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library of Congress Cataloglng-In-Publlcatlon Data


Peckham, Anne.
Vocal workouts
p. cm.

for the contemporary

ISBN 0-87639-047-5
1. Singing-Instruction
MT820.P33

singer / Anne Peckham.

(978-0-87639-047-4)
and study.

I. Title.

2006

783' .043-<Jc22
2005019007

Copyright ~ 2006 BerkJee Press. AI! Rights Reserved.


No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the Publisher.

Printed in the United States of America by Vicks LIthographic and Printing Co" Inc.

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Visit Hal Leonard Online al


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Contents

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a:
CD Tracks

iv

Acknowledgments

vi

Introduction:

Exercises for Contemporary Vocal Styles

vii

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PART

I.

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

Chapter 1. Getting Ready to Sing

Practicing with the Vocal Workouts CO...................

..

.4

Getting Your Voice into Shape.............................

..

Listening to Your Body.......

Chapter 2. Breathing

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The Four Steps of Effective Breathing

Neutral Posture

..

Deep Breathing

14

Keep Your Ribs Open

..

A Quiet Breathing Exercise

15

15

Chapter 3. The Four P's: Essential Building Blocks for Vocal Training

16

Practice.............................

..

17

Patience

30

Perserverance

Play..........................

31
.

31

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Chapter 4. Vibrato, Vocal Registers, and Belting

32

Vibrato..........

..

Registers...

32
34

Belti~..

.37

Chapter 5. Essential Vocal Care

39

Maintaining Vocal Health.

39

Detecting Vocal Problems..

..

.41

Signs of Possible Vocal Problems..

..

42

If You Suspect You Have a Problem

..

Chapter 6. Auditioning

44

Taking Criticism in Stride

.45

Auditions Gone Bad.........

You Never Know Who's Watching...........


PART

II.

COMPLETE

.42

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

.45
....45
47

Warm-ups for All Voices

51

Workout 1. Basic Workout

60

Workout 2. Advanced Workout

78

Singing Harmony: Two- and Three-Part Exercises

100

What Next?

114

About the Author

116

>

CD Tracks
Track

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Introd uction

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Warm-ups for All Voices, Tracks 2 7

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Exercise 1. Warm-up Slide

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Exercise 2. Descending Fifth Slide

,4

Exercise 3. Descending Fifth Run

In

Exercise 4. Pop/Rock Slide

Exercise 5. Descending Arpeggios (Swing)

Exercise 6. Octave Slides

...

Basic Workout for Low Voices, Tracks 8-14


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Exercise 7. Rock Steps

Exercise 8. Rock Syncopation

10

Exercise 9. Minor Octave Scale

11

Exercise 10. Latin Long Tones

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12

Exercise 11. Gospel Swing

13

Exercise 12. Jazz SWing Scale

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14

Exercise 13. Latin Vocalise

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Advanced Workout for Low Voices, Tracks 15-21

15

Exercise 14. Rock Vocalise

16

Exercise 15. Latin Octave Skips

17

Exercise 16. Jazz Waltz ("Maybe on Monday")

18

Exercise 17. R&B Pop Pentatonic ("Wait for Me")

19

Exercise 18. R&B Pentatonic Pattern ("Hey Yah")

In

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20

Exercise 19. Rock Pentatonic Arpeggio ("Bah, Bah, Bah")

21

Exercise 20. Jazz Ballad EtUde

Basic Workout for High Voices, Tracks 22-28


22

Exercise 7. Rock Steps

23

Exercise 8. Rock Syncopation

24

Exercise 9. Minor Octave Scale

25

Exercise 10. Latin Long Tones

26

Exercise 11. Gospel Swing

27

Exercise 12. Jazz SWing Scale

28

Exercise 13. Latin Vocalise

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Track

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Advanced Workout for High Voices, Tracks 29-35

29

Exercise 14. Rock Vocalise

30

Exercise 15. Latin Octave Skips

31

Exercise 16. Jazz Waltz ("Maybe on Monday")

32

Exercise 17. R&B Pop Pentatonic ("Wait for Me")

33

Exercise 18. R&B Pentatonic Pattern ("Hey Yah")

34

Exercise 19. Rock Pentatonic Arpeggio ("Bah, Bah, Bah")

35

Exercise 20. Jazz Ballad Etude

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Singing Harmony: Two- and Three-Par! Exercises, Tracks 36-44


36

Exercise 21. Two-Part Pop/Rock ("Who")

37

Exercise 22. Two-Part R&B/Pop ("Got to Believe")

38

Exercise 23. Two-Part Funk ("Take a Break")

39

Exercise 24. Three-Part Country/Rock ("Let Me Try"): All Voices

40

Exercise 24. Three-Part Country/Rock ("Let Me Try"): Middle


Voice Out

41

Exercise 25. Three-Part Rock ("Hey Yah"): All Voices

42

Exercise 25. Three-Part Rock ("Hey Yah"): Middle Voice Out

43

Exercise 26. Three-Part Blues ("Sing for Your Supper"): All


Voices

44

Exercise 26. Three-Part Blues ("Sing for Your Supper"): Middle


Voice Out

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Acknowledgments

SPEC IA L THAN KS TO Adriana Balic, Debbie Cavalier, Jonathan

Feist, Peter

Kontrimas, Susan Gedutis Lindsay, Matt Marvuglio, Rick Peckham, Lisa Thorson, and
Jan Shapiro.
CD Credits
Piano:
Bass:
Drums:
Guitar:
Vocals:

Mark Shilansky (www.markshilansky.com)


Bruno Raberg (www.brunoraberg.com)
Take Toriyama
Rick Peckham (www.rickpeckham.com)
Robin McKelle (WWW.robinmckelle.com)
Paul Pampinella (Five O'Clock Shadow: www.focs.com;
Vox One: www.voxone.net)
Anne Peckham (www.annepeckham.com)
Jeff Ramsay

,I

Introduction:
Contemporary

for
Exercises
Vocal styles

HIS BOO K IS FO R SIN G ERS who are interested in contemporary,


non-classical singing styles. It is a look at breath support, tone production, and voice strengthening, plus material for more experienced
singers who want to continue to develop their voices. By following the
Complete Vocal Workouts presented here, you will be able to sing with improved range,
agility, sound, and overall expressive power.

In part I, you will find a review of the basics to help anchor your technique with
renewed awareness of healthy singing. Some of these topics, and many others, are
covered in greater depth in the companion book, The Contemporary Singer (Berklee
Press, 2000).

INTRODUCTION

The Complete Vocal Workouts in part II form the heart of this volume. These exercises will help you warm up your voice before you sing, as well as develop your range,
agility, stamina, and other aspects of your instrument.

Each vocal exercise is writ-

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ten out so you can follow along with the music as you sing. You can isolate specific

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exercises, or follow through the entire CD workout. If you don't read music, you can

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just use your ear, and learn the exercises from the CD, though scanning the notation
for lyrics may be a help to you. Icons show the complete range of each exercise in
the book, from the highest to the lowest note. When the exercises in the Advanced
Workout divide into low and high voice versions, both ranges are indicated.

This will

help you determine whether the high- or low-voice workout is best for you

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You will find a variety of fun and challenging vocal workouts that will stimulate your
creative side while you refine your voice. You will also see Two- and Three-Part
Exercises. In these, you can sing in harmony along with other voices on the CD. You
will learn to tune your voice to other singers, just as you would when performing

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background vocals. It's fun to sing with other voices, and these exercises will help

you develop valuable skills needed by all singers .

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The following chart suggests several practice routines. Choose whichever


fits your vocal needs and your schedule.

one best

INTRODUCTION

COMPLETE

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

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Timings
Warm-ups:

12 minutes

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Basic Vocai Workout:

15 minutes

Advanced Vocal Workout:

12 minutes

Singing Harmony: Two- and Three-Part Exercises:

8 minutes

0-

Cool Down:

5 minutes (Tracks 2 and 3,

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repeated from Warm-ups)


Always sing the Warm-ups for All Voices before singing the Basic, Advanced,
or Part Exercises. Choose either the high- or low-voice version of the Basic and
Advanced Workout for the suggested routines below. Repeat tracks 2 and 3 to
cool down after singing.

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Suggested Vocal Workout Routines

o
Complete Basic Vocal Workout (32 minutes)

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Warm-ups

+ Basic Vocal Workout (choose high or low voice) + Cool Down =

Complete Advanced Workout (29 minutes)


Warm-ups + Advanced Vocal Workout (choose high or low voice) + Cool Down =
29 minutes
Advanced Extended Vocal Workout (44 minutes)

+ Basic Vocal Workout + Advanced Vocal Workout + Cool Down =

44 minutes
Part Singing Vocal Workout (40 minutes)
Warm-ups + Basic Vocal Workout + Two- and Three-Part Exercises + Cool Down
= 40 minutes
Advanced Extended Vocal Workout with Parts Exercises (52 minutes)

+ Basic Vocal Workout + Advanced Vocal Workout +


Two- and Three-Part Exercises + Cool Down = 52 minutes
Warm-ups

>

32 minutes

Warm-ups

INTRODUCTION

HEALTHY

SINGING

RANGES

If the highest notes in the vocal exercises on this CD are


out of your range, be sure you're not forcing your lower
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register up beyond your comfort lone. Try to release into

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a lighter head-voice tone to sing higher notes, instead of

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pushing. Work to make these transitions as smooth as

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possible. Lighten up just before the switch when going

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upward, and keep your tone light as you descend in pitch.


Read chapter 4 for more information on vocal registers .

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Getting

Breathing

The

Vibrato,

Essential

Ruditioning

VOCAL

a:

Ready

Four

t o

Sing

P's
Vocal

Registers,

Vocal

ESSENTIALS

Care

and

Belting

,
,

Chapter

1. Getting

Ready

HERE ARE TWO BASIC TYPES OF VOCAL EXERCISES

to

included

in part II's workouts: warm-ups and voice builders.


Warm-ups will gradually prepare your muscles for the higher intensity of
performa nce. They wi II hel p re-esta blish efficient breath ing techniq ue and
bring your attention to the body/mind connection in singing. Warm-ups will also help you
sing high notes more easily. The best types of vocal warm-up exercises are descending
slides, lip or tongue trills, scales with changing vowels, and staccato arpeggios.

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The voice-building

exercises you will find here are stylistically diverse and can be helpful

and fun for singers of rock, pop, jazz, and r&b music. You can gain all the benefits of regular

Sing

PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

practice, keeping your voice in shape, building new skills, and learning new patterns
and riffs for improvising. You can also develop a good vocal sound, build strength and
stamina, and build rhythmic, tonal, and pitch skills. You will do all this while using sounds
and patterns that are stylistically appropriate to your idiom. Depending on your vocal
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needs, the best voice-building exercises may consist of long tones, pentatonic arpeggios,

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intervallic leaps, and scales or other patterns covering an octave or more in range on

various vowel sounds. In these workouts, you will encounter all of these types of voice

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builders. The long-tone exercise below is another example of an effective voice builder.

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1. Brrr (lip trill)


2. Nee

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3. Noo
4. Noh

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PRACTICING

WITH

THE

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

CD

Regular practice will help you to improve your voice and to maintain your sound. The
Vocal Workout CD makes it easy to stay focused. Just sing the Warm-up for All Voices,

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then choose one of the Complete Vocal Workouts on the CD, and sing along. (See the

introduction, page ix, for suggested practice routines.) A variety of styles are used to

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make the workouts fun and to develop skills that you'll need to sing contemporary
music.

When you are working with the practice CD, you will need a quiet room with a mirror and a CD player. Although you can sing along with the CD without a keyboard or
guitar, an instrument can be helpful to check your range to see how high and low you
are singing. Stand in front of the mirror while singing to check your posture and to see
any signs of physical strain. Sing standing up, to maximize your breath capacity and
to minimize any tension in your neck, shoulders, and chest.

I.' .

GETTING

READY

TO

SING

CHAPTER

.....
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GETTING

YOUR

VOICE

INTO

SHAPE

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If you haven't maintained a consistent training regimen for a period of time, or if you
are a beginner, you will need to gradually build your voice.

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To initiate your training, or to recondition your voice, start by practicing twenty minutes
a day, three to four times a week. Over a period of several weeks, build up to practicing
four to six times a week for up to forty-five minutes. Most of the benefits of any previous
training are totally lost after four to eight weeks of vocal inactivity, so you will probably
feel that you are starting from scratch, if you haven't sung in a while. Vocalizing two

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days a week or less will probably not improve your singing, if you're out of shape. On
the other hand, vocalizing intensively for an hour or more, for six or seven days a week,
increases the risk of overuse injury and does not improve vocal condition. Find a balance in your routine that challenges you but allows for some down time.

.....
:>

If you are an experienced singer working to maintain or further develop your vocal
sound, it usually isn't difficult to practice four to six times a week for thirty to forty-five
minutes. Again, use common sense about the frequency of practice. Pay attention to
the way you feel, and consult a vocal technique teacher experienced in working with
contemporary

music singers if you have any questions about your voice. This book is

not meant to replace professional, private vocal instruction.

LISTENING

TO YOUR

BODY

If you feel tired after you sing, check to be sure you aren't forcing your voice or straining. Pay attention to how your voice feels during and after practice. Although you might
feel some initial tiredness from using muscles that you've never exercised before, this
should subside in a couple of hours after practicing. Your voice will become stronger
as you continue to practice.

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PAR T

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

Exercising new muscles might make you feel a little tired at first, but this is very
different from the feeling of vocal strain. You will recover relatively quickly from fatigue
caused by exercising new muscles. Fatigue caused by improper singing technique
requires much more recovery time.
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Normal muscle fatigue caused by exercising your voice usually subsides in one to two
hours. Fatiguecaused by vocal strain can lasta day or more. Discomfort from infection
or viruscan take a week to ten days to heal. Although viruses can temporarily keep you

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from singing, you can help yourself by drinking lots of fluids and resting. If you have

...

an infection, you must receive medical attention .

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If you practice for a sensible amount of time and end up with a raspy voice, consider
other possible causes.
."

Are you coming down with a cold?

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Did you sleep in a room with dry air?

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Are you drinking enough water?

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Do you drink more than two cups of coffee each day?

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Did you consume a large, rich, or spicy meal just before bedtime and then wake
up hoarse?

