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Game Art and Design

Unit 3 Lesson 4
Probability

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Big Idea
Knowledge of the basic skills and
components of any field makes one
uniquely prepared to perform at a high
level in that area.

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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
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FORMAL ELEMENT:
PROBABILITY
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What is Probability?
Probability is a branch of mathematics that
deals with calculating the likelihood an
event will occur and is usually expressed
as a number between 1 and 0.

2011
2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
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Probability in Games

Game designers try to provide players with


a new experience each time a game is
played.
Randomness is built into the mechanics of a
game and varies the number and location
of obstacles that a player may encounter.
Randomness, probability, likelihood, and
chance are all terms that describe how
variety and unexpected outcomes are
created in games.
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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
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Probability - Board Games


Use dice, spinners, and
sand timers to add
randomness and conflict.
When moves must be
made in a limited amount
of time or when a move
is calculated by the roll of
dice, the game
experience is made
unpredictable.
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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning

Probability - Board Games


Game designers use probability to plan
the randomness that occurs in a game.
The probability of rolling any number
with a pair of dice helps the game
designer plan where to put large payoffs
or huge danger zones.
In most games, large payouts or huge
dangers should occur infrequently.

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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning

Probability in Games: Types

Dice
Spinner
Number of objects
Size of objects
Speed of objects
Other

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PROBABILITY TYPES:
DICE
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Probability Types: Dice


Use goes back
thousands of years.
Were originally made
from joint bones of
animals.
Later were made
from bone, metal, or
pottery.

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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
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Probability Types: Dice


In ancient times, the outcome of a dice
throw was not considered luck, but
believed to be controlled by the gods.
For this reason, casting dice was a way
of dividing inheritances.
In ancient Rome, the goddess Fortuna
(Lady Luck), the daughter of Zeus, was
believed to determine the outcome of a
throw.
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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
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Probability Types: Dice


Terminology
Use the lowercase
d preceded by a die
count and followed
by the number of
sides of the dice.
For example, 6d8
means six eightsided dice as shown.

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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
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Probability Types: Non-Cubic


Dice
Tetrahedron (black)each side has three
numbers
Octahedron (white)eight sides
10-sided (green) face is
triangular
Multi-sided - up to 20
sides
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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
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Probability Types: Using Two


Dice
First, assume each die
is a cube with six equal
sides.
Second, assume each
die has numbers 1-6.
Opposite numbers on
the die always equal 7.

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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
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NO TITLE ON THIS SLIDE


Do activity 3.31 before you
look at the next few slides

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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
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Probability Types: Using Two


Dice
Table shows all possible outcomes.
Notice that it is possible to have squares
with the same values, but in different
orders.
(1,1)

(1,2)

(1,3)

(1,4)

(1,5)

(1,6)

(2,1)

(2,2)

(2,3)

(2,4)

(2,5)

(2,6)

(3,1)

(3,2)

(3,3)

(3,4)

(3,5)

(3,6)

(4,1)

(4,2)

(4,3)

(4,4)

(4,5)

(4,6)

(5,1)

(5,2)

(5,3)

(5,4)

(5,5)

(5,6)

(6,1)

(6,2)

(6,3)

(6,4)

(6,5)

(6,6)

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Probability Using Two Dice


Find the sum of the two dice in each
square.
Look for the number of times the SUM of
both dice occurs.
2

10

10

11

10

11

12

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Probability Types: Using Two


Dice
X is the possible totals.
Count is the number of
occurrences for that total.
Sum of all the counts = 36.
P(X) is the probability of the
outcome (dividing individual
count by total count).
Rolling a 8 is 5 out of 36
times.

count

P(X)

1/36

2/36

3/36

4/36

5/36

6/36

5/36

4/36

10

3/36

11

2/36

12

1/36

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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
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Probability Types: Using Two


Dice

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PROBABILITY TYPES:
SPINNERS
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Probability Types: Spinners


Design and layout of the spinner will
affect the frequency of outcomes.
Spinners created for small children may
use pictures, colors, or symbols instead
of numbers.
Frequently chosen to be used in games
for young children rather than dice
because the dice pose a choking hazard.

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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
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Probability Types: Spinners


Poor construction and the
way a player spins can
significantly change the
outcome.
The number and size of
choices on the wheel
changes the percentage.
What is the probability of
spinning red?

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Probability Types: Spinners


The probability of an event is the total
number of ways an event can occur
divided by the total number of
outcomes.
P(A) =

The number of ways event can occur


The total number of possible outcomes

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Spinner Probability
Do activity 3.32

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PROBABILITY OF CARDS

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Card Games: Randomness


Occurs when players
shuffle the cards.
Affected by how many
suits or number of
different cards.
Players use knowledge of
probability to calculate
the likelihood that a
certain event will occur
to plan the next move.
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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
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Card Games: Randomness

In poker, the value


of the various hands
increases as the
probability of the
hand occurring goes
down.
It is very rare for a
player to get a royal
flush (ace, king,
queen, jack, and 10
all in the same suit).
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2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
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Card Games: Probability of


Poker Hands (Five cards)
Poker Hand

Number of
Probability
Combinations
-------------------------------------------------------Royal Straight Flush
4
.0000015391
Other Straight Flush
36
.0000138517
Four of a kind
624
.0002400960
Full House
3,744
.0014405762
Flush
5,108
.0019654015
Straight
10,200
.0039246468
Three of a kind
54,912
.0211284514
Two Pairs
123,552
.0475390156
One Pair
1,098,240
.4225690276
High card only
1,302,540
.5011773940
Total

2,598,960

1.0000000000

2011
2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning

Big Idea
Knowledge of the basic skills and
components of any field makes one
uniquely prepared to perform at a high
level in that area.

2011
2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,
STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning

Game Art and Design


Unit 3 Lesson 4
Probability

Images
student work, photos by Phyllis Jones, and clipart

2014 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association,


STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning