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Diesels Afloat

Diesels Afloat

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Marine engine repair- how to- This help me, to understood marine engines troubleshooting
Marine engine repair- how to- This help me, to understood marine engines troubleshooting

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Published by: exmulator on Jan 05, 2010
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03/31/2013

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INDEX

278

Batteries (continued)
general purpose, 157
lead acid, 157, 158, 162, 164
engine start, 157—159
service, 158, 163
topping up, 164
maintenance-free, 153
nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd), 160
self-discharge, 160, 162, 167
sulphation, 162, 163, 166
Battery, 134, 139, 137, 167
chargers, 167
fuse, 137
switch, 134, 139
Boeshield T.9, 260
Brunel, Isambard Kingdom, 204
Brunton Propellers Autoprop, 216, 221

Calorifiers, 113
Cam-belts, rubber, 31
Camshaft, 30, 31, 248
overhead, valves operated by, 30

CAV, 57
Charge regulators, 162, 166
‘smart’, 143, 166, 167
fitting, 146
Cold start relay, 136
Combustion (‘swirl’) chamber, 25
Compression ignition, 9
Consumables, 274
Cooling system, 77—80, 82, 86, 92, 94, 95, 97, 99,
102, 104, 105, 109—112
air cooling, 77
cooling, 77, 78, 80, 82, 86, 92, 94, 95, 97, 99,
102, 104, 105, 109—112
anodes, see anodes: cooling system, 104
antifreeze, see antifreeze, 109, 110, 112, 113,
235, 239
anti-syphon valve, see syphon break, 97
coolant, 110, 239
draining, 112
freshwater systems, 114
raw water systems, 113
dry riser, 109, 110
freshwater circulating pump, 91
heat exchangers, see heat exchangers, 92

maintenance, 239
refilling, 112
bleed points, 113
freshwater systems, 114
raw water systems, 113
seacock, ‘Blake’ type (Kingston Valve), 241
seawater pump, see seawater (raw water) pump, 82
syphon break, see syphon break, 96
thermostat, see thermostst, 99
water cooling, 77, 79
direct (raw water), 77
exhaust, 78
indirect (fresh water), 78
keel, 78, 82
troubleshooting, 235
water flow failure, 82
water injection bend, 79, 108
water-logged engine, 110
starting, 111
water strainers, see water strainers, 105
winterization, 115, 257
Corrosion, electrolytic, 6, 7, 137, 239
Cylinder bore glazing, 39, 40
bore polishing, 41
prevention, 42
compression, 40
grooves (honing), 40
oil, 40
pressure, insufficient, 41
prevention, 42
re-honing, 43

DB Marine, 177
Decompressors, 31, 32
Dehumidifier for winterization, 260
Detroit Diesels, 19, 21
Diesel, Rudolf, 1
Diesel engine, 1, 2, 9, 10, 13, 19, 25, 30, 32, 36, 40,
42, 49, 50, 70, 122, 123, 127, 133, 150

modern, 2
type required, 10
two-stroke diesel engine, 19
small marine, development of, 2, 26
Drive, 4—8, 105
sail, see sail drive, 6
shaft, see shaft drive, 4

INDEX

279

stern, see stern drive, 5
‘V’, 5
‘Z’, 5, 174—176
Drive belts, 179, 275
short life, 181
tension adjustment, 179
tension measurement, 180
Dynamo, 134, 138, 156, 179, 237
Dynastart, 156, 157, 237

Electrics, engine, 137
batteries; starter motor, 136, 151, 229
battery, 137, 139, 159
chargers, 159
fuse, 137
switch, 139
block diagrams, 133
start circuit, 133
cold start, 136, 231
relay, 136
system, 231
dynamo, 139
dynastart, 157
engine ‘fuse’, 141, 231
‘ignition’ key, 139
‘ignition’ switch, 137
isolation solenoid, ‘negative’, 137
maintenance, 248
starter relay, 136
starter solenoid, 136
stop control, 163, 230
stop solenoid, 136
tachometer, 138
troubleshooting, see troubleshooting: engine
won’t start — electrics, 134, 137
warning ‘buzzer’, 139
warning lights, 138, 225, 229
winterization, 257
Electronic engine management, 197, 200
control system, 187
function, 198
instruments, digital, 199
troubleshooting, 200
Volvo Penta IPS engines, 199
Engine and prop shaft alignment, 261—263
recommissioning: engine alignment, 261

Engine fine filter, 63
bowl type, 64
‘spin off’ type, 63, 65
Engine ‘fuse’, 225
Engine management, electronic, see Electronic
engine management, 4, 136, 197,
198, 200
Engine mounts, maintenance, 254, 255
sail drives, 255
shaft drive, 255
Engine mounts, recommissioning, 264
Engine operation, correct, 49
Engine power, 43
fuel consumption, curves, specific, 44
manufacturer’s figures, meaning, 45
motor cruisers, 46
performance curves, 48
propeller law power curves, 44
sailing yachts, 47
torque curves, 44
Engine servicing, see Maintenance: engine
servicing, 239
Engine won’t start, see Troubleshooting: engine fails
to start, 137
Exhaust, 96, 197, 248, 258
emissions, control of, 197
injection bend, 96, 248, 258
pipe hose, 258
Exhaust smoke, see Smoke in the exhaust, 35
Exhaust system, 39, 82, 96, 108, 110, 127
blockages, 110
dry riser, 109, 110
no water from, 82
sailing yachts, 110
water injection bend, 108
Exhaust valves, 10, 20, 29
adjusting clearance, 30

Fault prevention, 223
Feeler gauge, 252, 264, 274
Fire detection, 267
warning device, 271
Fire extinguishers, engine compartment, 267
automatic operation, 276
electrical system, shutting off, 270
systems, 261, 268—271

INDEX

280

Fire extinguishers (continued)
types, 268
dry powder, 268
fine solid particulate, 269
halocarbon gas systems, 269
Fire in engine compartments, causes, 267
Ford 1.5/1.8-derived engines, 31
Ford Escort engine, 31
Four stroke cycle, 10
compression stroke, 10
exhaust stroke, 11
ignition, 10, 13
induction stroke, 10
multi-cylinder engines, 13
power stroke, 11, 13
Freshwater circulating pump, 91, 92
Fuel, biological contamination, 72—74
filter, primary: draining water, 55—56
biocides, 73
enzyme fuel additives, 73—74
magnetic fuel conditioners, 73
water removers, 73
Fuel consumption, specific (SFC), 48, 49
Fuel cut-off, 70—72
Fuel filter, primary, 68—70
CAV, 57
draining water, 55—57
contamination, 72—74
Lucas, 144—146
position and purpose, 159
servicing, 158
transparent bowl, 55—56, 73
Fuel gauges, 55
Fuel injectors, 57, 62, 65—68
common rail injection, 25, 26
direct injection, 24, 25
indirect injection, 25
pre-heating engine, 29
Fuel injection pump, 33—35, 38, 65, 66
bleed point, 68—70
combined with fuel injector, 25, 26
fuel rack, 22
stopping the engine, 70—72
governor, 21, 33—35
location, 35
plunger (piston), 22, 69

servicing, 56, 57
timing, incorrect, 38, 65
Fuel injectors, 66
combined with fuel injection pump, 26
servicing, 56, 65
worn, 38
Fuel lift pump, 57—62
attached to injection pump, 57
diaphragm, changing, 57
filter, cleaning, 57—58
later types, 58
location, 58
priming lever, 62
removing, 65, 66
separate pumps, 66
valves, 61
Fuel system, 66—68
air removal (bleeding, priming, venting), 68—70
troubleshooting, 225
winterization, 74—75
Fuel tank, 51—54
baffles, 53
cleaning, 54
construction, 52
drain cock, 52
draining, 54
filter/strainer, 54
isolation valve (fuel cock), 54—55
sight gauge, 55
sludge/dirt trap, 51
winterization, 257—260

Gear selection, see Throttle and gear selection,
183
gearbox, 169
astern drive, 170
clutches, 170
drive, loss of, 176—177
forward drive, 170
gearwheels, 170
maintenance, 175—176
neutral, 174, 184, 186
oil, 175
oil change, 126, 175
speed reduction, 169
troubleshooting, 176

