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When is this used

• When either player A or player B has

only 2 strategies and the other

player has more than 2 strategies

• No saddle point is found

• 2 X n game means: player A has only

2 strategies and Player B has n

strategies

• m X 2 game means: player A has m

strategies and Player B has only 2

strategies

Algorithm for 2 X n game

• Step 1 : Reduce the payoff matrix by

applying dominance property, if it

exists

• Step 2: Let, x be the probability for

Player A taking alternative 1, then (1-

x) becomes the probability for

alternative 2. Derive the expected

gain function of player A

• Step 3 :For each gain function find

values when x = 0 & x=1

• Step 4 : plot gain. Keep x value on X

axis and gain on Y axis

• Step 5: Since player A is a maximin

player, find the highest intersection

point in the lower boundary of the

Algorithm for 2 X n game

(contd..)

• Step 6 : If the no. of lines passing

through the maximum point is only

two, from a 2 x 2 payoff matrix from

the original problem by retaining only

the columns corresponding to those

two lines and go to step 8, otherwise

go to step 7

• Step 7: If more than two lines are

passing through the maximum point,

identify any two lines with opposite

slopes passing through that point.

Then form 2x2 payoff matrix from the

original problem by retaining only the

columns corresponding to those two

lines which are having opposite slopes

• Step 8 :Solve the 2x2 game with

Solve the below 2 x 5 game

graphically

Player B

1 2 3 4

5

1 3 0 6 -1 7

Player A

2 -1 5 -2 2 1

Solving

Player B

1 2 3

4 5 Row minimum

1 3 0 6 -1 7 -1 (Maximin)

Player A -2

2 -1 5 -2 2 1

Column maximum 3 5 6

2 7

(Minimax)

Maximin = Minimax. No

saddle point

Checking for dominancy in

column (as only 2 rows are

present)

Player B

1 2 3

4 5

1 3 0 6 -1 7

Player A

2 -1 5 -2 2 1

Column dominancy:

Column 4 cell values are < column 2 values. So column 4 is dominant.

Delete column 2

Column dominancy:

Column 43 cell values are < column 5 values. So column 3 is dominant.

Delete column 5

After deleting column 2 & 5

Player B

1 3

4

1 3 6 -1

Player A

2 -1 -2 2

Now derive the gain

function

Player B

1 3

4

1 3 6 -1

Player A

2 -1 -2 2

alternative

1 3x + (-1 * (1-x) ) = 3x-1+x = 4x-1

3 6x + (-2 * (1-x) ) = 6x -2 +2x = 8x-2

4 (-1 * x ) + (2* (1-x) ) = -1x +2 – 2x =

-3x +2

Now compute gain for x =

0 & x=1

alternativ expected

e payoff X=0 X=1

function

1 4x-1 -1 3

3 8x-2 -2 6

4 -3x +2 2 -1

Now plot the graph

Intersection points are a,b,c & d. Highest point is c. Optimal

solution exists at c. Check the no. of lines passing thru c. 2 lines.

So consider the corresponding columns (B1 & B4) to make 2X2 matrix

Now we have got 2X2

matrix and can solve through

oddments

Player B

1

4

Oddments

1 3 -1 3

Player A 4

2 -1 2

Oddments 3

4

Calculating probability

P1= 3/7, P2 = 4/7, q1 = 3/7 & q2 = 4/7

/ 7 = 5 /7

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