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A woman's monthly cycle can make her voice sluggish and unusually low or
heavy.
Are you singing too hard or pushing your voice?

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Payattention to your voice and body, and weigh all possible factors. If you are unsure
of the cause of hoarseness,and if it is persistent, consult a voice specialist (Iaryngologist) to help you identify a course of action that will help you get better.
If you're out of practice , gen tl e, regu Iar exercises
.
. .
will. help progress your singing
and develop the kind of coor diInatIon your vocal muscles need. Harsh, rough vocal
work can overtax your voice
. an d mi
might lead to permanent damage. You don't need

GETTING

READY

TO

SING

CHAPTER

....
...
..
'"

"weight lifting" strength for singing. You need light, flexible, coordinated movement
of your vocal muscles and balanced breath support. This can be developed with the
right ki nd of practice.

There is no doubt that certain kinds of music are harder on the voice than others. For
example, hard rock or heavy metal is a higher-risk style of singing that can wear out
your voice faster than most jazz singing. Butall kinds of music can put your voice at risk

if you don't know what you're doing, especially if you don't warm up before singing.

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If you keep your body in good condition and your technique up-to-date, you can head

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off any problems before serious damage occurs. This requires a heightened sense of
self-awareness. You have to know your voice, your requirements for healthy living, your
limitations, and when to give your voice a rest. A lot of vocal problems can be prevented
with some basic common sense and with devotion to a healthy lifestyle.

III

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Chapter

2.

Breathing

INGERS TYPICALLY

LEARN BREATHING

TECHNIQUE

first voice lessons. The idea of low-body, diaphragmatic

in their

breathing is not

a complicated concept. But remember: breath support takes minutes to


learn and a lifetime to master. Understanding this concept intellectually
does not mean that your muscles will automatically

respond when you

sing. You must consistently practice good breathing technique

until it

becomes second nature. This is why many professional performers check in with their
voice teachers regularly to make sure their voices are functioning well, and put into place
any corrective measures necessary to ensure efficient production that minimizes strain.
The usual in and out of airflow is fine for everyday activities, but efficient management

of

your breath can give you better vocal control, make your voice freer and more powerful,
and give you better stamina.

Even if you already know how to breathe properly for singing, spend a few minutes at
each practice session refreshing your skills. When you reinforce proper breath manage-

_________________

B_R_E_A_T_H_I_N_G_I C HAP

T ER

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ment at the beginning of each practice, you'll be more likely to continue that action for
extended periods of singing. This creates a better foundation for all styles of singing.

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THE

FOUR

STEPS

OF EFFECTIVE

BREATHING

1. Align your body with neutral posture (described below).

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2. Inhale, expanding around your waistline.

......

3. Exhale with firm abdominals.

4. Keep your ribs open as you exhale. Don't collapse your

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chest.

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NEUTRAL

POSTURE

The stresses of carrying bags, books, sitting at a computer for long periods of time,
and other bad postural habits can pull your body out of alignment, causing tension,
shoulder and back pain, and even muscle spasms. Proper alignment,

or keeping a

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"neutral"

spine, places the least stress on your muscles because you are balancing

the effort among all your muscles to maintain your position.

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To check for neutral posture, tryout

these various postural extremes. The postural

extremes described on the following pages are a method of finding your best body
position. By stretching to extreme postures, such as an over-extended chest position,
you can get a better idea of what neutral posture feels like as you release the stretch.

>

PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

Establishing neutral posture


1.

Stand with feet hip-width apart.

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2. Bend your knees into a semi-squat,


then straighten your legs, keeping
your knees "soft," not locked .

BREATHING

CHAPTER

--------

"...

3. Exhaling, squeeze your buttocks together and pull in your stomach muscles,
making your lower back very flat. Then, relax your muscles so that your pelvis

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tips back slightly. Be sure that you are not arching your lower back.

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PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

4. Arch your upper back, extending your chest forward, and gently pressing your
elbows behind you and your shoulders back. Then release the extended position ,
maintaining a comfortably high chest position.
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5. Lift your shoulders toward your ears, then drop them, letting your shoulders hang
loosely.

BREATHING

CHAPTER

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6. Elongate your spine, feeling as if you're lifting the top of your head to the ceiling.
Relax a little, maintaining the feeling of spinal lift.

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Spine stretched

Spine elongated, but relaxed

PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

Neutral Head Position


1. Glide your head forward as far as it will go.
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2. Keeping your head level, glide back, pu IIIng your


.
d roppmg
. down .
chin toward your chest without
3. Release to a position in between so that your
ears are aligned with your shoulders .

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You're in a neutral posture when your ears are aligned with your shoulders, shoulders
with hips, hips with knees, and knees with ankles.

DEEP

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BREATHING

Inhale

Exhale

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1. Standing in front of a mirror, inhale


fully so your waist expands all the
way around your body, including
into your back. There should be no
movement in your upper chest near
your armpits.

2. In order to expel air to sing, your


abdominal muscles contract slightly, causing your diaphragm

to arch

up against your lungs, pushing the


air out of your lungs.
3. Try to keep your body open and
don't collapse. If you push too hard
with your abdomina Is, you will force
all of your air out too fast. This action

should be gentle and firm, with an


emphasis on keeping
open as you exhale.

I."'

your

body

B REA

KEEP

YOUR

RIBS

T H IN G

CHAPTER

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OPEN

II>

>As you get to the end of your air supply, you'll feel the urge to squeeze your ribs and
collapse your chest to expel the last of your air. However, good breathing technique
dictates that you try to maintain an open chest and ribcage to the end of your breath.

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This will help you avoid becoming tense.

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Try to keep your ribs open, even if you feel you're at the very end of your breath. Some

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describe

this feeling as always maintaining

a cushion of air under the ribs as you

exhale. If you totally empty your lungs of every last bit of air, you are more likely to add

...

pressure to your throat muscles. This creates strain in those muscles and will limit the
freedom of your voice.

A QUIET

BREATHING

EXERCISE

II>

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::>

1. Stand in front of a full-length mirror.

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2. Take a deep breath with no chest lift (don't overfill), and


hiss on a sustained "S" sound for as long as you can.

3. You will feel firmness in your abdominal muscles as you

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expel your air.

4. At the very end of your air supply, be sure to keep your

>

ribs open and your chest in a comfortably high position.


Repeat two or three times, watching carefully to maintain
good form. When you memorize good form by watching yourself, you are teaching your muscles to "remember"

this action

for singing.

Chapter

Buildin
HE FOUR ESSENTIAL

BUILDING

BLOCKS for vocal training are

practice, patience, perseverance, and play. The "Four P's" are a good
way to remember how to achieve balance in your studies.

PRACTICE
Develop your skills

PERSEVERANCE
A quality
more rare than talent

THE

FOUR

P'S

CHAPTER

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PRACTICE
Practicing

....

is the way singers develop skills. Singers with well-developed

instruments

can be more expressive. Regular practice can help fine-tune the craft of singing and

....'"
..

a:
o

.....
..
Q,

supports the expressive process. Without

a sufficient skill base, or foundation, there can be no deep emotional or physical base

maintain a high level of skill, sothetechnique

on which to build. This is like the proverbial building constructed


foundation

on sand. A weak

creates an unstable building that won't stand the test of time. Effective

practice can build a strong foundation of technique that can help support a powerful
voice. A full, strong, self-assured voice that has stamina can have the ability to express
any emotion. In short, a strong foundation

o
u

...
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..
o

...

makes it possible to use your voice to its

fullest capacity of creative expression.


COMPONENTS

OF

COMPLETE

PRACTICE

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Your practice routine ideally should consist of four parts:

..
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1. Warm-up: Physical and Vocal

2. Technical Work

a:
u

3. Song Performance

>

4. Cool Down

Physical Warm-ups
Stretching

allows your body to move more efficiently and perform at its peak. It can

release residual tension in your shoulders,

neck, jaw, and back that you might not

be aware of. Setting up good posture will increase your breath capacity. It's also an
extremely soothing way to connect your mind and body, and it just feels good'

PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

M ista kes to avoid:


Don't bounce. Using bouncing to increase your stretch can activate your body's
protective reflex, causing muscles to contract instead of stretch.
<

..

Don't stretch to the point of pain. Slight discomfort when stretching

you should not be in pain. Pain is your body's signal that something is wrong .

Don't forget to breathe. Oxygen exchange is necessary for muscles to respond to

;>0:

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stretching in a beneficial way. Holding your breath will interfere with the relaxing

o
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.....

effects of full oxygen intake and release. Use deep breathing as a way to heighten

is normal, but

the stretching process .

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THE

FOUR

P'S

CHAPTER

Stretches
Start with these physical stretches.

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..
....
>-

a:

Stretch 1. Spine Stretch

1.

Reach both arms above your head, with hands crossed and palms touching.

IZ

2.

Inhale, slowly pushing your hands upward, then backward, keeping your back
straight.

..

::

..
I-

3.

Exhale and relax from the stretch before you repeat.

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td

PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

Stretch 2. Shoulder Stretch


1.
Raise one arm above your head, and bend your elbow so that your fingers point
down your spine.
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o

2.

Use your other hand to grasp your elbow above your head.

3.

Exhale slowly, pulling gently down on your elbow, aiming your fingers down your

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spine.

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'"

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4.

Repeat on the other side .

THE

FOUR

P'S

Stretch 3. Shoulder Rolls

1.
2.

Stand upright with your hands by your sides.

Lift your shoulders so that they are up by your ears.

CHAPTER

..'"...
.....
..
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'"'"'
c
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..
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3.

Rotate them forward.

4.

Continue rotation downward.

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C

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5.

Move up and back in a smooth,

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continuous motion, and then return


to rest position.

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>

PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

Vocal Warm-ups
Once you've stretched out your body, get ready to warm up your voice. To do this,
put on the CD, and sing along with tracks 2-7, the Warm-ups for All Voices.
<

The most important thing you can do before you sing is warm up your voice. Vocal

warm-ups are the physical equivalent of stretching your legs before you run. A gentle

:Il

:l:

vocal warm-up will help your voice feel more flexible and responsive. It will also help

.,

you get the basics of breathing in place, reminding your muscles to produce the proper

"oc

action. Warming up will also gently increase your range to its fullest capacity, so when

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you go for the high notes, your voice will feel freer. The exercises on the CD start in the
middle voice. They help warm up the low range, then the high.
Here are some sounds commonly used for warming up. Try some of these before you

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.,
...:z:

..
.....

go to more structured scale work to help warm up your voice. All of these sounds are
demonstrated on the CD in the warm-up routines (tracks 2-7) .

Exercise

ILip/tongue trills

:II:

-e

.,
o

.,

Benefits

Technique

Lip and tongue trills require a loose


A bubbling sound made with lips
or tongue. Can be used with scales jaw and steady airflow; beth benefior sliding.
cial to free tone production .

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...

Sliding or siren sounds

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<II

..,".

Humming

Sighing

Moving your voice up or down,

Helps free up laryngeal muscles.

gliding seamlessly through a series


of pitches without stopping on

ment, gently strefching muscles

Requires smooth muscular

move-

scale notes. Sounds like a siren.


Use any vowel, or hum .

involved in singing .

Creating tone with lips closed over


teeth that are slightly apart. A buzzing feeling results in the lips, nose,
face, and cheeks. Can be used
with sliding (above).

The buzzing feeling produced


when humming increases

Start with a feeling that you're


about to yawn. Make a vocal sound
(':ah" or "uh") on a midrange
pitch, allowing your voice to glide

The "pre-yawn" feeling helps lift


your soft palate slightly, making a
more open sound. The following

downward with a release of air.

freely and allows a gentle muscle


stretch.

your awareness

of resonance.

Resonance amplifies and colors


tone, making it brighter, with better
projection.

downward

glide releases

your voice

THE

FOUR

P'S

CHAPTER

a:
w

"...

Technique

Now that you're on your way to loosening up your voice, it's time to work on some
voice-building

exercises. Choose a Complete Vocal Workout on the CD, and sing

along. Try to develop a variety of singing skills, such as better breath management,
flexibility,

and range extension. Stop if you feel tired or if you're straining

in any

way.

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>-

a:
a:
a:

...,.
w

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o
u

Here are some commonly


included

used vocal technique

in the workouts in part

exercises, elements of which are

II. Use these ideas to better understand the benefits

:z:

...
a:
o

...

of each exercise pattern and to vary your routine.

Long Tones
Technique:

Sustain a clear (not breathy) midrange tone for sixteen beats at a


slow tempo. Tone should be at a medium-loud
used with dynamic variation: soft-loud-soft.

volume. Can also be

Pitch should not waver.

......
:::>

""

a:

Benefits:

Long tones require efficient use of breath. A low intake of air and
controlled exhalation, keeping the ribs from collapsing, will help
coordinate and strengthen muscles used for breathing.

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~

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>

=69

A-

E-

0-

l~i~a>~=
~J~_a>=~~ __
J~a>
=~~t?J~. @hdl
00

PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

Runs/Scales
Technique:

Sing stepwise note-patterns at a medium-fast to fast pace.

Benefits:

Develops agility by training the vocal muscles to respond quickly and

<

in a coordinated manner.

..
..
'"
.....
n

~
o

o
c

= 108

-~~-:~
Nee

Nay

Noh

Noo

Staccato Exercises
Technique:

..
=..

a bit at a time. Staccato notes can be repeated single notes or in

."

arpeggio or scale patterns .

...

Benefits:

...z

..
...
......

Sing short, detached notes on a single breath, letting your air out

Develops agility and breath control requiring quick adjustments

of the

vocal cords. Staccato notes are to be sung lightly and articulated


the breath .

on

.....
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....

Staccato

J = 76-96

-~~~-~:II
Hey hey hey hey

Hah hah hah hah

H~y hey hey hey

Hoo

THE

FOUR

P'S

CHAPTER

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w

"...

Arpeggios

..
:IE

Technique:

Sing skipping-note

patterns that outline chords. Arpeggios are

>-

a:
'"
o
'"

typically built on major chords, minor chords, and pentatonic


patterns.

e,
:IE
w

Benefits:

Develops facility in moving through entire range, easing register


transitions, extending range and requiring flexibility and breath

:IE

o
u
w

control.

...

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...

