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Peter Roget presented his paper 'The persistence of vision with regard to moving objects' to the
British Royal Society.


Dr. Joseph Antoine Plateau (a Belgian scientist) and Dr. Simon Rittrer constructed a machine
called a phenakitstoscope. This machine produced an illusion of movement by allowing a viewer
to gaze at a rotating disk containing small windows; behind the windows was another disk
containing a sequence of images. When the disks were rotated at the correct speed, the
synchronization of the windows with the images created an animated effect.


Eadweard Muybridge started his photographic gathering of animals in motion.


Thomas Edison started his research work into motion pictures.


Thomas Edison announced his creation of the kinetoscope which projected a 50ft length of film in
approximately 13 seconds.


George Eastman began the manufacture of photographic film strips using a nitro-cellulose base.


Emile Renynaud, combining his earlier invention of the praxinoscope with a projector, opens the
Theatre Optique in the Musee Grevin. It displays an animation of images painted on long strips of


Louis and Augustine Lumiere issued a patent for a device called a cinematograph capable of
projecting moving pictures.


Thomas Armat designed the vitascope which projected the films of Thomas Edison. This machine
had a major influence on all sub-sequent projectors.


J. Stuart Blackton made the first animated film which he called "Humorous phases of funny
faces." His method was to draw comical faces on a blackboard and film them. He would stop the
film, erase one face to draw another, and then film the newly drawn face. The stop-motion
provided a starting effect as the facial expressions changed be fore the viewers eyes.


In France Emile Cohl produced a film, Phantasmagorie which was the first depicting white figures
on a black background.


Emile Cohl makes En Route the first paper cutout animation. This technique saves time by not

having to redraw each new cell, only reposition the paper.


Winsor McCay produced an animation sequence using his comic strip character "Little Nemo."


J.R. Bray devised "Colonel Heeza Liar," and Sidney Smith created "Old Doc Yak."


John R Bray applies for a patent on numerous techniques for animation. One of the most
revolutionary being the process of printing the backgrounds of the animation.


Winsor McCay produced a cartoon called "Gertie, The Trained Dinosaur" which amazingly
consisted of 10,000 drawings.


Earl Hurd applies for a patent for the technique of drawing the animated portion of an animation
on a clear celluloid sheet and later photographing it with its matching background. [Cel animation]


The International Feature Syndicate released many titles including "Silk Hat Harry","Bringing Up
Father", and "Krazy Kat".

Pat Sullivan created an American cartoon "Felix the Cat."

The first feature-length animated film called "El Apostol" is created in Argentina.


Walt and Roy Disney found Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio.


Walt Disney extended Max Fleischer's technique of combining live action with cartoon characters
in the film "Alice's Wonderland".


Warner Brothers released "The Jazz Singer" which introduced combined sound and images.


Walt Disney created the first cartoon with synchronized sound called "Steam Boat Willy".


The King of Jazz is produced by Universal. In it is a short animated sequence done by Walter
Lantz. It is the first animation done with the two strip technicolor process


Urb Irwek creates a multi-plane camera. This camera is capable of filming several separate
layers of cels giving the final frame a truly three dimensional look.


John and James Whitney produced "Five Abstract Film Exercises."


Harry Smith produced animation by drawing directly onto film.


John Whitney used 17 Bodine motors, 8 Selsyns, 9 different gear units and 5 ball integrators to
create analog computer graphics.


John Whitney used differential gear mechanisms to create film and television title sequences.


Ivan Sutherland and SKETCHPAD at MIT/Lincoln Labs


Ken Knowlton, working at Bell Laboratories, started developing computer techniques for
producing animated movies.


University of Utah, Ed Catmull develops an animation scripting language and creates an

animation of a smooth shaded hand. Ref: E. Catmull, "A System for Computer Generated
Movies", Proceedings of the ACM National Conference, 1972. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal
Graphics collection.)


University of Utah, Fred Parke creates first computer generated facial animation. >Ref: F. Parke,
"Computer Generated Animation of Faces", Proceedings of the ACM National Conference, 1972.
(In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)


National Research Council of Canada releases Hunger/La Faim directed by Peter Foldes and
featuring Burtnyk and Wein interactive key framing techniques. Ref: N. Burtnyk and M. Wein,
"Interactive Skeleton Techniques for Enhancing Motion Dynamics in Key Frame Animation",
Communications of the ACM, 19(10), October 1976. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics


Tron, MAGI, movie with CG premise

Bill Reeves at Lucasfilm publishes techniques for modelling particle systems. "Demo" is Star Trek
II: The Wrath of Kahn. The paper also promotes motion blur. Ref: W. Reeves, "Particle Systems - A Technique for Modelling a Class of Fuzzy Objects", Computer Graphics, 17(3), July 1983. (In


the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)


The Last Starfighter, CG is used in place of models


Porter and Duff at Lucusfilm publish paper on digital compositing using an alpha channel. Ref: T.
Porter and T. Duff, "Compositing Digital Images", Computer Graphics, 18(3), July 1984. (In the
SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)


Girard and Maciejewski at OSU publish a paper describing the use of inverse kinematics and
dynamics for animation. Their techniques are used in the animation "Eurythmy." Ref: M. Girard
and A. A. Maciejewski, "Computational Modelling for the Computer Animation of Legged
Figures", Computer Graphics, 19(3), July 1985. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics


Ken Perlin at NYU publishes a paper on noise functions for textures. He later applied this
technique to add realism to character animations. Ref: K. Perlin, "An Image Synthesizer",
Computer Graphics, 19(3), July 1985. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)


John Lasseter at Pixar publishes a paper describing traditional animation principles. "Demos" are
Andre and Wally B and Luxo Jr. Ref: J. Lasseter, "Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to
3D Computer Animation", Computer Graphics, 21(4), July 1987. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal
Graphics collection.)


Craig Reynolds then at Symbolics (now at Dreamworks SKG) publishes a paper on selforganizing behavior for groups. "Demos" are Stanley and Stella and Batman Returns. Ref: C. W.
Reynolds, "Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model", Computer Graphics,
21(4), July 1987. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)


Willow uses morphing in live action film


Beier and Neely, at SGI and PDI respectively publish an algorithm where line correspondences
guide morphing between 2D images. "Demo" is Michael Jackson video Black and White. Ref: T.
Beier and S. Neely, "Feature-Based Image Metamorphosis", Computer Graphics, 26(2), July
1992. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.) v


Chen and Williams at Apple publish a paper on view interpolation for 3D walkthroughs. Ref: S. E.
Chen and L. Williams, "View Interpolation for Image Synthesis", Computer Graphics Proceedings,
Annual Conference Series, 1993. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)


Jurassic Park use of CG for realistic living creatures


Toy Story first full-length 3D CG feature film