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Ch 3 Keeping the Systems Going

p.64 3.1 Cycles in the Biosphere
The Water Cycle
- Water supplies cells with food, and carrying away wastes

Hand out BLM 3-4

- The water cycle is the continuous movement of water through the biosphere

Evaporation liquid vapour (gas)

sublimation skips liquid phase
solid vapour (gas) For example, ice cubes in a freezer shrink over time
vapour (gas) solid For example, warm breath turns to frost on a cold

Transpiration water taken in through a plants roots and evaporates from

the plants leaves, stem, and flowers
Condensation vapour liquid
- warm air condenses water vapour
- as air cools, it is able to hold less water
- Happens when air becomes so cool that it can no longer hold as much
water vapour, so liquid water is released -> forms clouds, fog, or dew
- For example, when cold juice is poured into a glass, the glass cools and so
does the surrounding air. The cooled air cant hold the water vapour, and
the water is released as droplets on the outside of the glass.

Precipitation water forms from condensation inside clouds, then falls (rain,
snow, hail)

p.67 The Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Cycle

p. 71 3.2 Redirecting Water Flow

Fossil Fuels, Carbon, and Air
-we use plant products when we burn coal to make electricity
-we use natural gas to heat our homes
-we use plant products when we drive cars/trucks, bc gasoline comes
from oil
-coal, oil (petroleum), and natural gas are fossil fuels
-fossil fuels originated from plants and other organisms that died
millions of years ago

The Carbon Cycle

- Carbon is necessary for all life to exist
- Burning fossil fuels and wood releases carbon dioxide (CO2)in the
- CO2 released into the atmosphere has increased over the last 100
years (mostly bc there are more people burning fossil fuels and
destroying trees)

Hand out BLM 3-14

Greenhouse Gases
- The atmosphere that surrounds Earth helps
trap some of the suns heat so Earth can stay
- Greenhouse gases add and extra layer of
covering around the Earth, trapping more of the
suns heat, and making the Earth warmer
- Global Warming a gradual warming of Earths

p. 77 3.3 Ecosystmes Regulate Themselves (Natural Factors)

- There are many seeds produced by one dandelion, so dont they
cover larger areas on Earth?
Limiting Factors
- Rabbits make many babies, but there are factors that limit the # of
individuals of a population

1) Predator-Prey Populations when the prey pop increases, theres

more food for the predator pop, so the predator pop increases
2) Competition for Resources there is only a certain amount of food
and space available in an ecosystem
3) Diseases and Parasites what effect would a fox pop getting rabies
have on the mice pop that the fox feeds on?
4) Climate Changes and Weather Patterns a heavy snow might
make it difficult for caribou to find grass to eat, causing some to
die, therefore reducing the wolf pop that feed on the caribou
5) Forest Fires sometimes caused by lightning
- most times, burned forests renew quickly
- primary succession slow growth of life in an area that was
bare, such as rock
- secondary succession slow growth of life in an area that
once had a variety of life, such as a burned forest
Diversity different species living in an ecosystem

Limiting Factors Quiz (BLM 3-17)

P. 81 3.4 Technology and Natures Regulators (Human Factors)
Forestry and Agriculture (read example in text p. 81)
Pesticides and Pests (read example in text p. 81)
Medicines and Micro-Organisms used to fight bacteria and save
some members of a given population
p. 83 3.5 Making a Difference
Landfill where garbage is disposed of by being buried under a thin
layer of soil
- creates greenhouse gases (ie. Methane), and pollutes water
and soil
-one solution is reduce, re-use, recycle!
Handout BLM 3-23
Fill in the Blank Quiz 3-24
Ch 3 Test