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CHAPTER / CONTENT

Definition, Application and Notation Used in Gas

Absorption

Conditions of Equilibrium Between Liquid and Gas

According to Raoults Law

The Mechanism of Absorption

Packed tower Description and Design

Absorption

A type of mass transfer operation (separation) between gas and liquid system.

The removal of one or more selected components from a mixture of gases.

Or A soluble vapor is absorbed from its mixture with an inert gas by means

of a liquid the soluble gas is more soluble.

Common example of gas absorption:

Ammonia Air System

Ammonia can be absorbed by passing the gases (NH3 air) into

water where ammonia will be dissolved in water.

The ammonia (solute) can then be recovered by distillation and the

absorbing liquid can be either discarded or reused.

Acetone Air mixture

According to Raoults Law

The two phases (gas and liquid) when brought into contact tend to reach

equilibrium.

Consider air water system, the water in contact with air evaporates until

the air is saturated with water vapor, and the air is absorbed by the water

until it becomes saturated with the individual gases.

In any mixture of gases, the degree to which each gas is absorbed is

determined by its partial pressure at a given temperature and pressure.

When a single gas (solute) and a liquid (solvent) are brought into contact

(until equilibrium), the resulting concentration of dissolved gas (solvent) in

liquid is called gas solubility (at T and P).

At fixed temperature, solubility concentration increased when pressure

increased .

According to Raoults Law

Partial pressure of

solute in gas phase

(kN/m2)

1.3

6.7

13.3

26.7

66.7

Ammonia

Sulfur dioxide

Oxygen

11

50

93

160

315

1.9

6.8

12

24.4

56

0.08

0.13

0.33

Sulfur Dioxide A moderate soluble

Oxygen Slightly soluble

According to Raoults Law

In any mixture of gases the solubility of each gas depends on partial

pressure

Solubility also depends on Temperature (Solubility as T ).

Recall Raoults Law for ideal solution:

p A x A PAo

p A partial pressureof A in gas phase

x A mol fraction of A in liquid phase

PAo vapor pressureA at that temperature

In G.A.;

o

According to Raoults Law

Equilibrium Distribution (Solubility Curve)

In G.A, feed is a gas and enters at bottom of column and the solvent is

fed at top column, the absorbed gas and solvent leave out the bottom and

unabsorbed components leave as gas from the top.

Liquid / solvent is well below its boiling point and gas molecules are

diffusing into liquid.

Equilibrium curve

(y,x)

x

Figure 1 Equilibrium curve

According to Raoults Law

Film concept / Theory in mass transfer

Due to this concept:

Gas molecules must diffuse from main body of the gas phase to the gas

liquid interphase, then

Cross this interface into the liquid side and finally diffuse from the

interface into the main body of the liquid.

For dilute concentration of most gases, and over a wide range for some

gases, equilibrium relationship is given by Henrys Law.

pA H CA

p A partial pressureof A in gas phase

C A concentration of componentin liquid

H Henry's constant

RATE OF ABSORPTION

Developed by Whitman.

MAIN BULK

OF GAS

OF SOLUBLE GAS

Pi

LIQUID

FILM

B

D

GAS

FILM

MAIN BULK

OF LIQUID

Ci

E

CL

MOLAR CONCENTRATION

OF SOLUTE IN A LIQUID

PG

LIQUID FILM

BOUNDARY

convection currents, and concentration differences are considered as

negligible.

On either side of this interface it suppose that the currents die out and that

there exists a thin film of fluid flowing through which the transfer occurs

only to molecular diffusion.

According to Ficks Law, the rate transfer by diffusion is proportional to the

concentration gradient and to the area of interface over which the diffusion

is occurring.

The direction of transfer of material across the interface, is, however, not

dependent on the concentration difference, but on the equilibrium

relationship.

The controlling factor the rate of diffusion through the two film.

From Figure 2:

PG - Partial pressure in the bulk of the gas phase

Pi - Partial pressure at interface

Ci - Concentration at interface

According to the two film theory:

The concentration at the interface are in equilibrium

The resistance to transfer is centred in the thin films on either side of

the wall

Assumptions of two film theory:

Steady state concentration at any position do not change with time

Interface between the gas and liquid phase is a sharp boundary

Laminar film exist at the interface on both sides of the interface

Equation exist at the interface

No chemical reaction

(rate of diff. across gas phase = rate of diff. across liquid phase)

MAIN BULK

OF GAS

OF SOLUBLE GAS

Pi

LIQUID

FILM

B

D

GAS

FILM

MAIN BULK

OF LIQUID

Ci

E

CL

MOLAR CONCENTRATION

OF SOLUTE IN A LIQUID

PG

LIQUID FILM

BOUNDARY

Rate of Absorption

The process of absorption may be regarded as the diffusion of a soluble gas

A into a liquid.

The molecules of A have to diffuse through a stagnant gas film and then

through a stagnant liquid film before entering the main bulk of liquid.

The rate of absorption of A per unit time over unit area is given:

N A' kG PA1 PA2

The rate of diffusion in liquids is much slower than in gases, and mixtures

of liquids may take a long time to reach equilibrium.

For the rate of absorption of A into liquid:

N A' k L C A1 C A2

kL

Rate of Absorption

In steady state process of absorption, the rate of transfer of material

through the gas film will be the same as that through the liquid film.

The general equation for mass transfer can be written as:

N A' kG PG Pi k L Ci CL

PG - Partial pressure in the bulk of the gas phase

CL - Concentration in the bulk of the liquid phase

Ci - Concentration at interface

NA - Overall rate of mass transfer (mol/unit area.time)

Therefore:

kG Ci CL

k L PG Pi

Rate of Absorption

This condition can be shown graphically as below where ABF is

equilibrium curve.

in the gas and liquid

phase

PG Pi

PG

E

Ci CL

Pi

PB

F

CL

Ci

Ce

Point A ( Ce, PG ) represents concentration Ce in the liquid in equilibrium with PG in the

gas.

Point B ( Ci, Pi ) represents concentration Ci in the liquid in equilibrium with Pi in the

gas, and gives conditions at the interface.

Point F (CL, Pe ) represents the partial pressure Pe in the gas in equilibrium with CL in the

liquid.

Rate of Absorption

Then the driving force causing transfer in the gas phase:

PG Pi DE

The driving force causing transfer in the liquid phase:

Ci CL BE

Then,

PG Pi k L

Ci CL kG

through D of slope kL/kG to cut the equilibrium curve in B.

Rate of Absorption

Overall Coefficients

To obtain a direct measurement of the values kL and kG, we require the

measurement of the concentration at the interface.

Need to define two overall coefficient, KL and KG

N A' KG PG Pe K L Ce CL

K G - Overallgas phasecoefficient

K L - Overallliquid phase coefficient

N A' kG PG Pi k L Ci CL KG PG Pe K L Ce CL

Eq.1

Rate of Absorption

kG PG Pi K G PG Pe

1

1 PG Pe

K G kG PG Pi

1

1 PG Pi 1

K G kG PG Pi kG

Pi Pe

PG Pi

kG PG Pi k L Ci CL

1

1 P P

G i

kG k L Ci CL

1

1 PG Pi 1 Pi Pe

K G kG PG Pi kG PG Pi

1

1

1 P P P P

G i i e

K G kG k L Ci C L PG Pi

1

1

1 P P

i e

K G k G k L Ci C L

Eq.3

Eq.2

Rate of Absorption

where term Pi Pe = average slope of equilibrium curve and,

Ci C L

H

dP Pi Pe

dC Ci CL

1

1

1 P P

i e

K G kG k L Ci CL

1

1 H

K G kG k L

Similarly:

1

1

1

K L k L HkG

and

1

H

KG K L

Eq.3

Rate of Absorption

Factors Influencing the Mass Transfer coefficient

Very soluble gas (e.g NH3 in H2O).

- resistance is so small where H negligible. So kG KG

Low solubility gas (e.g O2 in H2O)

- resistance is in the liquid H is large. So kL KL

Moderately soluble gas

- both film offer resistance, so kG KG and kL KL

Example:

Show that from rate of transfer of A:

a)

1

1 H

K G kG k L

b)

1

1

1

K L k L HkG

Mass transfer coefficient Diffusivity (D) 1/film thickness (zg) for gas

For gas:

kG

Dg

For liquid:

zg

kL

DL

zL

Problem arises when measuring kG, kL since we do not know the value of

film thickness.