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o

= 66
F-

F-/E~

'tI~I~
-----00

----

------

00

----

.....
::>

'"o'"
00

00

~
~

a:
u

>

r
PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

Articulation Exercises
Technique:
Use the five primary vowels (a, e, i, 0, u) combined with various
consonants on musical patterns, creating nonsense syllables, such as
<
o

n
:D

Helps develop articulation skills. Also, various vowels and consonant

Benefits:

combinations practiced throughout one's range develop facility and

.,
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ease in tone production.

"

....
c

J = 138

Latin

.~J==d~,-"a~.~
Mah

may

mee _

Mah _

moh

mee_

may

moh_

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n

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C/G

~~~f~
Mah

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may mee _ moh

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.....

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'-"

Mah _
FIA

C/E

"o.,

may _

me~

.,..

may

mee _

moh _

Mah

mee

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Mah

may mee _ moh

may mee _ moh


FIG

Mah

may _

mee

Mah _

THE

FOUR

CHAPTER

P'S

..
IX

"z...

Dynamic Contrast
Technique:

Sing a midrange long tone over eight slow counts, gradually becoming

..
<It
IX

louder, then softer. Carefully pace the increasing and decreasing

a:
IX

volume so it occurs smoothly, and so the pitch doesn't waver.

...

..
..
:IE

Benefits:

Develops vocal control and increases awareness of dynamic contrast.


Singing softly requires extra attention to maintaining consistent

breath

energy. Skillful singing at different dynamic levels will help you sing in

IZ

:z:
I-

tune more consistently.

IX

'I

a,
Ah

---

A-

..... I_a,

----

..... I_a,
mf

D-

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---

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t

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IX

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PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

Range Extension Exercises


Technique:

Sing fast-moving musical patterns (scales and arpeggios),

briefly

touching on highest and lowest notes. Do not dwell at the extremes of


your range.
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n
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Benefits:

Helps develop vocal strength. Gradual stretching of range and

developing your upper register creates the ability to use more vocal

"'"

colors and balances your instrument. Greater freedom throughout

o
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c

your range allows you to sing more varied repertoire.

...

In

~t~~~A~~~7~
Ah

Db
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Ab7

Db

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C'I

"'

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D

00

A7

Bb7

continue moving

by hal f steps

THE

FOUR

P'S

CHAPTER

Song Performance

After you have worked with the CD, take some time to work out on a couple of

songs,

Choose any style that you like, and check the range to see if it's within your limits. To
do this, look for the highest and lowest notes of the song. The majority of the song
should be in the middle of your range. If your song has a couple of notes that seem
a little high or low, you can work on them to see if they become easier in time. If too
much of the song is outside your range, you're better off choosing a different song. Be
sure to watch yourself in the mirror to check for expression and body alignment.

Experienced

....
...
.....
....
..

singers may already know how much body movement

for their performance.

stand and sing. Later on, when your technique

is solidly established,

ishing your vocal skills, you'll be able to present your music with personal style and
If you accompany yourself on guitar or keyboard, practice your
first, and progress to self-accompanied

..
...
..

...

you can focus

use your hands and body more. Once you are able to focus on lyrics without dimin-

singing unaccompanied

.....
:IE

just

on the song lyrics for the expression of emotions and ideas. This will free you up to

good vocal technique.

...o

:z:

is appropriate

But while you're developing or refreshing your technique,

a:

singing as you gain

vocal skills.

.....

....
::>

e
~

a:
u

Practice first without a microphone to establish good projection and resonance awareness. Be sure you're not relying on the microphone to create warm tone and projection.
You have to develop these qualities as a part of your own vocal skills, to use with or
without amplification.

Cool Down
Spend about five minutes doing some less intense vocal exercises to cool down
your voice. Tracks 2 and 3 from the Warm-up for All Voices can be repeated to cool
down. This will help your speaking voice sound more stable, and ease the transition
from very active singing to a more normal state for everyday vocal use by allowing
the tissue temperature
physical

exercise.

to lower. This is similar to what we should do after vigorous

After any kind of aerobic

exercise,

it is advisable to transition

>

PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

rate. After a lot of


radually so that the muscles can ad'JUst to the change in heart
.
g
singing
the increased blood flow t0 th e vocal cords needs time to decrease gradu-

,
to
ally During
cool down, the laryngea I m uscles also relax and return
.
. a more neutral
. Cooling down also helps dirssipa
. te some of the normal fluid.... buildup that OCcurs
state.
<

.
.
should involve light vocalizing In. the middle to
when you sing.
Cool-down exercises
. I'tp t n'11
lower range. Descending
s are helpful for cooling down, as are
" sighs, descend-

ing slides on "00," yawning that ends with an audible sigh, and light humming.

"

'""o

-<

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J = 69
E--

t#! J -----J
Yoo__

yoo__

yoo__

yoo

PATIENCE
n

o
z
-<
In
:II:

...
o

"'"'"

-<

...z'"
"
In

Learning vocal technique requires patience, especially if there are bad habits to undo.
The payoff for patience is having a well-trained instrument capable of greater expression. Most of the time, progress is gradual. Sometimes, we have "light bulb" moments
in singing, but most of the time, progress comes after a long period of work that finally
peaks, and then plateaus for a while. Sometimes, progress is made with two steps
forward, then one step back, as we remind our muscles to memorize new actions and
as we get used to different sounds and feelings. This is typical in the learning process
for singing, and it requires a lot of patience.

'"

Your voice will grow, change, and develop all through your life. Your voice will change
as you age, and your sound will vary depending on how you feel and the state of your
emotions. The changing nature of the human voice requires you to think beyond your
immediate goals, such as song learning and breath management. So, be patient. Your
best sound will continue to emerge and change as you develop.

THE

FOUR

P'S

CHAPTER

PERSEVERANCE

.....

Perseverance and patience go hand in hand. Musicians, actors, singers, and other

a:

'"
w

..

'"

artists know that while pursuing goals, we must keep in mind a bigger picture of what
we want to achieve. With the many natural ups and downs in most singers' progress,

'"
'"o
l1.
:IE
w

Whether you are dealing with the sense of disap-

t-

pointment after an unsatisfying performance, or just learning to enjoy using your voice

it is important to stay determined.

to express yourself, keep trying to do your best.

:z:
t-

'"...
o

PLAY
In the process of learning, it is easy to become worried about all the things that you
haven't yet achieved. Remember that singing should be fun.

Devote a portion of every practice session to singingjustforfun.

Try sing-along record-

ings or karaoke. Turn off your critical thinking for a while, and just enjoy expressing
yourself through music.

'"t:>

'"o'"

~
~
a:

When you're developing your voice, you should practice what you can do, not just what
you can'tdo.

>

III
I

Chapter
4.
Registers,

Vibrato,
Vocal
and Belting
ocx;

WORKOUTS

Will

BRING

YOUR ATTENTION

to different

parts of your voice that you may not have noticed before. Vibrato, vocal
registers, and belting are three important issues singers notice more when
they are working out. Attention to these might help answer any questions
that occur as you develop your voice.

VIBRATO
Vibrato is the steady oscillation (a wave-like sound) above and below a pitch center. It
is created in the larynx by the alternating currents of nerve impulses and usually occurs
naturally in voices that have balanced support and freedom of the muscles in the throat,
neck, and jaw. If you don't have vibrato and you want to develop it, most voice teachers
will start by working on breath support and releasing excessive tension.

It is helpful to have an awareness of your own vibrato and how to develop and control it
when necessary. Although some singers don't use vibrato at all, many want at least a little

VIBRATO,

VOCAL

REGISTERS,

AND

BELTING

CHAPTER

or.
w

to round out their sound. A healthy vibrato can be produced when a voice has a bal-

...
...

ance of adequate breath energy (or support) and relaxation. Vibrato speed and width

,..'"

or.

can vary depending on the pitch or volume of the sound being produced.

a:

or.

There is a wide range of acceptable vibrato sounds. Most singers who want vibrato can
develop it on their own, as their voices become balanced. The sound of a vibrato is a
part of what singers hear and tend to imitate in voices on recordings, so it comes with-

"z
w
lZ

o
u

out effort to many young singers. On the other hand, singers with a persistently straight

w
:I:
l-

tone who want to develop vibrato need to be sure they release excess tension.

or.
o

...
Classically trained singers frequently

need to learn to control vibrato and sing with

more straight tone when performing contemporary


difficult,

commercial

music. This can be

but it is a necessary skill in order to sing with authentic style in many genres

of non-classical

music.

'"
l-

:::>

Practice this by singing the long-tone exercise here. Imagine that you send a thin
stream of air to the center of the tone to control vibrato.

'"or.o
~
~
a:

Latin

= 92

BbMa7

Abl3

BMaj7(#ll)

J -"J'-----'w==:::l~1I -=~~J~II
~~~SS.

~~---'---'LJ

Mah

BbMaj7

mey

mee

moh

moo

B7(#II)

mee moh

moo

_
I.

Mah mey

o
>

B7(# 11)

112
BbMaj7

PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

REGISTERS
Most singers are keenly aware of shifting in their voices as they sing up or down. These
areas in your voice are called "registers." This shifting feeling often results in a change
<

in sound quality.

...
:D

II

~
o
I

:D

"
...
o
c

..

When you sing, your vocal cords and larynx go through many adjustments

in order to

be able to produce different types of sound. Vocal cords vibrate at different lengths and
thicknesses in different registers. For example, in chest register, there is light tension
along both the length and width of your vocal cords. The higher you sing, the more
the tension increases as the thickness decreases, so your vocal cords thin out as you
ascend in pitch. Atthe same time, your arytenoid cartilages adjust to shorten your vocal
cords for the change to head voice register. The shifting you feel is this complex series
of muscles making the changes necessary for you to sing with different tone qualities.

...

%
m

These adjustments can happen smoothly if your laryngeal muscles are coordinated,
and the other aspects of your vocal technique are balanced. Because we can't see our
vocal cords, using imagery and singing by "feel" are important methods in learning.

...
...o
m
Z

Try this sliding exercise. The slide should feel smooth and flow to the next pitch without
any obvious bumps or changes in register.

:D
:D
:D

....

-<

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:D

=88

F-lEb

F-

it>

~IIII~

,J

Wee __

Db

ij' > J
S

wee

C7(b 13)

F-

W ~ --J = ;n2. ~tg:11


wee

VIBRATO,

VOCAL

REGISTERS,

AND

BELTING

CHAPTER

..'"
There are many different names for these registers, and quite a few opinions about

"z...

how many registers there are and at what pitches the shifting occurs. Many rock,

'">-

pop, r&b, and gospel singers-both

shift registers in their

a:

songs for stylistic effect. Shifting registers smoothly can help you access higher pitches

men and women-audibly

'"

without strain and can help you to achieve a certain color or style of expression. Your

...z'"

voice doesn't need to sound exactly the same from top to bottom, but it should be

smooth enough that it's difficult to tell where the shifting occurs, unless you're yodeling. Yodelingis the technique of accentuating a change between registers very quickly,
flipping to head or chest register with a stark change of vocal quality.

For women,

.....
o

...

..

:z:

...

..
'"o

chest voice is the lowest register, head voice is the upper

register,

and middle voice is a mix of the two in between. According to the book Singing: the
Mechanism

and the Technique by William Vennard, because the heavy mechanism

(chest register) is two-thirds of the lower range, and the light mechanism

(head regis-

ter) is two-thirds of the higher range, either mechanism can be involved for the middle
third of the voice.' With training, the middle register can be extended and strengthened, establishing a blend between low and high registers. This mix provides the flexibility needed for singing all styles of music.

'"...

..
:>

'"

-...

~
a:
o

Some women also have an additional register above head voice that's very light and
fluty sounding, often called the flute register. This is the sound that Mariah Carey makes
on her very highest tones, particularly in her early recordings.

In classical music, women mostly sing in a head-register-dominant


ates a pure, balanced tone that gives the singer endurance,
projection without electronic amplification.

sound. This cre-

high range, and strong

Vibrato is a predominant

characteristic

of

Western European classical style singing, as well.

In non-classical

singing, women are likely to use a middle-, mixed-, or chest-register-

dominant sound. A microphone can diminish the need for vigorous projection of sound
for ballad singing, and will amplify voices to project over other electronically

1. Vennard, William. Singing: the Mechanism and the Technique. New York: Carl Fischer, 1967; p. 238.

amplified

>

PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

,
Th e d eve Iopm ent of your upper register is important, even if it is not your
Instruments,
primary performing register.
Men usually have a sense of where their chest register shifts into falsetto, a very high
<
o

n
:D

I~

I
I

middle registers as well, but they are often less obvious feeling than chest register and
falsetto, If you're not sure what falsetto sounds like, listen to singers Aaron Neville,

'"

Smokey Robinson, Prince, and AI Jarreau, They, and many other singers, use their fal-

setto register frequently, Finding a light head-register sound without going into falsetto

'"

can be a challenge for men, but it is a very valuable and rewarding skill that can be used

and light sounding register, which is a man's highest register, Men have head and

"o

...

in a wide variety of contemporary music styles, This can best be achieved with the help
of a vocal technique teacher who can help you discover and develop your full range,

If women can sense head register and chest registers in their voices, and men can

...
:I:

"'
n
0

sense chest register and falsetto, it's a good place to start, From there, work to develop
your middle register, A strong middle register will give you the best of both worlds: some
of the warmth of your lower register, and the ease of your upper register, Such skills are

best learned in private voice lessons where a teacher can give you immediate feedback

"'
z

about your singing and help to correct any mistakes before they become detrimental.

...

"

.,'"
:D

-<
I

Some voice qualities that might be considered unacceptable in classical singing can
be appreciated for their uniqueness in popular music, Voice sounds such as twang

...'"
z

(a bright, nasal tone that can facilitate belting), growls (a throaty rumble sometimes

.,"'

used at the beginnings of phrases), and glottal fry (a rapid series of low-pitched

...

pulses, creating a creaky quality) are used to create sounds that are more speechlike, Although these sounds would be considered inappropriate

to use in classical

singing, in non-classical singing, these sounds are used to color tone and create

I I
I
I

III

style, Use these non-traditional


your vocal cords,

sounds with discretion, though, as they can tire out

VIBRATO,

VOCAL

REGISTERS,

AND

BELTING

CHAPTER

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..,..
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BELTING
Contemporary commercial music singers often use beltingas a style of singing. Belting
generally refers to the act of singing loudly with a lot of energy. It can also refer to the
specific technique of carrying up or mixing the chest register's quality, delaying the full

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o
...'"

..

release into head voice. This quality is similar to speech-level singing, which means

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z

carrying a speech quality high into the singing range. Belting usually requires more

sound projection. Both speech-level singing and belting require a high breath pressure
and a clear, strong sound. This sound can be strident when performed improperly at
the highest pitch levels.

...:z:
...

..
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Belting can be accomplished in a healthy manner with careful attention to maintaining


a resonant tone, breathing, and maintaining muscular relaxation in the neck and jaw.
However, it can lead to vocal problems such as hoarseness and even vocal nodules,
if it's done improperly, or in singers who aren't careful about maintaining their overall
physical health. Excessive tiredness, a lack of vital physical health, and singing too
much-too

loudly, too high, too long-can

lead to vocal problems as well.

Remember: even if you are primarily a belter, you should be ableto sing in your head voice
too. In fact, strengthening head and middle voice registers generally improves the quality
of the lower registers by introducing brighter overtones and flexibility on high notes. Think
of your head register as the mother of your entire voice.' If it is strong, it will nurture your
entire range. Even if your head voice is weak at first, it will become stronger with use.
Contemporary music singers need the same type of comprehensive training that classical singers receive. Vocal problems commonly associated with singing non-classical
music are often caused by a lack of the training that is part of every classical singer's
basic education. If non-classical singers do not obtain proper training, they are risking
their voices, and will be ill-prepared for the demands of performing this music.
Sometimes, non-classical singers are fearful that their individuality will be compromised if they study vocal technique. Developing good vocal skills can benefit all types

2. Mary Barton-Saunders, Chair of the Musical Theater Department at Pennsylvania State University.

.....
:::>

"'"o

~
~

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>

_~.r
PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

of singers without making their voices sound "classical." In fact, non-classical

singers

can benefit from the same instruction and corrective actions used with classical singers, including paying better attention to vocal health and hygiene, watching

out for

excessive tension, and maintaining a resonant tone.


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~

The demands of singing require all performers to learn everything they can about their

voices in order to make informed decisions and choices that will not be detrimental

o
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their vocal health.

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to

Chapter

N THE PROCESS

5.

Essential

OF WORKING

Vocal

OUT, you may notice some changes

in your voice, so vocal maintenance is an important aspect of working out.


Not everyone reacts to medications, caffeine, or even vocal overuse the same
way. While a cup of coffee might trigger the jitters, dry throat, or excess mucus
production in some people, it might have little effect on others. You have to
know yourself, your limits, and your triggers for vocal problems. Remember: it's easier to
prevent problems than to correct them once you've done damage.

MAINTAINING

VOCAL

HEALTH

For professional vocalists, taking care of your voice is a primary responsibility. You will
want to be able to sing not just when you're healthy and happy, but through adversity as
well. When you have a cold, low physical energy, or stressful performing situations, you
need to know how to use your acquired vocal technique to get through it all. It's even
better if you can prevent problems by following some basic heathcare principles that will

Care

PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

help you stay well. If you know how to take care of yourself, you'll be able to perform
better under challenging circumstances.

Water
<
o

One of the easiest ways to improve your health is to be sure you are drinking

eight

n
:D

8-ounce glasses of water each day. Your body needs water to function

flushes toxins out of your system and keeps the mucus thin in your throat. This

.,
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II

"

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..
...

well. Water

can make for less throat clearing and coughing that will tire out your vocal cords.
Water also helps keep your vocal cords supple. It's like having enough oil in your car
engine. With lubrication, the parts of the engine glide instead of grind. In your singing, this means your voice will work more efficiently.

Your entire body needs to be hydrated for your vocal cords to function smoothly. Drink
."

.,
...
o

water well in advance of your vocal practice and performance. Caffeine and alcohol
dry out your body and voice, countering the effects of water drinking. It's smart to limit
these drying substances .

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...

Many singers find that inhaling steam can be soothing, especially if you have a cold, or

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..,

if you live in a dry environment. You can carefully heat plain water in a pan, and when

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it is hot, put a towel over your head to make a sort of a tent, and inhale the steam. (Be

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very careful that you don't stand too close to the heating element!) Instead, you can
use a gadget called a "personal steam inhaler." It has a small reservoir for water and

a mask that fits over your nose and mouth. When the water is heated, place your nose

.,""'

and mouth on or near the mask, and inhale the steam for ten to fifteen minutes several
times a day. I recommend that you don't add anything to the water, such as menthol
medications, because those can dry you out further. Just inhaling the steam can soothe
your nasal passages and throat.
Don't Smoke
Smoking is bad for your voice. When you inhale the hot chemicals

in cigarette or

marijuana smoke over your vocal cords (which are located at the gateway to your

ESSENTIAL

VOCAL

CARE

CHAPTER

....
...
'"

lungs), you dry out and irritate them. The chemicals from smoke deposit in your
lungs, making it harder to breathe deeply. Coughing further irritates your cords. Even
inhaling second-hand

smoke affects your health. So, don't smoke. Quit if you have

already started. It will be well worth the trouble, in terms of increased lungpower and

..
In

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'"

..
....
..
""

overall health. And avoid inhaling secondhand smoke.

:E

IZ

Stress
Since our voices are closely linked with our emotions, stress can have a devastating
effect on a singer's ability to perform. Instead of just trying to push through stressful
times, try to find effective ways to alleviate your stress.

Dealing effectively

%
I-

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with stress means that we consider the whole person, not just the

voice. Physical activities including walking, swimming, yoga, tai chi, as well as quiet
time, listening to relaxation tapes, and receiving professional counseling are all effec-

In

I-

tive in relieving stress and anxiety.

:>

""

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o

Overall Health
Your voice reflects the state of your overall health. Your mind, body, and spirit together have a balanced relationship. When you are sick physically, or troubled emotionally, your voice will probably reflect these problems. Balance in all areas of your life
can provide a fuller, more satisfying singing experience.
eating, relaxation techniques

Moderate exercise, healthy

such as meditation, and regular sleeping habits are a

good way to start.

DETECTING

VOCAL

PROBLEMS

When you're having problems with your voice, it can be frustrating and upsetting. Since
we can't see our vocal cords just by looking in the mirror, we have to pay attention to
symptoms that may indicate a problem. These symptoms may be early signs of injury
or other problems and must not be ignored.

~
~

a:

....
o

>

PAR

VOCAL

SIGNS

ESSENTIALS

OF POSSIBLE

VOCAL

PROBLEMS

loss of high range or the loss of the ability to sing softly on

high notes
a strained, hoarse, or husky sound that persists for more

<

than a few days

...
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~
~
o

'"o'"
c:

..

hoarseness without any other symptoms (such as a cold)

singing or speaking requires noticeable effort

increased need for breath support

repeated vocal fatigue or deterioration of your voice after

...

singing

...o

a constant feeling of excessive mucus or a post-nasal drip

a feeling of pain or irritation after singing

any unusual long-term symptoms that affect your voice or


overall health

...'"

your intuition tells you that something is not right with your
voice

:0:

...o
z

...

IF

Consult a qualified laryngologistwho specializes in treating professional singers. He or

'"'"

she will be able to advise you of your options for managing your vocal health. A laryn-

m
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...

n
m

YOU

SUSPECT

YOU

HAVE

A PROBLEM

...

gologist can tell you if you need medical treatment, or if you can ease your symptoms
with home care. Most conservatories or music schools can recommend a laryngologist
who specializes in working with singers.

'"
Singing When You're Sick
If you have to perform and you're not feeling up to par, you will have to make a judgment call. Sometimes, a slightly scratchy throat and nasal congestion won't inhibit
singing. If this is the case, a light warm-up will tell you if you should carry on. If
you sing for fifteen to twenty minutes and your voice clears up, your high range is
accessible, and you have enough energy to support adequately, you might be able

ESSENTIAL

VOCAL

CARE

CHAPTER

co
w

to perform.

Be sure to drink lots of water to keep the mucus in your throat thin and

to help avoid excessive throat clearing and coughing. Inhalation of steam by placing
your face over a source of warm steam (as described earlier) can help by directly
moistening

the surface of your vocal cords. However, if you're an inexperienced

"...
Z

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co
co
co

o
Q.

singer, leave this kind of judgment call to your teacher or a doctor.

Z
w

...
Z

On the other hand, a husky, pressed-sounding

voice, and loss of high range that

doesn't improve with a light warm-up can signify a more serious condition.

It's best to

consult a doctor right away if you have any questions about your vocal health.

....
w

:z:

...
co

..
o

Avoid taking pain medicines when you're performing.

You can easily over-sing and

end up hurting your voice because the pain medications interfere with your perception
of your vocal condition. You won't be able to feel if you're over-singing, and then you
can lose your voice completely. Also, aspirin and Ibuprofen can make the capillaries
in your vocal cords fragile and more susceptible to breaking. Hard singing paired with

'"...

..
:>

medicines
problems.

that stop pain and promote fragile capillaries is a recipe for serious vocal

co
o
~

...a:
....

o
>

Chapter

6.

Auditioning

OST SING ERS ARE AWA R E of the close connection between our
emotions and our ability to sing well under challenging circumstances.
If you're working out your voice to prepare for an audition,

here are

some tips to help you through this demanding situation.

Whether you're new to performing or have a lot of experience, you'll


probably have to audition for a gig or otherwise be evaluated by others in the industry.
If you are prepared for criticism and maintain the right attitude, you can learn and grow
from the process. You might come away from a performance where you've received feedback that was right on target, and that evaluation can help you improve your singing. It
is understandable that criticism meant in the spirit of helpfulness can surprise you and
might hurt your feelings. But if you are prepared mentally, these experiences can have
excellent learning potential.

""~------=--.-;;;;;;~~~==~:..====-----------

AUDITIONING

CHAPTER

6
a:
w

T A KIN G C R I TIC ISM

INS

T R I D'E

If you have an audition or performance experience in which you feel you have done
your best and you still don't receive positive feedback, consider other aspects of your
performance that may need improvement. Your presentation, singing skill, movement,
and lyric delivery all can affect your audition. Also, sometimes, auditioners are looking
for a specific "look" or physical type, and if you don't fit that image, you can be ruled
out. As harsh as this sort of elimination can be, it is a fact of many auditions, and persistence and hard work can be the key to getting the gig you want.

'"...

....
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a:
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...

..
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Z

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..
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:z:
a:

AUDITIONS

GONE

BAD

Sometimes, auditions just don't go well. Nervousness, lack of preparation, performing


a song that doesn't flatter your voice, and many other issues can affect your performance. You might receive well-deserved negative feedback. Vow to be better prepared
next time, and practice performing in front of others. Record yourself doing a mock
audition on videotape. You might be surprised at habitual body or hand movements
that are distracting. You might also hear mistakes in your singing that you weren't
aware of. Some singers say that when they're performing, they feel as if they're using a
lot of great facial expression, but when they see their recorded performance, they are
surprised to see thattheir expression is blank. Videos will give you unbiased feedback.
It isn't always fun to watch yourself, but it is one of the best ways you can improve your
performing skills.

YOU

NEVER

KNOW

WHO'S

WATCHING

Present yourself at your best every time you perform because you never know who will
see you and remember you. Even if auditioners aren't looking for someone with your
skills at that time, there is always a chance that they will remember a good, charismatic
performer and hire you in the future. Many singers get gigs because someone remembers them from another performance, audition, or gig and wants to hire them at a later

....
::>

..
o

a:
o

.....

~
a:

o
>

PAR

VOCAL

ESSENTIALS

date. So don't lose hope if you don't get the gig the first time. It may lead to something
better farther down the road. You have to be true to yourself. Be the best performer you
can be. Discover your unique qualities and show them off' Don't just try to imitate your
favorite singer; discover your own true voice. Be persistent, always present yourself at
<
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your best, and learn from honest criticism. If you are having trouble handling criticism,
or feel unfairly treated, talk to someone who can help you put things into perspective.
Keeping negative thoughts bottled up inside or obsessing over negative comments
is not productive or healthy. Consider the subjective nature of auditions, and let the
experience create an opportunity for you to improve.

' .....

Warm-ups

for

All

Workout

1.

Basic

Workout

2.

Advanced

Singing

Harmony:

Voices
Workout
Workout
Two-

and

Three-Part

Exercises

IT

COMPLETE

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

PART

II

FEATURES

COMPLETE

OF THE

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

CD

These exercises provide a complete warm-up and basic and advanced voice-building
exercises for singers. The CD contains vocal examples with a rhythm-section
<

back-

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ground. The vocal examples appear on only one stereo side of the CD so that you can

:D

...

sing along with them, or turn them off to practice with the rhythm section tracks alone.

To listen and practice with the rhythm section alone, adjust the balance control on

'""

your stereo to eliminate the right channel. If you transfer the CD to an MP3 player to

o
o

..
c:

...

practice, you can simply remove the right ear bud to hear only the instruments.
if you don't have easy balance adjustment capabilities on your computer,

Even

you can

still benefit from singing with the voices on the recording. The singers demonstrate
authentic style and phrasing models. I feel that it is important for you to hear real voices

..

...'"
'"'
...o"'
z
...

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Z

performing the examples. Singers who have worked with this CD have found the vocal
guidelines helpful, and often keep the voices sounding even when they are familiar
with the exercises.

At the beginning of each track, you'll hear a beginning note and a countoff, and then
the exercise begins. You might find it helpful to follow along with the written music in
the book until you become familiar with the exercise patterns, the order in which they

."

'"

occur in each workout, and the syllables and lyrics used for singing.

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...'"

.....

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If you are working on particularly challenging exercises, especially

those in the

Advanced Workout, you can go back to the start of the track to review it a few times
before moving on.

'"

Sometimes, the exercises move up by half steps to new keys, and sometimes they
modulate down, depending on what part of your voice is being exercised. You'll be
able to follow along easily listening to the instrumentals Whe
.
t b t
.
n warming up, I IS es
to warm up your middle range first then low voice followed b hi h
..
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Ig range warm-up.
This plan ISfollowed in the Warm-up for All Voices.

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_______________

WAR

M - UPS

FOR

ALL

V 0 ICE

.....
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w

The Basic Workout will help you take your singing to the next level. Musical concepts

..

such as syncopation, minor scales, and pentatonic patterns are presented in rock, jazz,

VI

r&b, and gospel style exercises. These are designed to help you develop your range,

a:
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flexibility, and sustaining power.

