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…….……..balance the demands for study, professional work and family life
RESEARCHED AND WRITTEN BY
Hafiz Muhammad Adnan Rana
B. COM, CA(Intermediate)
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Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ur-Raheem, first of all I want to thank Almighty Allah(without his blessing none of this would have been possible)and with everything he has blessed me.
A special message to my Mom, I love you and proud to be your son, I know you must be smiling up there somewhere, I thank you for giving me life. A special thank to my Dad, without his support and courage I would not have made it so far, he was the strength behind me and gave me the study environment and whatever I needed. I would also like to thank my Uncle Mr. Gulam Nabi Rana, Finance Director, NHA and my grand parents who had all the faith in the world in me, they are my staunch supporter and also my greatest critics. This book is dedicated to my parents, brothers and friends including Asif, Atif, Bilal Yosuf, Ubaidullah Javed and Vicky who have always been a source of inspiration throughout my life, and to all my teachers including Mr. Khalil Ahmed(GCTI, Sialkot) and Mr. Mohammad Hanif(CFMS, Islamabad), who gave me the knowledge and understanding about study and examination techniques. As there can be no triumph without loss, no victory without suffering and no freedom without sacrifice, the decision to complete this work early at my Intermediate stage of study SHAKE my career in the form of referrals, but nothing good than to leave something that way for whom who suffer due to lack of balance in their life after choosing CA. It was my personal experience and observation that the students were facing great deal of difficulties in passing exams of ICAP even after studying 18 hours a day. So I have TARGETED the areas where these and majority of the students lack. I am always available in relation to any suggestions or queries regarding this book or any other issue relating to this subject. May Allah bless you all and bless Pakistan with happiness and peace, and make us proud in the field of Chartered Accountancy, Amen!
(Hafiz Muhammad Adnan Rana) E-mail: hmad9rana@hotmail/yahoo.com Web Site: www.hmad9rana.20m.com Phone: 0300-5506483, 0300-5170473, 0432-293768
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1. STEPS TOWARDS CA 1.1 The Accountancy Profession 1.2 Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan (ICAP) 1.3 Toughness of Chartered Accountancy 2. THOROUGH STUDY 2.1 Face to face study (Monday to Friday) 2.2 Repetition (Week end) 2.3 Sound Sleep (Daily) 3. SCHOOLING 3.1 Why teachers and textbooks are unclear 3.2 What it takes to be a great student 4. REVISION 4.1 Correct method of revision 4.2 Examiner’s comments 4.3 Marking scheme 4.4 Presentation Rules 5. EXAMINATION TECHNIQUES 5.1 The aim of exam 5.2 The scope of exam 5.3 The day before the exam 5.4 Well before the exam 5.5 In the exam room 5.6 After the examination 6. REFERRELS AND ARTICLESHIP 6.1 Living with Referrals 6.2 Article ship 6.3 Resume and Cover letter 6.4 Interview and Test 6.5 Training and Module-E & F 7. CAREER PLANNING 7.1 How to make yourself promotable 7.2 The worst career limiting moves 7.3 Soft wares for CA’s 7.4 Career planning 8. FAMILY AND YOU 8.1 Marriage MYTHS and Strong Families 8.2 Dining Etiquette 8.3 Today’s Kids 8.4 Health vs. Death 04 05 09 13 16 22 24 25 27 29 31 38 42 43 44 45 45 48 49 54 55 59 66 75 75 76 79 81 83 90 95
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STEPS TOWARDS CA
THE ACCOUNTANCY PROFESSION IN PAKISTAN
The Accountancy Profession in Pakistan is, like in most other countries of the world, split into two streams, namely, the profession of Chartered Accountancy (CA) and the Profession of Cost and Management Accountants (ICMA). The Chartered Accountancy Profession provides the accountants, auditors, finance and business managers for the financial, commercial and industrial sectors, financial, business and investment consultants and taxation advisors. In accordance with the annual report of ICAP for the year June 30, 2002, there are 3036 Chartered Accountants who are the members of the Institutes of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan; the professions regulatory body was created in 1961. It would not be incorrect to state that it is recognized the premier body of the Accountancy Profession in Pakistan. The Cost Accountancy Profession primarily provides Cost Accountants for employment in Government, business and industry. There are about 1800 qualified Cost accountants in Pakistan who are members of Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan, a regulatory body set up by the Government in 1966 by re-naming the Institute of Industrial Accountants of Pakistan, which was set up in 1951 by the Government of Pakistan.
Last but not the least the profession of Chartered Accountancy is considered, the world over, as a specialized, highly skilled professional qualification in the world of business, finance and public practice. The competent professional, governed by a strict code of ethics(syllabus at professional level)and professional behavior(governed by ATR)is required to maintain standards of quality work, comply with international standards of Accounting and Auditing and the Pakistan Corporate and other laws(Tax).
1.2 THE INSTITUTE OF CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS OF PAKISTAN
ICAP came into existence in 1961 with the objective of “Making provisions for the regulation of the professional accountants.” The ICAP mission Statement, currently under revision, reads as follows: “To continue to promote high professional and ethical standards and to equip the students and members with the disguised knowledge and training required to face the challenges of the 21st century” In order to achieve the aforesaid missions and objectives the salient features of the various policies and practices currently in place are as follows: Education and training Quality Control Review Investigation and Disciplinary Matters Professional and Technical Standards Corporate Governance Please consult web-site of the institute for details of above topics. Stream of entry to Become A Chartered Accountant ICAP currently has four streams of entry for students desirous of enrolling with it and taking the ICAP examinations with the objective of becoming a Chartered Accountant as detailed at next page: Students must be consciously aware of their learning objective(knowledge gained through theoretical studies is for the purpose of applying it to practical situations requiring decision-making based on comprehensive analysis with alternative, feasible solutions) right from the start of their professional studies at the Foundation level.
A qualified Chartered Accountant is required to possess a high level of competency in managerial, decision making, problem solving and effective communication and analytical skills. One thing that need to be clear at this stage is learning by CRAMMING and re-production of exact material in examination will not make you a competent professional.
STREAM OF ENTRY EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND ICAP TEST/EXAM (Before commencement of training) 1. PPT 2. Foundation 3. Intermediate Examinations PERIOD OF TRAINING
ELIGIBILITY PERIOD(For Examination during Training) Module E(18 months after registration) ------------------------Module F(In the last year of Training) Same as above
Higher Secondary School/A level
Private Graduate Scheme Direct Graduate Trainee Scheme
Graduates 2nd Division Graduate 1st Division(PPT Exempt)
Same as above
Same as Above
-----------Graduate 2nd Division(PPT passed)
Post Graduate Trainee Scheme
Masters(MA, MBA etc) minimum 2nd Division
Module-A(6 months after registration) ------------------------Module-B(12 months after registration) ------------------------Module-C(18 months after registration) ------------------------Module-D(24 months after registration) ------------------------Module-E(36months after registration) ------------------------Module-F(in the last year of training) Modules-A & B together(6 months after registration) ------------------------Module-C(12months after registration) ------------------------Module-D(18 months after registration) ------------------------Module-E(30months after registration) ------------------------Module-F(in the last year of training)
Recognition of the CA qualification of and by overseas bodies ICAP recognizes the CA qualifications awarded by the following overseas accounting bodies: i) ii) iii) iv) v)
The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia(www.ica.au) The Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants(www.cica.ca) The Institute of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales(www.icaew.uk) The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Ireland(www.ica.ir) The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Scotland(www.ica.sc)
Provided that if such members desire to start practice as CA in Pakistan they will be required to sit and pass the papers of (1) Advance Taxation, (2)Corporate Laws of the professional examinations of ICAP. As per the directive of University Grant Commission(UGC), After qualifying intermediate stage of CA, the student should be consider a Graduate and after qualifying complete CA, he/she should be consider Master degree holder in Pakistan. What is CPE? Continuing Professional Education(CPE) is ONLY for qualified Chartered Accountants. The International Accounting and Auditing Standards, which form the basis for the accounting and auditing framework in Pakistan, require a thorough understanding for the purpose of implementation by the Accountants. They for the cornerstone of CPE programs which is structured in nature, mandatory in arms of attendance as lay down in IEG-19, but not punitive in nature as yet. Seminars and Workshops are held regularly at all major centers throughout Pakistan as mentioned in Newsletter of the Institute.
ICAP OFFICES AND INFORMATION CENTRES CITY ADRESS PHONE # Karachi The Institute of 9251636—39 Chartered (Code-021) Accountants of Pakistan, Chartered Accountants Avenue, Clifton. Lahore The Institute of 5414486 & Chartered 5423623 Accountants of (Code-042) Pakistan, ICAP Building, 156-157 West Wood Colony, Thokar Niaz Baig, Raiwind Road. The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan, ICAP Building, G-10/4, Mauve Area Mr. Hamid Masood, 138-140, Regency Arcade, The Mall, Mr. Talat Javed 2nd Floor, 6Commercial Plaza, Opp Civil Hospital, Abdali Road, Mr. Muhammad Ahmed Shahid 2nd Floor Islamia Road, Peshawar Cantt, 9266281 (Code-051)
E-MAIL Education@icap.org.pk Info@icap.org.pk Examinations@icap.org.pk
618255 & 619706
273007—8 (Code- 091)
Information Centre, 273306 & 277306 Rafaqat Ullah Babar & Co, Green Hotel Building,
TOUGHNESS OF CHARTERED ACCOUNTANCY
Ranking CA as difficult, demanding, stressful, book worming, and even cramming chunks of syllabus material is common in inconsistent people around us. If we took a broader view, we will certainly find that there are problems with every profession. Be it medical, law or engineering, every one will be complaining about toughness of his life. Every one may tell you his dissatisfaction about the profession chosen, job and life style. However, it is because life is becoming demanding and perfection is expected from every one in such a competitive world. One way to be stay ahead is to cultivate positive mental attitude, detailed below, about the profession selected and the life as a whole: POSITIVE MENTAL ATTITUDE We are expected to be accurate, reliable, effective and efficient in all functions related with our profession. Foundation, article-ship and even after that level of RESPONSIBILITY is always rising. How can we manage all such pressure, stress and trauma associated with the work? How can we ensure that life is poised, calm and soothing inspire of all EXAM tensions, stress and nervous breakdown? Is it possible to live calmly whatever the situation may be? There is only one ANSWER to be at peace with oneself and that is a ‘Positive Mental Attitude’ (PMA) approach. How can we adopt such an approach, which may help us to cultivate a PMA and reap its effect in our every day life? A ten-step formula for developing and maintaining PMA is suggested: STEP 1: TAKE POSSESSION OF YOUR MIND WITH CONVICTION God has gifted us with an instinct because of which we can think and this is our mind [ it is suggested by many scientist that our mind is a complex machine which works even when we may not want it to work i.e. you may be thinking even when you don’t want to thing anything!!!] By putting this in practice make a chart of things (see below) and hang it at some place where one can see it as first thing in the morning: I believe my mind is my own I believe I can take possession of m own mind I believe I can direct and control my emotions, moods, feelings, intellect, tendencies, attitudes, passions and habits with the intentions of developing PMA I will develop a positive mental attitude.
STEP 2: KEEP YOU MIND ON THE THINGS YOU WANT After taking charge of your mind, visualize what you want to be. We often hear about ‘vision statements’—what are these? Simply, what do you want to be after 6 years or so? Thinking visually may seem difficult at first. Here is a practical guide which may help you think visually: Make a list of 3 things you want in life.(1)studying on daily basis, (2)improved relationship with parents, and (3)material possession you would like to have, say A Baleno!!! Consider each of these (above). Think of a way to show them visually. Look through magazines or newspapers for pictures whack may help you in visualizing. Put these pictures where you will see them every day.
STEP 3: LIVE THE GOLDEN RULE Think of 3 things for a moment: What do I want others to do for me? (1) Be sympathetic, (2) talk politely, and (3) give me favors etc. Now ask yourself: Am I doing these things to others? By visualizing these too! STEP 4: ELIMINATE ALL NEGATIVE THOUGH Old habits die hard. People think negative when: 1. Your are feeling sorry for yourself as one of your desire hasn’t come true 2. Your are passing judgment or blaming a person situation or environment. Your ego has been hurt and your pride has been damaged You are being selfish about your self, someone or some body Write the negative thoughts on a small checklist in your pocket, wallet or bag, which you don’t want to think. Look at this at the start f each day and ask yourself: Am I still thinking about such thoughts I refuse to let inside me?
STEP 5: BE HAPPY AND MAKE OTHERS HAPPY TOO To be happy, act happy!!! Solve your CONFLICTS as early as possible you can. Write two simple rules down on an index card and carry this card with you: The best outcome that could happen to my challenge Of might be This could happy. After all its very possible that Could happen
STEP 6: FORM A HABIT OF TOLERANCE Generally people become angry when they don’t get what they have expected from other people. The only solution of not becoming angry is to keep an open mind towards people and try to like and accept people just as they are instead of demanding or wishing that thy be as you want them to be. Think of one person you have trouble accepting and write that persons’ name. Now ask yourself, if I did accept that person just as he is how would I he has? What would I actually do? Visualize your answer in concrete terms. Then do it.
STEP 7: GIVE YOURSELF POSITIVE SUGGESTIONS “We become what we think most of the time” it follow a process of Suggestions which means any stimulus sent to our brains through our five senses(hearing, smelling, feeling, tasting, seeing). All of these are pathways by which external elements influence us in our every day lives. Self-suggestion is the process of purposely and deliberately offering stimuli to you in the form of five senses. Look of the good in whatever you see, hear, taste, smell or feel. Auto-suggestion is the transmission and communication of information stored in the subconscious mind asks to our conscious mind. This information returns to us in form of ideas, dreams, feelings and thoughts. Thus, if we FEED our mind with good, we will come with good ideas.
STEP 8: USE YOUR POWER OF PRAYER If we firmly in God, we must pray, as directed by our religion. When you pray, have faith and believe in that which you ask for. God knows what is better for us and at what time should we be given the thing, which we are asking. Take an example of a small toddler who wants to play with fire, if his mother stops him from going near fire, it is not an act of an enemy but an act of one who wants to protect her child from dangers of fire. So pray and leave the results on him Believing that Almighty is hearing whatever we say to him and he really loves us wants bus for us will certainly help us a great deal.
STEP 9: SET GOALS Setting goals is one way to keep your mind ON the things you want and OFF the things you don’t want. D-E-S-I-R-E is the method to write your goals on sheet of paper, which could be use to set and achieve the goals you choose. Success is achieved by those who try. DESIRE—Determine (What do you want?), Evaluate (What will you give in turn?), Set a date (When will you have what you want), Identity a plan (What will you do at once?), Repeat Each Day! (In morning and evening read your written statements aloud.
