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Heat flow in welding

Subjects of Interest

• Heat sources
• Heat source and melting efficiency
• Analysis of heat flow in welding
• Effects of welding parameter
• Weld thermal simulator

Suranaree University of Technology

Sep-Dec 2007

Objectives

• This chapter provides information of heat flow during
welding, which can strongly affect phase transformation,
microstructure, and properties of the welds.
• Students are required to indicate heat source and power
density used in different welding methods, which affect the
melting efficiency.

Suranaree University of Technology

Sep-Dec 2007

Welding heat sources
Electrical sources

Mechanical sources

• Arc welding
• Resistance welding
• Electroslag
Heat intensity ~ 106-108 Wm-2

• Friction (stir) welding
Heat intensity ~ 104-106 Wm-2
• Ultrasonic welding (15-75 KHz)
• Explosion welding (EXW)

Chemical sources
Other sources

• Oxyfuel gas welding
• Thermit welding
Heat intensity ~

106-108

Wm-2

• Diffusion welding

High energy sources
• Laser beam welding
• Electron beam welding
Heat intensity ~ 1010-1012 Wm-2
Suranaree University of Technology

Sep-Dec 2007

wikipedia.org bell shaped arc Welding arc Suranaree University of Technology Gas metal arc welding Sep-Dec 2007 .Welding Arc Characteristics • A welding arc consists of a sustained electrical discharge through a high temperature. passing through) • Gaseous conductor changes electrical energy into heat. producing (ionic gas or plasma sufficient thermal energy as to be useful for the joining of metal by with electric current fusion. • Arc produces sources of heat + radiation (careful  required proper protection) http://en. conducting plasma.

eV Al 3.75 Al2O3 <2.1-3. Sep-Dec 2007 . (analogous to ionization potential) Material Work function.7 Fe 3.3-5. high voltage conditions.5 CsO 0.1-1.3 Cu 1.7 W 4. This amount of energy per electron is called ‘work function’. 1) Cold cathode At low pressure.95 Thoria 2.5-4 Mg 3. 2) Thermal emission At high temperature some electrons acquire enough thermal energy to overcome the work function and become free electrons. positive ions are accelerated toward the cathode and bombard the cathode with relatively high energy.5 Suranaree University of Technology Emission occurs mainly by two processes.8-4.Emission of electron at cathode Emission of electrons at cathode occurs when an amount of energy required to remove the electron from a material (liquid or solid).3 BaO. SrO 0.

which requires the attainment of equilibrium temperature according to ionization potential of the materials. which can react to electric or magnetic fields. flow from cathode terminal (-) to anode terminal (+). (negative charges • Neutral plasma can be established and positive ions) by thermal means  by collision process.fronius. Liquid Vaporization Gas (neutral atoms/molecules) Ionization Plasma • Electrons. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .Plasma formation www. which support most of the current conduction.com States of matter Solid Melting • Plasma consists of ionized state of a gas composed of nearly equal numbers of electrons and ions.

9 Ni 7.1 C 11.8 H2 15.8 CO 14. Plasma temperature = Ionization potential x 1000 K Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .1 CO2 13.2 Fe 7. Vi.6 O2 12.Ionization potential Energy Element/Compound Ionization Potential (Volts or eV) He 24.6 Na 5. required to strip an electron from an outer shell of and atom or M+.6 Ar 15.9 Ionization potential.3 Si 8.4 N2 15.1 K 4.3 Cs 3.

Cathode - •The area at cathode and anode has strong effects on arc configuration. Pc Power (Parc) Heat 1) Anode Pa = IE a 2) Cathode Pa Anode + Energy dissipation in the arc Pc = IE c 3) Plasma arc column Parc = I (dE arc / dl )l Suranaree University of Technology Note: Most heat goes to the anode/cathode and most is lost radially from the arc Sep-Dec 2007 . the flow of the heat energy to the terminal  affecting shape and depth of the fusion zone.Power in arc •The electrical power is dissipated in three regions of the arc: anode. Arc area is mainly divided into three zones. cathode and plasma column.

