 degrees Fahrenheit) attained by compressing air to a  high pressure (about 500 pounds per square inch) before  the  fuel  was  sprayed  into  the  cylinder,  thus  expanding  the  gases  (thereby  avoiding  the  sudden  pressure  increase  inherent in the internal combustion engine.) Diesel  obtained  financial  backing  from  the  Augsburg  Maschinenfabrik, and from Baron Friedrich von Krupp of  Essen,  and  set  about  building  a  prototype—a  single  10foot iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base. He conducted  his  first  trial  in  Augsburg  on  August  10,  1893,  which  was a success, but it took several more years of improvements before his engine was commercially viable. Part of the reason for these delays stemmed from his  use  of  coal  dust  as  fuel.  A  by-product  of  the  Saar  coal  mines in the Ruhr valley, coal dust was not only cheap and  plentiful, but it also dovetailed with one of the philosophical  underpinnings  of  Diesel’s  engine:  adaptability,  so  that  individual craftsmen and artisans could use whatever fuels  were  locally  available  to  power  the  engine,  thus  counteracting  the  de  facto  monopoly  large  corporations  enjoyed  due  to  the  overbearing  expense  of  operating  expensive,  inefficient engines in manufacturing. However, controlling  the rate of  introducing the coal powder into the cylinder  proved  difficult,  and  after  one  of  his  coal-dust-burning  prototypes  exploded,  nearly  killing  its  inventor,  Diesel  abandoned  coal  dust  in  favor  of  refined  mineral  oil  and  later heavy petroleum oils as fuel. In  1897,  an  independent  trial  of  the  25-horsepower  engine, conducted by Professor M. Schröter, confirmed its  incredible mechanical efficiency (75.6 percent efficient, in  theory). Diesel displayed the engine at the Munich Exhibition of 1898, where the brewer Adolphus Busch witnessed  it  in  action,  prompting  him  to  install  the  first  commercial  engine  built  on  Diesel’s  patent  in  his  St.  Louis,  Missouri, brewery. Duly impressed, Busch purchased the U.S.  and  Canadian  licenses  for  manufacture  and  sales.  Diesel  licensed  his  design  worldwide—for  example,  the  industrialist  and  inventor  alfred nobel  manufactured  diesel  engines in his St. Petersburg plant—and became a millionaire on royalties. He established his own factory in Augsburg in 1899. Diesel  died  at  sea  when  he  fell  overboard  from  the  mail steamer Dresden while crossing the English Channel  from  Antwerp  to  Harwich  on  September  29  or  30,  1913.  Throughout  his  life,  Diesel  had  restricted  licensing  to  abide strictly to his 1893 patent stipulating combustion at  nearly constant pressure, which required operation at low  speeds,  thereby  limiting  the  application  to  large  engines  (and  hence  preventing  the  innovation  of  smaller,  more  utile engines). After Diesel’s death, however, more utilitarian applications were innovated, and the benefits of the diesel engine  design were more fully exploited. Diesel engines, such as  the Busch-Sulzer, and the Nelesco, built by the New Lon-

don  Ship  and  Engine  Company  of  Groton,  Connecticut,  served  as  the  primary  technology  powering  submarines  serving in World War I, and continued to serve an important role in the nautical industry. Diesel technology subsequently  became  extremely  important  in  the  development  of  the  railroad  industry  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  the  automobile industry.