STEP 10: STUDY, THINK AND PLAN DAILY For achieving this step and applying it, it is suggested that: Think about your goal-with PMA Inspect your attitudes-with PMA Inspect your actions and your thinking-with PMA Read inspirational, self-help action material, even if it is only a paragraph, page or chapter-with PMA Take time to study, to think and to plan-with PMA
FACE TO FACE STUDY
Study means more than just reading a piece of literature. It means close concentrated reading with a notebook at your side. Unless you are one of a few people do not kid yourself you can absorb material by one general read through it, you cannot! There is no special trick to studying. All that is needed is the application of the general principles to be followed in studying anything, which may be summarizing as: Know what you need to know Make sure you know exactly what is in your syllabus. Obtain syllabus booklet from ICAP office or visit web-site of institute. The syllabus of studies prescribed by ICAP covers 90% of the benchmark global syllabus designed by Inter-Governmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards f Accounting and Reporting and UNCTAD as well as the requirements laid sown in International Education Guidelines 9 and 11 of the International Federation of Accountants. All in all it is essential to get past examination papers to give you an idea of the depth of study required. Plan your work Map out a plan for yourself; set targets and achieve them. One thing is certain, studying is not easy but it is not too difficult if you go about it in an orderly purposeful way. Many students fail their examination through bad preparation. Try fixing specific times for each subject, then keep to them by refusing to let anything keep you from your planned task. If you are studying part-time you may be able to spend, say, 12 hours per week. As a rough guide you may think in terms of 150 hours of study per subject in professional examinations. This includes time for practice questions but not for pre-examination revision. That means it is going to take most part-time students the best part of a year to prepare for each sitting: certainly the time from announcement of results to the next examination but one. If you are attending a RAET (Registered Accountancy Education Training), the course structure and college time table will provide your overall plan, but you must still back up the lecture sessions with reading, consolidation and practice questions. Do not expect mere course attendance to provide all you need for the examination. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------..................balance the demands for study, professional work and family life
Most people find it productive to break a three-hour study session into fairly short periods of, say, one hour. Build in short breaks for coffee, tea or prayer. As well as varying your study topics, vary your study methods during a session. For example you switch from reading about one topic to answering questions on another. Make use of travel time for reading if you can. This is time that otherwise may be completely wasted. Every few weeks build in some revision sessions to go over material studies so far in conjunction with your notes. Make your reading effective Have you ever read a page from a book and then suddenly realized that you do not have the faintest idea what it was about? The eyes go through motions of reading but the brain is busy thinking of something else. Effective reading means absorbing the material and being able to use later. Several features of this booklet are there to help these processes: Each chapter concludes with a paragraph of summary its contents. Read this before you read the chapter as well as at the end. This gives you an overview of the material to be studied before you begin. Read the chapter again slowly, making orderly notes as you go. Read the chapter summary again. At the end of each chapter there is a set of progress questions. They are there to enable you to test yourself. Rework them at intervals. Read a small area, making notes as you go along. Then ask yourself-what have I just learnt?
Abilities require for effective reading Once convinced of your following abilities, you will WIN over the examiner to be on your side and if you do not possess any or all, never mind, all you need to do is to acquire these abilities. Comprehension is an ability to understand chunk of data/information or opinion and ability to infer meaning out of it. Classification is an ability to highlight salient points/issues for a particular purpose. Analysis is an ability to evaluate material for distinguishing essentials and non-essentials.
Evaluation is ability to weight information and opinion. Selection is ability most important issue and salient points are selected. Objectivity is an ability to work in a manner that personal opinion does not intrude it. Composition is the students’ efforts and skills witness the faithful representation (not reproduction) of material with facts, positive attitude and good tone.
Making Notes Making notes is a vital part of learning. First of all, the act of writing the material down helps you to absorb it, especially if you write it in your own words. Secondly, well written notes provide a valuable revision aid. Do not cut corners on note-taking material. Buy suitable paper and files and keep all material neat. Be on the look-out for articles or other material to add to your notes. Notes made during lectures or from library should not go straight into your note book. Take them down on rough paper and write them in your notebook as soon as possible after the lecture or study period.
Working questions You need to buy yourself a book of past examination papers of each subject to provide examination level practice. A typical examination question may range from several topic areas and will require though and preparation before you write the answer. Whenever questions with answers are available to you, the strong temptation is to take a quick look at the answer before attempting it. This is fatal. Any question becomes easy if you have seen the answer. All you will get is delusions of adequacy. Work the question without looking at the answer. Then you have earned the right to read it. Approach to an examination level question is: a) READ the question b) THINK and PLAN your answer c) WRITE your answer.
REPITITION At the end of each week, and at the end of each month, get into the habit of summarizing the material you have covered to refresh you memory of it. Material needs to be studied using several different methods and with repeated coverage of material. The final repetition before exam is your revision not repetition. The more times you have been through the material before the revision phase the easier and quicker your revision will be. Do not park your self in front of books the whole week end The day of Saturday is enough for repetition; do not even try to park your self in front of books on the day of Sunday. Visit friend’s home or any good place in the morning, sleep the whole noon and out for shopping, cutting, or dine out at night. Here are the shopping strategies: 2.2.1 Shopping strategies Shopping needs Planning, organization and patience to save your money. It is not you worship money, you worship freedom. You can invest money you save, and it can grow; the things you buy just depreciate. If you save more than you spend, you call shots. When you owe, you are subject to the whims of others. The match game: Use the Sunday paper manufacturer’s coupons, then use related web-sites or local supermarket fliers to find which store’s sales match most of my coupons. Loyalty: you must be loyal to price only—not to brand or store. All in all think of a price as a suggestion to bargain. Walking down the aisle: The best-priced items are on the high and low shelves; brands with high mark-up are eye level. To convert unit price into your currency use wrist-watch calculator. Look for goods that are “buy one, get one free” Discount Dreams. Do not trust on the “original” price on a tag, keep up to date on what things cost and know a deal when I see one. Use retail store prices and online prices for comparison. Prefer slightly imperfect goods or slightly muddy cloths that can easily be washed out.
Why haggle. Sales people bargain for stuff when they shop. You are not going to look greedy or penny-pinching if salespeople are hagglers themselves. You can haggle for: House hold appliances Medical charges Restaurant Meals Clothing’s
The Flinch. Whatever price a sales person quotes you, even if it is reasonable, look like you have just been flattered by a semi and say. “You want how much?” Always want the other person to talk first. The Quibble. There is nothing unethical about pointing out a flaw, however minor, and asking for a price reduction. Get in the habit of saying” I do not want to pay full price for something that is defective.” The nibble. You are about to close a deal and you ask the sales person to throw in something like key-chains, discount cards, lottery coupons, or a polo bag. The sob story. There is no need to invent a ridiculous tale having months to live or caring for your family. Just concentrate on purchasing things. The buddy system. If you are nice to sales people, they will more motivate to help you out. Humor is one way to ingratiate you. The package deal. Extended warranties, service packages, low financing rates, breaks on sales tax. Even if they do not change price, they might gift-wrap these facilities for free. BUY thing with correct size Buy a catalog or request it from manufacturing company to see dresses, designs, colors and style that are IN-fashion and suit you as well. Use the following chart to determine your size, and then order with confidence. BODY MEASUREMENT Size Neck Chest Waist Sleeve Small 14-14 ½ 34-36 28-30 32-34 Medium 15-15 ½ 38-40 32-34 33-35 Large 16-16 ½ 42-44 36-38 34-36
Neck. Measure a shirt collar that fits you well. Lay collar flat. Measure from centre of collar button to far end of opposite buttonhole. Chest. For chest, measure just under arms and across shoulder blades, holding tape firm and level. Waist. Measure around your natural waistline Sleeve. With arm relaxed at side and slightly bent, measure from center back neck, over pint of shoulder, down outside of arm to wrist.
Other body-part measurements
Hats Sizes Hat size Head size Small 6.75 – 6. 875 21.125—21.50 Medium 7-7.378 21.875—22.25 Large 7.25-7.378 22.625—23.00
Belts. Order same size as your pants waist size. If in-between sizes, order next larger sizes Gloves. Measure around the knuckles with hand flat excluding the thumb. Number of inches equals glove size. Inseam. Measure similar pants that fit you well. Lay them flat, with the front and back creased smooth. Measure along the inseam from crotch to bottom beg hem. Shoes. Following guidelines are given while purchasing shoes: Make sure you have worn appropriate socks. Recommended time to purchase a shoe is between 2:00 pm to 5:00 pm because during that time foot size is bigger than its normal size. Try shoes in your right foot if you write with right hand. And if you write with your left hand then try shoes on left foot. Stand up and walk with new shoes to ensure it is comfortable and that you have select correct size of shoes for try. Only purchase shoes that best fit your foot, and clear miss-concept shoes will stretch after purchase. They do not! Socks sizes Shoe size 5-9 9-12 12-14 Sock size Medium Large Extra large
2.2.2 HAIR CUTTING
After every 15 days hair need cutting or your beard need to be set? Talking about cutting you now has many choices for hair styles…….. You need to do some foot work at home. Explore new cuts for free at Clairol’s Try it on Studio (www.clairol.com/tios_2.jsp ) or iVillage’s makeover-o-matic (substance.com/es/mom). Pick a model that looks like you or upload your photo and play before you pick. The Makeover-o-Matic (pictures)has a dozen models with different face shapes, over 30 different cuts and a full-color spectrum for hair and makeup. There are even accessories, such as glasses, that you can add to test the new you for all occasions.
PERFECT HOLIDAY PLANNING Take these steps to get the best our of your days away. 1. Put your work in order: and allow time to decompress before taking off. Simple foods survive a journey better than anything elaborate. Pick disposable dishes. For salads, use crisp ingredients such as carrots rather than soft lettuces than can go limp. Do not take fizzy drinks unless there is time for them to settle after the journey. Put soft drink in cool boxes. Keep food fresh in plastic containers or biscuit tins. The lids will also deter unwanted guests such as wasps and flies. Pack the food, using a cool box, shopping bag or cardboard box, in the right order-first course at the top, dessert at the bottom. Store everything in the car boot as it is the coolest place in the car. A traditional hamper is useful for holding plates and cutlery. And do not forget a bag for collecting the rubbish afterwards. Select a shady spot with level ground. And enjoy! 2. Review your vacation goals. What do you really want-time in the back yard to read a book or an exotic gateway on a secluded island? 3. Be Flexible: you may have a mental image about how your time off should go, but chance will intervene. Consider holidays a little more like” adventures.”. Many visitors spice their holiday by selecting life-threatening site for adventure you must know first-aid techniques and consequences and remedies for uncertain events. As an example, here are consequences of selecting risky adventures:
Biological Weapons Anthrax: Causes fever, septic shock, difficulty breathing, death in 24-27 hours. Botulinum Toxin: Toxin causes blurred vision, difficulty swallowing, paralysis, respiratory failure, death in as few as 24 hours. Aflatoxin: A mould toxin; can cause haemorrhage, convulsions, coma liver cancer, death. Gas Gangrene: Bacterial infection can cause tissue death, shock, kidney failure, coma, often death.
Chemical Weapons VX Nerve Gas: Affects nervous system causes convulsions, respiratory paralysis. Sarin: Attacks nervous system, paralyses muscles used for breathing; can cause death within minutes. Mustard Gas: Causes skin and eye burns and blisters. Inhaled, can cause long term respiratory disease and cancer. 4. Leave work at home. Resist calls and emails. Your job now is to relax and have fun. 5. Plan re-entry. Give yourself a transition day before returning to the job.
2.2.4 DINING IN or OUT
Get together at your friend’s place on weekend over a cup of tea or dine out in any fastfood restaurant like KFC and Macdonald’s—the reason for advocating this is you will learn how to eat at international level. One very common problem is making a separate tea—very simple just purchase Lipton’s small tea-bag container and read out instructions inside the cardboard box. Dining at KFC and Macdonald’s has raised various issues including Mad Cow and Avail Flu—led to international meet crisis. What Mad Cow Primer really is—it goes through 4-stpes as detailed below: Step 1: Infection—a cow eats feed contaminated with nervous-system tissue from a diseased cow or sheep. A spontaneous mutation may also create the prions that cause the illness.
Step 2: Spread—Prions force proteins to misfiled throughout the nervous system and bone marrow, eventually ravaging the brain and crippling the afflicted cow. Step3: Into the food Supply—a “downer” cow (those too sick to walk) is slaughtered for meat. Steaks and shops are presumed to be safe, but careless processing can let bits of nervous system tissue or marrow get into ground beef. Step 4: Onto the Plate—humans eat contaminated tissue. If prions in the meat corrupt human protein molecules, paralysis, dementia and death can follow.
The term “Junk food” is very confusing to majority of people. It generally includes such things as: Salted Snacks Sweets Gum Instant noodles Carbonated drinks—coca cola, sprite etc. Food from fast-food restaurants
2.3 SOUND SLEEP
In our plugged-in, demanding, and overworked profession of Chartered Accountancy, each waking moment bombards our brain with sensations, thoughts and feelings. If our brain tried to store them all as memories, we might experience overload. Sleep may help edit out some of those impressions. Students of CA sacrifice their sleep to study all the night thereby willfully ignoring the bad consequences on their brain and overall health. Stop that attitude—the key to success in CA is consistency, passion, dedication towards study not the tendency to study whole the night for some days and rest on other days. You can not catch up on lost sleep. Getting more sleep at the weekend does not make up for too little sleep during the week. We need to change our attitudes. Sleep is not a form of laziness: it may make us smarter and healthier. We need to promote sleep as a necessary ingredient of a healthy life. Duration of sleep. A century ago most people got about nine hours a night. Researchers say that most of us need about eight hours. Nowadays we get about seven hours on average, and a third of us get by on six or less. Phases of Sleep. It is not the length of sleep that is so important but the phases of sleep. During the night we go through several cycles of about 90 minutes. Every cycle consists of three phases-first light sleep we slumber deeply; after that, we dream. In deep sleep, the body recuperates; in dream sleep, the mind relaxes. Light sleep is a kind of transition between the two.
Sleep Disorder solution. People suffering from a sleep disorder, may take medication without thinking through the consequences. A pill can offer quick relief, but many people do not realize that they can become dependent in as little as four weeks. Sleeping pills should be used on a doctor’s prescription. The physician should establish the dosage level and duration of treatment. You should not increase the dose yourself. Before restoring to medication, try these easy steps for a better night’s rest: 1. Eat and Live Healthily. People with sleeping problems should not consume stimulants such as tobacco or caffeine. Also avoid big meal before bedtime. A heavy evening meal activates digestion, which stops the body from winding down.
2. Relax. People who lead busy and stressful lives often have trouble sleeping. It is advisable to create an ‘oasis’ between the waking day’s events and going to the bed. Unwind with a good book or go for an evening walk with your partner to clear up the day. 3. Exercise More. If you jog, ride a bicycle or swim for half an hour at least three times a week, you will need more sleep-and you will increase your deep sleep phases. 4. Improve your Bedroom. The bedroom and particularly the bed should condition us to fall asleep. Here is how to make your bedroom as restful as possible: Chose the quietest room. Air the room well before going to bed, or leave the window slightly open through the night. Set the temperature at a comfortable level. Use curtains or blinds to darken the room as much as possible. Choose good mattresses, with proper back support. Use bedding that is appropriate for the season. 5. Go to the Bed at the right time. Go to the bed and get up at about the same time Including in the weekends. Regular time for getting up ensures that our biological Rhythm-our inner clock in not disturbed. 6. Create a Bed time Ritual. A bath-temperature: 34 to 38 degrees-can make you Sleepy. Lavender oil is relaxing. Bed time snacks such as a banana or hot milk with honey contain the protein element L-tryptophan, which gears the brain for sleep.
7. Get up rather than toss and turn. If you have to get up briefly at night, do not Switch on a bright light. It can upset your inner clock and cause wakefulness. Or You are not sleep. Avoid thinking I have to sleep now because I have got to get Up in two hours will make falling asleep even harder. Try not to watch your Bed side clock. Position the clock so that the luminous figures or ticking do not Disturb you.
WHY TEACHERS AND TEXTBOOKS ARE UNCLEAR On every page, and on every daily news papers, textbooks and teachers use words whose meanings they do not explain. If you do not know the meaning your brain will say to itself, quickly and quietly I do not know what………….mean, no one is telling me what it means. I can not really understand what going on, so I will stop listening. Other reasons may be the bad planning of study-hours leaving us nothing to gain or retain except wastage of time. Here is recommended approach for your study: If attending RAET If not attending RAET* 1. Over view of material to be 1. Overview of material to be studied(chapter summaries) studied(chapter summaries) 2. Before a lecture, take a look at the 2. Read the Chapter subject briefly 3. Re-read the chapter slowly, making 3. Attend Lecture notes as you go. 4. Consolidate lecture by reading material, making notes as you go. 5. Answer Chapter Round-up 4. Answer Chapter Round-up questions questions 6. Repetition 5. Repetition 7. Revision 6. Revision 8. Answer examination questions 7. Answer examination questions 9. Final Revision 8. Final Revision 10. Sit Examination 9. Sit Examination *Registered Accountancy Educational Training
During reading books and taking notes of lectures during class hour you need to follow STAY TUNED STRATEGY that has three steps detailed below: STEP 1: when you are listening to a teacher or reading a text book, make a point of noticing all words that are not explained. Take special not of the fact that books and teachers are not gaining you the information you need truly to understand what they are saying.
STEP 2: even though a statement is unexplained and unclear, accept it for what it is worth. Realize that you do not truly understand it, but at the same time record it in your mind, knowing that your teacher expects you to repeat it. STEP 3: when you feel yourself turning off, look for the reason. Notice that the teacher used a word without explaining it, and find the word on lecture-notes and circle it. And when you get home, look at your notes, write this down: “The teacher said that………………. The statement is unclear because I do not understand what……means. Still the word must mean something, and for now I will remember the statement, even though I do not understand it” Why you should not look in a dictionary and find out what all these strange words mean? Two reasons. First, you are exposed every day to lots of unexplained words. If you tried to understand them all, you would never get away from dictionaries and encyclopedias. Second, many of the words to which you are exposed are very complicated—you can not understand them simply by looking them up.
3.2 WHAT IT TAKES TO BE A GREAT STUDENT
Have you ever notice that the smartest people in your class are not necessarily the ones who get straight A’s? And what about those students who are definitely not geniuses but somehow pull off perfect grade-point averages anyway? Is it all those extra-credit assignments? Do they park themselves in front of their books all weekend? Are they working harder than you are? How do these people do it? The answer is simple: they have discovered that earning high grades require more than just a good brain. It requires mastery of a method explain as follows: Grades Low grades say absolutely nothing about either your ability to learn or your capacity to earn high grades. They do not indicate that your are dumb or slow or lazy. Low grades mean only that you are not learning well, and that is usually because teachers are not presenting things in a way that is understandable to you or text books are not clear to you.
You will raise your grades if you truly recognize the difference between understanding that is deep and understanding that is shallow. Why? Mindless repetition usually earns high grades. And deep understanding usually does not. True learning is a lot more fun than mindless repetition. It feels good, and it usually makes you want to know more. True learning is the key to real education, it is very important but there is one problem with true learning: it is not the key to high grades. Pay attention Students often do not pay attention in class and teachers know it. They figure that students would learn more if only the can stop their minds from wandering. The human mind naturally looks for understanding, and it can not understand anything if people assume it knows something that it doesn’t know. Its natural response is to stop listening. Think about it, what happen if someone talks to you and starts using words you do not quite understand? Concentration Whether we know it or not people having lots of different thoughts and feelings all at the same time: listen to music watch television play videogame ski talk with our friends do well in school Do well at our jobs and lots of other things. Frequently, these different thoughts and feelings are pulling you in different directions. So there is hard to concentrate when you sit down to do your home work. Here is how you can concentrate: Appreciate. Accept the problem that you can do one thing at a one time Fight: you have to fight the problem. Every time you sit down to study, tell yourself” I can do one thing at a time, and right now I am doing ………. I am, I do and I will---play tennis, talk on telephone, and listen to music at other times. But right now I am doing……. it is not forever it is just for right now. Planning. You should divide your study hours in two to three segments with 5 minutes break in-between these segments. Once you make that decision, stick to it. Make yourself absolutely unavailable for anything except for study. If your thought turn to other things, just tell yourself, once again, that work would not last forever, you are only doing it for right now.
Most people think of revision as just reading notes and trying to remember them. This is true to some extent but there are some ways of revising more effectively. CORRECT METHOD OF REVISION Planning The first thing to say about revision is that it is an addition to your initial studies, not a substitute for them. Planning is important to maximize the value of your revision work. You need to balance the demands for study, professional work, family life and other commitments. To make this work, you will need to think carefully about how to make best use of your time. Begin by comparing the estimates hours you will need to devote to revision with the hours available to you in the weeks leading up to the examination. Preparing a written schedule setting out the areas you intended to cover during particular weeks, and break that down further into topics for each day revision. To help focus on the key areas tries to establish: Which areas you are weakest on, so that you can concentrate on the topics where effort is particularly needed Which areas are especially significant for the examinations-the topics that are testes frequently? And do not continue your revision timetable right up to the moment when you enter the exam hall: you should aim to stop work a day or even two days before the exam.
Getting down to work
Where should you revise? Choose a room where there will be no distractions. Work at a table or desk Some students like to work in local library. This can be quite a good idea but these can be distractions, such as people moving around. Try to work in silence. You should make a time table and decide how long to revise for. Planned breaks in revision increase the amount of information you retain. UNPLUG your phone. Let everybody know that you are studying and should not be disturbed. How often should you revise? Revision should be a constant process on WEEK ends of your course. Try not to leave your revision to the few weeks before the exam. Divide your work into topics and then revise a topic at a time. Stick to your plan and make up for any lost time. Do not move on to a new topic until you have mastered the old one. It is better to have a thorough knowledge of a few topics than a skimpy knowledge of the whole syllabus. What is the best time to revise? Most people are at their peak early in the morning. Near exam time try to get up earlier. If you are on holiday then early morning is an ideal time, because you will have fewer distractions from other people in the house. Early evening is a good time before you get tired. What shall I revise? Ideally it would be best if you could revise the whole syllabus. If you have any difficulty with certain topics then you could leave them out but you will need to know the other topics really well.
TIPS FOR THE FINAL REVISION PHASE As the exam looms closer, consider the following list of techniques and make use of those that work for you:
Summaries your notes into more concise form. Go through your notes with a highlighter pen, marking key concepts and definitions. On areas that you find difficult, rework questions that you have already attempted and compare your answers. Rework questions you attempted earlier in your studies with a view to producing more polished answers.
4.2 Examiner Comments
After every examination an examiner’s report is prepared and you are urged to obtain a copy and thoroughly digest the contents. Much useful advice is given not only about the detail of individual questions, but about the general approach to be adopted. The examiner comments are being reproduced to assist the candidates in knowing what is expected of them and where they have fallen short of those expectations. In order to full appreciate examiners’ comments, the candidates must have in their view the level achievement necessary for a pass standing in the examination The examination determines whether the candidates have achieved the minimum desirable level of a professional competence which the institute looks for and the ability to apply CA entry level knowledge to theories, principles and practices to situations and problems likely to be encountered in professional practice. Accordingly, candidates should demonstrate their ability to: Apply knowledge as required by the prescribed syllabus Identify, define and rank problems and issues, when not specially directed to them by the questions. Solve problems in an analytical interactive manner, exercise judgment in developing and evaluating alternatives and proposing practical solutions and Communicate effectively with users and respond to users needs
The institute attempts to measure, to the extent possible, in written examinations the maturity of the candidate’s judgment and their ability to make useful recommendations to clients, supported by analysis of the type and quality expected of Chartered Accountants in practice.
Ever since examinations were invented examiners have complained, with justice, about similar problems and deficiencies. The more common ones include: Not starting each question on a new fresh page Failure to read the question Failure to answer the question as set Bad English Poor writing Careless work, especial with calculations Rote learning rather than real understanding Poor charts/diagrams with no titles Inadequate time planning resulting in the failure to answer all questions Failure to relate theory and practice
You are strongly advised to note carefully the above list of common failings and to make sure that you are not guilty of any of them.
4.3 Marking Scheme
Very true, students are not satisfied with marking scheme at ICAP and two third are those who have either failed or referrals and one third of them file Writ in Court against ICAP to recheck their paper(s), this is not professional behavior. To me this is simply ignorance to marking scheme. Let’s see how papers are set, mark and recheck to focus our wild guess to particular point of view: Independent examination committee The examination process is directly supervised by the Examination Committee which is a statutory committee under the bye-laws and is appointed by the Council of the Institute. This Committee is assisted in its day to day operations by the Director of Examinations. The examination Committee formulates all examination policies, selects the paper setters and examiners and ensures that examination is conducted in a transparent manner whereby all candidates are treated fairly and objectively. What is paper-checking method? 1. Perforated part of answer book is separated to make it anonymous. 2. Selected examiners, for marking any paper of any module, get together is auditorium of Examination Department. 3. Examiners are instructed to check only one specified question. 4. Along with answer book examiners are also provided with Solved answer sheet and question paper. 5. Deadline is given to check each question. 6. After marking the question examiner comment on the question. How question papers are set? A strict criterion is observed to select paper setter to ensure their independence and expect he will remain partial. After setting a paper he solved it in specified time to check whether paper can be solved in 3-hours time. In selecting question he observes the followings: Most examination questions can be seen to test one or more of the following: Your ability to recall facts Your level of understanding of a topic Your ability to apply theory to some practical problem Your ability to analyze a situation or problem Your ability to interpret or make an informed judgment about an issue.
Is reproduction of exact study-material word-by-word giving us passing-license? No, our profession discourages rote learning and encourages understanding. Questions are not marked on that foolish pattern rather there is criteria detailed below:
In awarding the mark to each question examiner consider the pass/fail assessment criteria: Adequacy of answer plan Structured answer Inclusion of significant facts Information given not repeated Relevant content Inferences made Commercial awareness High skills demonstrated Professional commentary So, by now, straight criticism is not a solution rather the best teacher in the world is inside you. After the exams are finished you solve all question papers under exam-like environment with same presentation, produced material and then either give answer sheet to your teacher or wait for publication of solved paper and compare. It will help you to assess where you stand and if you were right in your criticism.
What is marking scheme? A book-let containing answer sheet, marking scheme, and question paper is provided to each examiner. Format of marking scheme is given below: MARKING SCHEME
GENERAL: Marks must only be awarded for points relevant to answering the question set. Unless otherwise indicated, marks should not be awarded for restating the facts of the question. For most question you should award ½ a mark for a point of knowledge, 1 mark for the application of knowledge and 1 ½ marks for a point demonstrating a higher skill expected. The model answers are indicative of the breadth and depth of possible answer points, but are exhaustive. Most questions require candidates to include a range of points in their answer, so an answer which concentrates on one or a few points should normally be expected to result in a lower mark than one which considers a range of points In awarding the mark to each part of the question you should consider whether the standard of the candidate’s answer is above or below the passing grade. If it is of pass standard it should be awarded a mark of 50% or more and it should be awarded less than 50% marks if it does not achieve a pass standard. When you have completed marking a question you should consider whether the total mark is fair.
In general, the most of these you can access in the affirmative, the higher the mark awarded should be. If you decide the total mark is not a proper reflection of the standard of the candidates’ answer, you should review the candidate’s answer and adjust marks, where appropriate, so that the total mar awarded is fair.
QUESTION SPECIFIC MARKING SCHEME
Information Technology (TECHNICAL PAPER) This marking scheme is given as a guide to markers in the context of the suggested answer. Scope is given to markers to award marks for alternative approaches to a question, including relevant comments, and where well reasoned conclusions are provided. This is particularly the case for essay based questions where there will often be more than one definitive solution. In many questions suggested model answers were given to open ended questions, please give credit for any valid alternative responses within the limits of the marking scheme. MARKS 1 (a) (I) Award up to 2 marks for description. (ii) Award 1 mark for each valid point up to a max of 8 marks. 10
(I) Award up to 2 marks for description plus 1 mark for an example (ii) Award up to 4 marks for issue raised up to a max 20 marks 22 Total 32
Award up to 2 marks Award 0.5 mark for each correct description max 5 marks Total
2 7 9
AUDITING( MCQ TYPE + TECHNICAL PAPER) This marking scheme is given as a guide to markers in the context of the suggested answer. Scope is given to markers to award marks for alternative approaches to a question, including relevant comments, and where well reasoned conclusions are provided. This is particularly the case for essay based questions where there will often be more than one definitive solution. Marks Marks 1. (a) Impact on conduct of audit Generally 1 mark each point contributing to an explanation max 15 Ideas Consider perspective company, group, other subsidiaries Aspects of conduct of audit practice management planning including materiality and risk assessment audit strategy/evidence Review (b) Audit Strategy For conclusion(consistent with justification) max 1 Generally 1 mark each point in justification 5 Justification IR CR DR Revenue/debtors Purchases/creditors max 06 ( c) Principal business risks Generally ½ mark each area of business risk identified max 3 Areas of business risk Growth cash flow Chief executive Financial information Going concern Generally one mark each point contributing to a description 6 Max 09 ---------------30 ----------------
COST ACCOUNTING(MATHEMATICAL PAPERS)
This marking scheme is given as a guide to markers in the context of the suggested answer. Scope is given to markers to award marks for alternative approaches to a question, including relevant comments, and where well reasoned conclusions are provided. This is particularly the case for essay based questions where there will often be more than one definitive solution. 1 (a) (i) Calculation of discount rate implied in the early settlement Decision on payment period 2 1 3 (ii) Calculation of basic EOQ(ignoring discounts) Evaluation of purchase costs with discounts Decision on optimal policy (b) 1 4 1 6 Defining frequency of orders 1 Consideration of scheduling of orders 1 Preparation of cash budget in accordance with answer to part(a) 9 11 20 2 (a) Material usage variance Material mix variance Material yield variance Labor rate variance Labor efficiency variance Explanation of mix and yield variance Up to 2 marks each for identification of possible reasons for the Variances calculated in part(a) 1 3 3 2 2 11 (b) 5 4 9 20
COMPANY LAW(Including business law and Tax papers)
This marking scheme is given as a guide to markers in the context of the suggested answer. Scope is given to markers to award marks for alternative approaches to a question, including relevant comments, and where well reasoned conclusions are provided. This is particularly the case for essay based questions where there will often be more than one definitive solution. 1 This question specifically refers to the registration of public limited companies and therefore reference must be made to the requirements for such companies to acquire section 30 certificates before they can commence trading. 8-10 Answers will show a thorough understanding of the registration process, Listing the documents required, and will make clear reference to the trading certificates in relation to public companies.
A sound understanding of the area, although perhaps lacking in detail. Some understanding of the area but lacking in detail, perhaps failing to Deal with the need for a trading certificate. Little or no knowledge of the area.
This question is divided into three parts, and each part will be allocated three Marks, with one mark floating in order to allow markers the best performance in any one particular part. 6-8 4-6 0-4 Thorough treatment of all three aspects of the question. Thorough treatment of two of the aspects. Unbalanced answer, merely dealing with one part of the question, or Demonstrating no real understanding of the nature of the question.
4.4 PRESENTATION RULES
Presentation is an important feature of the examination and you should ensure that you bear the following points in mind and know the format of Answer sheet: Front page of answer sheet
ANSWER BOOK (Name of candidate) ------------------------------(Foundation/Intermediate/Final) ------------------------------(Signature of Candidate) -------------------------------------(Roll Number) -------------------------------------(Signature of Invigilator)
---------------------------------------------(Name of Candidate) ---------------------------------------------(Foundation/Intermediate/Final) ---------------------------------------------(Roll Number) ---------------------------------------------(Date of Examination)
Tick attempted questions
No of copies attached--------------------
---------------------------------------------(Signature of Centre supervisor)
Q. 1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 Q.10 Q.11 Q.12
TO BE FILLED IN BY THE EXAMINER Question No. Marks Obtain Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 Q.10 Q.11 Q.12
-----------------------------(Signature of Examiner)
------------------------------(Signature of Re-Checker)
First page of Answer sheet Sheet number (1)
New Question must be start on fresh page
Do not write on This margin
Now you have the clear idea what is the format of answer sheet, to put your answers in correct here is the series of guidelines:
General Presentation Rules
A. Check that you have correct exam paper in front of you. Several different exams may be going on at the same time B. Check that there are no pages missing from the answer book C. If there is anything wrong with either question paper or with Answer book, then you should ask for a new one. D. Do not be critical of any specific question or the paper in General. Examiners are human and such behavior is Bound to upset them. E. Always use a new page for each answer F. Ensure all your workings are neat and cross referenced to the answer. G. Separate paragraphs by leaving a space between each. H. If you have made an error, simply cross it through with your ruler and Write in the correct answer underneath. Avoid use of correction fluid.
Question specific presentation rules
Multiple choice questions These questions are used to examine your standard of knowledge across the syllabus. An answer is simple right or wrong; there age are no grey areas. MCQs are broken down into two parts; the problem or task to be solved, and the options you must choose from. There is only ever one correct answer: the other options are known as distractors. Your approach to MCQs should be as follows: Attempt each MCQ within the time allowed. Some can be tricky and you may be tempted to run over time. Do not. For numerical MCQs, in the majority of cases you will need to do some rough workings. Never rush to select your answer; some options might initially look plausible, but on closer scrutiny turn out to be distractors. Unless you are certain of the answer, look carefully at all the options before choosing. If you are finding the MCQ difficult and your time allocation is up, move on to the next one. Time permitting, revisit those MCQs which you left unanswered and refer to your original workings Remember: you must never omit to answer an MCQ as there is no penalty for an incorrect answer.
Numerical questions If you know a pro-forma which will assist you in answering a numerical question, set it up before working numbers into it. You will be awarded marks for that. You will find columnar layouts helpful when attempting numerical questions. They also make your answer easier to mark. Always keep the main body of your answer away from the workings. Workings are an extremely important aspect when answering questions, so all workings should be included. Provided that your workings are neat, if an arithmetical error is made it is easy for the marker to identify it. Workings use to calculate figures in the main answer should be cross referenced. If at a late stage you identify an error in your answer, do not waste time by amending the consequential effects. It is more useful to put a footnote to your answer stating how the correction would have affected your answer. If you are asked to comment on numerical answers, do not forget to do so. These marks are as important as any other and are normally relatively easy to gainprovided that you have understood your numerical calculations.
Essay Type questions Follow the general rules detailed above. Jot down points from the question that you feel may be important. Taking the points you have noted, structure you plan, which you will use in answering the question. Break your answer down, using short paragraphs for each point you are making, headings, and bullet points.
To pass any examination you must (a) have the knowledge, (b) convince the examiner you have the knowledge, and (c) convince him within the time allowed. Success will be much more assured if you apply the examination hints given below.
THE AIM OF EXAMINATION Students must be consciously aware of their learning objective, right from the start of their professional studies at the foundation and intermediate level. Students must understand that knowledge gained through theoretical studies is for the purpose of applying it to practical or analysis with alternative, feasible solutions. Learning by rote and assessment of an examinee’s ability to reproduce from memory defeats the very purpose of educating students to become competent professionals who are expected, upon qualifying, to independently address all professional matters for which they have been educated and trained. The students approach their learning with an imaginative and application oriented focus for passing their examinations and acquiring the CA qualification as competent and proficient professionals.
SCOPE OF EXAMINATION
The CA examinations are designed to assess on a consistent basis the candidates’ all round theoretical knowledge and application skills as precisely as possible. In order to assist the examiners in this objective and to provide a general guidance to candidates preparing for these examinations, indicative grids showing relative weight age have been drawn up for each section of syllabus. Besides weightage given in syllabus booklet that is only for syllabus material, here is scope of examination that form the nature and style of examination: COMPONENT Short form Questions Descriptive and computational Questions K* 15% A** 10% TOTAL 25%
*Testing of knowledge **Awareness at Foundation Level and Application of Knowledge at Professional level. No amount of examination room technique will enable you to pass unless you have prepared yourself thoroughly beforehand. The period of preparation may be years or months long. It is no use expecting to pass with a feverish last minute of revision. By this stage you should have worked through all of the books and you should be thoroughly familiar with your syllabus and the type of examination questions that you have been set in the past.
a. b. c. d. e. f.
THE DAY BEFORE THE EXAMINATION Make sure you know exact time, date and location of examination. Carefully check your travel arrangements. Leave yourself adequate time. Overhaul your equipment: Calculator? Spare Battery? Pens? Pencils? Tables? Watch? Sweets? etc. Check your examination number. Try to get a good night sleep but do not try to take sleeping pills or the like. Relax as much as possible. If you haven’t done enough work by now you won’t have enough time to make up the difference. Here is the relaxation technique called Meditation: (Relaxation Technique)
You need about 15-20 minute session daily with yourself to unwind. Meditation relaxes body and calms mind. Meditation is a scientifically proven antidote for stress, tension, anxiety, and panic. Many people find it helpful for headaches and respiratory problems such as emphysema and asthma. Meditation in essence is a thought-directing process. It attempts to free our mind from unhealthy undesirable thoughts that taint our thinking unconsciously. It unifies scattered attention and energy. Since it requires concentration, it clears mind and improves memory. How can you do it? The best time to meditate is when you get up and schedule for them same times each day before anything eating. Devoting first fifteen minutes of your day to this activity is a health investment. To optimize the experience you need a quiet environment where you will not be disturbed. Wear comfortable clothes and assume a sitting position. Sit on floor or on a chair. Either way, the spine should be vertical. The classic meditation position is sitting cross-legged on the floor. Lastly you need something to focus your mind such as a religious symbol, flower, or a word or phrase. Slow, rhythmic breathing is necessity in all forms of meditation.
Approaches to Meditation Transcendental Meditation: it involves mental repetition of a word. It may well be any of the many beautiful names mentioned in Holy Quran. Breath Meditation: this technique calls for concentration on respiration, the process of inhaling and exhaling. Body Scan Meditation: This form of meditation focuses on the present moment. You move your focus through the body, from the tips of the toes to the top of the head, paying particular attention to any areas that cause pain or suffer from a medical problem. The body scans usually done while lying down. As an alternative to meditation, you can play “snake” game available on every Nokia mobile phones (3310, 3210). To me this is equivalent to meditation because this game needs 100% attention----One rule to play this game is to secure above 300 scores—so that this game catch your attention—if you fail to get 300 scores restart game again until you achieve the target--this will certainly help you focusing your attention at one particular point (to play game).
WELL BEFORE THE EXAMINATION Have a good meal before the exam. You will get nothing to eat for three hours. Go to the toilet before the exam. This avoids the embarrassment of having to leave the room under supervision. Check to see if you have to wear uniform or acceptable dresses. IN THE EXAMINATION ROOM
If you have followed the rules so far you are well prepared; you have all the equipment you need; you did not have to rush-YOU ARE CALM AND CONFIDENT. Atmosphere of the exam room The atmosphere of the exam room has something to do with this. Try to forget everything from your mind other than the job in hand. Concentrate hard. If you feel a bit panicky grip the table, take a deep breath, and get on with it. Remember things are never as bad as they seem!
Before you start writing: a. Care fully read the whole examination paper including the rubric. Quick starters are generally poor performers b. Decide what questions you are going to answer. c. Decide the sequence you will tackle the questions. Generally, answer the easiest question first. d. Decide the time allocation for each question. In general the time allocation should be in direct proportion to marks for each question. Divide the total exam marks into the total exam time(less planning time) to obtain minutes per mark figure, and allow that many minutes per mark of each individual question. Dealing with the question: a. Make sure you plan each question first. Make a note of the main points or principles involved. If you are unable to finish the question you will gain some marks from these points. Examiners are more impressed by a solid mass of points than an unending development of one solitary idea. b. Attempt all questions required and each part of each question. You can earn more marks by half completing two answers than by completing either one individually. c. Do not let your answer ramble on. Be as brief as possible consistent with covering all the points you know. d. Follow a logical sequence in your answers. It’s quicker, more accurate and gives a greater impression of competence if you follow a predetermined logical path instead of jumping about from place to place as ideas come to you. e. Write neatly, underline headings and if the question asks for a particular sequence of answer then follow that sequence. f. If diagrams graphs or tables are required give them plenty of space, label them neatly and comprehensively, and give a key to symbols, lines etc uses. A simple clear diagram showing the main points can often gain a good proportion of the marks for a question. g. Decide what the examiner wants h. Concentrate on displaying your knowledge, not your ignorance. There is almost always one question you need to attempt and are not happy about. In answering to such a question put down all you do now and then devote unused time to improving some other answer. i. If time runs out then if it is a numerical answer, do not bother to work out the figures. Show the examiner by means of your layout that you know what steps need to be taken and which pieces of data re applicable. Or, if it is an essay question, put down answer in the form of notes.
j. Use TELL, ILLUSTRATE, CONCLUDE formula. k. Refer specially to workings and put them in order, clearly labeled. Remember random jotting around a page will not attract as many marks as a carefully sequenced set of workings. l. You can not stand on examiners shoulder and explain the real meaning of your script and terminology. Say what you mean and leave nothing. m. Begin each question on a separate sheet of paper. Also, leave space between parts of the answer and even between paragraphs. Being nervous (that is having the adrenalin flow) enables on to work at a much more concentrated pitch for a longer time without fatigue. Panic, on the other hands, destroys one’s judgment. To avoid panic(a) concentrate simply on maximizing your mark leave considerations of passing or failing, (b) take two or three deep breaths, (c)answer the easiest questions first it helps to build confidence to crack the difficult ones later. When you have finished writing: a. Check that you have followed the examination regulations regarding examination title, examination number, candidate’s number and sequence of answer sheets. b. Make sure you include all the sheets you require to be marked. c. If you have time carefully read each and every part of each answer for obvious errors or mis-spellings and check each calculation. d. Assure yourself that you have done justice with paper General points: a. Concentrate on answering the questions set not some related topic which you happen to know something about. b. Do not leave the examination room early. Use every minute for checking and rechecking or adding points to questions answered. c. Always attempt every question set and every par of each question. d. Stay until the end of the exam. Use any spare time checking and rechecking your script.
AFTER THE EXAMINATION Do not worry if you feel you have performed badly in the exam: it is more than likely that the other candidates also have found the exam difficult too. Do not forget that there is a competitive element in these exams. As soon as you get up to leave the exam hall, forget that exam and think about the next-or, if it is the last one, celebrate! Do not discuss an exam with other candidates. This is particularly the case if you still have other exams to sit. Even if you have finished, you should put in mind until the day of result. Forget about exam and relax. Out side every examination hall there lurks a known-all eager to explain how you should have mentioned ISA-2, for example, in your answer to question 3. Steer clear of him and do not be put off. Your object now is to do well in the next paper. He’s probably wrong, any how!
REFERRALS AND ARTICLESHIP
Obviously if you have passed the examination then you do not need to read this section and switch to the next. LIVING WITH RERERRALS
Classical Approach Life is the name of coping and living with failures, frustrations, disappointments and bad experiences. The fact is that the hang over of such events lasts longer than comparable successes, possibly because of over powering feelings of pain and sorrow that is thinking of such situations positively, these arguments appear to be mistaken. Why we do not remember as fondly the joy of our successes? Why it is so difficult, but quite natural, to live with undesirable events and results? Every normal person contains an inbuilt immunity to tolerate failures. The issue here is the failure often does not travel alone. They happen in quick succession, one after the other, shaking the very foundation of our personality. We loose self-confidence and morale. It affects our ability to take on new challenges. What can one done in such situation? 1. Confide. If we happen to hit a patch in when nothing appears to go right, we need some one to talk about our problems. We need a shoulder to cry, if we feel vulnerable, fragile, insecure or weak. Doing so, clears eyes and restores some balance. Some people fine solace in following religious practices in such situations. If this brings comfort, go ahead. Learn a lesson. It is natural to look Bach at such experiences and see what went wrong. As humans, we all make mistake. Getting into the blame only complicates the matter. Stop blaming to yourself or to others for your failures. Learn your lesson if there is one, remember it, and forget the event. Do not take it out on your close ones. Do not make your close ones or those you meet, the indirect target of passing out your frustrations. Infect, you must exactly do the reverse.
4. Take extra care of your health. We have all the right to mourn our wasted efforts when we do not get the desired results. After your temperament, your physical health is the biggest shock absorber that should be attended to at all times. Try the following recommended food to stay healthy.
Recommended Meal for Good Health
Type of Meal Break Fast Time of meal 8:00 Am Well before meal Take brain supplement medicine And one glass of water Offer two nawafal One glass of water For Spring and summer One bread, yogurt/butter 15-minutes later take tea For Winter and Autumn One bread, omelet 15 minutes later take tea
Juice Time Lunch Milk Time Dinner Time Time of Sleep
Food Supplement Carrot juice Carbohydrate foods+ Same Vitamin-B tablet 4:30 Pm Offer namaz Milk glass Same 7:30 Pm Offer namaz Protein Foods + Same Black Tea(strong) 12:30 Pm Offer tahajad Milk glass+bananas Same Carbohydrates’ sources: rice, potato, pasta, corn, carrots, spinach, green been, cauliflower, apple, oranges and banana. Protein’s Sources: eggs, red meat, fish and chicken. Fats: dairy products, edible oil and ghee, fish oil(capsules)
10:00 Am 12:30 Pm
World’s best recommended food plan known as FOOD PALATE.
Rice, Bread, Bun, Sheer mall (6-times a day) Milk and Milk Products (once a Day) Oil, Ghee, Butter, Sugar (once a day) Fish, Meat, Chicken, Eggs (once a Week) Fruit, Salad(cucumber,carrots,tomotos(once a day)
Modern Approach Professional study demands professional environment around you where no body can disturb you so that to digest chunks of syllabus material in one go. Act professionally! and never prefer to study in living/drawing rooms or in front of TV. Study Room Accessories Let me tell you why this is necessary to mention. According to ”clutter free theory” you must have minimum things that you need in your study room because cluttered rooms create stress. Your study room for thorough study must have the following quick-access accessories: Carpeted room. Prefer pink, light green or light brown color of carpet. A Study table with drawer (for calculator,pens,stepler,gum,stapler pins, drawing pins, scale of 6 inches, post-it cards, and a chair(not revolving chair like in offices) Cross Ventilation facility i.e. have windows. Have full curtain in front of windows. Daily clean study room Rack for books and quran with urdu/english translation and do not place books on floor. Prefer white tube light in your room. Afford to have time saving accessories, e.g. Tea maker (prefer electric kettle for separate tea), a cup, tea spoon, a glass, water bottle, dry milk, sugar. A dressing mirror(4” by 1) and put calendar of on-going month on mirror and place cold cream(for winter)/sun block(for summer),comb/brush, gel for hairs, tooth brush/paste,perfume,erasors,after shaves, mustered oil, almonds oil. A personal computer without internet connection. Towels, shoes, dresses(leisure, sleeping, office)must be in our own room Three watches are needed, place wrist watch on study table, one alarm watch, and one wall watch. A radio to listen English news and local news at 6:50 pm of Pakistan. A flash light, not use candles in case if electric supply is off. Pedestal/roof fan. Prefer mattress rather than bed.