INDEX

281

types, 170
bevel gears, 174
epicyclic, 173—174
layshaft, 172
two-shaft, 170—171
Volvo Penta MS2, 177
Glow (pre-heater) plugs, 27
Great Britain, SS, 204

Heat exchangers, 78
anodes, 96, 103
blockage, 107
multiple seawater-cooled, 86
problems, 86—89
tube stack, 92—94
Heating for winterization, 260
Hitachi, 146
Hull types, engines for, 3—4
Hydrometer, 160—163

Ignition, compression, 9—10
‘Ignition’ key, 71, 139, 197
‘Ignition’ switch, 54, 137
Inlet valves, 10, 29, 61, 251
adjusting clearance, 248—253
Instruction books, 49—50
Isolation solenoid, ‘negative’, 137

Lombardini, 26
Lubrication system, 117—126
lubricating, 117
crankcase breather, 120
gearbox, see oil, gearbox, 126
low oil pressure alarm, 236—242
maintenance, 239
oil filter, 119
oil pump, 117—119
pressure relief valve, 119, 236
sump (oil pan), 117—118
strainer, 118
system, 118
Lucas, 57, 144

Maintenance, 239—256
anodes, 239
antifreeze, 239

engine and prop shaft alignment, 256
recommissioning: engine alignment,
261
engine mounts, 261—264
air system, 247—248
cooling system, 257—258
electrical system, 248
engine servicing, 239—256
fuel system, 244—247
lubrication/oil changing, 242—244
sail drive, 234
shaft drive, 233
valve clearance, adjusting, 248—252
Moody boats, 54

Newton’s laws of motion, 204

Oil, engine lubricating, 121—126
lubrication system, 117
changing, 123—126
frequency, 121
cooling, 122
corrosion, inhibiting, 122
cylinder bore glazing, 39
functions, 121—122
lubrication requirements, 121
specifi cation, 122—123
type required, 123
Oil, 118—120, 126, 244,
filter, 119—120
gearbox, 169
changing, 126, 244
pressure pump, 118, 119
pressure relief valve, 119
Optima batteries, 159
Outdrive, see Stern drive, 5—6

Perkins engines, 28
bleed points, 70—71
Petter engines, 1, 27
Anodes, 103
mini 6 and mini twin, 27, 103
Piston rings, 10, 40, 42
Plugs, pre-heater (glow), 27
Propeller Handbook, 221
Propeller shaft, see Shaft drive, 4

INDEX

282

Propeller(s), 4, 209—227
anodes, 218
blade lift and drag, 204
calculations, 211—212
choice of, 212, 218—220
for displacement motor boats, 212
for planing motor boats, 214
for sailing yachts, 218, 220, 225—226, 227
clearance, 213
diameter, 209, 213
efficiency, 205, 211—212
fixed pitch, 210
function, 210
gear ratio, 218
how they work, 204
mounting, 4
pitch, 207—221
power curve, 212
rotation, direction of, 214
sailing drag, 214—216, 219
sized for max speed, power & rpm, 212
slip, 204, 207, 211
when laying up out of the water, 266
thrust, 204—210, 213—221
aeration, 208
blade area, 206, 208—209
blade area ratio, 209, 214
blade twist, 209, 211, 217
cavitation, 207—210, 214—216
diameter, 203, 206, 207, 209, 213—214
pitch, 203, 205, 210, 212, 215, 216, 218
reverse, 214, 216, 220
types, 209, 217—219
autoprop, 216, 217, 219, 221
feathering, 213—216, 218—220
fixed blade, 209, 214, 217, 221, 223, 225—227
folding, 209—210, 213—214, 218—220
for planing motor boats, 214
self-pitching, 216, 217, 219
variable pitch, 216, 217
water flow past, 215, 219—220
Push-rod-operated valves, 30

Recommissioning, 261—265
engine alignment, see also engine and prop shaft
alignment, 261—265

adjusting, 264—265
checking, 262—265
horizontal, 261—262
Rocker box cover, 250—253

