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B7

Solutions
Solutions are also known as homogeneous mixtures.
Solutions are composed of one or many solute(s) and only 1 solvent
Solute:
the smaller quantity of the solution
substance that is being dissolved
Solvent:
the larger quantity of the solution
substance that is doing the dissolving

A solution can exist in any of the 3 states of matter (solid, liquid or gas).
1. Solid Solutions
ex:

brass = copper

(solvent)

zinc

This is called
an alloy.

(solute)

2. Gas Solutions
ex:

air = nitrogen + oxygen + argon + carbon dioxide


(solvent)

(solutes)

3. Liquid Solutions
ex:

vinegar = acetic acid

(solvent)

water
(solute)

Dissolution
When 2 or more substances mix to form a solution, dissolution occurs. The
solute (ex. salt) dissolves in the solvent (ex. water).

How does this happen?


1) The particles of a solute (salt) are more attracted to
the particles of a solvent (water) than they are to
themselves.
2) The solvent (water) particles detach the solute (salt)
particles from the grain and keep it away from other
solute (salt) particles.
3) When dissolution is complete the solute particles (salt) will be uniformly
distributed in the solvent particles (water).

If the particles of the solute are not attracted to

the particles of the solvent, the two


substances cannot form a solution.
This will result in a heterogeneous mixture
(ex: sand and water).

Solutions Vocabulary
Concentration: it is a ratio (proportion); the amount of solute (ex: salt)
which is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (ex: water).
Dilute solution: a solution with a low concentration.
ie. a low amount of solute in relation to the solvent (ex. diluted juice)
Concentrated solution: a solution with a high concentration.
ie. a high amount of solute in relation to the solvent (ex. frozen juice
concentrate)
Unsaturated solution: a solution that still contains room for more
solute particles to dissolve into the solvent particles.
Saturated solution: a solution in which all the spaces between solvent
(water) particles have been filled by solute (salt); it can hold no more
solute.
Super saturated solution: the maximum amount of solute that can be
dissolved in a given quantity of solvent has been surpassed (the extra
solute has made this solution into a heterogeneous mixture).
Solubility: the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a
given quantity of solvent (at this point the solution is said to be
saturated).

*** solubility is a characteristic property ***

Homework:
1) Create a cartoon that illustrates the phases of dissolution. Use labels and headings.
2) Draw a diagram to illustrate each of the following terms:
a) dilute solution
b) concentrated solution
c) saturated solution
d) unsaturated solution

Solutions and Mixtures Practice Questions


1) A solution is defined as a mixture that is...
a) Homologous
b) Heterogeneous
c) Homogeneous
2) Which of these is a solution?
a) 14K Gold
b) Salt Water
c) Carbonated Water
d) All of the above
3) Solutions with low concentrations of solutes are...
a) Concentrated
b) Dilute
c) Solvents
4) The most common solvent of Earth is...
a) Gasoline
b) Water
c) Turpentine
5) All liquids are able to be mixed to create solutions.
a) True
b) False
6) Mixtures are always combinations of the same compounds that are in different states.
a) True
b) False
7) All mixtures are defined as "heterogeneous."
a) True
b) False
8) All solutions are mixtures, but not all mixtures are solutions.
a) True
b) False
9) Which of these is not a mixture?
a) Solution
b) Alloy
c) They are all mixtures.
10) Which of these is not a mixture?
a) Oil and Water
b) Sand and Water
c) Diet Soda
d) All are mixtures.

Homework #2
(for next class)
Part 1:
1) Fill one glass with one cup of water.
2) Add one teaspoon (normal small spoon) of salt to the glass. Stir.
3) Observe the solution.
4) Continue to add one teaspoon of salt at a time to the glass until you
notice that the solution has become supersaturated you will be able to tell
because the salt will no longer dissolve in the water and will fall to the
bottom of the glass.
5) Record how many teaspoons of salt it took until the solution became
supersaturated.
Part 2:
1) Repeat the same procedure but this time do it with sugar.
2) Record how many teaspoons of sugar it takes until the solution becomes
supersaturated.
Answer the following questions in your notebook:
1) How many teaspoons of salt did it take for the solution became
supersaturated?
2) How many teaspoons of sugar did it take for the solution became
supersaturated?
3) What does this tell you about the solubility of salt versus the
solubility of sugar in water?