However, one piece of equipment where the surface area is known as the:

Wetted Wall column

D

Slow flowing film of water

- laminar flow condition

H

Sometimes

turbulent flow

could occur

GAS

Glass tube

Surface area of film D H

Flux, N KG P P*

N unit in mol/(m2.s)

P* = Equilibrium pressure

Method:

Measure gas concentration entering

Measure gas concentration leaving

Surface area of film is its area of the tube

Calculate the concentration driving force at inlet and outlet and

take log mean difference

KG

NA

P P*

Example

The data given below were obtained from a wetted wall column

with a constant liquid flow rate.

Molar Gas Flow rate, G (kmol/s)

(kmol/s.m2 (kN/m2)

0.03

0.06

0.12

0.18

157.8

210.6

261.0

285.6

kG AG

0.82

where A is constant

For molar gas flow rate of G = 0.1 kmol/s, evaluate the individual

mass transfer coefficient (kG and kL) and overall mass transfer

coefficient (KG) if H = 20 (kN/m2)/kmol

Solution

From Rate of Absorption:

1

1 H

K G kG k L

Assuming kL constant and given,

kG AG

0.82

where A is constant

1

1

H

K G AG 0.82 k L

Eq.a

y 1 KG

1A

0.82

x 1G

H kL

Solution

Construct graph:

y axis 1 K G

0.82

x axis 1 G

G

(kmol/s)

KG x106

(kmol/s.m2 (kN/m2))

1 G 0.82

0.03

157.8

17.732

6.337 x 10-3

0.06

210.6

10.044

4.748 x 10-3

0.12

261.0

5.689

3.831 x 10-3

0.18

285.6

4.080

3.501 x 10-3

1 KG

Solution

7.0E-03

6.0E-03

1/KG x 10 -6

5.0E-03

4.0E-03

y = 2.079E-04x + 2.653E-03

3.0E-03

2.0E-03

1.0E-03

0.0E+00

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

1/G0.82

m = 1 A = 2.079x10-4

c = H kL

= 2.653 x 10-3

Solution

For molar gas flow rate of G = 0.1 kmol/s, evaluate the individual

mass transfer coefficient (kG) and overall mass transfer coefficient (KG)

if H = 20 (kN/m2)/kmol

G

(kmol/s)

KG x106

(kmol/s.m2 (kN/m2))

1 G 0.82

0.10

248.3

6.607

1 K G x 10-6

4.027 x 10-3

y 2.079 10 4 x 2.653 10 3

y 2.079 10 4 (6.607) 2.653 10 3

y 4.027 10 3

1

4.027 10 3

KG

K G 248.3

Solution

From equation, slope:

1

2.079 10 4

A

1

A

4810

4

2.079 10

kG AG

0.82

kG 48100.10

0.82

kG 728.0

Solution

From equation, y intercept

c

H

2.653 10 3

kL

H

20

kL

c 2.653 10 3

k L 7538.6

DETERMINATION OF TOWER DIAMETER

PACKED TOWER

Packed towers are used for continuous counter current in absorption.

The tower in Figure 4 consists of a cylindrical column containing:

A gas inlet and distributing space at

the bottom

A liquid inlet and distributing device

at the top

A gas outlet at the top

A liquid outlet at the bottom

A packing filling in the tower.

A large intimate contact between the

liquid and gas is provided by the

packing

Common types of packing which are dumped at random in the tower are

shown in Figure 5.

Packing are available in size of 3 mm to about 75 mm and mostly are made

of materials such as clay, porcelain, metal or plastic.

High void spaces of 65 95% are characteristics of good packings.

The packings permit relatively large volumes of liquid to pass

countercurrent to the gas flow through the openings with relatively low

pressure drops for the gas.

(a) Rashig Ring (b) Berl Saddle (c) Pall Ring (d) Intalox Metal (e) Jaeger Metal Tri - Pack

In a given packed tower with a given type and size of packing and with a

definite flow of liquid, there is an upper limit to the rate of gas flow, called

the flooding velocity.

The tower cannot be operated at gas flow velocity above flooding velocity.

At a low gas velocities, the liquid flows downward through the packing,

essentially uninfluenced by the upward gas flow.

As the gas flow rate is increased at low gas velocities, the pressure drop is

proportional to the flow rate to the 1.8 power.

At a gas flow rate called the loading point, the gas starts to hinder the

liquid down flow, and local accumulations or pools of liquid start to appear

in the packing (liquid holdup).

The pressure drop of the gas starts to rise at a faster rate.

As the flow rate of gas increased, the liquid holdup or accumulation

increases.

At the flooding point, the liquid can no longer flow down through the

packing and is blown out with the gas.

In actual operating tower, the gas velocity is well below flooding velocity.