Diggs, Irene
(1906–1998) American Anthropologist Irene Diggs is best known for her comparative ethnohistorical studies of the descendants of Africans in the Americas.  A prolific author, Diggs conducted research in Cuba as well  as Central and South America, documenting the history and  sociology of these African descendants. Her most important  work is Black Chronology, and she cofounded the influential  journal Phylon: A Journal of Race and Culture. On  April  13,  1906,  Ellen  Irene  Diggs  was  born  in  Monmouth,  Illinois,  to  Charles  Henry  and  Alice  Diggs.  Although  her  parents  were  of  the  working  class,  they  encouraged  her  early  ambitions  to  travel.  From  1923  to  1924, Irene Diggs attended Monmouth College on scholarship.  She  then  transferred  to  the  University  of  Minnesota, where she experienced overt racism for the first time.  Rather  than  deterring  her  from  finishing  her  education,  though, the prejudice she faced only convinced her of the  need  for  African-American  role  models  in  U.S.  schools.  She earned her bachelor’s degree in 1928 and began graduate work at Atlanta University in 1932. While a student,  she worked under W. E. B. DuBois, the famed black scholar,  educator,  and  activist.  In  this  capacity,  she  conducted  research  for  some  of  DuBois’s  most  influential  work,  including  his  seminal  book  The Dusk of Dawn.  DuBois  provided  her  with  freedom  and  support  to  explore  her  own research. While at Atlanta University, Diggs cofounded  Phylon,  a  scholarly  journal  that  published  articles  on  race and culture. Diggs began to fulfill her childhood goal of traveling  around the world in the early 1940s. After vacationing in  Cuba, she sought to return to the island to study. To this  end,  she  applied  for  and  received  a  Roosevelt  Fellowship  from the Institute for International Education at the University  of  Havana.  In  Cuba,  she  collaborated  with  noted  ethnographer  Fernando  Ortiz,  who  helped  her  learn  the  fieldwork  skills  necessary  to  gather  information  on  local  cultures. She was awarded her Ph.D. in anthropology from  the University of Havana in 1945. Upon  completing  her  formal  education,  Diggs  traveled throughout Central and South America. She financed  her  way  primarily  by  writing  travel  articles  for  a  popular 


audience. (These essays were syndicated by the Associated  Negro Press.) In 1946, Diggs was an exchange scholar in  Montevideo,  Uruguay.  She  returned  to  the  United  States  in 1947 when she joined the faculty at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland. As a professor in the university’s  anthropology  and  sociology  departments,  Diggs  continued her research. In the 1950s, she wrote a series of  articles on quilombos—Brazilian communities founded by  runaway slaves. Her most widely acclaimed work is Black Chronology,  an  ambitious  book  that  detailed  the  accomplishments  of  black  people  between  4000  b.c.  and  the  abolition of slavery. She also wrote biographical essays on  DuBois (the most famous of these was titled “DuBois and  Marcus  Garvey”),  which  were  informed  by  her  personal  experience with him. Diggs  remained  at  Morgan  State  until  she  retired  in  1976,  yet  she  remained  active  in  her  field.  In  addition  to  conducting  research,  she  held  an  emeritus  faculty  appointment  at  the  University  of  Maryland.  She  is  credited  with  contributing  significantly  to  the  study  of  comparative  ethnohistorical  sociology,  and  she  was  incomparable in documenting the history of the descendants  of  African  slaves.  A  member  of  the  American  Anthropological  Association  and  the  American  Association for the Advancement of Science, Diggs was honored  in  1978  by  the  Association  of  Black  Anthropologists  for  her  tireless  career  as  a  teacher,  role  model,  and  anthropologist. She died in 1998.

Paul Dirac, who first suggested the existence of antimatter, with Richard Philip Feynman at the International Conference on Relativistic Theories of Gravitation in Warsaw, Poland (AIP Emilio  Segrè Visual Archives, Physics Today Collection)

Dirac, Paul Adrien Maurice
(1902–1984) English Theoretical Physicist Paul  Dirac  expanded  the  human  view  of  the  universe  by  positing  the  existence  of  antimatter,  as  well  as  by  suggesting  a  quantifiable  limit  to  the  size  of  the  universe  as  a  ratio  with  the  size  of  an  atom.  Dirac’s  work  grew  out  of  the  attempt  to  answer  unsolved  questions,  such  as  explaining  the  phenomenon  of  electron  spin,  which quantum mechanics at the time did not take into  account. Dirac  was  born  on  August  8,  1902,  in  Bristol,  England.  His  parents  were  Charles  Adrien  Ladislas  Dirac,  a  Swiss immigrant who taught French at the Merchant Venturer’s  Technical  College,  where  Dirac  received  his  early  education,  and  Florence  Hannah  Holten  Dirac.  While  working  at  the  Institute  for  Advanced  Studies  at  Princeton  University  from  1934  through  1935  Dirac  met  Margit  (“Manci”)  Wigner,  the  sister  of  the  physicist  Eugene  Wigner. The couple married in January 1937 and had two  daughters,  Mary  Elizabeth,  born  in  1940,  and  Florence  Monica, born in 1942.