Emerging Approach If you are reading to find out what may have gone wrong at exam-then you are doing a right thing. It is important to learn from one’s mistakes. Facing our own shortcomings and overcoming them is the key to success. Let me hope that reading this passage will broadly help you in identifying one or two important underlying causes that keeps your name from the list of successful candidates. In essence, examiners actively look out to clear deserving candidates, just like an employer who would find it easy to offer a job through’ job interviews’ to the best of candidates. All you need to do is to work hard in acquiring knowledge required and take a pain to display to the examiner that you are skilful, possess good analytical ability and have a good grasp of the subject. Once convinced of your ability, you will win over the examiner to be on your side. The bottom line is that your expression is a decisive as knowing the subject matter. Examinations are a perfect place to bring the written communication principles into pal. How you write is conclusive as you are not in front of examiner while your paper is being marked-to explaining what you mean. The examiners appreciate that English is not our native language. At the sometime you need to exhibit a better of the basics of English language. Sentences have to be free of grammatical errors. Answers have to be perceptive and coherent not giving the impression that you have crammed and not really understood what was asked of you. Examiners tend to overlook minor errors here and there. However, this should not be taken as a license makes the task of examiner difficult. You must ensure that you write with precision, expressing knowledge with clarity. Your expression should be simple but convincing. Here are some suggestions for your future studies: 1. Learn to write correct English. Our will need this valuable ability to pass your exams and will be relying on it in your practical life. 2. Do not cram. Understand the substance of the topic. Each topic has some salient features. Cram preference is the product of weak study-structure in early stages of our life. One might get distinction with cramming previously but believe us in professional studies to be successful it need abundance of well-feed knowledge inside your memory. Why students fail in professional studies due to Cramming, so learn now to gain knowledge to include your name every-time in successful candidates.
Following are the terms that need clear understanding from student part and examiner’s: Student Examiner Knowledge Have information Sure on it Recognize, believe Give meaning Do well as experienced Technical points Logical arrangement of answer material Student knows or not Ability to demonstrate Give reasons expertly Handle matters(case study)
Understanding Skills Techniques
2. Maintain a sense of proportion in terms f time management. Too long an answer for a three marks question will at bet get you three marks. A fifteen marks question may need some explanation. So, write the appropriate length while covering all relevant aspects of the question and avoid unnecessary details. All skills of this exam do not necessarily come from reading of the text books alone. A lot of non-curricular reading is essential to bring yourself at par with the best. Develop reading habits by reading fiction, biographies and sports magazines—some of them are suggested below:
HOW TO GET RICH USING THE POWER OF YOUR MIND, by Harry Lorayne SMART MOVES, by Sam Deep and Lyle Sussman HOW TO READ A PERSON LIKE A BOOK, G.I.Nierenberg and H.H.Calero MICROSOFT OFFICE, by Joe Habraken How to solve your PERSONAL PROBLEMS, by Dr. C.S. Chopra 30-DAYS TO A MORE POWERFUL VACUBLARY, by Dr. Wilfred funk & Norman Lewis WHO IS WHO, by Dogar publications Lahore. ENGLISH CONVERSATION, by Gopal K. Puri THE PAKISTAN ACCOUNTANT( bi-monthly) READER’S DIGEST( monthly) TIME magazine (weekly) NEWSWEEK magazine (weekly)
3. Improve your vocabulary. When you read something and do not know the meaning of the word, do not write its meaning in Urdu. Consult a dictionary, find an easier English word as its meaning and note it down in English. 4. Developed the habit of thinking in English rather than translating your thoughts from Urdu to English. It will save time for you in exams and the flow of thoughts will be easier.
ARTICLE SHIP Purchase booklet named” directory of firms and members” from any ICAP’s regional and information centers or download information in .PDF format. One thing that need clarification ICAP website is that each download-able material is provided in .PDF format. Which mean this document will open only on your computer if you have installed ADOBE ACROBATE reader software on your computer. Among students taking article ship for the first time--there is less familiarity with the word Quality Control Review (QCR) use with firms here it is briefed: What is Quality Control Review? ICAP began a quality control and professional standards compliance review program as far back as 1986. It was started as a peer review by the firms but changed to an independent program organized by the undertaken by full time employees of ICAP. It has been very successful in bringing about a constructive change in the auditing profession in accordance with modern day best practices and requirements. QCR of the firms is undertaken by ICAP on a rotational basis whereby every firm is subjected to review once in tow years. Both the State Bank of Pakistan and the SECP have made it mandatory of the auditors to be appointed to undertake the audit of listed companies, banks and financial institutions to have a valid and satisfactory QCR rating from ICAP at the time of appointment.
“An annual AUDIT COMPLIANCE REVIEW checklist is required to be filed by each practicing firm with ICAP. The reviews complied on a self-assessment basis are crosschecked with the standard criteria developed by ICAP and a certificate issued to respective firms if meeting the laid down requirements”
RESUME AND COVER LETTER For article ship and job after it you need to write in a Resume or Curriculum Vita listing your professional education, experiences, distinctions and request for job or article ship. Here is the suggested format that can be use as guideline:
SAMPLE APPLICATION LETTER
House #, Street No , Sector, City DD/MM/YY Partner Chartered Accountants & Co Islamabad Dear Sir ARTICLE SHIP WITH YOUR FIRM With due respect, I would like to state that I have completed my Intermediate exams of Chartered Accountancy and looking for article ship Please consider this application for the article ship with your firm of Chartered Accountant. The extensive courses of auditing, accounting, information technology, business communication and law have given me the kind of skills and knowledge that you are probably looking in an effective audit trainee. Because “proven skills” are best explained in person, I would appreciate an interview with you. Please let me know the day and time most convenient for you. Sincerely
Your Name/Father Name (Capital letters) You’re Address
PHONE: 0000-0000000 OBJECTIVE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING Article ship
Name of REAT Foundation Examination Module A, (No of Attempts & session of passing) Module B, Intermediate Examination Module C, Module D,
Name of Institute Bachelor in Commerce, (Passing Session) Obtaining ---/1300 marks.(%) Name of Institute Diploma in Commerce, (Passing Session) Obtaining ---/1400 marks(%) Name of School Metric with Science, (Passing Session) Obtaining ---/850 marks (%)
SKILLS AND CAPABILITIES
Communication and Interpersonal Presentation Skills Training Course(PSTC), (REAT Name) Marks obtain (----%) Computer Course of Computer Practical Training(CCPT), (REATs Name) 90-hours completed
HONORS AND ACTIVITIES
Member(name of library) Recipient of Merit Certificates given by (Institute) to Who combine extracurricular activities and academic Excellence. Religion : Islam Nationality : Pakistan Born : DD/MM/YY
Name, designation, address and phone numbers (Preferably Chartered Accountants)
CHOOSING between CV and Resume
Remember that the terms ‘CV” and ‘resume’ are often confused. Confirm the requirement the next time someone asks you for CV. A resume and a CV are actually two different types of documents. Knowing the right use for each will save your time and effort in your pursuits. For small/medium level position use resume A resume is a one to two page summary of your (1)work experience, (2) accomplishments, (3) education and other pertinent topics such as(4) professional associations and (5) special skills. There are even two styles of resumes: American style: It excludes personal information like marital status. International style: provide personal information. This style is preferred in Pakistan. For high-level position use curriculum vitae A curriculum vitae or CV, on the other hand, is a more comprehensive document. It is usually spread over multiple pages as it is much more detailed, and includes a listing of your achievements—publications, presentations, research projects, academic work, teaching experience and so on. To summarize all this one must keep in mind the importance of mentioning references in your CV even you have completed your CA Inter in first attempt. Further, it is better to mention the name of a Chartered Accountant who has recommended you to do article ship in a specified firm.
INTERVIEWS AND TEST (Published in April-May2004 issue)
We are expected to be accurate, reliable, effective and efficient in all the functions related with our profession even for an INTERVIEW at the time of taking an Article ship with a firm of Chartered Accountants with satisfactory Quality Control Review (QCR) or applying for job after article ship. Job interviews, for most of us, are intimidating; no one enjoys being judged and, possibly rejected. Should we expect to be nervous about an up coming interview? Of course! It is natural. Remember it’s often the degree of preparation that determines who gets the job In this article, a ten-step formula for every interview is suggested. These steps may help every one to prepare well mannered interview to reap its positive effects on the day of interview. These steps include: STEP ONE: EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEWS Job applicants generally face two kinds of interviews: Screening interviews and hiring interviews. You must succeed in the first to proceed to the second. Screening Interviews These interviews are done by telephone for five minutes. Do not treat it casually. It is not just another telephone call. If you do not perform well during the telephone interview, it may be your last interview with that organization. Have your (1)resume, (2)references, (3)calendar, (4) notepad near telephone and if they call you when you are out from office or home, ask if you can call back in a few minutes in your office or home
Hiring Interviews In hiring interviews, recruiters try to uncover negative information while candidates try to minimize faults and emphasize strengths. The most promising candidates selected from screening interviews will be invited to hiring interviews which may take any of following forms: 1. One-on-One interviews are most common. You can expect to sit down with a company representative and talk about the job and your qualification. If representation is hiring manager, he or she will ask specific question or if he is from public relations then his or her questions will be general. 2. Group interviews are often conducted by teams. Explain how you can contribute to team efforts instead of emphasizing individual achievements. 3. Stress Interviews are meant to test your reactions. Rapid-fire questions are asked from many directions; take the time to slow things down. For Example,” I would be happy to answer your question, Mr. X but first I must finish responding to Mr. Y”. If greeted with silence, you might say,” would you like me to begin the interview? Let me tell you about myself” STEP TWO: PROPECTIVE EMPLOYER Researching an organization enlightens candidates and impresses recruiters. Study company leaders, organizational strategies, finances, products, customers, competition, and advertising. Research sources are categorized under respective heads: 1. Large Companies Three methods to learn about large companies are (1) You can learn a great deal from annul reports and financial disclosure reports, (2) Visit the web-sites of companies bursting with juicy information, and (3) Call the receptionist or interviewer directly. Ask what you can read to prepare you for the interview. 2. Small Companies For smaller companies and those that are not publicly owned, you will probably have to do a little more footwork. Sources of information are Libraries, newspapers, chamber of commerce and business bureaus. The best source of inside information is company employees.
STEP THREE: PREPARING AND PRACTICING After you have learned about the target organization, study the job description. It not only helps you write a focused resume but also enables you to match your education, experience, and interests with position you are applying. Itemize your (1) most strategic skills, (2) greatest areas of knowledge, (3) strongest personality traits, and (4) Key accomplishments and relate these with FAQ (discussed in step seven) in interview. Recite your answers to typical questions (1) in front of mirror, (2) with a friend, (3) while driving in your car. Expect to explain problem areas in your resume. For example, if you have no or little experience, you might emphasize your up-to-date skills and recent training. STEP FOUR: SENDING POSITIVE NON-VERBAL MESSAGES What comes from your mouth and what is written on you resume are not the only messages an interviewer receives about you. Non-verbal messages also create powerful impression on people. Send positive non-verbal message by: Arrive 5-minutes early from interview time. Find the location on a trail run a few days before the interview so that you know where to park, how much time drive takes, and what office to find. Be courteous to every one even to security guard, receptionist, and to anyone meets before and after the interview. Dress professionally. Two piece business suits are recommended. Greet the interviews “I am happy to meet you Mr. X, I am Mr. Y.” Wait for the interviewer to offer you a chair. Control body movements, do not lean forward. Sit erect; keep your feet on floor. STEP FIVE: FIGHTING FEAR Expect to be nervous. It is natural! One of the best ways to overcome fear is to know what happens in a typical interview; generally it goes through 9-ways. Consult any good book to read about that. STEP SIX: ANSWERING QUESTIONS Use the interviewers name and title from time to time when you answerer: “Mr. Z I would be pleased to tell you about……” To clarify vague questions ask:” By----------do you mean----------? “And consider some of your responses with: “Does that answer your question? Avoid (1) slurring words like gonna and din’t, (2) slangy expressions such as yeah, like and you know, and (3) verbal statics like ah, uh, and.
STEP SEVEN: ALL TIME FAVOURITE QUESTIONS Hiring interviews are all about questions. You can anticipate 90 to 95 percent of all questions you will be asked in an interview:
Personal Questions: After opening introductions, recruiters generally try to start with personal questions to put candidates at ease. Same way strive to see whether he or she fit into the organization culture. Personal questions are: Tell me about yourself. Try practicing this formula: “My name is--------------. I have completed-----------degree. Recently I worked for--------------------as a---------. Before that I worked for-----------------as a--------------. My strengths are--------- (interpersonal) --------- (technical). Do you prefer to work by yourself or with others? Why? What are some things you do in your spare time? Hobbies? Sports? How did you happen to apply for this job? What particular qualification do you have for this job? Experience and Accomplishment questions: These questions are asked after questioning about your background and education. Why should we hire you when we have applicants with more experience? Emphasize that you are open to new ideas and learning quickly. Tell me about your part-time jobs, internships, or there experience? What was a typical work day like? Why did you change jobs? Questions about your future: These questions stump some candidates. When asked about the future, show ambition and interest in succeeding with this company. Where do you expect to be five years from now? (Show interest in current job and succession in organization without mentioning designation) This is a large organization do you think you would like that environment? 3. If you were aware to a co-worker was falsifying date, what would you do? If your supervisor was dissatisfied with your work and you think it was acceptable, how would you resolve the conflict? Questions about your key weaknesses: Strive to covert discussion of your weaknesses to topics that who your strengths in three ways, (1) mention corrected weakness” I found that I really needed to learn about computer, so I took a course, (2) site learning objective” One of my long term goals is to learn more about………….., (3) reaffirm your qualifications” I have no weaknesses that affect my ability to do this job”.
Questions about Money: Although money is a very important consideration, do not let it enter the interview process too soon. Typical question is How much money are you looking for?(defer a discussion of salary until late in the interview when you know more about the job and whether it will be offered to you or not by” I am sure when the time comes, we will be able to work out a fair compensation package. Right now, I would rather focus on whether we have a match.” STEP EIGHT: QUESTIONS FOR YOU TO ASK Your questions should impress the interviewer but also provide valuable information about the job. Use this opportunity to find out whether this job is right for you. Tell me what it is like working here in terms of the people, management practices, work loads, expected performance, and rewards. What training programs are available from this organization? What specific training will be given for this position? Who would be immediate supervisor? What are the major challenges for a person in this position? STEP NINE: FIELDING ILLEGAL QUESTIONS You may respond to an illegal question for example recruiter asked about (1) corrected vision, (2)marital status, (3) arrests,(4)age and date of birth,(5)children’s,(6)rented or owned home. Then by asking tactful low it relates to the responsibilities of the position” could you tell me how my-------------relates to the responsibilities of this position? STEP TEN: CLOSING THE INTERVIEW End the interview by thanking the interviewer, reviewing your strengths the position and asking what action will follow” when can I expect to hear from you? You can follow this by saying, “If I do not hear from you by then may I call you?” If you do not hear from the recruiter within five days call him or her by saying” I am wondering what else I can do to convince you that I am the right person for this job” CONCLUSION Very often the difference between the person hired and the person rejected is not who the better candidate is but who is better prepared for the interview. Careers can be made and lost at that point alone Phases for getting a job are as follows: (1) Search the Job Market, (2) Design a persuasive resume and cover letter, (3) interview with companies, (4) interview follow up letter, (5) rejection follow up letter. For further help consult relevant section of any book on business communication.