The optimum economic gas velocity is about one half or more of flooding

velocity.

Flooding velocity depends on:

Type of packing / packing factor

Size of packing

Liquid mass velocity

Limiting pressure drop,

Pflood 0.115Fp0.7

where Pflood : Pressuredrop at flooding

Fp

: Packing Factor

Example 1

Ammonia is being absorbed in a tower using pure water at 25OC

and 1 atm abs pressure.

The feed rate is 1440 lbm/h (653.2 kg/h) and contains 3.0 mol% of

ammonia in air.

The process design specifies a liquid to gas mass flow rate ratio

GL / GG of 2/1 and use 1-in. metal Pall rings.

Calculate the pressure drop in the packing and the gas mass velocity

at flooding. Using 50% of the flooding velocity, calculate the pressure

drop, gas and liquid flows, and tower diameter.

Repeat (a) above by use Mellapak 250Y structured packing.

Solution 1

Find the required data to be used in Figure 10.6-5 (Geankoplis pp.

660)

Given mol fraction for air = 0.97

Mwt ammonia = 17

Mwt air = 29

M av yi x Mwti 0.03 x 17 0.97 x 29 28.64

PM

RT

1 atm 28.64

3

82.06

g

mol

cm atm

298.15 K

mol.K

Solution 1

From Appendix A.2-4, the water viscosity = 0.8937 cP. From A.2-3,

the water density is 0.99708 g/cm3

1lbm

g 106 cm 3 0.3048 m3

L 0.99078 3 x

x

x

61.85 lbm /ft 3

3

3

cm

1m

1 ft

453.59237 g

3

1

cm 3 10- 2 g

0.8937cP x

x

0.902 x 10- 2 cm 2 s 0.902 centistok es

0.99078 g 1 cP cm.s

From Table 10.6-1, for 1-in, Pall rings, Fp=56 ft-1. Using equation

10.6-1,

Pflood 0.115Fp0.7 0.115 56

0.7

Solution 1

x-axis for Figure 10.6-5:

GL G

G

G L

0 .5

2 0.0730

1 61.85

0 .5

0.06871

in/ft at flooding, a capacity parameter (ordinate) of 1.7 is read off

the plot.

From y axis:

1.7 G G L G Fp 0.05

0.5

0.5

0.5

G 6.6381 ft s

Solution 1

GG G G 0.07310

lbm

ft

lbm

6

.

6381

0

.

4852

at flooding

ft 3

s

ft 2 s

GG 0.5 0.4852

lbm

lbm

0

.

2426

ft 2 s

ft 2 s

lbm

lbm

0.4852 2

2

ft s

ft s

2

ft s

lbm

and GL 0.4852 2 . The new capacity parameter is 0.5 x 1.7 = 0.85.

ft s

value of 18 in H2O/ft is obtained.

Solution 1

The tower cross sectional area, At

Feedrate 1440lb m

ft 2 s

1 hr

At

x

1.6488 ft 2

GG

hr

0.2426 lb m 3600 s

At

Dt 2

Dt

2

4

4 At

4 1.6488

2.099 ft 2

3.142

Dt 2.099 ft 2

0.5

`1.448 ft

Example 2

Ammonia (NH3) is being removed from air by scrubbing with

water in a packed tower with 6 mm ceramic Berl Saddles (Cf = 900.

The gas entering at 1.2 m3/s contains 15% NH3.

The water enters at a rate of 4 kg/s and has a specific gravity of 1,

viscosity of 2.5 x 10-3 kg/m.s.

The gas mixture enters at 27OC and 1 bar (0.987 atm). Given

Molecular weight for ammonia = 17, water = 18.

Calculate the diameter of the packed tower when 80% of NH3 is

removed and the pressure drop is 400 N/m2 per m packing.

Solution 2

Lin = 4 kg/s

xA = 0

Gout = ?

yA = ?

27OC

0.987 atm

80% NH3 is

removed

Lout = L

Lwater = 4 kg/s

xA = ?

yA = 0.15

Given mol fraction for ammonia = 0.15

Given mol fraction for air = 0.85

Mwt ammonia = 17

Mwt air = 29

M av yi x Mwti 0.15 x 17 0.85 x 29 27.2

Solution 2

g

PM

RT

3

82.06

g

mol

cm atm

300.15 K

mol.K

1.090 10 3 g cm3

g

m 3 10 6 cm3

Mass of G in g V 1.090 10

1.2

cm3

s

1 m3

3

cm3

0.987 atm 1.2x10

PV

s 48.0871 mol/s @ 0.04809 kmol/s

Mol of G in , n

3

cm atm

RT

82.06

300.15 K

mol.K

6

kg

kmol

x17

0.1226 kg/s

s

kmol

Solution 2

Mass of NH 3 absorbedin water 0.80 x 0.1226 kg/s 0.0981 kg/s

Mass of Gout Mass of gas in Mass of NH 3 absorbed 1.308 0.0981 1.2099 kg/s

density is 1000 kg/m3. Since the larger flow quantities are at the bottom

of absorber, the diameter will be chosen to accommodate the bottom

condition. From Treybal:

L' G

abscissa (x-coordinate) =

(Refer to bottom condition)

0 .5

G' L G

0 .5

0.5

kg

1.090 x 10 -3

s

0.10

kg

- 3 0.5

1.308

1 1.090 x 10

s

4.0981

G ' 2C f L0.1 J

G L G g C

Solution 2

N m2

At pressure drop of 400

and x-coordinate = 0.10,

m

y-coordinate = 0.066

0 .1

G' 2C f L J

G L G g c

0.066

2

G '' 0.066 G L 0.1G c

0.145

3 0.1

C J

900 2.5 10

1

f L

kg

G '' 0.38 2

m s

kg

1.308

G'

s 3.442 m 2

Cross sectional area, A

G'' 0.38 kg

m 2 .s

D 2

A

4

4A

4 3.442

D 2.09 m

Exercise

A packed tower is to be designed for a counter current contact of an NH3- air mixture with

water to wash out NH3 from the gas.

The conditions are:

Gas in:

Gas out: All NH3 is removed.

Flow rate = 1.5 m3/s

Temperature = 27 C

Pressure = 1 bar (0.987 atm)

Contains 8 mol % NH3

Liquid in:

Flow rate = 4.8 kg/s

Density = 996 kg/m3

Viscosity = 2.5 x 10-3 kg/m.s

Packing used is 38mm Raschig ring (Cf = 95, gc = 1)

(a) Calculate the flow rate of liquid out.

(b) If the pressure drop of the packed tower is 400 N/m2, by using the diagram, calculate

the required diameter for the tower.

Component denoted in Figure 6:

Gm = Mols of inert gas / (unit time) (unit cross

section of tower)

section of tower)

Gm

Lm

y2

x2

x

dZ

y + dy

x + dx

in gas phase

X = Mols of soute A / mol of inert solvent C in

liquid phase

Mass balance over differential / small

section of column:

N A' AdZ kG aPG Pi Adz

Gm

Lm

y1

x1

sectionof tower

NA = mol / (m2.s)

a = Interfacial area / Volume of

column

From the tower,

kG aPG Pi A dZ Gm Ady

Therefore,

PG

PT

yPT PG

yi

Pi

PT

yi PT Pi

and

Gm dy kG aPT y yi dZ

dZ

Gm

dy

kG aPT y yi

Gm

Z

kG aPT

y1

y2

dy

y yi

Z = height of tower

Similarly for concentration in liquid phase:

Lm

dx

k L a xi x

Normally, Z is written in terms of KG.a & KL.a & in terms of mol fraction:

Gm

dy

K G aPT

y y*

Z H OG NOG

Z = height of tower

HOG = height of transfer unit constant.

NOG = number of transfer unit constant

And for concentration in liquid phase:

Lm

K L aCT

dx

x* x

Simplifying:

Z H OG NOG

Z H OL NOL

The number of transfer unit (NOG) can be calculated using several method

which will be discussed later.

Graphical Method

Colburns Method

Graphical Methods

Based on interface concentration:

Z H G NG H L N L

Based on Area, A:

Gm y1 y Lm x1 x

y1 y

Lm

x1 x

Gm

y y

Lm

1

Gm x1 x

phase. From operating line above:

Graphical Methods

y L x1 x y1

G

L

L

x x1 y1 ope ratingline

G

G

L

whe re :

gradie nt @ slope

G

L

G

Operating

line

linear at dilute concentration

Graphical Methods

Example

An acetone air mixture containing 0.015 mol fraction of acetone will

be reduced to 1% of this value by countercurrent absorption in fresh

pure water in packed tower.

The gas flow rate is 1.0 kg/m2.s and the liquid flow rate is 1.6 kg/m2.s.

For the system, Henrys law holds and y* = 1.75 x where y* is the mol

fraction of acetone in the vapor in equilibrium with x mol fraction in

liquid.

Calculate the height of the tower / absorber if HOG = 0.3 m.

Data given:

Cross sectional A of column = 1 m2

Mwt air = 29

Mwt acetone = 58

Mwt H2O = 18

Graphical Methods

Solution

Gm=1.0 kg/m2.s

Lm=1.6 kg/m2.s

x2 = 0

y2 = 0.00015

2

Given:

Reduced

to 1%

1

y1 = 0.015

Gm=1.0 kg/m2.s

x1 = ?

Lm=1.6 kg/m2.s

Cross sectional A

of column = 1 m2

Mwt air = 29

Mwt acetone = 58

Mwt H2O = 18

HOG = 0.3 m

y* = 1.75 x

Graphical Methods

Solution

The given mass flow rate in kg/m2.s. Need to convert into kmol /s.

Gm

Gm in mass unit

Area

M wt

kg

2

m

s 1m 2 0.03448 kmol

Gm

kg

s

29

kmol

1.0

L

L

x x1 y1 ope ratingline

G

G

L 0.08889 kmol / s

slope

2.578

G 0.03448 kmol / s

y

Lm

Lm in mass unit

Area

M wt

kg

2

m

s 1m 2 0.08889 kmol

Lm

kg

s

18

kmol

1.6

Graphical Methods

Solution

Calculate the mol ratio for each location.

Location 1

Location 2

y1

A

0.015

0.0152

Gm 1 0.015

y2

A

0.00015

0.00015

Gm 1 0.00015

x1

A

?

Lm

x2

A

0

0

Lm 1 0

L

L

x x1 y1

G

G

y 2.578 x C

y

Graphical Methods

Solution

Use coordinate at location 2 in order to find C value.

y 2.578 x C

0.00015 2.5780 C

C 0.00015

y1 2.578 x1 0.00015

0.015 2.578 x1 0.00015

x1

2.578

Location 1

Location 2

x2 , y2 0 , 0.00015

Graphical Methods

Operating line

Equilibrium line

No. of stages = 11

NOG = 11

Graphical Methods

Solution

Height of absorber, Z

Z H OG N OG

Z 0.3m 11

Z 3.3m

dy

y y*

or

dx

x* x

N OG

y1 y2

y y* 1 y y*

y

1

ln

y y*

N OG

y1

(y - y*)1

(y - y*)

y1 y2

ln y y *

y1* Hx1

y - line

y2* Hx2

y2

(y - y*)2

y* - line

Example

An acetone air mixture containing 0.015 mol fraction of acetone will

be reduced to 1% of this value by countercurrent absorption in fresh

pure water in packed tower.

The gas flow rate is 1.0 kg/m2.s and the liquid flow rate is 1.6 kg/m2.s.

For the system, Henrys law holds and y* = 1.75 x where y* is the mol

fraction of acetone in the vapor in equilibrium with x mol fraction in

liquid.

Calculate the height of the tower / absorber if HOG = 0.3 m.

Data given:

Cross sectional A of column = 1 m2

Mwt air = 29

Mwt acetone = 58

Mwt H2O = 18

Solution

Gm=1.0 kg/m2.s

Lm=1.6 kg/m2.s

x2 = 0

y2 = 0.00015

2

Given:

Reduced

to 1%

1

y1 = 0.015

Gm=1.0 kg/m2.s

x1 = ?

Lm=1.6 kg/m2.s

Cross sectional A

of column = 1 m2

Mwt air = 29

Mwt acetone = 58

Mwt H2O = 18

HOG = 0.3 m

y* = 1.75 x

Solution

The given mass flow rate in kg/m2.s. Need to convert into kmol /s.

Gm

Gm in mass unit

Area

M wt

kg

2

m

s 1m 2 0.03448 kmol

Gm

kg

s

29

kmol

1.0

L

L

x x1 y1 ope ratingline

G

G

L 0.08889 kmol / s

slope

2.578

G 0.03448 kmol / s

y

Lm

Lm in mass unit

Area

M wt

kg

2

m

s 1m 2 0.08889 kmol

Lm

kg

s

18

kmol

1.6

Solution

Calculate the mol ratio for each location.

Location 1

Location 2

y1

A

0.015

0.0152

Gm 1 0.015

y2

A

0.00015

0.00015

Gm 1 0.00015

x1

A

?