In  1921  Dirac  received  his  bachelor’s  degree  in  electrical engineering from Bristol University and continued  there  in  graduate  study  on  a  two-year  scholarship.  He  then  transferred  to  St.  John’s  College  at  Cambridge  University,  where  he  earned  his  Ph.D.  in  physics  in  1926.  His  dissertation  extended  notions  of  quantum  mechanics  established  by  werner karl heisenberg .  Dirac  spent  the  years  1926  through  1927  traveling,  first  to  Copenhagen,  where  he  entered  discussions  with  niels henrik david bohr ,  and  next  to  Göttingen,  where  he  conversed  with  max born   and  j. robert oppenheimer . In  1927  St.  John’s  College  appointed  Dirac  a  fellow,  and  in  1929  it  promoted  him  to  the  status  of  university  lecturer  and  praelector  in  mathematical  physics,  a  position that allowed him the flexibility to accept brief teaching  stints  at  the  Universities  of  Michigan  and  Wisconsin.  In 1932 Cambridge named Dirac the Lucasian Professor of  Mathematics, a post he held until 1969. In 1971 he rounded out his career as a professor of physics at Florida State University. In  1927  Dirac  commenced  work  on  a  hole  in  erwin schrödinger’s theory of wave mechanics, which failed to  account  for  electron  spin,  a  phenomenon  discovered  two 


years  earlier.  Dirac  introduced  relativity  into  the  equation and derived a formula that calculated the correct split  energy  levels  for  hydrogen,  thus  confirming  a  spinning  electron.  These  results  suggested  the  existence  of  negative energy, a proposition Dirac pursued in 1930. He concluded that electrons that fall below their lowest possible  positive energy level, or the ground state, enter a state of  negative  energy,  otherwise  known  as  antimatter.  Dirac  published this theory in 1930 in The Principles of Quantum Mechanics.  Two  years  later  carl david anderson  experimentally confirmed the existence of the positron, as these  electrons were called. In  1937  Dirac  published  The Cosmological Constants,  which contained his theory on “large-number coincidences.” In his calculations Dirac noticed that the number 1040  appeared  at  vital  junctures—as  the  ratio  of  the  radius  of  the universe as compared to the radius of an electron, and  also as the approximate square root of the number of particles in the universe. Dirac thus posited that this number  provided a quantifiable model of the universe. Dirac  received  the  1933  Nobel  Prize  in  physics  with  Schrödinger  in  recognition  of  their  work  on  defining  quantum  mechanics.  Dirac’s  theories  in  particular  carried  far-reaching  implications,  for  they  suggested  physical explanations for some of the mysteries of reality. Dirac  died on October 20, 1984, in Tallahassee, Florida.

Dolan, Louise Ann
(1950–  ) American Physicist Louise  Dolan,  a  professor  of  physics  at  the  University  of  North  Carolina  at  Chapel  Hill  since  1990,  won  the  1987  maria goeppert-mayer Award from the American Physical  Society for her work on the theory of elementary particles  by  applying  Kac-Moody  algebras  to  the  study  of  particle  physics.  Dolan  also  did  important  work  in  string  theory,  and she was responsible for the reemergence of interest in  a specific branch of this study, superstring theory. Dolan’s  main field of research was theoretical high-energy physics. Dolan was born on April 5, 1950, in Wilmington, Delaware.  She  attended  Wellesley  College,  earning  her  B.A.  there  in  1971.  She  then  proceeded  to  the  Massachusetts  Institute of Technology (MIT) for her doctoral work. After  earning  her  Ph.D.  there  in  1976,  she  remained  in  Boston  at the city’s other prestigious institution, Harvard University, as a junior fellow. Dolan  retained