Plasma temperature contour in the arc Temp Radiation loss Heat loss Note: The use of fluxing reduces radiation lost Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .com • The arc temperature ~ 5000-30. • The arc temperature is determined by measuring the spectral radiation emitted. radiation loss ~ 20% while in other welding gas. Heat losses in the arc • Energy losses by heat conduction and convection.geocities. • In Ar gas. radiation and diffusion.Temperature in the arc and heat loss www.000 K depending on the nature of plasma and current. radiation loss <10%.

Polarity There are three different types of current used in arc welding 1) Direct-Current Electrode Negative (DCEN) 2) Direct-Current Electrode Positive (DCEP) 3) Alternating current (AC) Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .  This is due to a low rate of electron emission from the negative electrode. • Relatively narrow and deep weld pool is produced due to high energy.Direct-Current Electrode Negative (DCEN) • Also called straight polarity. • Electrons are emitted from the negative tungsten electrode and accelerated while travelling through the arc. • Most commonly used in GTAW. large droplet size of metal and the arcs forces the droplets away from the workpiece. • DCEN in GMAW makes the arc unstable and causes excessive spatter.

Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . • At low current in Ar. the size of the droplet ~ the size of the electrode  Globular transfer. therefore the heating affect is now at the tungsten electrode rather than the workpiece. • The electrode is connected to the positive terminal of the power source. • Positive irons clean off the oxide surface. • At above the critical current  the droplets are released at the rate of hundreds per second (spray mode).  shallow weld  for welding thin sheets.Direct-Current Electrode Positive (DCEP) • Also called reverse polarity. • The droplet size is inversely proportional to the current and the droplets are released at the rate of a few per second.

Surface cleaning action in GTAW with DC electrode positive. Ex: cleaning of Al2O3 oxide film (Tm ~2054oC) on aluminium to make melting of the metal underneath the oxide film easier. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .Surface cleaning action DCEP can be employed to clean the surface of the workpiece by knocking off oxide films by the positive ions of the shielding gas.

Alternating Current (AC) • Reasonably good penetration and oxide cleaning action can be both obtained. • Often used for welding aluminium alloys. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

the arc efficiency can be expressed as.3 is the heat input is the welding speed is heat input per unit length of weld Sep-Dec 2007 . The term. heat input per unit length of weld often refers to Qno min al EI . or V V Where Qnominal or EI V Qnominal / V Suranaree University of Technology Eq. having a constant voltage E and a constant current I.Heat source efficiency In the case of arc welding. η= Where Qt weld Qt weld Q = = Qno min al t weld EIt weld EI Eq. Qnominal is the power heat source of the electron beam and laser beam respectively.2 Q is the rate of heat transfer Qnominal is the heat input tweld is the welding time In cases of electron beam and laser beam welding.

Heat source efficiency measurement • Heat source efficiency can be measured using a calorimeter (by measuring the heat transfer from the heat source to the workpiece and then to the calorimeter). • The temperature rise in the cooling water (Tout-Tin) can be measured using thermocouples or thermistors.4 α α 0 0 Qt weld = ∫ WC (Tout − Tin )dt ≈ WC ∫ (Tout − Tin )dt Where W C Tout Tin t is the mass flow rate of water is the specific heat of water is the outlet water temperature is the inlet water temperature is time Suranaree University of Technology Note: This integral corresponds to the shaded area. Sep-Dec 2007 . and can be used to calculated the arc efficiency η. Heat transfer from the workpiece to the calorimeter is given by Eq.

• The heat transfer from the workpiece to the calorimeter can be determined by measuring the temperature different ∆T and hence gradient across a gradient layer of material of known thermal conductivity k and thickness L.Heat source efficiency measurement • The arc efficiency can also be measured using Seebeck envelope calorimeter.5 is the area for heat flow is temperature gradient Layer of temperature gradient for heat source efficiency measurement. Note: this type of calorimeter is used to determine the arc efficiencies in PAW. and SAW. This technique utilises thermocouple junctions for sensing temperature difference. GMAW. α Qt weld = A∫ k 0 Where A ∆T/L ∆T dt L Eq. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

filler metal droplets and the cathode heating to the workpiece in GMAW of aluminium. (a) Measured results.Heat source efficiency measurement • In GMAW the arc. and the cathode heating contribute to the efficiency of the heat source. metal droplets. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . • Lu and Kou used a combination of three calorimeters to estimate the amounts of heat transfer from the arc. (a) Heat transfer from metal droplets (b) Total heat inputs (c) Heat inputs from arc and metal droplets. (b) breakdown of power inputs.