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w

The Advanced Workout contains more complex rhythmic concepts, more challenging
intervallic leaps, as well as longer phrases. Be sure to maintain energetic breath support, and don't push yourself beyond your limits, especially the first few times you sing

0Z

...
<>
w

:z:
0-

through this workout. Change the syllables or words to a favorable vowel, such as "00"
or "ah," until you become familiar with the notes and rhythmic patterns.

'"o...

In high- and low-voice workouts, you will alternately hear male and female voices demonstrate the exercises. Notice that a man's voice always sounds one octave lower than
written on the treble clef. This is a concept that most singers adjust to automatically,

VI

without much thought. If you are a man, and a woman is demonstrating the exercise,

0::>

you should sing the exercise in your own octave (one octave lower than the woman's

""

voice). If you try to sing in her octave, you will probably be singing high in your range,
or in falsetto, and you won't gain the benefits of low- to middle-voice exercises. If you
are a woman, and a man is demonstrating the exercise, you should sing one octave

<>

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<>

-...

~
a:

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>

higher than the man's voice.


The Two- and Three-Part Exercises on the last section of the CD are a fun bonus to
your singing workouts. By adjusting your balance control, the different voices on these
tracks can be individually eliminated for practice. Turn off the left channel to eliminate
the high voice. Turn off the right channel to eliminate the low voice. In the three-part
exercises , there are two tracks of each exercise. Again, turn off the left channel to
eliminate the high voice. Turn off the right channel to eliminate the low voice. Go to the
second track to hear the track without the middle voice part.
After you work with the CD a few times, you might find that the key ranges of some
of the exercises suit your voice better in a higher or lower workout, depending on the

PART

II

COMPLETE

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

style of the exercise. For example, if you are a tenor or soprano, you might discover
that the exercises in the low voice workouts fit your voice better. You might even put
together a combination of some of the high and some of the low exercises to create
your own personal workout. The key is to try both high and low workouts to find what
<
o

works best for you.

n
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~
::l1

As you follow the CD's vocal workouts, remember these tips:

"o

Watch yourself in a mirror. Look for good posture, facial expression, and signs of

,.
o

..
C

-4

tension .
Expand around your waist when you breathe. There should be no movement

in

your upper chest. Even quick breaths need to expand around your waist, not at
chest level.
."

,.

Stop immediately if you feel that you're becoming tired or straining in any way .

-4

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m

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-4
m
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...

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.....
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,.'"
m

II

Keep a bottle of water at hand to help stay hydrated.

Worm-ups

for

A II VOices

HIS WA RM - U PRO UTI NEwill help prepare your voice for singing.

It is like stretching your legs before you run. Various vowel sounds are
introduced, as well as the lip trill, which can be very effective in balancing your airflow and bringing your attention to the buzzing feeling associated with tone that is resonating efficiently-what
placement. "

singers call "forward

PART

II

EXERCISE

COMPLETE

1.

VOCAL

WARM-UP

WORKOUTS

SLIDE

This exercise will help you to warm upyour middle voice. Lip trills combined with sliding
help induce laryngeal freedom, and help gently stretch your singing muscles.
<
o

...

..

A lip trill is a loose bubbling sound made with the lips. Imitate the sound of a motor-

:a:

boat by blowing out air, letting your lips bubble, first with no vocal sound, then adding

,.

voice.

o
:<l

o
c

....
II>

Lip trills require a loose jaw and steady air pressure. If you have trouble doing lip trills,
perform this exercise by rolling or trilling your tongue instead.

..

Sing five times modulating up by half steps .

o
:<l

....

Range

:r:

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n

o
z

= 92

....

Ab

'"'"

'&I'I.&~

"

..
:<l

..
:<l

...
z
II>

Ab/G

:<l

Eb

I. Brrr (lip thrill)

brrr

brrr

2.00

00

00

3. Ee
4. Brrr

ee
brrr
ee

ee --------brrr -------ee -------

S.

Ee

Ab

l&IIII&~

Ab/G

Eb/G

~_Jt

'"

F-

F-

~.

Brrr

brrr

00

00

Ee

00

ee

Brrr

ee

brrr

Ee

ee

brrr

brrr

ee

--------

ob

Ab

:~

WARM-UPS

FOR

ALL

VOICES

....
EXERCISE

2.

DESCENDING

FIFTH

"z...

SLIDE

..
..
..
.....
>-

This exercise will help you to warm up your middle and lower voice. Sliding helps free up
your voice by gently stretching the muscles before you sing. To slide, make a siren sound
starting in your middle range, and glide down without stopping on individual pitches.

a:

o
":IE

..
...
..
..

Sing this exercise six times, modulating down by half steps each time. Alternate the

syllables "wee" and "zoo" until the end.

z
o

TIPS

The position of your throat just before you yawn helps you
open up for freer singing. Imagine that open feeling as you
slide.

Be careful to tune the descending minor third in the last


two bars. Keep your breath support active to avoid flatting
the pitch.

.....
....
:>

o
o

~
~
a:
u

Range

>

s .........

= 88

F-

'~I'h~tt>s
__
~>s-J
1. Wee __

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Zoo __
Wee __
Zoo __
Wee __
Zoo __

Db

F-lEb

wee __
zoo __
wee __
zoo __
wee __
zoo __

C7(b 13)

iji - -= J =
wee
zoo
wee
zoo
wee
zoo

F-

Jj~.~EgjJ
_
_
_
_
_
_

PART

COMPLETE

II

EXERCISE

3.

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

DESCENDING

fIFTH

RUN

This exercise will help develop flexibility needed to execute the quick moving scale, and the
descending pattern helps establish relaxed production as you gradually increase range.
<
o

n
:D

,..
~
o

'""o

Singing on "Nee, nay, noh, noo" will help you find your best tone placement. Use the "N" to
increase your awareness of resonating tone. You should feel a slight buzz in your cheeks or
nose on this voiced consonant. If you prefer, substitute "M" on subsequent modulations.

...
'"

Sing this exercise six times, modulating up by a half step each time.

TIPS

Work for clean but smooth articulation of the descendingfifth pattern. Sing the pattern without separating the individual pitches. (Avoid "Nee-hee-hee-hee-hee.")

...

..
.....

'"

Put the initial consonant on the pitch. Be careful that the


descending pattern is supported with adequate breath

o
z

energy so the pitch doesn't flat.

...e

'"
'"...

Range

:D

...'"z

..
'"

'"

;/.-

= 144

B~

~t~t
Nee

~t
_

Nay

~t
_

Noh

~
_

Noo

WARM-UPS

FOR

All

VOICES

.....
'"...

EXERCISE

4.

POP/ROCK

SLIDE

..
'"

This exercise will help you to blend registers by sliding between notes. Continue the
gentle stretching of your vocal cords by singing lightly and being careful to energize
your breath support.

'"'"
o
'"...

...
:E

IZ

Work to blend your registers in this exercise by sliding between notes that are stepwise.
This requires more vocal control than the previous slides, because you are connecting notes of the scale, but briefly stopping on each tone. On the ascending part of the
scale, keep a steady flow of air to assist with the upward slide.

o
u

...
Z
I-

'"o...

Experiment with other vowel sounds such as "nee," "yah," or lip trills, to equalize all
vowels on this pattern. Try to sing all vowels freely.

'"

I-

:::>

Sing this exercise six times, ascending by half steps.

'"'"o

TIPS

Try to sing each 4-bar phrase in one breath.

Sing the last note of the 8-bar pattern short, allowing you

...
u
'"o
>

to breathe as the key modulates.

Minimize vibrato, keeping an even, steady tone.

Range

.7

= 120

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Bbsus4

Eb

G-

Noo

~q
Noo

}:;J

Bb

Eb

G-

pJ

:~

PART

II

EXERCISE

COMPLETE

5.

VOCAL

DESCENDING

WORKOUTS

ARPEGGIOS

(SWING)
Warm up your middle and lower registers and further develop harmonic awareness by
<

singing major descending arpeggios with changing harmonies. Sing each descending

note with a slight jazz-style scoop, as demonstrated on the recording.

...
:D

,...
o

Change initial consonants to experiment with different onsets of the tone. Try "W," "M,"

..

and "Y" to increase your awareness of resonating tone. Are some consonants

o
c

'"

to start a tone on than others? Notice which consonants and vowels flow more easily,
and try to make all of them equally free.
Sing this exercise five times, descending by half steps .

...o

....
'"

TIPS

Sing this exercise in a swing style with a slight scoop at the


start of each pitch, as demonstrated on the recording.

..

.."
.....

Keep breath support active, to avoid flat intonation.

:D

Take a relaxed breath, but don't overfill between phrases.

..
"m

Tune your voice to the changing harmonies by carefully


listening and thinking while you sing.

m
Z

'"...

easier

WARM-UPS

FOR

All

VOICES

.....
'"...
z

..
'"

Range

Swing

'"
'"o
a:

= 138

<>.

_~

......
z

A~

~~rt-=

Nee

FMaj9

..~~

Nay

..
o

~-=~~W~~~
_

Noo

...

'"

BI>Maj7(#1l)

Noh

...
...:z:

'"...
::>

Nee

FMaj9

Nay
FMaj7/G

~~ ~~~W-=
Noh

_
C

~~:~
Noo

""o'"

~
~
a:

...o
>

'l".....

PART

COMPLETE

II

EXERCISE

6.

VOCAL

OCTAVE

Finish warming up your middle-to-high

WORKOUTS

SLIDES
range with slides, to blend registers. Using

slides can help you access and warm up your high range because you won't be focused
<

.....
o

on sustaining the high note. You should just slide up, touch on the note, and slide back
down .

:E

,.,
;0:

Many singers find this exercise successful on "00" vowels or lip trills. "00" helps lift

your soft palate for easier access to your upper register. Also, singers tend to use a

...

more consistent airflow when singing lip trills, instead of worrying about the pitches or

'"

tone quality. When you focus on breath rather than tone quality, you often can sing the
high notes in your range more easily.
At the end of this exercise, the highest notes might be out of range for low voices.
Continue with the modulations only as high as you feel comfortable. You can skip ahead

...
'"

to the next workout when you've reached your limit.

n
0
Z

...
'"...

Sing this exercise five times, ascending by half steps.

..
,.,

TIPS

,.,

...

'"
...z
.,

,.,

notes.

Imagine that your voice glides on a steady stream of


breath.

II
I '

Keep your voice light, to ascend smoothly to the highest

Imagine the tone vibrating on your teeth, for forward


placement.

Use no vibrato on slides, keeping the tone even and


steady.

WARM-UPS

FOR

ALL

VOICES

.......
.....
......
z

Range

>-

...

=92

'~t
F

G-

A-

...
:IE

B~

lZ

o
u

...:c

1. Bm (lip thrill)

bm

bm

bm

2.00

00

00

00

3. Brrr

bm

bm

bm

4.00

00

00

00

5. Bm __

bm

bm

brrr

A-

G-

..
l-

..
o

~.
Bm

bm

bm

brrr

00

00

00

00

Bm

brrr

bm

brrr

00

00

00

00

Bm

bm

brrr

bm

$ill

..
l-

....
::>

o
o

...a:
u

>

workout

1.

Basic

HE BASIC WORKOUT

workout

isan essential voice-building workout. You will

sing basic scales and patterns to build skills. Before you start the Basic
Workout, warm up with tracks 2-7, stretch your body to release tension,
and align your body with good posture.
For these exercises, low voices should use CD tracks 8--14; high voices
should use CD tracks 22-28.

WORKOUT

BASIC

WORKOUT

.....
EXERCISE

7.

ROCK

"z...

STEPS

'"

..
>-

..

Work to develop flexibility for singing fast-moving notes and riffs on one continuous

co

syllable.

...

Sing each 8-bar phrase in one breath, if possible. If you can't make it through on one

......

breath, breathe after the dotted half note in bar 4.

lE

z
o

...z
...

..
..

Sing this exercise five times, modulating up diatonically.

TIPS

For the final modulation, make up your own syllables or


repeat previous syllables that feel and sound best in your
voice.

'"...

=o

Use energetic breath support, and don't pulse air on each

....

moving note. Your air should flow in a steady stream.

co

>

V)

22
HI

G H

= 138

Rock

~.

E-

D-

~~.

FIG

~ffl=@~.~Jij~.~~

1. Ee
2.00
3. Ee
4.00
5. Ee

_
_
_
_

-d.
-

FIG

CMaj7

~.

~.

----

:~

PART

II

EXERCISE

COMPLETE

VOCAL

8.

SYNCOPATION

ROCK

WORKOUTS

Develop coordination and a strong rhythmic concept by singing syncopated rhythms in


a rock style. Syncopated rhythms accent an offbeat. Try to sing these rhythms without
<
o

rushing.

n
:D

:eo

,.

Focus on your breath support, keeping gentle firmness in your abdomina Is. Don't push
your abs too hard. Stay open in your ribs.

"oc:
....

'"

Sing this exercise five times, moving up by half steps.

TIPS

Take a relaxed, quiet breath in the beginning of the exer-

..,.

cise, and at the beginning of bar 4. Don't gasp or tighten

....

'"'

up your throat for the quick breaths.

Try different syllable combinations, such as doc-yah and

way-oh. You can also make up your own scat syllable


phrases. Be creative' (Avoid "scooby dooby doo," as it's a
jazz cllche.)

'"...