Sabb engines, 27, 28, 91
Sail drive, 6—8, 105, 126, 138, 143, 174—176,
218
engine mount maintenance, 253—264
external water temperature, 8
oil change, 7, 126, 244
rubber diaphragm, 7
troubleshooting, 234
Volvo Penta, 7, 105, 109—110, 175, 218, 224, 230,
244, 250
Yanmar, 7, 138, 143, 244
Screw, see Propellers, 203—205
Seacock, ‘Blake’ type (Kingston Valve), 241
Seawater (raw water) pump, 82—91
belt-driven, 91
failure causes, 86—89
impeller, 85—90
changing, 84
location, 85—86
principle, 83
Sabb engines, 91
servicing, 89—91
Volvo Penta MD2000 series engines, 90
Shaft drive 4—5, see also Engine and prop shaft
alignment, 256
couplings, 233—234, 256, 262—265
engine mount maintenance, 253—255
thrust angle/line, 5, 6
thrust bearings, 5
troubleshooting, 233—234
Smoke in the exhaust, 35—39
black, 35—37
acceleration, 36
other, 37
overload, 37
blue, 37—39
white, 39
Soltron, 73—74
Spares, 274—275
Speed control, 32—35
accelerating the engine, 34

INDEX

283

governor, 33—35, 40—41
electronic, 35
hydraulic, 35
location, 35
weights, 33—34
slowing the engine, 34—35
speed control lever, see ‘throttle’, 33
too much load, 35
Starter motor, 136, 150—156
Bendix drive, 150—151
brushes, replacing, 154—156
checking engagement mechanism, 153—154
checking operation, 154
maintenance, 152—153
pre-engaged, 150, 151—152
Starter relay, 136
Starter solenoid, 136
Starting, cold, 26
compression ratio, raising, 27
fuel, extra, 26
pre-heating, 27
chemical igniters, 28
electric heater in air intake, 29
Thermostart, 28
Starting, requirements for, 13, 15
Starting fluid, 232
Starting water-logged engine, 111
Stern drive (outdrive), 5, 6, 8, 234
changing gearbox oil, 244
troubleshooting, 234
Stern gear, when laying up out of the water, 260
Stern glands, recommissioning, 261
Stop control, 72, 120, 125, 163, 201, 230, 243
Stop solenoid, 136, 137, 230
Stopping the engine, 70, 120
electrically, 71
mechanically, 71
Sump (oil pan), 117
strainer, 117, 118
Super-charging, 18
Syphon break, 96, 97, 241
anti-syphon valve, 97, 98
cleaning, 98
Volvo Penta, 98
maintenance, 241
seawater in working parts of engine, 96

system, 96—98

Tachometer, 138
Thermostat, 99—101
changing, 101
failure, 101
location, 101
operation, 99
running while removed, 102
testing, 102
‘Throttle’ (speed control lever), 33
accelerating and slowing the engine, 34
smoke in the exhaust, 35
Throttle and gear selection, 183
dual-station systems, 186
gear, 186
throttle, 186
electronic systems, 187
maintenance of selectors, 190
cables, replacing, 196
friction adjustment, 190
Whitlock unit, changing, 190
operating cables, 188
single-lever controls, 184
disengaging gear linkage, 185
forward, 184
reverse, 185
starting in gear, ‘micro-switch’ preventing, 186
troubleshooting, 225, 226, 231
shaft drive systems, 233
twin-lever systems, 183
Tools, 273
Troubleshooting, 225
alternator/generator warning light illuminates, 236
engine low oil pressure alarm operates, 236
engine overheat alarm sounds, 231
engine turns but won’t start, 229
air, pre-heating, 232
engine turns normally, 230
engine turns slowly, 229
fuel system, 231
engine won’t start, 225
electrics, 227
fails to turn, 225
‘jump’ starting, 229
wiring diagrams, 227

INDEX

284

Troubleshooting, (continued)
exhaust, no water from, 234
gear selection, no response to, 232
throttle, no response to, 232
True Marine ‘Speed Seal’, 85
Turbo-charging, 13
inter-cooler (heat exchanger), 17
life of, extending, 18
limitations in boat types, 17
operation, 14
power output, 14, 19
principle of, 14
smoke, black, 35
temperatures, 14
waste gate, 17
Two-stroke diesel engine, 19
compression phase, 19
exhaust phase, 20
ignition phase, 20
inlet phase/ports, 19
power phase, 20

