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# WATER

Properties of Water
Universal Solvent

## Water is the solvent of Life!

Solute substance dissolved in a
solvent to form a solution

## Solvent fluid that dissolves solutes

Example: Ice Tea water is the
solvent and tea and sugar the solutes

Properties of Water

## Cohesion, Adhesion and Surface Tension

cohesion = water attracted to other water
molecules because of polar properties
adhesion = water attracted to other materials

## surface tension = water is pulled together creating

the smallest surface area possible

Properties of Water
Capillary Action
Because water has both
properties, capillary action is
present.

## Capillary Action = waters adhesive property is the cause

of capillary action. Water is attracted to some other
material and then through cohesion, other water
molecules move too as a result of the original adhesion.
Ex: Think water in a straw
Ex: Water moves through trees this way

Properties of Water
High Heat Capacity

## In order to raise the temperature of

water, the average molecular speed
has to increase.
It takes much more energy to raise
the temperature of water compared to
other solvents because hydrogen
bonds hold the water molecules
together!
Water has a high heat capacity.
The specific heat is the amount of
heat per unit mass required to raise
the temperature by one degree
Celsius.

Properties of Water
Density
Water is less dense as a solid! This is because the
hydrogen bonds are stable in ice each molecule of
water is bound to four of its neighbors.
Solid water molecules
are bonded together
space between fixed
Liquid water molecules
are constantly bonding
and rebonding space is
always changing

Properties of Water
So, can you name all of the properties of water?
Cohesion
Capillary action
High surface tension
Holds heat to regulate temperature (High heat capacity)
Less dense as a solid than a liquid

## The ocean moderates coastal

temperatures
Water has high
heat capacity, so
it can absorb (or
release) large
quantities of heat
without changing
temperature
Moderates
coastal
temperatures

Figure 5-6

Salinity
Salinity = total
amount of solid
material dissolved in
water
Can be determined
by measuring water
conductivity
Typically expressed
in parts per thousand
()

Figure 5-15

## Constituents of ocean salinity

Average
seawater salinity
= 35
Main constituents
of ocean salinity:
Chloride (Cl)
Sodium (Na+)
Sulfate (SO42)
Magnesium
(Mg2+)

Figure 5-13

Salinity variations

Location/type

Salinity

Baltic Sea
Red Sea
Great Salt Lake
Tap water

33-38
10 (brackish)
42 (hypersaline)
280
330
0.8 or less
0.3

## Processes affecting seawater salinity

Processes that decrease seawater salinity:
Precipitation
Runoff
Icebergs melting
Sea ice melting

Sea ice forming
Evaporation

## Surface salinity variation

Pattern of surface
salinity:
Lowest in high
latitudes
Highest in the
tropics
Dips at the
Equator

Surface
processes help

Figure 5-20

## Surface salinity variation

High latitudes have low surface salinity
High precipitation and runoff
Low evaporation

## Tropics have high surface salinity

High evaporation
Low precipitation

## Equator has a dip in surface salinity

High precipitation partially offsets high evaporation

Seawater density
Factors affecting seawater density:
Temperature , Density (inverse relationship)
Salinity , Density
Pressure , Density

## Temperature has the greatest influence on

surface seawater density

SURFACE WATER

## Lakes, ponds, rivers,

and streamsALL
water above ground
Most urban areas rely
on surface water
Supply resources and

GROUND WATER

## All freshwater comes from two sources:

Water that seeps below
ground
Some is taken up and
used by plants
Large amounts found in
underground rock
formations called
aquifers

## Surface water movement: Water Cycle

Earths water supply is constantly recycled

## Surface Water Movement

1) Runoff
Water flowing down slope along Earths surface or
seep into the ground
Run off speed determined by slope of the hill

## Ends up in a stream or lake, evaporate, or

accumulate into puddles

Movement
Seep into ground
Ground must have large enough pores loose
soil

Evaporate

## Fate of water: Run off or Seep

Certain characteristics will determine whether
not water will either seep into or become runoff

1) Vegetation
Vegetation allows for loose soil
Loose soil allows water to enter ground
Gardeners do not pack their soil

Fate of water
2) Rate of precipitation
Heavy:
soil clumps together closing pores
Fills up ground to quickly and water becomes runoff

Light:
allows water to gently slide through
Less erosion

Fate of Water
3) Soil Composition
Effects the waters holding capacity
Decayed organic matter (humus)
Creates the pores in soil Increases retain ability

Minerals
Clay fine mineral which clump together
Few Spaces

## Sand large pores

Fate of Water
4) Slopes
Steep: allows for high runoff & little absorption
Little: low runoff and high absorption

## Formation of Stream systems

Runoff
Surface water flows in thin sheets and
eventually collects in small channels
Runoff increases, channels widen and
become deeper and longer
Channels fill up again each time with rain
Channel can become a stream

Water sheds:
drainage basin
Land where all water drains into

Divide
High land area that separates watersheds

Mississippi Watershed

All the materials that the stream carries
Solution
Material that has been dissolved
Depends on area where the steam runs through
Erosion of rocks and dirt

Suspension
Small particles held up by the turbulence of stream
Clay, silt, sand
Depends on volume and velocity of water

Turbulence of water pushes heavy things
Pebbles and cobbles
Larger velocity large objects
B/c of abrasion, rocks are smooth

## Stream Velocity & Carrying Capacity

Discharge = width x depth x velocity
(m)
(m)
(m/s)
As discharge increases so does carrying
capacity

Floods
Water fills over the sides of a stream banks
Floodplain: broad flat area of land that
extends out from streams for excess flooding

Freshwater
Ecosystems

Characteristics of a Freshwater
Ecosystem
Slow moving waters
Low dissolved salt
Plant and animal life depends on depth of
water, rate of flow, and amounts of
nutrients, sunlight, and oxygen
Include lakes, ponds, rivers, and wetlands

## Lakes and Ponds

Rivers
START in mountainous regions
Cold
Shallow beds
Highly oxygenated
A rivers characteristics changes with
geography, climate, and the runoff
from nearby developments

Wetlands
Covered in water at
least part of the year
Trap and fix carbon
Control flooding and
absorb extra water
when other bodies
overflow
Produce commercial
products like seafood
and berries (bogs)