Range

",.
m

Fast Rock

= 144

F-

Db

'~I'j,~t
IIGJ~~II
Dah

bah

dah _ bah

~~
dah

Dah

Bb-

F-

m~.~t~:~

~!~~~I'
~~~:a=t\3~~~~~
~
I,~~
11-=
~
~
Dah

bah

dah _

bah _ dah Dah bah

bah

dah

WORKOUT

EXERCISE

9.

MINOR

OCTAVE

BASIC

WORKOUT

SCALE

.....
"z...
on

..
>-

Develop flexibility and extend your range singing on a minor scale pattern. Sing legato,

a:

using continuous, gentle air pressure. Be sure not to pulse on each individual note.

..
o

For ease in initiating tone, try usinga voiced consonant at the beginning of each phrase.

...~

""
:E

This will help you keep the tone vibrant and ringing. Try "N," "W," "M," "Y," or "L."
Sing this exercise six times, modulating up by half steps.

z
o

...:c

..
..
o

TIPS

Breathe with a relaxed throat, being careful not to gasp.

Keep your chest comfortably high and your ribs open as


you sing. Don't collapse as you use your air supply.

...a:

>

PART

II

COMPLETE

Range

Rock

<
o

n
:D

:co

l!

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

= 132

A-

A~G

Ee

:D

'"oc
...
'"

...

A-/D

CMaj7

0
:D

...
'"'"'

n
0

...

"'
z

"

0
:D
:D
:D

-<

'"
...
I

..,

"'

:D

II

00

~.

t A-/D

E-

CIF

A-

.====================~
ah

WORKOUT

BASIC

WORKOUT

".to..

...

Range

24

.."

'"
Rock

C-

l&I'I.t

'""

= 132

o
"-

C-/B~

.....
:IE

--

Nee

....

...

..
"..
:I:

nay

C-/F

E~Maj7

..
'"

'&1'1.

.."
::>

noo

C-/F

G-

E~/A~

B~

C-

, &1'1.

o
o

~
~

'"....o
>

nah

PART

II

EXERCISE

COMPLETE

10.

LATIN

VOCAL

LONG

WORKOUTS

TONES

Work to extend your breath control to sing the long phrases in this exercise. Deep
breaths expanding around your waist paired with consistent opening of your ribs will
<
o

give you better control over long phrases.

...
:D

~
o

Use the initial consonant to place the tone forward in your mouth. Try to feel a buzz on

:D

your lips and nose on the "M." This will help establish forward placement to make a

""

resonant, clear tone that doesn't waste your breath.

o
c

...
'"

Sing this exercise five times, modulating up diatonically.

TIPS

Check your body alignment, and be sure your chest


doesn't collapse, especially as the exercise reaches the
higher pitch levels.

o
z

...
'"
:II:

"

o
:D
:D
:D

-<

'"
...

...z
'"
:D

Challenge yourself by adding a controlled crescendo and


decrescendo within each 4-bar phrase.

WORKOUT

BASIC

WORKOUT

..
'"...

LOW

11

...
Z

Range

'"

>-

'"
'"o...
a:

J = 92

Latin

'~I
~
GMaj7

Mah

meh

FI3

GMaj7

AbMaj7(#1I)

o--1o
mee

moh

~ggj

~~.

moo

.....
........
'"..
z

:z:

112.

I.

'$ ~
Bb7

EbMaj7

Ab7(#II)

Ab7(#II)

~t

o~o~~~.

Mah meh mee moh

GMaj7

moo

:~~'-'o
~

__

...'"
:>

_ .......

Range

25
I

'"'"

Latin

...a:

Mah

meh

~II

mee

moh

BMaj7(#II)

BbMaj7

Ab 13

BbMaj7

'I

...o

= 92

moo----

J" ---I.

B7(# II)

B7(# 11)

>

fl
112.

BbMaj7

J~"~__
~@~.~t :II~_"
~II
Mah meh mee moh

moo

___

"

PART

II

EXERCISE

COMPLETE

11.

VOCAL

GOSPEL

WORKOUTS

SWING

This exercise will help you develop a good rhythmic concept for singing swing eighth
notes and minor arpeggios with basic scat syllables. Make sure that the second note in
<
o

n
:D

the eighth-note pair occurs on the last third of the beat. The arpeggios outline a minor
chord and are easily tuned with careful listening.

~
o

'"o

Sing this exercise three times, modulating up by whole steps.

:0:

...

TIPS

III

Don't rush the swing eighth notes. Keep them loose and
relaxed.

Use the scat syllables in the example, making sure that


you don't over-pronounce. The syllables should sound
relaxed.

...
'"
z

"o

'"
'"..
:D

...z

III

"'"

'"

WORKOUT

BASIC

WORKOUT

'"~

ow

12

...

Range

II'

>Gospel

Anne Peckham

= 132

0-7

G7

~~m
: ~-'~~~.
=~J
~'1 ~

bah doo ya doo

yah

co

o
Q.

0-7

~'2J~=~J
~'1
Dwee __

..'"

Owee_~

bah doo 'n

tZ

u
w

:c

G7

C7

C#7

0-7

t-

G7

eo

~'~J~~J
~1~~1,1
day

000 wee

~_.
~

ah

dah

bah

dah

way

..
o

ow

112

J.

II'

,~~.

~~~7~.

C~#~7:~~.

~~_~.

t::>

..
o

000

wee

ah

dah

bah

dah

co

dow

dow

-..

>

Anne Peckham

~ 3-

Gospel
G-7

J = 132

.~.,

<JJ = J h
C7

G-7

~<r~'f~ :

Dwee __

day

bah doo ya doo

000

wee

~If

~_~tfg'
~r~'1~~~
Dwee __

yah

ah

dah

bah dah

C7

a.

,&

~
000

wee

ah

dah

bah

dah

dow

ow

112.

J.

G-7

way

bah doo 'n

F7

-'

F#7

C7
:~.
dow

-'

PART

II

EXERCISE

COMPLETE

12.

JAZZ

VOCAL

SWING

WORKOUTS

SCALE

Continue to explore a swing eighth-note feel in this exercise with scat syllable articulation. You will also be working on range extension. Work to increase breath control in
<
o

'"~

order to sing the first eight bars in one breath. Add breaths at bars 4 and 12, if you
can't sing this in two long 8-bar phrases yet.

~
o

'"'"o
c

Sing this exercise six times, modulating up by half steps.

..
...

TIPS

Keep the articulation of the scat syllables forward in your


mouth, at the tip of your tongue. Articulate lightly in a

..
0

...'"
'"
m

n
0

...z
m
Z

"
0

'"
'"

.....'"...
z

'"
m

'"

relaxed ma nnero

Lighten up your voice as you ascend, for ease on the


highest notes.

______________

W_O_R_K_O_U_T_l_1BAS lew

0 RK0 U T

a:

13
v

......
z

....

Range

>a:
a:

a:
Jazz Swing

o
"-

J = 144

$'ij'j7

A-7

...
:IE

B-7

...z
o

Dot

dah bah dot,

'~

doo

CMaj7

doo

ya

doo

'n

ya

doo - 'n

dot,

D7/F#

dot,

Dot

Dot

000

ya doo bah doo- 'n

E-

a:

E-

dah bah dot,

doo

~~g,D7/F#

dah bah dot,

dah

Dot

...
ya

doo - 'n

dot,

D7/F#

.....
:>

dah bah dot

D7/F#

doo ya doo-' n dot,

dah

bah

~
~
a:
u

dot

doo

ya

doo - 'n

dot

dot

07

doo

ya

doo - 'n

'"a:o

CMaj7

~l#Ej ~~-~-Dot

...:z:
...

dot

Dot

doo

ya

doo - 'n

dah

dah

bah

dot

>

PART

II

EXERCISE

COMPLETE

12.

JAZZ

VOCAL

SWING

WORKOUTS

SCALE

Continue to explore a swing eighth-note feel in this exercise with scat syllable articulation. You will also be working on range extension. Work to increase breath control in
<

order to sing the first eight bars in one breath. Add breaths at bars 4 and 12, if you

:D

can't sing this in two long 8-bar phrases yet.

...
o

:l!
o

'"'"o

Sing this exercise six times, modulating up by half steps.

..
c

...

TIPS

Keep the articulation of the scat syllables forward in your


mouth, at the tip of your tongue. Articulate lightly in a
relaxed ma nner.

...o
...'"
:z:
m

...o
z

...

m
:II:
"0

.,
o

:D

'"-<

.....
z

n
m

'"

Lighten up your voice as you ascend, for ease on the


highest notes.

WORKOUT

BASIC

WORKOUT

a:

13
v

/I

...
"...z

Range

....
a:

a:

a:

Jazz Swing

o
"-

= 144

G~7

...

'#!I====~=

1~
Dot

dah bah dot,

I-

z
o

doo

ya

doo - '0

dot,

-,#~
~~t_
CMaj7

doo

D7/F#

ya

doo

'0

dot,

D7/F#

Dot

dah bah dot,

Doo ya doo bah doo-

'0

001

doo

Dot

...
:I:
I-

a:

E-

dah

dah bah dot,

...
ya

doo -

'0

dot,

D7/F#

..
I-

::>

dah bah dot

doo ya doo-

'0

dot,

'"a:

...

a:

Dot

dah

bah dot

doo

ya

doo -

dot

'0

dot

D7

doo

ya

doo -

'0

dot

001

doo

ya

doo -

dah bah

'0

dah

dot

>

'"

PART

COMPLETE

II

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

Range

<
o

...
:D

:Ii

..
o

.r~g:~~
Jazz Swing

Dot

= 144

dab bah dot,

dOD ya

doo - 'n

dot,

Dot

dah

bah dot,

;0:

o
c

...
'"

doo

ya

doo

G7(B

...o

.....
..

Dot

dot,

'n

'~~'t~
000

ya doo bah doo- 'n

dOD ya

dah bah dot,

Dot

dah

doo - 'n

dot,

G7(B

doo ya doo- 'n dot,

dah bah dot

:z:

.....
z

:II:

"o..

A-

FMaj7

G7(B

~=t?~~~~
Dot

dah bah

dot

doo

ya

dOD- 'n

dot

dot

dah

.....
:D

...'"z
"

....

doo

ya

doo - 'n

dot

Dot

dOD ya

doo - 'n

dah

bah

dot

WORKOUT

BASIC

WORKOUT

..'"

EXERCISE

13.

LATIN

VOCALISE

This exercise will help develop agility and flexibility with dynamic contrast. Sing this
exercise with a light, dancing feel. Use any syllable or combination of syllables that you
like. Or better yet, create your own lyrics.

..."

..
z
>

'"
...'"o
a:

..
'"

IZ

Coordinate breaths as marked in music. Don't skip breath marks. You might end up
straining, or become out of breath in the middle of a phrase.

..
v

:z:

I-

Use varied dynamics that follow the shape of the melody (softer on lower notes, louder

..
'"o

on higher notes), building to mezzo-forte in the bridge of the song.


The etude is performed twice on the CD: once with the vocal, then the second time
featuring just the instrumentals, to give you a chance to try the piece without the lead

~
o

..
TIPS

Sing with straight eighth notes throughout.

Eighth-note runs should flow evenly without pulsing air out


on each note (not "nah-ha-ha-ha-ha").

Try singing on "00" as heard on track 14 or "ah" as on


track 28.

..
I-

vocal line.

Watch out for the accidental in bar 24.

'"

~
~
a:
v

>

PART

COMPLETE

II

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

LOW

Range

..
7
Latin Vocalise

<

Anne Peckham

= 160

oro

...
:D

~
~

o
:D

A-

"oc

''--~'

....

'"

J
00

--------.

oro

------

."

o
:D

....
:z:

...

...o

00

....

...
"
o

:0:

:D
:D
:D

...

lID

C/E

FMaj7(# 11)

~'
~

'"...

.,
z

...
:D

FMaj7(# 11)

J
00

t '"

WORKOUT

BASIC

WORKOUT

..
'"

oro,

z
"...

'"~

'"'"
o
'"
a.

mp

,.

..

IZ

..
u

'"

I-

'"o...
00

1.

Ab

sb

112.
C

'"
I00

::>

'"'"

'o"
u

>

PART

II

r-.

'~i'l.

~
o

..,

:D

e-

WORKOUTS

Latin Vocalise

<

VOCAL

Range

28
HI

COMPLETE

Eb

Anne Peckham

= 160

Bb/D

g
00

~
o
:D

"oc:

..
...

..
o
:z:

..,

~~I.~~?~~

:D

...
...

c-

:J,

B b -lAb

Eb7

......

00

...

:D
:D
:D

...
...z

..

[ill

AbMaj7(#1l)

Eb/G

, ~II
I~

00

...
Cl

:D

00

I.

AbMaj7(# 11)

~ I.

Eb/G

'
00

00_

WORKOUT

BASIC

'~I'!,
'~lll'~.~
----'~I'!,~~. ~~.

[g

Eb

WORKOUT

....
...
'"

Bb/D

..

'"

'"
o
'"
a:

mp

c-

Bb

z
t-

Ab

0-7

00

I.

F-

Bb7

Db

,~!'I.~'~~.~S.
00

o
00

C-7

:z:
t-

'"o...
_

112.
Eb

~:~~. "
_

..
..
Q,

..

'"
to

'"'"

~
~
a:

>

workout

2.

Advanced

workout

OR SIN G ER S looking for more challenging range and flexibility exercises,


the Advanced Workout will broaden your skills. If you are beginning your
workout here, be sure to stretch your body, take a couple of deep diaphragmatic breaths to anchor your breathing, warm up your voice with the Warmup for All Voices, then follow along with the next set of exercises.

If you

have already sung the Basic Workout and are continuing with the Advanced
Workout, be sure you don't over do it, especially if you haven't been singing regularly. If
any exercise feels out of your range, stop, and be sure you're not pushing.

This vocal workout requires more stamina, range, and stylistic acumen. Try to create a
free, relaxed sound. Work to maintain energetic support so that your voice doesn't tire.
Your energy should come from the center of your body, not from your throat. Maintain a
loose jaw and neutral posture, and have Iun'

WORKOUT

ADVANCED

WORKOUT

....'"
u

EXERCISE

14.

ROCK

VOCALISE

...
"'
>-

This exercise will help you develop agility singing fast pentatonic patterns in a rock
style. Pentatonic patterns are used in many styles of contemporary music, including

a:
'"
o
'"
Q.

r&b and rock. This exercise can also help you develop a basic vocabulary for improvising or embellishing melodies. Work for clean, accurate note articulation.

....

....
z
o

...
Sing this exercise three times, modulating each time up by a half step.

TIPS

....
:z:
....

'"o...

Keep a clear tone with no added rock-style grit to the


sound.

Sing the "H's" lightly so that you don't blowout too much
air.

Slight diaphragmatic accents will give the line kick, but


don't punch too much with the breath. Bring your attention to maintaining steady breath support.