‘V’ drive, 5
Valve gear, 29
adjusting clearance, 30
camshaft, 29, 30
exhaust valves, 29
inlet valves, 29
overhead camshaft-operated valves, 30
push-rod-operated valves, 30
Ventilation for winterization, 258, 260
Vetus engines, 31
Volkswagen Golf-derived engine, 31
Volvo Penta engines, 9, 19
Anodes, 103
anti-syphon valve, 97, 98
electrical circuit, 134
emergency stop button, 201
IPS, 8

electronic engine management, 197

MD1, 27
MD2, 27
MD3, 27
MD22, 31

MD2000 series, 27
oil breather, 120
seawater pump, 89
MS2 gearbox, 175, 177, 233
sail drive, 6, 105, 126, 138, 143, 218, 234,
244, 255
seawater pump, older engines, 85
stern glands, 261

‘Warming up’ the engine, 42
Warning ‘buzzer’, 139
Warning lights, 138
Water displacing fluid, 260, 274
Water injection bend, 79, 108
Water-logged engine, 110
starting, 111
Water pumps, see Cooling system: freshwater,
79, 80
circulating pump; seawater pump, 95
Water strainers, 105
blockage, clearing, 107
cap replacement, 108
checking and cleaning, 106
location, 105
types, 106
WD, 260
Westerly boats, 53
Winterization, 257
air system, 258
cleanliness, 259
cooling system, 257
dehumidifier, 260
electrics, 259
fuel system, 74
fuel tank, 257
heating, 260
when laying up out of the water, 260
servicing, 257
ventilation, 260

Yanmar engines, 26
1GM, 103
1GM10, 103, 143
2GM, 87

INDEX

285

2GM20F, 45
3GM, 87
3GM30F, 249
4LH-DTE, 46
alternator, 134, 138, 139, 140, 142
anodes, 103, 104

emergency stop control, 207
sail drive, 6, 105, 126, 138, 143
seawater pump, 82, 85, 89
small, 225

‘Z’ drive, 5, 174, 176

The following images have been reproduced from other sources with permission.

Early diesel engine on page 2. Reproduced by permission of Volvo.

Cutaway Yanmar engine on page 2. Reproduced by permission of E. P. Barrus Ltd.

Petter Mini 6 engine on page 2. Reproduced by permission of Petter.

Diaphragms image on page 8. Reproduced by permission of E. P. Barrus Ltd.

Hot exhaust pipes on page 18. Reproduced by permission of Volvo.

Detroit diesel engine on page 19. Reproduced by permission of Detroit Inc.

Photo of honing on page 40. Reproduced by permission of Volvo.

Power curves diagrams on pages 44 to 48. Reproduced by permission of E. P. Barrus Ltd.

Exploded fuel pump on page 60. Reproduced by permission of Perkins Engines Company Limited.

Fuel lift pump on page 62. Reproduced by permission of Perkins Engines Company Limited.

Injection pump on page 65. Reproduced by permission of Perkins Engines Company Limited.

Fuel injection pump on page 66. Reproduced by permission of Volvo.

Pipe clamps on page 66. Reproduced by permission of Volvo.

Injection pipes on page 66. Reproduced by permission of Volvo.

Air-cooled diesel engine on page 78. Reproduced by permission of Petter.

Tube stack on page 93. Reproduced by permission of E. J. Bowman (Birmingham) Ltd.

Heat exchanger unit photo on page 93. Reproduced by permission of E. J. Bowman (Birmingham) Ltd.

Cooling water header tank photo on page 93. Reproduced by permission of E. J. Bowman (Birmingham) Ltd.

Exploded heat exchanger photo on page 95. Reproduced by permission of E. J. Bowman (Birmingham) Ltd.

Exploded anti-syphon valve on page 98. Reproduced by permission of Volvo.

Thermostat testing on page 102. Reproduced by permission on Volvo.

Exploded starter diagram on page 154. Reproduced by permission of E. P. Barrus Ltd.

Nightrider on page 268. Reproduced by permission of David Gibby.

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