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# Introduction to Stability

BM

KM
B

K
CL

CLASS TOPICS
1. Definitions
2. Stability Reference Points
3. Stability Triangle
4. Conditions of Stability
5. Stability Curve

## STABILITY KEMAMPUAN SEBUAH KAPAL

SETELAH MENDAPAT GAYA DARI LUAR.
(TO RIGHT ITSELF OR OVERTURN)
INITIAL STABILITY - THE STABILITY OF A
SHIP IN THE RANGE FROM 0 TO 7/10
OVERALL STABILITY UKURAN UMUM
SEBUAH KAPAL UNTUK MENOLAK CAPSIZING
DYNAMIC STABILITY STABILITAS SEBUAH
MEMBERIKAN SUDUT KEMIRINGAN

LAWS OF BUOYANCY
SEBUAH BENDA YANG MENGAPUNG
MEMPUNYAI SIFAT DAYA APUNG
SEBUAH BENDA YANG TERAPUNG
MEMINDAHKAN AIR YANG SAMA BERATNYA
DENGAN BENDA YANG MENGAPUNG
TERSEBUT.

00
DISPLACEMENT

G
B

04
DISPLACEMENT

G
B

09
DISPLACEMENT

G
B

16
DISPLACEMENT

G
B

20
DISPLACEMENT

DISPLACEMENT
BERAT DARI VOLUME AIR YANG DIPINDAHKAN
OLEH BADAN KAPAL ( HULL DISPLACING)

## VOLUME - NUMBER OF CUBIC UNITS

IN AN OBJECT
UNITS: CUBIC METER
V=LxBxD
V = 30 M x 20 M x 6 M
V = 3600 M3

6M

## SPECIFIC MASS - WEIGHT PER UNIT

VOLUME
UNITS: TONNES PER CUBIC METER

## WEIGHT = VOLUME X SP. MASS

36OO M3 X 1.O25 T/M3
3690 TONNES

V = 3600 M3
6 FT

WEIGHT

## VOLUME = WEIGHT / SP. MASS

3690 T / 1.025 T/M3
3600 M3
V = 3600 M3
6M

CLASS TOPICS
1. Definitions

## 2. Stability Reference Points

3. Stability Triangle
4. Conditions of Stability
5. Stability Curve

Metacenter
Gravity
Buoyancy

K eel
CL

Mother
Goose
Beats

K ids
CL

RESERVE BUOYANCY
WATERLINE

THE CENTER OF
BUOYANCY
B1
B

## RESERVE BUOYANCY, FREEBOARD, DRAFT

AND DEPTH OF HULL

WATERLINE

RESERVE BUOYANCY

CENTER OF BUOYANCY

WL

BB BBB

CENTER OF BUOYANCY

B
B
B
B
B
B
B

G1

THE CENTER OF
GRAVITY
G1
G
KGo

KG1

KGo

KG1

CENTER OF GRAVITY
TITIK YANG MANA SEMUA BERAT
TERKONSENTRASI
CENTER OF GRAVITY OF A SYSTEM OF
WEIGHTS IS FOUND BY TAKING MOMENTS
ABOUT AN ASSUMED CENTER OF GRAVITY,
MOMENTS ARE SUMMED AND DIVIDED BY THE
TOTAL WEIGHT OF THE SYSTEM.

## MOVEMENTS IN THE CENTER OF

GRAVITY
G MOVES TOWARDS A WEIGHT ADDITION

G1
G
KG1
KGo

## MOVEMENTS IN THE CENTER OF

GRAVITY
G MOVES TOWARDS A WEIGHT ADDITION
G MOVES AWAY FROM A WEIGHT REMOVAL

G1

G
G
G
G
G
G
G
KG1

KGo

## MOVEMENTS IN THE CENTER OF

GRAVITY
G MOVES TOWARDS A WEIGHT ADDITION
G MOVES AWAY FROM A WEIGHT REMOVAL
G MOVES IN THE DIRECTION OF A WEIGHT SHIFT

G1

METACENTER

THE
METACENTER

B1 B2

M20
M45
M

M70
B
B20
B45

B70

METACENTER

BBBBBBB

METACENTER
M

B SHIFTS

0 -7/10
M

CL

M20
M

B20

M20
M45
M

B
B20

B45

M20
M45
M

M70
B
B20
B45

B70

M45
CL

M70

M90

B20
B45

B90
B70

M20

MOVEMENTS OF THE
METACENTER
THE METACENTER WILL CHANGE POSITIONS IN THE
VERTICAL PLANE WHEN THE SHIP'S DISPLACEMENT
CHANGES
THE METACENTER MOVES IAW THESE TWO RULES:
1. WHEN B MOVES UP M MOVES DOWN.
2. WHEN B MOVES DOWN M MOVES UP.

M1
M1
M1
M1

B1

M
M
M
M
M

G
G
G
G
G
B
B
B
B
B

LINEAR MEASUREMENTS IN
STABILITY
M
GM
BM

KM

KG

K
CL

CLASS TOPICS

1. Definitions
2. Stability Reference Points
3. Stability Triangle
4. Conditions of Stability
5. Stability Curve

CL

THE STABILITY
TRIANGLE
G

MMMM
M

G
G
G
G

B BB
B

BB1B1B1 1

K KK
KK

CL

## Sin q = opp / hyp

Where:
opposite
= GZ
hypotenuse = GM
Sin q = GZ / GM
GZ = GM x Sin q

Growth of GZ a GM

M
G1
G

CL

AS GM DECREASES
RIGHTING ARM
ALSO DECREASES

G1
G

Z1
Z

M
INITIAL
STABILITY

0 - 7
CL

OVERALL
STABILITY

RM = GZ x Wf

CL

B1

CLASS TOPICS
1. Definitions
2. Stability Reference Points
3. Stability Triangle
4. Conditions of Stability
5. Stability Curve

Z
B1

## THE THREE CONDITIONS

OF STABILITY

POSITIVE
G M

B1
G

NEUTRAL
M

B1

NEGATIVE

POSITIVE STABILITY
M

CL

POSITIVE STABILITY
M

B1

NEUTRAL STABILITY
G

CL

NEUTRAL STABILITY
M

B1

NEGATIVE STABILITY
G
M

CL

NEGATIVE STABILITY
G
M

B1

CLASS TOPICS

1. Definitions
2. Stability Reference Points
3. Stability Triangle
4. Conditions of Stability
5. Stability Curve

M20

N False metacenter
Interception W-line B20
and Centerline
M

B20

GZ = DE
DE = KE - KD
N
GZ Righting arm of
Stability moment
(displacement x GZ

KE = KN Sin Q
KD = KG sin Q

Z
GZ =
KN Sin Q - KG sin Q

## RIGHTING ARM CURVE

10

20
30
40
50
60
70
ANGLE OF HEEL (DEGREES)

80

60
40

20
G

Z
B

GZ = 0.43 m

Z
B

GZ = 0.61 m

Z
B

GZ = 0.30 m

90

## RIGHTING ARMS (M)

ANGLE OF
MAXIMUM
RIGHTING
ARM

MAXIMUM RIGHTING
ARM

MAXIMUM
RANGE OF
STABILITY

10

20
30
40
50
60
70
ANGLE OF HEEL (DEGREES)

60

40

20

Z
B

GZ = 0.43 m

80

Z
B

GZ = 0.61 m

Z
B

GZ = 0.30 m

90

CLASS TOPICS
1. Definitions
2. Stability Reference Points
3. Stability Triangle
4. Conditions of Stability
5. Stability Curve