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CONFIRMING INFORMATION GATHERING

TaskOriented
Question
Construction
Wheel
Based on
Bloom's
Taxonomy

Permission is granted
for use of this material
provided the following
credit line appears on
all copies:
ìTask Oriented
Question Construction
Wheel Based on
Bloom's Taxonomy,î
©2004 St. Edward's
University Center for
Teaching Excellence.

INFORMATION
GATHERING

ACTIVITIES

ACTIVITIES
A definition
A dictionary
Events
Films
Magazine articles
Newspapers
People
Radio
Recordings
Television shows
Text reading
Video

ACTIVITIES
Comparison of standards
Conclusion
Court Trial
Editorial
Establishment of standards
Evaluation
Group Discussion
Recommendation
Self-Evaluation
Survey
Valuing

VERBS

VERBS

VERBS
Define
Describe
Draw
Identify
Label
Locate
Memorize
Name
Recite
Recognize
Select
State
Write

CONFIRMING USE OF KNOWLEDGE
Cartoon
Photograph
ACTIVITIES
Collage
Poster
Diagram
Skit
Drama
Speech
Graph
Story
Own statement
Tape recording

Analogy
Causal relationships
Conclusion or implication
based on data
Outline
Summary

Change Match
Confirm Paraphrase
Express Restate
Illustrate Transform

VERBS
Extend Relate
Distinguish
Compare Infer
Summarize
Generalize Predict
Defend Explain
VERBS

COMPREHENSION

APPLICATION

KNOWLEDGE

Apprise
Assess
Compare
Consider
Criticize
Critique
Judge
Recommend
Relate
Solve
Summarize
Weigh

EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES

Apply
Change
Choose
Classify
Collect
Discover
Dramatize
Draw
Interpret
Make
Model
Modify
Paint
Prepare
Produce
Report
Show
VERBS

ANALYSIS

Analyze Categorize Classify
Compare Construct Contrast
Differentiate Distinguish
Examine
Infer Investigate
Point out Research
Select
Separate
Subdivide
Survey
Take apart

SYNTHESIS
Add to
Combine
Construct
Create
Design

MAKING USE OF
KNOWLEDGE

Develop
Originate
Formulate
Plan
Hypothesize Produce
Invent
Role-Play
Organize
What if

CreatingÖ
A cartoon
A project
A drama
A puzzle
A filmstrip
A question
A forecast
Diagram
A list
Illustration
A map
Photograph
A meeting
Sculpture
A mobile
Solution
A painting
A paper which follows an outline
Shifting smoothly from
one gear into another

ACTIVITIES

Break down an argument
Draw a conclusion
Graph
Identify parts of a propaganda statement
Model
Questionnaire
Report
Survey
Syllogism

VERBS

JUDGING THE
OUTCOME

A play
Article
Book
Cartoon Game
Poem
Report
Song
Story
Formulate a hypothesis or question
Set of rules, principles. or standards
Speculate on or plan an alternate course of action

Invention

ACTIVITIES

TAKING
APART

PUTTING TOGETHER
Copyright 2004 St. Edwardís University Center for Teaching Excellence

Hess’ Cognitive Rigor Matrix & Curricular Examples: Applying Webb’s Depth-of-Knowledge Levels to Bloom’s Cognitive Process Dimensions – Math/Science
Revised Bloom’s
Webb’s DOK Level 1
Webb’s DOK Level 2
Webb’s DOK Level 3
Webb’s DOK Level 4
Strategic Thinking/ Reasoning
Taxonomy
Recall & Reproduction
Skills & Concepts
Extended Thinking
o Recall, observe, & recognize
Remember
Retrieve knowledge from
long-term memory,
recognize, recall, locate,
identify

Understand
Construct meaning, clarify,
paraphrase, represent,
translate, illustrate, give
examples, classify,
categorize, summarize,
generalize, infer a logical
conclusion (such as from
examples given), predict,
compare/contrast, match like
ideas, explain, construct
models

Apply
Carry out or use a procedure
in a given situation; carry out
(apply to a familiar task), or
use (apply) to an unfamiliar
task

