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Absorption process and adsorption process

Base their operation on the fact that the waste gases are composed of mixtures of
substances in the gas phase, some of which are soluble in the liquid phase. In the
process of absorption of a gas, the gaseous effluent containing the pollutant to be
removed is contacted with a liquid in which the contaminant is dissolved. Mass
transfer is affected by contacting the gas with the liquid to wet scrubber or dry
absorption systems.

An alternative to liquid absorption systems is the adsorption of contaminants on
solids. Adsorption processes in gases, vapors and liquids are retained on a solid
surface as a result of chemical reactions and / or superficial forces. Diffusion
occurs from the gaseous mass to the outer surface of the solid and gas molecules
within the pores of the solid followed by the actual gas molecules on the surface of
the solid adsorption. The most suitable solid for adsorption are those with large
surface to volume, namely, those having a high porosity.