"'....
:::>

'"'"
o

...a:

...o
>

PART

COMPLETE

II

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

LOW

15
v

Range

Anne Peckham

Rock

<
n
:D

~
~
o

C/O

F7

~~~
Hey __

c-

hey __

hey __

F7

Z
."

,.

..,,.
:D

...z
",.
C/O

..

Hey ---

B~

A~

F=

,-3---,

~~~
'--'

'--'

hey _

hey _

hey _

hey,

B~

Dah bah dah dah

F-

A~

Hey

dah bah dah bah dah,

Dah bah dah

{j}

'~IIII~. '~
_~~II~I,
..
Last Time to Coda

hey,

F7

==='

>

A~

hey __

C-

d'

l~'\~>
'--"
hey _

, F7

~~~~~

~-

..'"....
....
..

C-

'~llllt~.

,.
'"oc
....

= 100

c-

hey

hey

{j}

Gsus

07

A~

07

C-

~:~~~~~~&

oh

Hey __

hey

'----'

hey _

oh

WORKOUT

ADVANCED

WORKOUT
co

,-

:~

Range

29

"...

....
Z

co

Anne Peckham
Rock

= 100
F-

Q.

F-

B~7

4&1'1,&1
hey __

B~7

hey __

hey __

4&I'I'&~~'
hey _

hey,

B~7

F-

hey_

hey,

...

Hey
D~

_
E~

~~.

hey_hey

:IE
w
IZ

B~7

.'

Hey __
F-

Dah bah dah

E~

D~

C7

I-

:::>

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hey

hey

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oh

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o

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co

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w
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Last Time to Coda -$-

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hey

hey _

oh

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>

PART

II

EXERCISE

COMPLETE

15.

LATIN

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

OCTAVE

SKIPS

This syncopated Latin style requires quick air intake. This exercise will help you develop
coordination for quick breaths, as well as note accuracy for singing various intervals.
<
o

.....
..
"
....
n

Sing this exercise three times, modulating up by half steps .

TIPS

o
o

c:

Work to keep your tone quality even and blended.

Take quick breaths every two bars, keeping a relaxed


throat. The breaths should be quiet, and the inhalation
action should quickly expand at your waist.

Put the consonant "M" exactly on the target pitch, with no


scooping, to ensure accuracy.

WORKOUT

ADVANCED

WORKOUT

'"
w

L 0 WI'

16

"...
Z

Range

..

'"
Latin

Anne and Rick Peckham

= 138

'~!It
t~~~,--"
~~~
'~!I~ r~~~
Legato

Ep/G

Bp

Mah

may

Bp(F

Mah

mee _

'-'

'--"

Mah _

Bp/D

Ep/G

l~!:,Jf ~
may

mee_

Mah _

moh ,

'"...
o

Bp(F

~
mee

may

Bp

may mee _ moh

Ep

rnoh

L,

"w...
Z

o
v

moh_

:z:

...

Bp

may _

mee
Bp

Mah may mee _ moh

'"o...

Mah may mee _ moh


Ep(F

Mah _

may _

Mah ,

r~
Bb

$!i4

'"a:

mee

PART

COMPLETE

II

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

Range
Anne and Rick Peckham
Latin

<
o

n
:D

..

= 138

Legato

F/A

C/O

~~s:=dE,---,,~~~~
Mah

may

mee _

moh

Mah _

may

mee -

moh -

o
==

'"
o
c

..
....

C/O

l~~
Mah

may mee _ moh

...

..
0

....

II

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m

n
0

....
m
Z

"

..
0

.....

:D

.....
z

..'"
m

C/E

Mah _

'N~
_

may

mee _

moh ,

F/A

may _

mee
C

~
Mah

may mee _ moh

F/O

Mah

:~
Mah may mee _ moh

Mah _

may _

mee

WORKOUT

ADVANCED

WORKOUT

...'"
EXERCISE
MONDAY")

16.

JAZZ

WALTZ

(UMAYBE

ON

"...

....
:IE

'"
'"o..
a:

This exercise will help develop note accuracy and range with ascending arpeggio patterns. The lyrics intentionally include many voiced consonants such as "M," "N," and

"w."

These consonants help you feel your voice resonate in your "mask" (cheeks,

nose, forehead, teeth, and the front of your mouth).


Sing the entire piece two times through as written.

..
"...
:IE

...
...

..'"
'"o
Yo

TIPS

Lightly articulate the lyrics, keeping the consonants on the


ti p of you r tongue.

Be careful to sing the pickup notes to each phrase accurately. The tempo moves fast, and you have to think ahead
the first few times you sing this to sing the pickups in tune.

The etude is performed twice on the CD: once with the


vocal, then the second time featuring just the instrumentals, to give you a chance to try the piece without the lead
vocal line.

....

"
"

'"

o
~

-...
a:
o

>

PART

COMPLETE

II

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

17
v

Anne and Rick Peckham

Jazz Waltz

= 183

~I

B~I

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o

n
:Il

~~.

~~.~~~~.~'~~'

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on

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day,

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may

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day,

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JJ

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will

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you

on

Bb

why

day,

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on

Tues

day,

E/Gb

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e - ver

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ver

on

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ne - ver

thanks

on

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on

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F

Bb

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well,

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day,

C-/G

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:--------' _

F/A

Tues

@~. ~

day,

on Wednes

not.:--------'

on

CI-7

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may - be

day, ---

t. -

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day,

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on

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ADVANCED

WORKOUT

.....
'""'
z

Range

..
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Jazz Waltz

Anne and Rick Peckham


= 183

FIG

G/B

D-/A

..
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"=~' ~~.

~.
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day.

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day,

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day.

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112.

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day,

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>

PART

II

COMPLETE

EXERCISE
FOR

17.

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

R&B POP/PENTATONIC

(HWAIT

ME")

This exercise will help you develop agility and a strong rhythmic concept singing pen<
o

...

..
..'"
.....

tatonic patterns.

:D

:IE
o

o
c

Notice that you enter on beat 2 in bars 1, 5, 9, etc. and that you enter on the "and"
of the beat, or the upbeat, in bars 3, 4, 7, 8, etc. Count as you sustain the first long
note in bars 1 and 2. (If you lose count, it will be difficult to make the next entrance
correctly)

Sing this exercise twice through, as written.

...o

TIPS

...'"

"'

Balance your voice so all notes blend and match in color .

...z

Sing at a slower tempo to study, and speed up to tempo as


you learn the patterns.

each 4-bar phrase.

:0:

...o

"'

...oz

'"
...'"
:D

.....
..
z

"'

'"

Watch for the syncopated entrances in the second half of

WORKOUT

AOVANCED

WORKOUT

'"...
18

'"
:IE

Range

\::!)

..

\II

R&B

Anne Peckham
=92

,-/n '-/~

C-

07

0-

C-

J
~'~~!'l.t~t
~J
_~~_~
_
ij~.~~~~I
Wail

for me

c-

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'til __

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:IE

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i,

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t n'-/~
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wait

07

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07

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o
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\II

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'til I come back

c-

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yeah __

1.
C-

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it

rit.

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can make it __

112.

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on long-er _

>

Hold on long- er

We _

...
...'"o

PART

COMPLETE

II

WORKOUTS

VOCAL

r.

32
HI

G H

Anne Peckham
R&B

n
:D

..
"
.....

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E~-

BL
.-

F7

~
o

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<

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t J.
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for me

o
c:

wait ; for me

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i

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t
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'til I come back

hey __

Hold_

""

..
..
.....
..
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o

:D

-<

Hold on long- er

yeah __

We can make it
rit.

00

on long-er _

WORKOUT

ADVANCED

WORKOUT

.....
'"...

EXERCISE
18.
(UHEY YAH")

R&B

PENTATONIC

PATTERN

This exercise will help you develop agility singing pentatonic patterns. Each 2-bar
phrase should be performed in one breath. Keep your ribs open as you sing to gain
maximum control, especially on the ascending lines.

'">-

a:
'"
...o'"

..
z

...
z

...
...:z:

..

Sing this exercise two times through.

TIPS

..
'"o

If necessary, work on this exercise at a slower tempo, to


ensure accuracy. As you become stronger, build up to the
tempo on the recording.

Crescendo on ascending lines; decrescendo on descending lines.

..
..
'":>
o

'"

o
~
~
a:

...o
>

PART

19
v

COMPLETE

II

JJ

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

Range
Anne and Rick Peckham

R&B

<
o

...

"
~

= 112

CIA

D/A CIA

).

PI)

CIA

I). PvP) PI
~~I

:IE

'""o

Hey

..

yah

D/A

Hey

yah ---

...
<:

CIA

CIA

).

CIA

D/A CIA

P~P ) PI)

P,--,P ) P I
g
~.-----~(
I).

00

00

D/A

--

WORKOUT

"

3~ H Range

ADVANCED

WORKOUT

....

:i.
.
!
b..-72/

"z...

..

..
>-

Anne and Rick Peckham


R&D

..
...
.....
..
a:

= 112

Eb/C

Eb/C

F/C

).

o
u

:z:

...

....
o

Eb/C

Eb/C

I ).

F/C Eb/c

PvP )

PI)

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~

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yah __

Hey __

yah __

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a:
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>

PART

COMPLETE

II

EXERCISE
(UBAH

19.

BAH

VOCAL

ROCK

WORKOUTS

PENTATONIC

ARPEGGIO

BAH")

In this exercise, develop accurate, fast articulation on a pentatonic pattern in rock style.
<

This will help you extend your range and improve your accuracy. Each pentatonic

...

pattern repeats in faster rhythmic units, beginning with the scale sung in half notes and

..
:D

:Ii
I
I

ending with the pattern in eighth notes. Sing each phrase in one breath.

'""o

Sing this exercise five times, modulating up by whole steps.

c:

....

"'

TIPS

Articulate the consonant "8" lightly, without pressure,


especially in fast eighth-note arpeggios at the highest pitch
levels.

...o
z

....

m
Z

"o
'"
:D

'"...
"'...
z

.m

'"

Extend the vowel for legato singing .

scale

...

WORKOUT

AOVANCED

WORKOUT

.....'"...

..,.

20

V)

Range

'"

>-

Anne and Rick Peckham

J = 120
G#-

Co.
:E

F#sus

l#b#t g
Bah

bah

bah

bah

l#b g

bah

bah

bah

G#-

bah

...

bah

bah

:z:

bah

I-

'"o...

bah

D#7

'"
I-

:::>

~
bah

""

F#sus

B/D#

l##'#

'"o
~
~

...oa:

Bah bah bah bah bah bah ball bah


C#-

bah bah bah bah bah bah bah bah

B/D#

l###'~~~~:~
bah

l%J

J J

F#

IZ

G#-

~
Bah

F#/A#

bah

G#-/8

bah

bah

bah

J1

...

B/D#

C#-

#
l##'# j

'"
'"
a:

bah

bah

bah

bah

bah

bah

bah

bah

(F7sus)

>

PART

{r-

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

Range

34

HI

COMPLETE

II

G H

Anne and Rick Peckham

J = 120

<
C>

..

n
:D

~
C>
:D

ltJ

....

'"

..
C>
:D

....

..
....
..
:z:

n
C>
Z

"

C>
:D
:D
:D

bah

Bah

"
C>
C

ij

bah

bah

C-

~J J
bah

bah

c-

cl

Bah

bah

bah

bah

bah
Ab

Bah bah bah bah bah bah bah bah

Eb/G

bah bah bah bah bah

Eb/G

Ab

0(

~-~:~

'"...
z

..'"
:D

bah

bah

bah

bah

bah

bah

G7

ij

Bb sus

F-

ij
Ab

Bb

Bb/D

bah

bah

c-fEb

bah

bah

bah

bah

F-

Eb/G

Ab

Bbsus

c-

bah

bah

bah

bah

bah

bah

(A 7sus)

bah

WORKOUT

ADVANCED

WORKOUT

'"

EXERCISE

20.

JAZZ

BALLAD

ETUDE

This jazz ballad vocal studywill help you develop a relaxed, free tone and efficient breath
management. Sing with smooth, connected movement between notes throughout.

"...
:IE
<II

>-

'"
'"o"a:

:IE

...
w

Sing this exercise two times through.

:IE

....
TIPS

Dynamics increase gradually, peaking in bar 10, then


gradually decrescendo from bar 10 to the end.

.=..

'"o...

Change vowels or create lyrics of your own.

...
<II

:>

'"'"o

~
~
a:

....
o
>

PART

COMPLETE

II

Range

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

~=!~?~?
~j
... ~~.
~

Anne and Rick Peckham

<

.....
o

"

II

..
o

Jazz Ballad

J = 84

C-

A~Maj7(#11)

'~I'Ii.fiilJ
____ ....~

C-

A~Maj7

ij~.~jOO~e
~ ~=-=Fj~
:i.25

00

00

l
Ay_

>0:

o
c:

...

A~Maj7

C-

BMaj7(#II)

O~/G~

III

Ay

B~ 13

C-

~l
~~I'If5f~'

Ah

O~/G~

A~Maj7

BMaj7(# II)

of! "44lJ

~t ~:;:=.--..
Ah

Ay

00_

"
o
z

...

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:II:

~
o

....

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-<

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.,

III

..
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112", ---------

I.

'~I'h~
0"

0"

G7(~13)

~.
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G7(~9)

C-9

Fine

~. M~:~II

l
WORKOUT

ADVANCED

WORKOUT

.....
'""'

"
35
HI

Range
Anne and Rick Peckham
Jazz Ballad

'"o...

J = 84
D--

D-

BbMaj7(#II)

00

========--

Eb/Ab

C#Maj7(# II)

00
D--

D-

=1&
~~

..
"':c

...'"o

Ah

BbMaj7

Eb/Ab

~.

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Ah

Ay

0 __

C#Maj7(# II)

A7(b 13)

~~t~~.:S.;go
~~

00 _

:>

o
:0:

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o
~
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A7(b9)

D--9

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112.

J.

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t ~o>

..
"'
o

Bb/G

,.

Ay_

BbMaj7

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C13

________

ij@1I ---

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BbMaj7

L@~II @~

l&t~o~~~.

&&

....
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OIl

G H

1'1
I

Singing
Harmony:
Twoand Three-Part

Exercises

hen you first practice these exercises, begin by listening to the


demonstration track with all voices, to get a feel for the style. Then
work with the tracks by omitting each voice.
In the two-part exercises, the top voice is in the left channel, and
the bottom voice is in the right channel. Play the track with both
voices featured to learn either part you like. Then use your balance control to eliminate
the part you have learned, and sing along in harmony with the other part. For example, if
you choose to sing the top part in track 36, you can sing along with both voices until you
feel secure with the notes and rhythms. Then use your balance control to eliminate the
part you have learned, to see if you can sing your part in harmony with the other voice.
Challenge yourself to try to sing each of the different parts, one after the other.