Analyze
Break into constituent parts,
determine how parts relate,
differentiate between
relevant-irrelevant,
distinguish, focus, select,
organize, outline, find
coherence, deconstruct

o

o
o
o
o
o

facts, principles, properties
Recall/ identify conversions
among representations or
numbers (e.g., customary and
metric measures)
Evaluate an expression
Locate points on a grid or
number on number line
Solve a one-step problem
Represent math relationships in
words, pictures, or symbols
Read, write, compare decimals
in scientific notation

o
o
o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o

o
o

o

Follow simple procedures
(recipe-type directions)
Calculate, measure, apply a rule
(e.g., rounding)
Apply algorithm or formula (e.g.,
area, perimeter)
Solve linear equations
Make conversions among
representations or numbers, or
within and between customary
and metric measures
Retrieve information from a table
or graph to answer a question
Identify whether specific
information is contained in
graphic representations (e.g.,
table, graph, T-chart, diagram)
Identify a pattern/trend

Specify and explain relationships
(e.g., non-examples/examples;
cause-effect)
Make and record observations
Explain steps followed
Summarize results or concepts
Make basic inferences or logical
predictions from data/observations
Use models /diagrams to represent
or explain mathematical concepts
Make and explain estimates

o Select a procedure according to
criteria and perform it
o Solve routine problem applying
multiple concepts or decision points
o Retrieve information from a table,
graph, or figure and use it solve a
problem requiring multiple steps
o Translate between tables, graphs,
words, and symbolic notations (e.g.,
graph data from a table)
o Construct models given criteria
o Categorize, classify materials, data,
figures based on characteristics
o Organize or order data
o Compare/ contrast figures or data
o Select appropriate graph and
organize & display data
o Interpret data from a simple graph
o Extend a pattern

Evaluate
Make judgments based on
criteria, check, detect
inconsistencies or fallacies,
judge, critique

Create
Reorganize elements into
new patterns/structures,
generate, hypothesize,
design, plan, construct,
produce

o

Brainstorm ideas, concepts, or
perspectives related to a topic

o Generate conjectures or hypotheses
based on observations or prior
knowledge and experience

o Use concepts to solve non-routine
problems
o Explain, generalize, or connect ideas
using supporting evidence
o Make and justify conjectures
o Explain thinking when more than
one response is possible
o Explain phenomena in terms of
concepts

o Relate mathematical or scientific
concepts to other content areas,
other domains, or other
concepts
o Develop generalizations of the
results obtained and the
strategies used (from
investigation or readings) and
apply them to new problem
situations

o Design investigation for a specific
purpose or research question
o Conduct a designed investigation
o Use concepts to solve non-routine
problems
o Use & show reasoning, planning,
and evidence
o Translate between problem &
symbolic notation when not a direct
translation

o Select or devise approach
among many alternatives to
solve a problem
o Conduct a project that specifies
a problem, identifies solution
paths, solves the problem, and
reports results

o Compare information within or
across data sets or texts
o Analyze and draw conclusions from
data, citing evidence
o Generalize a pattern
o Interpret data from complex graph
o Analyze similarities/differences
between procedures or solutions

o Analyze multiple sources of
evidence
o analyze complex/abstract
themes
o Gather, analyze, and evaluate
information

o Cite evidence and develop a logical
argument for concepts or solutions
o Describe, compare, and contrast
solution methods
o Verify reasonableness of results

o Gather, analyze, & evaluate
information to draw conclusions
o Apply understanding in a novel
way, provide argument or
justification for the application

o Synthesize information within one
data set, source, or text
o Formulate an original problem given
a situation
o Develop a scientific/mathematical
model for a complex situation

o Synthesize information across
multiple sources or texts
o Design a mathematical model
to inform and solve a practical
or abstract situation

© 2009 Karin Hess permission to reproduce is given when authorship is fully cited khess@nciea.org