Lm

x2

A

0

0

Lm 1 0

L

L

x x1 y1

G

G

y 2.578 x C

y

Solution

Use coordinate at location 2 in order to find C value.

y 2.578 x C

0.00015 2.5780 C

C 0.00015

y1 2.578 x1 0.00015

0.015 2.578 x1 0.00015

x1

2.578

Solution

Need to find y1* and y2* using equilibrium line given in question.

y1* Hx1

y * 1.75 x

y1* 0.010

y2* 1.75 x2 1.750

y2* 0

Solution

Calculate NOG.

N OG

y1 y2

ln y y *

ln y y

y y

0.0152 0.010

ln

ln

0.00015 0

5.05 10

ln y y

1.4242 10

5.2 10 3

ln

0

.

00015

Solution

Calculate NOG.

N OG

ln y y *

1.4242 103

Height of absorber, Z

Z H OG N OG

Z 0.3m 11

Z 3.3m

Colburns Method

Objective to evaluate:

y1

y2

dy

y y*

Assume mol fraction are so small fraction; mol fraction = mol ratio

Gm y1 y2 Lm x1 x2

Also, y*=Hx, but instead of H, use m. So y*=mx

y*

mGm

y y2

Lm

If we substitute, we get

y1

y2

dy

mGm

y y2

y

Lm

Colburns Method

Example

An acetone air mixture containing 0.015 mol fraction of acetone will

be reduced to 1% of this value by countercurrent absorption in fresh

pure water in packed tower.

The gas flow rate is 1.0 kg/m2.s and the liquid flow rate is 1.6 kg/m2.s.

For the system, Henrys law holds and y* = 1.75 x where y* is the mol

fraction of acetone in the vapor in equilibrium with x mol fraction in

liquid.

Calculate the height of the tower / absorber if HOG = 0.3 m.

Data given:

Cross sectional A of column = 1 m2

Mwt air = 29

Mwt acetone = 58

Mwt H2O = 18

Colburns Method

Solution

Gm=1.0 kg/m2.s

Lm=1.6 kg/m2.s

x2 = 0

y2 = 0.00015

2

Given:

Reduced

to 1%

1

y1 = 0.015

Gm=1.0 kg/m2.s

x1 = ?

Lm=1.6 kg/m2.s

Cross sectional A

of column = 1 m2

Mwt air = 29

Mwt acetone = 58

Mwt H2O = 18

HOG = 0.3 m

y* = 1.75 x

Colburns Method

Solution

The given mass flow rate in kg/m2.s. Need to convert into kmol /s.

Gm

Gm in mass unit

Area

M wt

kg

2

m

s 1m 2 0.03448 kmol

Gm

kg

s

29

kmol

1.0

m

Gm

0.03448

1.75

0.6788

Lm

0.08889

y1

0.015

100

y2 0.00015

Lm

Lm in mass unit

Area

M wt

kg

2

m

s 1m 2 0.08889 kmol

Lm

kg

s

18

kmol

1.6

Colburns Method

Colburns Method

Solution

From nomogram, NOG = 10.6 = 11

Height of absorber, Z

Z H OG N OG

Z 0.3m 11

Z 3.3m

Bubble cap columns or sieve trays, are sometimes used for gas absorption.

Application of plate tower particularly when the load is more than can be

handled in a packed tower about 1 m diameter; and

- when there is any likelihood of deposition of solids which would quickly

choke a packing.

Plate tower are particularly useful when the liquid rate is sufficient to flood

a packed tower.

It will be assumed that dilute solutions are used so that mole fraction and

mole ratio approximately equal.

A material balance for the absorbed component from the bottom to a plane

above plate n will give:

Gm yn Lm xs Gm ys 1 Lm xn 1

yn

Lm

L

xn 1 ys 1 m xs

Gm

Gm

Operatingline

Operating line also describes such a line passes through two point, 1 (top of

tower) and 2 (bottom of tower)

Example 1

A bubble cap absorption column is to be used to absorb ammonia,

NH3 by using water.

A gaseous mixture containing 20.5 mol% NH3 and 79.5 mol% air enters

the bottom of the absorption tower.

60.5 kmol of gaseous NH3 enters the tower per hour while 5500 kg

aqueous NH3 solution containing 0.1% by mass NH3 enters the top of

the tower per hour.

The column operates at the atmospheric pressure and at a constant

temperature of 30OC.