TEST FOR ARTICLESHIP
There are two types of tests in every Firm of Chartered Accountants at the time of taking Articleship. First Test: Subject Specific Generally, after two weeks of depositing CV you receive a call for interview, never expect and E-mail or Registered Mail for your interview. It is important to mention your local contact number to inform you about interview. Avoid providing long distance call numbers or mobile numbers on your CV. First test with MANAGER of Audit Section is generally based on subject where you find yourself attacked by number of question time. Second Test: IQ level (general topics of interest) Second test is PURELY covers general topics or topics of interest mentioned on your CV. These tests are generally to test the common sense and IQ level of trainee student. Use above mentioned interview techniques to avoid embracement. Here is the guide line for first test:
SUBJECT Quantitative Methods
DETAIL OF CONTENTS Financial Mathematics Probability(definition and importance) Sampling(definition and importance) Differentiate between Micro and Macro Economics Definition of monopoly, oligopolies Definition of GDP, GNP and NNP Inflation(definition and types) Foreign Exchange Rates(fixed and Floating)
Introduction to Financial Accounting Accounting Theory(complete including IAS-1) Computers and Accounting(know how of SAGE or other accounting software’s) Bank Reconciliation Statement(just review the entries like “unperfected or unaccredited cheques” and their treatment Trail Balance(errors and Suspense account) Joint Venture(concept and do one question Good will concept and calculation methods only. Accounts of Limited Companies(IAS-1 and Schedule 4&5 of Companies Ordinance, 1984) IAS 2,16,8,10,9,23,37 and 38 Lease(calculation of installment and interest only not the whole question required) Preliminary(Definitions) Management and Administration(complet e) Complete Syllabus at Intermediate Stage.
Training and Module E and F
Hands on training with a firm of Chartered Accounts, duly approved by ICAP to provide training, for a period of 4 to 5 years are mandatory. Audit firms of today not only expect sound technical skills from their accountants but also want them to project a certain IMAGE of the organization they represent. This IMAGE is projected in the form of: (1) Dressing(already covered) (2) Conversational skills (3) Presentation skills(already covered) (4) Social etiquette (5) Dining etiquette Conversational skills Let us come with the fact that English is not our mother tongue. If you are comfortable speaking English, do so, otherwise stick to Urdu rather speaking bad English that will leave a bad impression on everyone who listens to it. Basics of English Speaking Tongue Twisters (Pronounce them loudly and repeatedly to clear you English accent) 1. 2. 3. 4. The thirty three thieves thought that they thrilled the throne throughout Thursday. Can you can a can as a canner cans a can? Six sick siks nick six slicks bricks with picks and sticks. I wish to wish the wish you wish to wish, but if you wish the wish the witch wishes, I would not wish the wish you wish to wish. 5. Six sleek swans swam swiftly southwards. 6. How many cookies could a good cook cook if a good cook could cook cookies? A good cook could cook as much cookies as a good cook who could cook cookies. 7. Four furious friends fought for the phone. 8. I thought, I thought of thinking of thanking you. 9. I wish your were a fish in my dish 10. If you notice this notice, you will notice that this notice is not worth noticing. 11. If Kantie can tie a tie and untie a tie, why can not I tie a tie and untie a tie like Kantie can. 12. Whether the weather be fine or whether the weather be not whether the weather be cold or whether the weather be hot we will weather the weather whether we like it or not.
SPEECH ACTS (Use them in daily life to overcome your fear to speak English) Event Meeting Detail of Event Greeting Remarks Morning From 12 pm to 5 pm From 6 pm to 7 pm Before Sleep Appropriate Sentences
“Good Morning” “Good Afternoon” “Good Evening” “Good Night(Office), Sweet Dreams(home)
Central Greeting Asking about health
“How is Life/What’s up” “Pretty fair/fine”
Respond to Question “Not So Bad” If you are not feeling good Ending Remarks “I have to go now” To end talk “I will be back in a moment” Leaving for bath or for other work during talk End of Meeting Introduction with Others Your own introduction Introducing self on Telephone “May I introduce my self I am……..” “Hello? Good Morning/Afternoon/Evening/ This is… (Name) speaking.” “I would like to introduce……. /May I introduce Mr. /Ms…….” “Bye, See you soon/Take care, Bye”
Introducing your fellow to other person
Introducing your child
“Have you met my…….”
Between Talk If you do not listen properly Learn about bad thing happen with your fellow
“What did you say/Excuse me/Sorry/I beg your pardon” “Very sorry to hear about………”
Words use in meeting on the death of someone Complaining something Reminding others
“Accept my heart felt condolences” “I want to complain about…….” “ do not forget to call me at five in the evening” “I apologies /I am sorry” “Forget it/That is okay” “Thanks/thank you very much/thanks a lot” “You are welcome/no mention please/my pleasure” “I am sorry. I can not………..” “I am sorry” “Yes, of course/ Why not/By all means” “well done/keep it up/first class” “later/tomorrow/the day after tomorrow/next day/next Sunday/next week/next month/next year.”(Do not use “the” with next.
For Accepting Mistake In response to sorry Thanking other person
In response to thank you
Deny and Agree
Deny something to do. Deny to let money Agree to do something Encourage on something done properly Agree to do in future
Sure or Doubts If you are not sure about work If you are not sure about any news Advice or suggestion
“I am not sure/I do not think so/I doubt it” “he must be joking/she must have forgotten” “why do not you consult some doctor/why should not eat too much/ you ought not to get up late” “I am quite sure/there is no doubt in my mind about……” “Sorry, that is not right/No, that’s all wrong/That’s rubbish!” “Fantastic!” “Delicious!” “Very cooperative/helpful!” “Fascinating!” “Magnificent! /Splendid!” “Exciting!/Wonderful” “Superb!” “How boring/it really turns me off/I am fed up with…/to be frank, I find it very interesting” “Well, I do not know if I believe it or not.” “Have you ever seen that film? You know the one I talked about last night.” “It is not easy to come to the party. You see, I work in the evenings. / It is difficult word to explain, I mean; it has got so many meanings.
If you have confirmed information
Resist on wrong information Expressing Feelings For place For meal For Fellow For Scenery For Building For News For Idea and Dress For boring or un interesting
Use of Certain Words
Well-is use to express idea You know—is use to remind something.
I mean/You see—are use to explain particular point
Enquiry Enquire about something
“I would like to know, please where is the…….? /excuse me, do you know……….? “yes, I do know…….?or “I have no idea/I do not know” “What do you think of……? / what about…….?” “I love it/ I like it” Positive response “ I think it is all right” Half hearted positive response “I hate it” Negative Response “it is not too bad” Half heated negative response Enquire on loss, death, illness
In reply to enquiry
Ask other to express his feeling
“How do you feel…? /Are you okay? /Are you worried…? / You look somewhat nervous…, are you?” “I am very concerned about…../ I am worried about….” “Everything will be okay….do not worry about….”
Need some thing
“I need…. / I want…../I would like to have a cup of tea.” “Happy birthday! /Eid Mubarak! /Happy New Year! ----Reply as---“thank you and the same to you!” “All the best!/Good Luck!/Get well soon!/Have a pleasant journey/Have a good time/weekend/day”--Reply as---thank you very much” “would you like to join me for a cup of tea” “with pleasures/that would be very nice/I would not say no” “Sorry, I can not. But thanks anyway.” “Can I offer you a biscuit? /would you like….? /please take….?”—Reply as— Thank you or No, thanks”
Wishing good each day
Deny invitation Offering something
Asking someone to comment
“What do you think/feel about…. /what is your opinion about…….? /what is your reaction to….?” “In my opinion/view…/personally I feel/believe…..” “I am going to ……/I have decided to ……/ I am planning to ……..” “No comment/it is difficult to give an opinion right now/it is difficult to say…..” “Anything I can do for you? /Need some help? /Can I help you?” “Oh, yes please/ That is very kind of you” “No, it is all right/No, I can manage it myself” “Do you have any objection if……? May/Can I Please……?” “Of course/Sure/Yes, why not? /Have no objection.” “No, I can not let you/That’s not allowed/I do not have the authority to allow you”
Deny to give opinion
Accept offer of help
Deny to accept offer
Asking about permission
Deny to Permit
Social Etiquette The way you interact with people says a lot about you, your family and the audit firm that you represent. And etiquette extends both up and down the corporate ladder and it does not exclude receptionists and support staff. Organization environment. Is yours a traditional company with closed doors, neckties, and formal memos? Or does it have an “open door” policy where anyone can talk to anyone at anytime. Understanding this can create good image of you in the company. Cooperative Behavior. Even if you do not like someone but you have to work with him anyway. Try to be friendly to everyone and not make any personal judgments, at least initially. Remember that a little friendly attitude and humor can go a long way toward easing friction and resolving problems. Attitude towards Technology. Mobile phones should either be switched off or put on silent mode and selecting vibration alert option when you are in a meeting, seminar, or a conference. Answering a call during a meeting is unprofessional and amounts to insulting others. Punctuality. It has to be appreciated that professional work environment is not an evening party where arriving late could be termed as fashionable or excusable. An efficient worker is one who comes in on time. A latecomer is always considered an irresponsible person.
Dining etiquette. People do notice how you eat your food and how you pay for it. Therefore it is important that civilized behavior is displayed whenever you are dining out by conducting himself like a true professional and a gentleman. One very common problem among people is ignorance of using Fork and Knife and making a cup of Separate Tea or Coffee. What is the solution to this Dilemma? Set a meeting with someone who know these etiquettes well for example any army personnel in your family, to whom dining etiquettes are specifically taught at the entry level of PMA.
Is it Really Difficult to Pass Professional Exams?
Being a part qualified Chartered Accountant can sometimes feel like a life sentence because trainees, who have failed to pass or about to take exams in next attempt, generally complaint that they do not have enough time to study for Module E & F after leaving audit firm/Clients for home. I strongly resist to this statement and believe that “whenever there is a will, there is a way”. It is not a matter of time management; it’s more of self management. Just take an example. What are your interests in your life? Just name one of the activities you like to do most, listening to music, watching movie, gardening etc? You have time for all these activities. Why? Because you like them. Similarly, if one likes taking examinations, it will suddenly become easier. Imagine: no examination after completion of Module E and F. Why not give it a shot? Why not try? Following are some of the technique you must use throughout your training period to easily pass professional exams: Construct an affirmation ( a positive sentence ) such as, ‘I can, I am able, it is possible, it can be done,’etc. Repeat this affirmation to yourself several times a day. It will help you get into a positive mindset, and motivate you. Write down a paragraph confirming these positive messages. For example: ‘My exam technique is improving every day, I am becoming more confident and I am not worried about exam day. I am learning more and more each day, and I am remembering it.’ Carry a piece of paper with your messages on, looking at it whenever you need a boost. If there is someone in your life who is negative about you, or tells you that you can not achieve your goal, AVOID their company. I always use this technique…………….. If that is not possible, like if you have to work with them in different audit assignments at clients or need interaction in AUDIT hall then simply keep repeating your affirmation to yourself, and learn to ignore their negativity and let them free what they are……………….who care !!!!!
HOW TO MAKE YOURSELF PROMOTABLE:
You want a promotion at work and want to make sure your boss thinks of you when an opening comes up? Try the following strategies to make yourself the No. 1 choice: 1. Do not wait for the job vacancy. Pave the way by making sure your boss knows you want more responsibility. 2. Employee need to treat their own company as client. In order to stay competitive, inform your employer of your competencies and your talents. 3. Prepare for position you are interested in. If you are going for a job in a foreign country, begin taking language class before any opportunity presents itself. Think about portability. 4. Likewise, do not let a company know your are interested in a forgiven post if you can not do it. You could, though, tell them you can not do it. That’s helps them know where they can promote you. 5. Follow through in every commitment made to your boss, colleagues or anyone else
THE WORST CAREER LIMITING MOVES: Make these mistakes and you may be kissing your career goodbye. 1. Garbage in, user out: Using your office computer inappropriately is an easy exit strategy. That means surfing the internet during work hours. Do not exchange highly personal e-mails either. 2. Biting the hand that pays you. Embarrass your boss regularly, by using “reply all” function in your computer to answer your supervisor’s call for frank feedback. Do not talk about performance of colleagues. 3. A round hole takes a round peg. Clash as obviously as possible with your work place culture and everyone will start to wonder why you were here. Informally and formally, every workplace dictates how employee should dress, what they can discuss in the canteen and how they treat clients and colleagues. Know the culture and make it second nature.
4. What, I study? Position yourself as an expert who no longer needs instructions or correction no matter how senior you are. Express” I do not take courses any more---I give them” 5. Be you ever so humble. Keep quiet about you accomplishments and you may convince your bosses there are not any worth talking about. 6. It was not me. Refuse to admit your mistakes and you could fine yourself telling it to the judge. Employers are not impressed when you deny, deny, deny, and then week later, relent and say, “Oh, yeah. Uh………sorry.” Sometimes people with their hearts set on a path forget why chose that route. So forgoing career limiting moves are for them to lose their job to get better one with careful planning of their career.
ACCOUNTING SOFTWARE FOR CA’s Demonstration of sound communication AND cents of other skills is very important to go ahead of your colleagues and keep going in your professional career. Fortunately, there is a compact disk (CD) available at the software CD shops and shopping malls namely CHARTERED ACCOUNTANT 2004, the best accounting software for chartered accountants. Make a habit to use and master each and every topic on that CD. Also, we can take great benefit from Microsoft ®PowerPoint because from time to time we need to deliver presentations on variety of subjects. An excellent way is to use templates and wizards of POWERPOINT facility in your computer by using following techniques. You just need to make your presentation and take print outs and photo-copy these print outs on lamination papers available at stationary shops and rest of work is just to place your pages on projector slide show. (In PSTC you might learn to use a projector) and for giving presentations on multimedia you need to take copy of presentation on floppy disk rather to print out; later floppy will be use in CPU attach to multimedia device. Introduction Discuss examples of the worst presentations you have seen-or been involved in What in particular made the presentation ineffective? How did the participants react? Think about your own presentation style, either in relation to presentations you have made recently, or based on your own self-awareness in terms of presentations you know you may have to make in the future. Spend approximately five minutes making notes about your own specific strengths and weakness related to presentations. This way you will avoid certain shortcomings in your presentations.