SAW EBW Heat source efficiencies in several welding processes.Heat source efficiency in various welding processes LBW Heat source efficiency is low because of the high reflectivity. Heat source efficiency is high due to the keyhole acting like a black body trapping the energy from electron beam. PAW Heat source efficiency is much higher than LBW (no reflectivity). Sep-Dec 2007 . Suranaree University of Technology Heat source efficiency is higher than GTAW or SMAW since the arc is covered with thermally insulating blanket of molten slag and granular flux.

is the energy required to raise a unit volume of filler metal to the melting point and melt it. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .7 V is the welding speed ηm is the energy required to raise a unit volume of tweld base metal to the melting point and melt it. is the welding time. Note: the quantity inside the parentheses represents the volume of material melted while the denominator represents the heat transfer from the heat source to the workpiece. Cross section of weld The melting efficiency of the arc ηm can be defined as follows Where V Hbase Hfiller tweld ηm = ( AbaseVt weld ) H base + ( A filler Vt weld ) H filler ηEIt weld Eq.Melting efficiency Aweld = Afiller +Abase Melting efficiency is the ability of the heat source to melt the base metal (as well as the filler metal).

Melting efficiency (a) shallow welds of lower melting efficiency. Low heat input Low welding speed High heat input High welding speed Aweld = Afiller +Abase Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . (b) (b) deeper weld of higher melting efficiency.

Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .Power density distribution of heat source Power density distribution is influenced by 1) Electrode tip angle 2) Electrode tip geometry Sharp electrode • Arc diameter • Power density distribution Blunter electrode • Arc diameter • Power density distribution Effect of electrode tip angle on shape and power density distribution of gas-tungsten arc.

Effect of electrode tip angle on shape of gas tungsten arc and power density Conical angle of electrode tip Suranaree University of Technology The arc becomes more constricted Sep-Dec 2007 .

hence. the weld properties •The temperature-distance profile shows that the heat source travels along the weld in the direction A-A’ at a constant speed. • A more intense heat source will give a steeper profile and the HAZ. which will be confined to a narrower region. • As the heat source moves on.Analysis of heat flow in welding Heat or temperature distribution occurring during welding greatly affect microstructure of the weld. the cooling rates around the weld are very high. Temperature distribution round a typical weld Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

This leads to high solidification rates which produce a finer dendritic structure than that observed in most castings. Microstructures occurring in a weld and its HAZ.Effect of temperature gradient on weld microstructure The temperature gradients in the liquid weld material are substantially higher than in most casting processes. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

• Effect of heat input on cooling rate. • Heat sink effect of workpiece.Effect of welding parameters • Effect of heat input Q and welding speed V on the weld pool. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . • Effect of the power density distribution of the heat source on the weld shape.

Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .Effect of heat input and welding speed on the weld pool • The shape and size of the weld pool is significantly affected by heat input Q and the welding speed V. Note: the cross indicates the position of the electrode. Heat input Welding speed The weld pool becomes more elongated.

Effect of heat input on cooling rate The cooling rate in ESW (high Q/V) is much smaller than that in arc welding. Heat input per unit length EI/V Cooling rate Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

Effect of power density distribution on weld shape Power density Weld penetration Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .

Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 . Blass heat sink is clamped behind aluminium to be welded. • Thicker workpiece acts as a better heat sink to cool the weld down. Brass with a higher melting point than that of aluminium is used as a heat sink to increase the cooling rate in aluminium welding.Heat sink effect of the workpiece • The cooling rate increases with the thickness of the workpiece due to the heat sink effect.

S. Inc. 2nd edition. Principles of welding technology. USA. ISBN 0 340 61399 8. John Willey and Sons. L.M.. ISBN 0-471-43491-4. 2003.References • Kou. 1995. Suranaree University of Technology Sep-Dec 2007 .. • Gourd.. Edward Arnold. 3rd edition. Welding metallurgy.