Hess’ Cognitive Rigor Matrix & Curricular Examples: Applying Webb’s Depth-of-Knowledge Levels to Bloom’s Cognitive Process Dimensions - Reading
Revised Bloom’s
Webb’s DOK Level 1
Webb’s DOK Level 2
Webb’s DOK Level 3
Webb’s DOK Level 4
Strategic Thinking/ Reasoning
Taxonomy
Recall & Reproduction
Skills & Concepts
Extended Thinking
o
Recall, recognize, or locate
Remember
Retrieve knowledge from
long-term memory,
recognize, recall, locate,
identify

Understand
Construct meaning, clarify,
paraphrase, represent,
translate, illustrate, give
examples, classify,
categorize, summarize,
generalize, infer a logical
conclusion), predict,
compare/contrast, match like
ideas, explain, construct
models

Apply
Carry out or use a procedure
in a given situation; carry out
(apply to a familiar task), or
use (apply) to an unfamiliar
task

Analyze
Break into constituent parts,
determine how parts relate,
differentiate between
relevant-irrelevant,
distinguish, focus, select,
organize, outline, find
coherence, deconstruct (e.g.,
for bias or point of view)

o
o
o

basic facts, details, events, or
ideas explicit in texts
Read words orally in connected
text with fluency & accuracy
Define terms
Identify or describe literary
elements (characters, setting,
sequence, etc.)
Select appropriate words when
intended meaning/definition is
clearly evident
Describe/explain who, what,
where, when, or how

o Specify, explain, show relationships;
explain why, cause-effect
o Give non-examples/examples
o Summarize results, concepts, ideas
o Make basic inferences or logical
predictions from data or texts
o Identify main ideas or accurate
generalizations of texts
o Locate information to support explicitimplicit central ideas

o

o Use language structure
(pre/suffix) or word relationships
(synonym/antonym) to determine
meaning of words

o Use context to identify the meaning
of words/phrases
o Obtain and interpret information
using text features

o Apply a concept in a new context

o Illustrate how multiple themes
(historical, geographic, social)
may be interrelated

o Identify whether specific
information is contained in
graphic representations (e.g.,
map, chart, table, graph, T-chart,
diagram) or text features (e.g.,
headings, subheadings, captions)

o Categorize/compare literary
elements, terms, facts, details,
events
o Identify use of literary devices
o Analyze format, organization, &
internal text structure (signal words,
transitions, semantic cues) of
different texts
o Distinguish: relevant-irrelevant
information; fact/opinion
o Identify characteristic text features;
distinguish between texts, genres

o

Analyze information within data sets
or texts
o Analyze interrelationships among
concepts, issues, problems
o Analyze or interpret author’s craft
(literary devices, viewpoint, or
potential bias) to critique a text
o Use reasoning, planning, and
evidence to support inferences

o

o
o

Evaluate

Reorganize elements into
new patterns/structures,
generate, hypothesize,
design, plan, produce

Cite evidence and develop a logical
argument for conjectures
o Describe, compare, and contrast
solution methods
o Verify reasonableness of results
o Critique conclusions drawn

o Generate conjectures or hypotheses
based on observations or prior
knowledge and experience

o Explain how concepts or ideas
specifically relate to other
content domains or concepts
o Develop generalizations of the
results obtained or strategies
used and apply them to new
problem situations

o
o
o

o

Make judgments based on
criteria, check, detect
inconsistencies or fallacies,
judge, critique

Create

Explain, generalize, or connect
ideas using supporting evidence
(quote, example, text reference)
o Identify/ make inferences about
explicit or implicit themes
o Describe how word choice, point of
view, or bias may affect the readers’
interpretation of a text

o Synthesize information within one
source or text
o Develop a complex model for a
given situation
o Develop an alternative solution

Analyze multiple sources of
evidence, or multiple works by
the same author, or across
genres, time periods, themes
Analyze complex/abstract
themes, perspectives,
concepts
Gather, analyze, and organize
multiple information sources
Analyze discourse styles

o Evaluate relevancy, accuracy, &
completeness of information
from multiple sources
o Draw & justify conclusions
o Apply understanding in a novel
way, provide argument or
justification for the application
o Synthesize information across
multiple sources or texts
o Articulate a new voice,
alternate theme, new
knowledge or perspective

Hess’ Cognitive Rigor Matrix & Curricular Examples: Applying Webb’s Depth-of-Knowledge Levels to Bloom’s Cognitive Process Dimensions - Writing
Revised Bloom’s
Webb’s DOK Level 1
Webb’s DOK Level 2
Webb’s DOK Level 3
Webb’s DOK Level 4
Strategic Thinking/ Reasoning
Taxonomy
Recall & Reproduction
Skills & Concepts
Extended Thinking
Remember
Retrieve knowledge from
long-term memory,
recognize, recall, locate,
identify

Understand
Construct meaning, clarify,
paraphrase, represent,
translate, illustrate, give
examples, classify,
categorize, summarize,
generalize, infer a logical
conclusion), predict,
compare/contrast, match like
ideas, explain, construct
models

Apply

o Describe or define facts, details,
terms
o Select appropriate words to use
when intended meaning/definition
is clearly evident
o Write simple sentences

o

Carry out or use a procedure
in a given situation; carry out
(apply to a familiar task), or
use (apply) to an unfamiliar
task

Analyze
Break into constituent parts,
determine how parts relate,
differentiate between
relevant-irrelevant,
distinguish, focus, select,
organize, outline, find
coherence, deconstruct (e.g.,
for bias, point of view)

o

Apply rules or use resources to
edit specific spelling, grammar,
punctuation, conventions, word
use
Apply basic formats for
documenting sources

o Decide which text structure is
appropriate to audience and
purpose

o Specify, explain, show relationships;
explain why, cause-effect
o Give non-examples/examples
o Take notes; organize ideas/data
o Summarize results, concepts, ideas
o Identify main ideas or accurate
generalizations of texts

o

o Use context to identify the meaning
of words/phrases
o Obtain and interpret information
using text features
o Develop a text that may be limited to
one paragraph
o Apply simple organizational
structures (paragraph, sentence
types) in writing
o Compare literary elements, terms,
facts, details, events
o Analyze format, organization, &
internal text structure (signal words,
transitions, semantic cues) of
different texts
o Distinguish: relevant-irrelevant
information; fact/opinion

o Revise final draft for meaning or
progression of ideas
o Apply internal consistency of text
organization and structure to
composing a full composition
o Apply a concept in a new context
o Apply word choice, point of view,
style to impact readers’ interpretation
of a text
o Analyze interrelationships among
concepts, issues, problems
o Apply tools of author’s craft (literary
devices, viewpoint, or potential
dialogue) with intent
o Use reasoning, planning, and
evidence to support inferences made

Evaluate

Explain, generalize, or connect
ideas using supporting evidence
(quote, example, text reference)
o Write multi-paragraph composition
for specific purpose, focus, voice,
tone, & audience
o

Create
Reorganize elements into
new patterns/structures,
generate, hypothesize,
design, plan, produce

Cite evidence and develop a logical
argument for conjectures
o Describe, compare, and contrast
solution methods
o Verify reasonableness of results
o Justify or critique conclusions

o Brainstorm ideas, concepts,
problems, or perspectives related
to a topic or concept

o Generate conjectures or hypotheses
based on observations or prior
knowledge and experience

o Select or devise an approach
among many alternatives to
research a novel problem
o Illustrate how multiple themes
(historical, geographic, social)
may be interrelated

o

o
o

o

Make judgments based on
criteria, check, detect
inconsistencies or fallacies,
judge, critique

o Explain how concepts or ideas
specifically relate to other
content domains or concepts
o Develop generalizations of the
results obtained or strategies
used and apply them to new
problem situations

o Develop a complex model for a
given situation
o Develop an alternative solution

Analyze multiple sources of
evidence, or multiple works by
the same author, or across
genres, or time periods
Analyze complex/abstract
themes, perspectives,
concepts
Gather, analyze, and organize
multiple information sources

o Evaluate relevancy, accuracy, &
completeness of information
from multiple sources
o Draw & justify conclusions
o Apply understanding in a novel
way, provide argument or
justification for the application
o Synthesize information across
multiple sources or texts
o Articulate a new voice,
alternate theme, new
knowledge or perspective

© 2009 Karin K. Hess: Hess’ Cognitive Rigor Matrix: Permission to reproduce is given when authorship is fully cited [khess@nciea.org]
For full article, go to www.nciea.org

Levels of Complexity
• Recall/Reproduction – Recall a fact, information, or procedure;
process information on a low level
• Skill/Concept – Use information or conceptual knowledge, two or
more steps
• Strategic Thinking – Requires reasoning, developing a plan or a
sequence of steps, more than one reasonable approach
• Extended Thinking – Requires connections and extensions, high
cognitive demands and complex reasoning

Levels
of
Thinking
in
Bloom’s
Taxonomy
and
Webb’s
Depth
of
Knowledge


Bloom’s
–
Old
Version
(1956)


Bloom’s
‐
New
Version
(1990’s)


Webb’s
DOK
(2002)


Bloom's
six
major
categories
were
changed
from
noun
to
verb

forms
in
the
new
version
which
was
developed
in
the
1990’s
and

released
in
2001.
The
knowledge
level
was
renamed
as

remembering.
Comprehension
was
retitled
understanding,
and

synthesis
was
renamed
as
creating.
In
addition,
the
top
two
levels

of
Bloom’s
changed
position
in
the
revised
version.


Bloom’s
Taxonomy


Revised
Bloom’s
Taxonomy


Knowledge


Remembering


Recall
appropriate
information.


Comprehension


Understanding


Grasp
the
meaning
of
material.


Application


Applying


Analysis


Analyzing


Use
learned
material
in
new
and
concrete
situations.


Break
down
material
into
component
parts
so
that
its

organizational
structure
may
be
understood.


Synthesis


Evaluating


Put
parts
together
to
form
a

new
whole.


Make
judgments
based
on
criteria
and

standards.


Evaluation


Creating
(Previously
Synthesis)


Judge
value
of
material

for
a
given
purpose.


Put
elements
together
to
form
a

coherent
or
functional
whole;

reorganizing
elements
into
a
new

pattern
or
structure
through

generating,
planning,
or
producing.


Norman
L.
Webb
of
Wisconsin
Center
for
Educational
Research
generated
DOK
levels
to

aid
in
alignment
analysis
of
curriculum,
objectives,
standards,
and
assessments.




Webb’s
Depth
of
Knowledge
&
Corresponding
Verbs

*Some
verbs
could
be
classified
at
different
levels
depending
on
application.

Recall
and
Reproduction
Correlates
to
Bloom’s
2
Lowest
Levels

Recall
a
fact,
information,
or
procedure.


arrange,
calculate,
define,
draw,
identify,
list,
label,
illustrate,
match,
measure,
memorize,

quote,
recognize,
repeat,
recall,
recite,
state,
tabulate,
use,
tell
who‐
what‐
when‐
where‐

why


Skill/Concept


Engages
mental
process
beyond
habitual
response
using
information
or
conceptual

knowledge.
Requires
two
or
more
steps.

apply,
categorize,
determine
cause
and
effect,
classify,
collect
and
display,
compare,

distinguish,
estimate,
graph,
identify
patterns,
infer,
interpret,
make
observations,
modify,

organize,
predict,
relate,
sketch,
show,
solve,
summarize,
use
context
clues


Strategic
Thinking


Requires
reasoning,
developing
plan
or
a
sequence
of
steps,
some
complexity,
more
than

one
possible
answer,
higher
level
of
thinking
than
previous
2
levels.


apprise,
assess,
cite
evidence,
critique,
develop
a
logical
argument,
differentiate,
draw

conclusions,
explain
phenomena
in
terms
of
concepts,
formulate,
hypothesize,
investigate,

revise,
use
concepts
to
solve
non‐routine
problems


Extended
Thinking
Correlates
to
Bloom’s
2
Highest
Levels


Requires
investigation,
complex
reasoning,
planning,
developing,
and
thinking‐probably

over
an
extended
period
of
time.
*Longer
time
period
is
not
an
applicable
factor
if
work
is

simply
repetitive
and/or
does
not
require
higher‐order
thinking.