To separate the three voices for individual study in the three-part exercises, there are two
tracks of each exercise. In the first track of the exercise, the top voice is in the left channel, the bottom voice is in the right channel, and the middle voice is in both. To eliminate

""

I'

SINGING

HARMONY:

TWO-

AND

THREE-PART

EXERCISES

the top voice, adjust your balance to the right. To eliminate the bottom voice, adjust
your balance to the left. To hear the top and bottom without the middle voice, go to the
next track. Learn one part, then work to maintain your vocal line with the other voices.
Practice singing in tune, and develop basic skills for singing background harmonies.

....
..
z

...
VI

..
>-

..
'"

o
"-

..
:IE

IZ

..
..
u

%
I-

...

VI

I-

::>

..
>.:

...
'"uo
>

PART

II

EXERCISE

COMPLETE

21.

VOCAL

TWO-PART

WORKOUTS

POP/ROCK

(UWHO")
Simple lines with contrary motion challenge you to sing independently

,I

<
0

n
:D

harmony voice part. The top line requires attention to support so that the tone doesn't
become flat as the line descends. The bottom part contains some harmonic
nances that resolve quickly. This will help you develop your ear and accuracy.

:IE
0

:D

'"c

TIPS

...

'"

The top voice part is in the left channel, and the bottom
voice part is in the right channel. Use your balance control
to eliminate one part, so that you can sing along in harmony with the other.

...

:D

...

""'

n
0
Z

...
"'
:II:

":D
0

:D
:D

-<

'"'"
z
..,
"'
:D

along with a

You can choose to sing either part, or play the track several times and learn both vocal parts.
Take a breath every two bars.

disso-

SINGING

HARMONY:

TW

0-

AND

THREE-PART

EXERCISES

.."'

Who
Anne Peckham
Pop

....,'"
:IE

=92

....
..
a:

"-

Voice I

:IE

..."'
are

you?

What_

did

you

:IE
0

...
"'
z

Voice 2

~
Who __

Who

Bb

are

you?

Bb/A

.......
0

did

G-

Bass
Guitar

.,

...

....
::>

VI

~
to_

say?

Why_

did

you

'----"

a - way?_

turn

~
~

V2

a:

...
0

yOll

say?

Fsus

Why

did you

Bb

turn

a -

Bb/A

Bass

I.

112.

VI
Who __

are

you?

Who

ate

you?

V2
~
are

GBass

you? __
F

G-

are __

you?

Bb

>

PART

COMPLETE

II

EXERCISE

22.

VOCAL

TWO-PART

WORKOUTS

C~GOT

R&B/POP

TO

BELIEVE")
Developyour vocal skills tuning in thirds with another voice. The articulation of quick
rhythmic patterns alternated with longer patterns will challenge you to sing musically,

<
e

with variety in phrasing and dynamics.

n
:D

...

:Ii

TIPS

'""o

Build dynamics in the last four bars, peaking at the last bar.

...

Improvise some riffs in the last bar of the second ending, for fun .

..
c

Got to Believe
Anne Peckham
Oft

'"...

J = 126

"

>

Voice I

...

Hey ...

""
0

'"
'"-<

"

Hey

00

>

Hey_

.....
z

00

Voice 2

:D

Hey

EbMaj

G-fF

G-

D7(b9)

EbMaj

D7(b9)

Bass
Guitar

'"

>

VI

Hey_

Hey

V2
>

Hey ,.,

GBass

EbMaj

Hey
D7(b9)

G-

G-/F

:....,..

--------,
----..::=...: __
~ __

.:...-

SINGING

HARMONY:

TWO-

AND

THREE-PART

EXERCISES

...'"
"...
z

..
>-

VI

00

..

vz

00

.-

Do 01

00

EI>Maj

07(1)9)

G-

Do 01

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...z

...
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C-

Bass
I

.....

VI
I

00

...o

.. ,-,,(,,00".

00

:::>

Woh

"
'"
o

vz

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C-

Bass

liz.

I.
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ad lib -------

>

Do

Do

Do

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Do

Do

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Do 0001

Yeah!
ad lib -------

VZ

Bass

'"
...'"
a:

>

Do

Do

Do

Do 0001

Do

Do

07(1)9)

07(1)9)

--...

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Do

Do 0001

Yeah!

G-

>

PART

II

COMPLETE

EX ERe IS E 2 3.

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

TWO - PAR T FUN K

C~T A K E

BREAK")
Developrhythmic agility in this exercise. You will have to enter quickly and accurately
<
o

"
:D
r-

:e

for short bursts of harmony in thirds. In the bridge section, voices sing very close
harmony-a dissonant interval of a second, resolving to a third. This requires careful
listening and tuning.

'""o
c

...

Listen to the singer doing a quick bit of improvisation at the end of the second
repeat. Can you add other riffs or phrases that fit in this style? Experiment with a bit

III

of improvising.

TIP

."

'"...

..'"

"
o
z

..
...
"...
o

'"
'"
:D
0(

...z
.....
III

'"

Count while you sing, for accurate entrances .

SINGING

HARMONY:

TWO-

AND

THREE-PART

EXERCISES

'"...

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Take a Break
Anne and Rick Peckham
Funk

>-

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o
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a:

= 108

C9

..

Fine

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z

Take a break

Take a break

Take a break

...
:c
...

-.

Take a break

Take a break

112.

I.

C9

B9 Bb9

J J
Take a break

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Take a break

"

.....
..

Take a break

:::>

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Take a break

~
~

Take a break

a:

F-7

Bb9

Got-ta GOI-taGot-ta Got-ta Got-ta Got-ta Got-ta Got-ta

Got-ta Get Back

Got-ta Got-ta Got-ta Got-ta Got-ta Got-ta Got-ta Got-ta

Got-ta Get Back

>

I.

Bb9
F-7

..

112.

Bb9

Bb9 B9

-J -J

C9
o

D. .

COMPLETE
PART

VOCAL

WORKOUTS

II

EXERCISE
(HLET

24.

THREE-PART

COUNTRY/ROCK

ME TRY")

This three-part exercise has several syncopated rhythms. Work to accent the offbeat
<
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..

rhythms to bring them out. The voices sing in close harmony with uniform rhythmic
movement in all parts. Synchronize your entrances and cutoffs with the other voices

:D

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e

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c

for the cleanest sound.


The exercise is performed two times through on each track.

..
...

TIPS
Count rests carefully, to be sure that each entrance is accurate .
Use the balance control to isolate the top and bottom voices on track
39. Use track 40 to hear the exercise without the middle voice.

Oft

'"...

..
:z:

..
"..
...

Middle Voice Out

All Voices

Let Me Try

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Anne

and Rick Peckham

:D

.....

Countryl Rock

Eb

Bb

Ab

Bb

Let me

find

my

way

back

to

Let

me

find

my

way

back

to

Let

me

find

my

way

back

.".
'"

= 132
C-

---...)'OU_

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you

Lc.,

........ -..--u
to

you -

...

PART

II

EXERCISE

COMPLETE

25.

VOCAL

THREE-PART

WORKOUTS

ROCK

((HEY

YA H")
In this exercise, work on close harmony and tuning. The voice parts require flexi
<

for singing the fast-moving turns. Be sure to breathe at the end of bar 4.

..

This exercise is performed two times through on each track.

:D

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e

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c

...

TIPS

'"

After learning your own voice part, pay careful attention to


the other vocal parts to be sure you are tuning accurately.

Use track 41 to hear the example with all three voices.


Use the balance control to eliminate the top or bottom
voices. Use track 42 to hear the exercise with the middle
voice eliminated .

...

..
.....
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:D

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.".
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---0::::::-:"_ --

---

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SINGING

HARMONY:

TWO-

All Voices

AND

THREE-PART

EXERCISES

..
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Middle Voice Out

"z...
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HeyYa
uire flexibility

Rock (Half-time Feel)

A-

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"-

J = 80

a:

....
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Hey

Yah
Hey

Hey

Yah

Hey

Hey

Yah

Hey

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Yah

Hey

Yah

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Yah

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Yah

Yah __

Hey

Yah __

V2

-----------

Hey

(E7)

VI

V3

_-j-_

-----~

PART

COMPLETE

II

EXERCISE

26.

FOR YOUR

SUPPER")

VOCAL

THREE-PART

WORKOUTS

BLUES

(USING

Develop skill singing swing eighth notes on a 12-bar blues exercise. There are some
tricky close harmonies between the top and middle parts. Be sure to let the intended

<
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dissonance come through. You'll also hear the performers on the recording add some

n
:D

expressive dynamics in bars 9 and 10. This adds musicality and style to the exercise.

This exercise is performed two times through on each track.

TIP

Accent the syncopated rhythms at bars 3, 6, and 9.

on

o
:D

...:z:

..

Middle Voice Out

All Voices

..
z

Sing for Your Supper

...
z

Blues

":D

Anne and Rick Peckham

= 126

Bb7

:D

:D

.....
"..

-<

Sing

for your sup - per

Sing

for your sup - per now.,

Sing

for your sup - per

Sing

for your sup - per now ,

Sing

for your sup - per

Sing

for your sup - per now.,

Voice 2

:D

Voice 3
"-"

rl

-----

SINGING

HARMONY:

TWO-

AND

THREE-PART

EXERCISES

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w

'"z

...

Eb7

..
'"

VI
Sing

for

your

sup

'"
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CI:

- pel'

0
Q.

V2

"

...
w

Sing

for

YOUI'

Slip

- per

u
w

V3

:z:

...

'-'

Sing

for

your

Slip

Bb7

..
'"

- per

Eb

VI
Sing

for your Slip - per

00

now -

'"...

::>

V2

Sing

for your sup - per

now -

"

'"

00

~
~

V3

CI:

'-'

Sing

for your Slip - pel'

now_

00

I.

Bb7

>

112

F7

Bb7

VI
for your

sup

per

now

Sing

for your

sup

per

now

Sing

for your

Slip

per

now_

V2

V3
'-----'

'-'

What

Next?

HAN K YO U for reading and singing Vocal Workouts for the Contemporary
Singer. I hope that these techniques and exercises lead you to stronger,
healthier, and more musical singing.
If you would like to learn more about vocal technique,
information in my other book, The Contemporary

you might find the

Singer (Berklee Press,

2000), to be helpful in learning about the physiology of the voice and how It relates to
singing technique.
To help advance your basic musicianship skills, you might also benefit from study of an
instrument such as guitar or piano. Playing an instrument

can help you develop confi-

dence to learn and sing songs on your own. It also can help fuel your creative instincts
and might develop your interest in writing original songs.

Look for opportunities to network with other musicians, as this will create performance
opportunities. Be flexible and be resourceful.

-~~---

WHAT

NEXT?

Have a performance goal. A recording session or any kind of scheduled performance


will give you a goal to work toward. Many communities have arts councils, theater
groups, coffeehouses, and places of worship where musical performances are regularly scheduled. Also, look for advertisements for open mic or karaoke sessions to

..'"..
...
z

..'"

'"
'"o
a:

....
...
..
..
'"..
ll.
Z

further your performance skills.

The Amazing Slow Downerand

Transkribeare computer programs that have the capa-

bility of changing the tempo of songs without altering the pitch. They also can alter
the pitch without changing the tempo of songs. You can use these programs to study
fast riffs and solos of great singers. These programs provide a way for vocalists to learn

:z:

directly from masterful performances. (Note that the farther you get from the original
recording either in tempo or pitch, the more warbled the sound gets.) You also can slow
down tempos on the workout CD of this book to study the more difficult exercises, or
even change the keys to a more comfortable pitch. They also provide an easy means
of looping material. Small sections from one to two bars can be repeated on a loop for

..
'"
::>

more intensive study.

"

'"

For more information

sources

and updates,

please check out my Web site

~
~
a:

www.annepeckham.com

. You also can find educational materials and resources at

www.berkleemusic.com.

I hope that you have found this book to be useful, and I wish you the best of luck in
your musical endeavors.

...o
>

About

the

Author

NNE PECKHAM

is a singer, voice teacher, and author. A professor

in the Voice Department at Berklee College of Music, her work as a


teacher and her publications

have influenced

popular singing peda-

gogy worldwide. Her approach embraces the foundations

of good vocal

technique, while building singers' skills in jazz, pop, and rock music.

At Berklee, she contributes to the voice program in many ways. In addition to teaching
private voice lessons, she continues to develop curricular

materials for Elements of Vocal

Technique, a required course for all of Berklee's 600+ voice students.

Her work at the

college, including Berklee's Musical Theater Workshop and the Berklee Concert Choir,
has helped enrich the musical experience of hundreds of students over the years. Alumni
of Anne's classes and lessons include Susan Tedeschi, Juliana Hatfield, and many other
professionals in the music industry.

Vocal Workouts for the Contemporary Singer is Anne's fourth publication

with Berklee

Press. It is the companion to The Contemporary Singer, a book/CD set that was recently

ABOUT

THE

AUTHOR

'"
w

released in a Japanesetranslation.

She isalsoauthorof Singer's Handbookin the Berklee

In the Pocket series and Vocal Technique: Developing Your Voice for Performance, an
instructional

DVD released in 2004.

"...
Z

'">

'"
'"
a:
o

A member of the National Association of Teachers of Singing, Anne served as vice


president on the Boston chapter's board of directors. She has traveled extensively as
a clinician and adjudicator for song and choral festivals in North America and Europe.
Her master classes and vocal pedagogy seminars for students and teachers focus on
approaches to rock, jazz, pop, and r&b music.

Q.

Z
w
IZ

o
u
w

:z:
I-

...'"
o

Anne sang with the Tanglewood Festival Chorus for four years, performing on two
recordings with the Boston Pops, including a featured solo in their televised Gilbert and
Sullivan presentation, which aired on PBS. She has performed with regional theater
companies, has worked as a professional soloist with area church choirs, and performs
frequently in recital and cabaret venues.

I
'"
I-

:::>

'"'"

...

a:

>

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~
... 01
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