It is desired to absorb 95% of the entering gas NH3. Assume that the

effect of water vapor in the gases is negligible.

Example

Determine:

The molar flow rate of entering gaseous mixture

The molar flow rate of the extract

The mol ratio of NH3 in the raffinate and extract

The number of ideal stages required

The equilibrium data given as follows:

Mol NH3

mol water

0.000

0.053

0.111

0.177

0.250

Mol NH3

mol air

0.000

0.044

0.089

0.159

0.280

Solution

Lm

Gm

y2 = 0.00015

95%

removal

T=30OC

P=1 atm

1

x1 = ?

Gm

yA1 = 0.205 kmol A/kmol

yB1 = 0.795 kmol B/kmol

Feed of NH3 in= 60.5 kmol/h

Lm

A = NH3

B = Air

C = H2O

Solution

Determine:

From Gaseous mixture inlet (at point 1),Feed NH3 in = 60.5 kmol/h

kmol A

kmol A

G1 60.5

kmol

h

kmol A

1

kmol

G1 60.5

h

0.205 kmol A

kmol A

G1 295.12

h

0.205

Solution

Determine:

The molar flow rate of the raffinate, G2

From information, 95% of the entering NH3 is being absorbed.

Unabsorbed NH3 = 0.05 60.5

kmol

kmol

3.025

h

h

Gm 0.795

kmol B

kmol B

kmol

kmol B

G1 0.795

295.12

234.62

kmol

kmol

h

h

G2 237.645

kmol

h

kmol

h

Solution

Determine:

The molar flow rate of the extract, L1

Absorbed NH3 = 0.95 60.5

kmol

kmol

57.475

h

h

Lm 0.999

kg C

kg C

kg

kg C

L2 0.999

5500

5494.5

kg

kg

h

h

LA2 0.001

kg A

kg A

kg

kg A

L2 0.001

5500

5.5

kg

kg

h

h

Mwt NH3 = 17

Mwt H2O = 18

Solution

Lm 5494.5

LA2 5.5

kg C 1 kmol C

kmol C

305.25

h

18 kg C

h

kg A 1 kmol A

kmol A

0.324

h

17 kg A

h

L1 Lm LA2 Absorbe dNH 3

L1 305.25 0.324 57.475

L1 363.049

kmol

h

kmol

h

Solution

Determine:

Location 1

Gas Feed stream, G1

Mol of NH3 = 60.5 kmol/h

Mol of Air, Gm = 234.62 kmol/h

Extract stream, L1

Mol of NH3 = 0.324 + 57.475 kmol/h

= 57.799 kmol/h

Mol of Water, Lm = 305.25 kmol/h

mol of NH 3

mol of Air

60.5 kmol

Y1'

234.62 kmol

Y1' 0.258

Y1'

mol of NH 3

mol of wate r

57.799 kmol

X 1'

305.25 kmol

X 1' 0.189

X 1'

Solution

Location 2

Raffinate stream, G2

mol of NH 3

Y

mol of Air

3.025 kmol

Y2'

234.62 kmol

Y2' 0.013

'

2

mol of NH 3

mol of wate r

0.324 kmol

X 2'

305.25 kmol

X 2' 0.001

X 2'

Solution

Plot the equilibrium line and the operating line in order to

calculate number of stages

No of theoretical stages = 5 theoretical stages

0.3

0.275

0.25

0.225

0.2

0.175

0.15

0.125

0.1

0.075

0.05

0.025

0

0

0.1

x

0.2

0.3

Example 2

A bubble cap absorption column is to be used to absorb ammonia,

NH3 by using water.

A gaseous mixture containing 15 mol% NH3 and 85 mol% air enters

the bottom of the absorption tower.

57 mol of gaseous NH3 enters the tower per hour, while 3.7 kg of pure

water enters the top of the tower per hour.

The column operates at the atmospheric pressure and at a constant

temperature of 30OC.

It is desired to absorb NH3 such as only 2.5% NH3 leaves the tower

with air. Determine the number of theoretical plates required for the

above process.

Equilibrium data is given as in Example 1. Assume that the effect of

water vapor in the gases is negligible.

Min. flow rate = Infinite number of stages = Minimum reflux in distillation.

equilibrium line

x

Minimum value of flow rate is where:

Exit liquid [ ] = Equilibrium [ ]

or

Inlet gas [ ] = Equilibrium [ ]

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