analyze,
apply
concepts,
compose,
connect,
create,
critique,
defend,
design,
evaluate,

judge,
propose,
prove,
support,
synthesize

Debbie
Perkins,
2008


Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Overview Chart
Level of Complexity (measures a
student’s Depth of Knowledge)

Key Verbs That May
Clue Level
Arrange
Measure
Level 1
Calculate
Name
Recall/Reproduction
Perform
Recall a fact, information, or procedure. Cite
Define
Quote
Process information on a low level.
Describe
Recall
Draw
Recite
Bloom
Explain
Record
Know/Remember
Give
examples
Repeat
“The recall of specifics and universals,
Identify
Report
involving little more than bringing to
Illustrate
Select
mind the appropriate material.”
Label
State
Locate
Summarize
Comprehend/Understand
List
Tabulate
“Ability to process knowledge on a low
Match
level such that the knowledge can be
reproduced or communicated without a
verbatim repetition.”
Generalize
Apply
Level 2
Graph
Calculate
Skill/Concept
Identify patterns
Categorize
Use information or conceptual
Infer
Classify
knowledge, two or more steps
Interpolate
Compare
Interpret
Compute
Bloom
Modify
Construct
Apply
Observe
Convert
“Uses information in another familiar
Organize
Describe
situation.”
Predict
Determine
(Executes - Carries out a procedures in
Relate
Distinguish
a familiar task)
Represent
Estimate
(Implements - Uses a procedure in an
Explain
Show
unfamiliar task)
Extend
Simplify
Extrapolate
Solve
Find
Sort
Formulate
Use

Evidence of Depth of Knowledge



















Explain simple concepts or routine procedures
Recall elements and details
Recall a fact, term or property
Conduct basic calculations
Order rational numbers
Identify a standard scientific representation for
simple phenomenon
Label locations
Describe the features of a place or people
Identify figurative language in a reading
passage

Solve routine multiple-step problems
Describe non-trivial patterns
Interpret information from a simple graph
Formulate a routine problem, given data and
conditions
Sort objects
Show relationships
Apply a concept
Organize, represent and interpret data
Use context clues to identify the meaning of
unfamiliar words
Describe the cause/effect of a particular
event.
Predict a logical outcome
Identify patterns in events or behavior

Level of Complexity (measures a
student’s Depth of Knowledge)

Level 3
Strategic Thinking
Requires reasoning, developing a plan
or a sequence of steps, some
complexity
Bloom
Analyze
“Breaking information into parts to
explore understanding and
relationship.”
Evaluate
“Checks/Critiques – makes judgments
based on criteria and standards.”

Level 4
Extended Thinking
Requires an investigation, time to think
and process multiple conditions of the
problem. Most on-demand
assessments will not include Level 4
activities.
Bloom
Synthesize
“Putting together elements and parts to
form a whole
Evaluate
Making value judgments about the
method.”

Key Verbs That May
Clue Level
Appraise
Examine
Assess
Explain how
Cite evidence
Formulate
Check
Hypothesize
Compare
Identify
Compile
Infer
Conclude
Interpret
Contrast
Investigate
Critique
Judge
Decide
Justify
Defend
Reorganize
Describe
Solve
Develop
Support
Differentiate
Distinguish

Evidence of Depth of Knowledge

Appraise
Connect
Create
Critique
Design
Judge
Justify
Prove
Report
Synthesize














Solve non-routine problems
Interpret information from a complex graph
Explain phenomena in terms of concepts
Support ideas with details and examples
Develop a scientific model for a complex
situation
Formulate conclusions from experimental data
Compile information from multiple sources to
address a specific topic
Develop a logical argument
Identify and then justify a solution
Identify the author’s purpose and explain how
it affects the interpretation of a reading
selection
Design and conduct an experiment that
requires specifying a problem; report
results/solutions
Synthesize ideas into new concepts
Critique experimental designs
Design a mathematical model to inform and
solve a practical or abstract situation.
Connect common themes across texts from
different cultures
Synthesize information from multiple sources