Writing a Presentation
There are very clear differences in approach between writing a report and writing a presentation. While both reports and presentations have need for research, accuracy and appeal, a presentation is by its nature more conversational in style, and less densely packed in contents. The clearest way to think about is that reports are read and presentations are listened to. The person reading a report can skip backwards and forwards, re-read to check understanding, or absorb the information in comfortable chunks. If you are listening to a presentation, you are essentially trapped, and at the mercy of the presenter. We need to think about these differences mean in terms of approaching the writing of a presentation. Delivery of Presentation Are you nervous for an upcoming presentation, yes it is obvious! The state that tends to call nerves is something that the most experienced percentages suffer from. The chief enemy is tension, which will ruin your posture and your voice, and limit your spontaneity. A tense throat will reduce the range and quality of your voice; tense shoulders will limit the flexibility, literally, of your posture; and tension in legs can lead to shaking and general unsteadiness. Tension can be reduced by following a personal set of relaxation exercises. What works for one person would not necessarily be right for someone else, but the exercises in the section on breathing should be a good starting point. Actors recognize that nerves can have the positive effect of sharpening you up and heightening your awareness. Adrenalin is responsible for this. It’s what is called the fight or flight syndrome, a left over from the Stone Age when our primitive ancestors, faced with ganger, would be given a rush of energy to either fight the danger or run away. We can use that same dynamic energy to bring an edge to our presentations. Do not fight nerves, welcome them. Then you can get on with your presentation rather than thinking” I am nervous.”
The nature of an audience Even though no two audiences are ever completely alike in their reactions, whether to a play, a concert, or a presentation, there are still many ways in which audiences are similar. There are several generalizations we can make about audiences: Audience is lazy. It is absolutely vital than when making presentations you try to exude an air of confidence, so that the audiences has confidence in you. The other essential is to make sure you are audible: an audience that has to work to hear you will not bother for long. An audience is a collection of individuals. They may behave as a group, but each one of them is expecting you to make contact with them. It is terribly easy to feel left out if you are being presented to and the presenter seems to be looking more often at the others. Audiences are easily bored. You need to use all the techniques at your disposal to maintain interest. This does not automatically mean visual pyrotechnics: a carefully prepared, well paced script may do the job just as well. Delivering your presentation with energy and enthusiasm will excite your audience. If you seem bored, they will become bored. Audience is not stupid: they know when they are being conned, and they when you are not sure of yourself. So always rehearse: there is no substitute!
Dealing with questions Handling questions is one of those things which most presenters could happily do without. But the fact is that it is never very pleasant laying yourself open to the possibility of having your areas of ignorance exposed, or your views publicly challenged. Always make sure you allow time for questions at the end. When inviting questions, avoid leaping strain on if nobody appears forthcoming. And if some body needs clarification make it clear there will be a chance for questions at the end. Remember that audiences are lazy, and be visibly confident when giving your answers. Always make sure you listen to the question being asked. If you are nervous, you may find you have missed everything the questioner said, “Ask them to clarify what they mean rather to apologize for not getting any thing”
Giving Answer Stay calm if a questioner takes issues with something you have said. Try and find a way of agreeing with part of their argument before either restating your position or modifying it to take account of their objection. Make use of phrases such as: “I am glad you raised that point, but………” “Yes, I understand what you are saying ………..” The best thing to do is to praise their point and agree with them if at all possible— otherwise you run the risk of alienating them by making them look foolish.
We need to see here that a career is an integral component of our life. It will be a mistake if we were planning our career without planning our life. We need to do some homework in terms of defining our career span and personal goals before we move on to draw a lifecareer plan. STEP1. Find out Career Span We can start from assuming that we will be lucky to retire at the age of sixty (60). Subtracting your current-age from this number will be your career-span for which one needs to plan. STEP2. Identify Personal Goals. Personal goals vary from time to time during mid-part of career financial security will be our first priority but not necessarily so for a person with a matured career. VIEW POINT 1--Purpose of life to spend your life according to the way your religion tells you and in doing so you can achieve financial security very well. VIEW POINT 2—purpose of life to be happy and satisfied mentally and financially. You should do what makes you happy. STEP 3 Career and Life plan What do you do? What we expect out of our life and what price we are ready to pay for it. For example, your job requires working late hours making you frequently miss family occasions. What should you do? Should an individual go for something even if that is not capable of providing the financial security for himself and his family? Suppose that you like helping people and would like to work for a non-commercial organization but that is less remunerative than another offer of joining a commercial organization in cutthroat competition.
What do you do? Would you compromise? An important aspect of one’s nature to consider in preparing a career plan are the principles, which influence personal behavior and hence goals. Suppose you find it difficult to lie but you find yourself in job situation where you can not speak truth. For example, you are a finance manager, your company is having cash flow problems and a vendor calls you to pay. What would you do if you get a job offer from a conventional Bank? Suppose you believe that the conventional banking system is not according to the tenants of Islam.
With a plan in place, the individual can then go on to search for career options, which are closely aligned to personal goals. The purpose of career planning is to make one’s career enriching and a pleasant experience.
Plan your career very carefully. Whether you like to settle and work abroad or like to continue your practice in Pakistan. By June 30, 2002 members of Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan were 3036, of whom 584 resides outside Pakistan while remaining 2452 resides in Pakistan. It’s a globalize world, people can work together, no matter where they live. In a time of porous borders, e-mail and overnight flights to anywhere, if you decided to work abroad then take concrete steps yourself rather to rely completely on Agents……suicide!!!
FAMILY AND YOU
How far you went in life, how much money you earned how big a name you made for yourself. What really mattered were family and the love you had for one another. The most important day of your life was not graduation from college or your first day at work or a raise or even your first house. The most important day of your life was when you got married. Or if you are still bachelor then never mind………hope for the best! It was that day that all your friends and all your family got together to celebrate the most important thing in life: your happiness-your ability to make a new home, to form a new but connected family, to find love that put everything else into perspective.
8.1 MARRIAGE MYTHS AND STRONG FAMILIES
According to study of the life of CA’s, it is observed that the CA’s who looks very reserved at first sight are very successful in their marriage life. How do they do that? Very simple—One of my teachers repeat one phrase again and again during lectures that “Professional are not humans” because Professionals never discussed their real life. They immersed their selves in schoolwork, the debate team, computer games, listening to music, watching movies, and anything to give them an excuse not to confront reality. At last they need somebody at the later stage of CA to break this secretive shell to make sense they are part of a very powerful society and to eliminate the feeling they are not frog of a well anymore. Do you like to have a successful marriage life…….yes it is all about perfect relationship? But here are some classic misconceptions about the perfect relationships: It’s a meeting of minds. None of us can truly understand how our spouse views the world because we are genetically and historically different. While it is good to try to see things through each other’s eyes.
It needs amazing romance. Being in love is not like falling in love; such intense feelings can not last. Your relationship is not lackluster because the initial spark is missing. Move instead to the next stage of love- an abiding commitment. It means you solve all problems. Few real conflicts in a marriage ever get resolved. That would mean one of you sacrificing your beliefs, and why should one opinion be more important than the other? Healthy couples simply agree to disagree.
It is peaceful. Arguing can actually help a relationship by releasing tension. What is more critical is how you argue: attacking the other person’s worth is destructive, as is arguing simply because your daily life together is not stimulating enough. It has nothing to do with need of each other. This will lead to anxiety or destructive behavior. There must be satisfaction of affection motive, a chemistry that makes you recognize you are more than friends. You are mates.
The secrets of Strong Families 1. Communication: the best type of communication in families is positive, open, and honest and, in some cases, laced with humor. 2. Togetherness. Strong families share” invisible glue,” giving them a firm sense of belonging. When someone in the family has a problem, all pull together to find the solution. 3. Sharing Activities: Strong families choose to play together like skating, camping, walking, swimming etc. This will help children’s to catch the idea of strong family bonds. 4. Affection. Members regularly show each other they care. For example. A question about how things are going and being genuinely interested in the answer. 5. Support: They are comfortable offering or seeking support. If any family member has a challenge, there are other family members to listen advice and support. 6. Acceptance: Members value acknowledges and tolerates each other. 7. Commitment. The wellbeing of the family is a high priority. 8. Resilience. Reacting to challenges in a positive way is essential.
8.2 DINING ETIQUETTE
I spent tens of thousands of Rupees and some of the best years of my life on a university education. But it took just three hours and Rs.150 to learn some of life's most valuable social skills — dinner-table etiquette. If etiquette is so important and is expected at the dinner table, then why do so many university-educated students know so little about it? "I think in this day and age people are focused on the (more) superficial aspects of everyday life." HOW TO USE A NAPKIN The meal begins when the host unfolds his or her napkin. This is your signal to do the same. Place your napkin on your lap, completely unfolded if it is a small luncheon napkin or in half, lengthwise, if it is a large dinner napkin. Typically, you want to put your napkin on your lap soon after sitting down at the table (but follow your host's lead). At some very formal restaurants, the waiter may do this for the diners, but it is not appropriate to place your own napkin in your lap, even when this is the case. If your napkin falls on the floor during a very formal event, do not retrieve it. You should be able to signal a member of the serving staff that you need a fresh one. The napkin remains on your lap throughout the entire meal and should be used to gently blot your mouth when needed. If you need to leave the table during the meal, place your napkin on your chair as a signal to your server that you will be returning. The host will signal the end of the meal by placing his or her napkin on the table. Once the meal is over, you too should place your napkin neatly on the table to the right of your dinner plate. (Do not refold your napkin, but don't wad it up, either.) HOW TO ORDER If, after looking over the menu, there are items you are uncertain about, ask your server any questions you may have. Answering your questions is part of the server's job. It is better to find out before you order that a dish is prepared with something you do not like or are allergic to than to spend the entire meal picking tentatively at your food. An employer will generally suggest that your order be taken first; his or her order will be taken last. Sometimes, however, the server will decide how the ordering will proceed. Often, women's orders are taken before men's. As a guest, you should not order one of the most expensive items on the menu or more than two courses unless your host indicates that it is all right. If the host says, "I'm going -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------..................balance the demands for study, professional work and family life
to try this delicious sounding cheesecake; why don't you try dessert too," or "The prime rib is the specialty here; I think you'd enjoy it," then it is all right to order that item if you would like.
READING THE TABLE SETTINGS
Should you be attending a formal dinner or banquet with pre-set place settings, it is possible to gain clues about what may be served by "reading" the place setting. Start by drawing an imaginary line through the center of the serving plate (the plate will be placed in the center of your dining space). To the right of this imaginary line all of the following will be placed; glassware, cup and saucer, knives, and spoons, as well as seafood fork if the meal includes seafood. It is important to place the glassware or cup back in the same position after its use in order to maintain the visual presence of the table. To the left of this imaginary line all of the following will be placed; bread and butter plate (including small butter knife placed horizontally across the top of the plate), salad plate, napkin, and forks. Remembering the rule of "liquids on your right" and "solids on your left" will help in allowing you to quickly become familiar with the place setting
HOW TO USE A KNIEF, FORK AND SPOON Use of Silverware Choosing the correct silverware from the variety in front of you is not as difficult as it may first appear. Starting with the knife, fork, or spoon that is farthest from your plate, work your way in, using one utensil for each course. The salad fork is on your outermost left, followed by your dinner fork. Your soupspoon is on your outermost right, followed by your beverage spoon, salad knife and dinner knife. Your dessert spoon and fork are above your plate or brought out with dessert. If you remember the rule to work from the outside in, you'll be fine.
Holding a Utensil In general use, both spoon and fork are held horizontally by balancing them between the first knuckle of the middle finger and the tip of the index finger while the thumb steadies the handle. The knife is used with the tip of the index finger gently pressing out over the top of the blade to guide as you cut. There are two ways to use a knife and fork to cut and eat your food. They are the American style and the European or Continental style. Either style is considered appropriate. In the American style, one cuts the food by holding the knife in the right hand and the fork in the left hand with the fork tines piercing the food to secure it on the plate. Cut a few bite-size pieces of food, and then lay your knife across the top edge of your plate with the sharp edge of the blade facing in. Change your fork from your left to your right hand to eat, fork tines facing up. (If you are left-handed, keep your fork in your left hand, tines facing up.) The European or Continental style is the same as the American style in that you cut your meat by holding your knife in your right hand while securing your food with your fork in your left hand. The difference is your fork remains in your left hand, tines facing down, and the knife in your right hand. Simply eat the cut pieces of food by picking them up with your fork still in your left hand. At the end of a course, a utensil must not be left in any dish that is not flat -- the soup bowl, for example, or a shrimp cocktail dish, a teacup or a parfait glass. All these items are usually presented with a plate underneath the bowl or cup, on which the utensil must be placed after use. FOODS THAT YOU CAN EAT WITH YOUR FINGERS Bread Bread must always be broken, never cut with a knife. Tear off a piece that is no bigger than two bites worth and eat that before tearing off another. If butter is provided (and at formal events it customarily is not), butter the small piece just before eating it. There is an exception to this rule: if you are served a hot roll, it is permissible to tear (not cut) the whole roll lengthwise down the middle and place a pat of butter inside to melt. Cookies It is never necessary to try to eat the cookie that comes as a garnish to your dessert with a spoon. Unless it has fallen so far into the chocolate sauce that there isn't a clean corner by which to pick it up. Chips, French Fries, Fried Chicken, and Hamburgers All these items (which could also probably be classified as "fast foods") simply will not be served in a formal setting. Most are intended to be eaten with the hands, although a particularly messy hamburger could be approached with fork and knife, and steak fries (the thick-cut, less crispy variety) may be best eaten with a fork.
Sandwiches The straightforward sandwich -- that is, any sandwich that is not open-faced, not too tall to fit in the mouth, not saturated with dripping sauces or loaded with mushy fillings -- is intended to be picked up and eaten. Otherwise use fork and knife. Small Fruits and Berries on the Stem If you are served strawberries with the hulls on, cherries with stems or grapes in bunch, then it is okay to eat them with your fingers. Otherwise, as with all berries, the utensil of choice is a spoon. In the case of grapes, you may encounter a special scissors, to be used to cut off a small cluster from the bunch. If not, tear a portion from the whole, rather than plucking off single grapes, which leaves a cluster of unattractive bare stems on the serving platter. BASIC TABLE MANNERS Eating (Things you should do):
If you are at a dinner party wait until your host(ess) starts eating or indicates you should do so. Chew and swallow all the food in your mouth before taking more or taking a drink. Break bread and rolls with your fingers not with your knife. Break off a small piece of bread (or roll and butter it. Do not butter the whole slice or half a roll at one time. You may use a piece of bread on a fork to soak up sauce or gravy. Never hold the bread in your fingers to do this. Only clear consommé should be drunk directly from the soup bowl, and then only if it has handles. You may eat chicken and pizza with your fingers if you are at a barbecue, finger buffet or very informal setting. Otherwise always use a knife and fork. If you are served a certain food in someone’s home that you really dislike, rather than protesting, just leave it on your plat. If anyone ask why you did not touch your food, just say” I am not hungry” instead of “I hate the fish”. It is best to order foods that can be eaten with a knife and fork. Fingers foods can be messy and are best left for informal dining. Adding sauces and spices can be ill-mannered: It is an insult to pour sauce, salt or pepper all over your food before you even tasted it If foods spills off your plate, you may pick it up with a piece of your silverware and place it on the edge of your plate. Never spit a piece of bad food or tough gristle into your napkin. Remove the food from your mouth using the same utensil it went in with and place the piece of food on the edge of your plate. Slurping-do not!!! Drinking soup or eating noodles-be quiet.
Things you should not do:
Never chew with your mouth open. Never talk with food in your mouth. Never put too much food in your mouth. Never mash or mix food on your plate. Do not blow on hot food or drink. Do not sip from a coffee spoon or teaspoon. Never use your fingers to push food onto your spoon or fork. Do not play with table utensils or crumble the bread. Never, if possible cough or sneeze at the table. Tea or coffee should never be poured into the saucer to cool, but sipped from the cup.
Passing dishes and food (Things you should do):
Soup spoons, coffee spoons, and dessert spoons should be placed on the service plate or saucer when you are finished eating. Never leave them in the bowl, cup etc. Always pass to the right. Initiate the passing of rolls, butter, and condiments even if you do not want any. Pass jugs, gravy boats etc. with the handle toward the recipient. If you need something that you can not reach easily, politely ask the person closest to the item you need to pass it to you. Say ”Please” when you request for something and say ”Thank you” when you receive something.
Things you should not do:
Never reach across the table. If anything isn't directly in front of you, ask for it to be passed.
Posture and behavior(Things you should do):
When being entertained at someone's home it is nice to take a gift for the host and hostess. A bunch of flowers or chocolates are all acceptable. On arrival in a restaurant or at a formal function give your coat to the waiter, never hang it on the back of your chair. If in doubt ask your host(ess). When you wish to use the toilet, excuse yourself and leave quietly. Do not ask people where they are going if they excuse themselves, say, “Excuse me for a moment, please.” If a piece of silver ware falls onto the floor, pick it up if you can reach it and let the server know you need a clean one. If you can not reach it, tell the server you dropped a piece of your silverware and ask for a clean one. Toothpicks-are not usually on the table in a home. After the meal, go to the bathroom and clean your teeth if you need to. In restaurants, they are usually at the counter where you pay as you go out. Again, it is best to clean your teeth in the bathroom. Maintain good posture at table; you can sit nicely straight on the chair and not sit collapsed like a rag doll. When cutting something, keep your elbows as close to your body as possible.
Things you should not do:
Elbows should not be on the table until after all courses have been cleared away. Never lean on your elbows! Keep your posture erect. Never rock back in your chair. Never smoke during a meal. Smoking should not take place until dessert is finished. Follow the lead of the host or ask if you may smoke. Use ashtrays only. Never apply makeup or comb your hair at the table. Never touch your nose, hair or teeth at the table.
WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED
Do not push your plate away from you when you have finished eating. Leave your plate where it is in the place setting. The common way to show that you have finished your meal is to lay your fork and knife diagonally across your plate. Place your knife and fork side by side, with the sharp side of the knife blade facing inward and the fork, tines down, to the left of the knife. The knife and fork should be placed as if they are pointing to the numbers 10 and 4 on a clock face. Make sure they are placed in such a way that they do not slide off the plate as it is being removed. Once you have used a piece of silverware, never place it back on the table. Do not leave a used spoon in a cup, either; place it on the saucer. You can leave a soupspoon in a soup plate. Any unused silverware is simply left on the table. TIPPING Questions of tipping puzzle people particularly because the custom seems to spread ever more widely and the amounts change constantly. For example, when should you tip? When should you not? How much is proper? Is it humiliating to under tip? Is it crass to over tip? When should you withhold a tip, and if you do, should you spell out exactly why you are withholding it, or should you just say nothing? Most people feel that their moral obligation to tip ceases entirely when the service is rendered in an irritable, sloppy, or inefficient manner. My philosophy is that you tip a great deal less when service is rendered in a negative way. Many people rely on their tips for the major part of their income, and to deprive them of every cent of what you had planned to give could be a real hardship. I always rationalize myself into giving an unpleasant person at least a small tip, because I feel (without any supporting evidence) that each time I encounter an obnoxious person, he or she has probably just lost a spouse or found out that the bank account is hopelessly overdrawn or that the children are in trouble at school--and that is why I am being treated so badly.
when you are a host in a modest restaurant, there are many fewer people to tip: 15 percent of the total bill, including soft drink, to the waiter Rs.20 to the coat check person, if there is one
Tip the Fast-food Deliverer Again you are not obligated to tip the young person who brings something like a KFC/Macdonald’s Burger to your home, but it’s nice to do it. Give Rs.20 for one or two regular pizza boxes, but if you have a large quantity or group of over-sized pizza delivered for a party, tip Rs.50. Large quantities are difficult to handle, and a larger tip helps.
8.3 TODAY’S KIDS
Some of their parents may have grown up without electricity, but today’s kids are at home in a world awash in technology. How the ubiquity of (1) SMS messaging (2) Internet (3) Mobiles and electronic games will shape them is anybody’s guess.
Today’s kids are the most wired in history. The world that today’s kids inhabit is diverging sharply from the one their parents grew up in. Unlike other generation gaps, this one dose not revolves around mores, fashion or pop culture as much as technology. Childhood relationships are made or broken with a few strokes of a cell-phone keypad. Skills are being acquired less from books than from videogames. Technology is reshaping the experiences of millions of children around the world. Is this good thing? Is the stimulation of new media preparing kids for a future high-tech worldor turning them into antisocial, superficial dolts? Here is the research finding given for guiding parents to know how this technology is affecting their children:
THE END OF MAKE BELIEVE Kids do not have the time they need for imaginative play. Technology may be the biggest culprit because television, video and computer games tend to serve up readymade characters, plots and dialogue, which children passively absorb. Entertainment Technologies such as instant messaging, videogames and cell phones have made childhood better. Agree Disagree Not sure 29% 37 34
Technologies will help make today’s children more cultured than their parents. Agree Disagree Not sure 55% 22 23
LISTENING TO THE KIDS Tech companies look at teens to figure out what’s cool, what’s hot—and what’s next. The goal: to see how they used technology in their daily lives, and then to turn that information into new products—not just for kids but for the rest of us, too. Business Which future technology will be As tomorrow’s kids adapt to most affected by the tastes of today’s technology, which skill will suffer young people? most? Cell phones Internet Videogames PDA s Instant messaging 35% 29 18 15 3 Interpersonal skills Craftsmanship Reading Athletics Math 52% 26 13 8 2
LOG ON AND LEARN
No more teachers? No more books? For today’s kids, the internet has all the answers. When used well, technology lets kids tap into a vast store of knowledge that was once inaccessible. Education What is the optimal amount of screen time children should be allowed each day? An hour or less Two to four hours Unlimited None 51% 42 6 2
Technology is reducing children’s involvement most in which activity?
Reading Imaginary play Sports Playing a musical Instrument
37% 29 27 8
TUNING IN, TURNING ON
The tech revolution is reaching even the remotest of kids in Pakistan. That’s both good and bad. For the first time, kids who grow up in remote areas, even with poor connections and old technology…have the potential to see and learn and speak and share information with people in faraway places. SMS text messages use to flirt each other , unheard and unseen by their parents The VCD so cheap and easy to burn on a home computer used both to spread western culture and to fight it. Politics Parents should exert strict controls How has technology affected the over what their children see on the divide between the haves and the internet. have-nots? Agree Disagree Not sure 69% 20 11 Increased it Decreased it No effect 64% 22 14
My concern is that computer is very powerful technology, the effects of which we do not really know. To prove this here is the research to find out right and wrongs: 70% 10 years old and older have web access at home. 52% spend more than five hours online a week. 80% of parents do not know how to use PC security settings to block some sites to kids. 67% of children are more knowledgeable than their parents about computers. Which technology has had the most negative impact on children? Internet Cell phones Instant messaging Videogames 8% 8 6 78
Impact Which technology do you think has had the most positive impact on kids? Internet Cell phones Instant messaging Videogames 92% 5 3 0
SUGGESTIONS TO PROTCTS YOUR CHILD Here are some suggestions for finding the right balance:
Make clear rules and stick to them. Each family is different, but some good starting points are to keep the computer, mobile, and TV off during meals, keep these things out of kids’ bedrooms and limit or ban these technologies on school nights from Monday to Friday. Provide alternatives. Do not just tell your kids what to do something else. Work with them to find interesting and healthy activities like reading or swimming. Watch TV as a family. Pick programmers that everyone will enjoy and use the experience to spend time together. Relaxation on Chat. Do not allow your child to chat on MIRC, ICQ, AOL or other useless and time sucking chatting software’s. Encourage them to chat on school homework or productive issues on MSN/Yahoo! messenger with family and friends. Get help from technology. Use feature in Explorer to ban unnecessary sites or get the help of expert. Get an internet connection from reputed ISP’s like Comsat. Visit the internet properties to to see the data accessed from your computer. See history file also resides in windows folder to see the web-sites visited and act accordingly and immediately. o o o o Separate controls for each child using individual e-mails Safer Communication to protect child from talking with strangers. Weekly report on e-mails, MSN chat, and time on line spent Stay in charge while your kid surf.
Safe Surfing Sites. These are those sites that care enough about child safety online to rate themselves. o www.kidsfreeware.com o www.kidsdomain.com o www.we-blocker.com (the best software) o www.surfnetkids.com o www.4kids.org
CA’s Lifestyle Conclusion
Let your child discover the best the internet has to offer! Here is the surfing guide: (1) www.cnn.com (news, weather), www.bbc.com (sports), www.usatoday.com (updated news) (2) www.islamicfinder.org (prayer times around the world) (3) www.karkaz.org.uk (best site on Jihad) (4) www.islam.tc (Islamic website) (5) www.apple.com, www.compaq.com, www.hp.com, www.ibm.com, www.microsoft.com, www.novell.com, www.intel.com(computer manufactures) (6) www.intellimatch.com, www.usmall.com/college, www.occ.com(financial aid) (7) www.uno.org (unites nations), www.britishcounsil.org.pk(A & O level Information) (8) www.careerpath.com, www.cweb.com(education and career) (9) www.fedx.com, www.tcs.com.pk, www.dhl.com.pk(couriers) (10) www.ufone.com, www.mobilinkgsm.com, www.ptcl.com.pk,(communication) (11) www.govt.com.pk (Governments official websites including links of all ministries) (12) www.islamabad.net (complete information about embassies) www.blueareaonline.com (location finder of each plaza) (13) www.apniisp.com(songs, downloads, ring tones), www.mtv.com(music), www.rockhall.com(live concerts), www.music.sony.com/music/musicindex.html(english songs), www.wallpapers.com(wallpapers), www.fm100pakistan.com(Live Fm radio) (14) www.rd.com (Readers Digest) www.timesasia.com (Time magazine), www.newsweek.com(Newsweek magazine) Are you looking for an appropriate Gift for your friend or parents at any special occasion, or are you like to read about information on any specific subject; just logon to search engine for example, (1)www.altavista.com(2)www.google.com, (3)www.yahoo.com(4)www.msn.com. Write the word/phrase best describe the subject and then choose your selected sites to visit.
HEALTH vs. DEATH
Just as there is no consensus about when conscious life begins, there is none about when it ends. Determining the precise time of death is, in fact, medically and scientifically impossible. It used to be thought that the point of death was a single moment in time. It is now thought that death is process, not a single moment. We need something to go by, though. So our society has come up with various legal and social definitions to give us a sense of finality. Here are terms we are most familiar with: Clinical death Breathing and heartbeat have stopped. Brain Death The lower brain, or brainstem, which controls automatic body functions, stop working. A person can be kept alive only with the help of lifesupport machines. Persistent Vegetative State/Death of Higher Brain the brainstem still functions, keeping the heart, lungs and digestive system working, but the sensing, thinking part of the brain has shut down. It may be possible to keep the body functioning for long periods with life-support systems. Whole brain Death both lower and higher brain functions have ceased.
MAKING YOUR MEDICINE MEASURE UP
Majority of patients do not take their medicine properly OR they use medicines without prescription of Doctor. Although by doing this you can save YOUR time and money but in the long run this habit may have serious consequences. You must visit a doctor whenever you fell ill rather to prefer home-made solutions. Here are some ideas: Strictly follow doctors’ instructions and warnings. Use an exact form of measurement, such as an oral syringe, to measure medicine. Finish the complete course of antibiotics. Never take medicine in the dark More dose not mean better with medicine. If you forget on dose, do not double up the next time. What good for you might be bad for the next person, so do not share medicine
THE WHEN AND WHAT OF WELL-BEING Why demanding professions attract life-threatening dieses like blood pressure, heart problem, obsession; simply because we do not notice much about medical condition of our body and have no knowledge to conclude nature of disease until it become chronic(old). You must know which particular sign leads to particular disease for this you have to see your doctor at different intervals irrespective of your age. Who can remember when you are supposed to get a cholesterol test or at what age to schedule a colon-cancer exam? You can, with the chart below, though people with a chronic condition such as diabetes or at high risk for cancer, heart disease or glaucoma should discuss their screening needs with a doctor and for further help you can logon to www.lifeclinic.com if you do not know the meaning and nature of diseases listed below then search the web with particular reference to this disease:
Blood pressure Cholesterol Pep smear Mammography Blood Sugar Glaucoma Colonoscopy Stool occult blood
Years of Age 35 40 45 50
Every 2 years Every 5 years Yearly Yearly Every 3 years Every 1-2 years Every 5-10 years Yearly
One very common term with which we are not familiar is DNA. It is the abbreviation of the word Deoxyribonucleic acid. Here are the definitions to this word: (1) The material which carries the hereditary instruction (the “blue print”) which determine the formation of all living organisms. Genes, the organizers of inheritances, are composed of DNA. (2) A nucleic acid found in the nucleus of a cell and consisting of a polymer formed from nucleotide and shaped like a double helix; associated with two/true transmission of genetic information; “DNA is the king of molecules”
ONE LAST WORD
When you sit down to do study, do your best to be physically comfortable. That makes a difference—a much bigger difference than you may think. Wear loose, comfortable clothes. If businesswomen and businessmen did not have to sit at their desks all day in tight-fitting high-heeled shoes that squish their feet and make their lives miserable—or tight collars and neckties that choke them to death—the whole country of PAKISTAN would probably be three times as productive as it is. Fortunately when you are at home doing study, you can dress as you like. So dress comfortably. Make sure, also, that you have got enough light, try to see that room is not too hot or too cold, and get away from distracting noises as best you can. A piece of advice to Bachelors “please keep changing your rented homes(hostels or private houses are some of those exceptions) after every 9 months. Conditions will never be perfect, but do your best to make them as quiet and comfortable as you can. In order for your study program to work you will have to balance following TWO things 1- Eat four-to-six meals a day spaced out at 2 ½ to 3 hours interval. Every CA want a physical image….do not you? But if you starve for your study; as many students do…you can not achieve your goal to look healthier, beautiful and smart and professional. Because after three to four hours of NO FOOD your body switches to a catabolic state (a state in which you lose muscles and gain fat). The body believes that it is starving and it starts feeding itself on lean muscle tissues and it prepares to store calories as fat. Bad scenario! Along with this one very common mistake among us is not taking about 8 to 12 glass of water daily. Water cleans your body form toxins that would get you sick. Processes such as energy production, muscle building, and fat burning require water. A lack of water can interrupt these processes. 2-During your study days you shut yourself in your room with books nights after night while your peers developed various skills through socializing……..If you withdrew from study for a while to enjoy each and every moment you will miss the track of CA………so balance demands rather to follow your fellows. Because without CA when you looked toward the years ahead, you could not see a future. There was just a void. Was I going to be alone my whole life? No certainly not……..just balance the things. All of these things will make you more efficient in studying smart, and studying smart means to keeps your name in the list of successful candidates every time.
Wishing you sparking future!
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