You are on page 1of 5

Histology of UTERUS

composed of

layers

SIMPLE partially ciliated COLUMNAR epithelium
- supported by highly CELLULAR lamina propria +
abundant amorphous intercellular substance
contains SIMPLE TUBULAR glands that
- tend to branch towards the deeper portions
- lined by COLUMNAR cells with OVAL BASAL nuclei
bundles of SMOOTH MUSCLE fibers
- separated by CT

*the THICKEST layer of uterine wall

layers

shedding during menstruation

arterial supply

Superficial
FUNCTIONAL layer

shed during menstruation
*monthly renewed

COILED
arteries

Basal RESTING
layer

do NOT shed during menstruation
* serves the regeneration & repair of functional layer

STRAIGHT
arteries

layers

thickness

arrangement of smooth muscle fibers

subMUCOSAL

thin

VASCULAR

thickest

longitudinal
oblique
*arranged around numerous BV in 8-shaped figures

SUPRAvascular thin

circular

subSEROSAL

longitudinal

thin

*layers are not well separated from each other
Connective tissue
-covered at certain areas by MESOTHELIAL CELLS

*the outer layer of uterine wall

UTERine cervix

lining epithelium

lamina propria

SIMPLE partially ciliated COLUMNAR epithelium
*similar tu body of uterus

non-keratinized STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS epithelium

contains MUCOUS cervical glands
-extensively branched
*in pregnancy, the glands proliferate & secrete more viscid and abundant mucus

Histology of ovary
section shows 2 zones
size, site

stroma

broad, outer
smaller, inner
- the cortex & medulla intermingle into one another without a clear line of demarcation
- the ovarian follicles are distributed the cortex and medulla according to their stage of development
GERMINAL EPITHELIUM (surface layer)
-LOOSE connective tissue
(before puberty) continuous sheet of flat squamous cells
-rich in ELASTIC fibers
 (after puberty) low CUBOIDALepithelium
- contains numerous LARGE BLOOD VESSELS, lymphatics & nerves
- bundles of smooth muscle fibers near the hilum
*ovarian follicles are embedded in dense stroma, composed of
TUNICA ALBUGINEA
STROMAL CELLS
lies immediately underneath
embedded in a meshwork of
germinal epithelium
delicate collagen fibers
condensed COLLAGEN fibers
- oriented parallel to the surface

long spindle-shaped cells
-with elongated nuclei

Histology of fallopian (uterine) tube
layers

composed of
has long primary, secondary & tertiary folding
(especially at the region of ampulla)
simple columnar partially ciliated epithelium
- composed of 2 types of cells :
i) ciliated columnar cells ii) non ciliated secretory cells
loose CT with large number of BV
smooth muscle fibers
- inner circular
- outer longitudinal
connective tissue

cilia beat towards the uterus  causing movement of viscid liquid film that covers its surface
LIQUID FILM (formed by secretory cells interspersed between ciliated cells)
 helps the transport of fertilized ovum towards the uterus
 prevents the passage of microorganisms from the uterus to peritoneal cavity
 maintains the environment for nutrition of sperms
 motility of sperms
moderately thick

-containing LARGE-sized BV (uterine BV)
- covered externally by one layer of flat squamous cells (peritoneum)

Histology of VAGINA
layers

composed of
*NO glands are present in the mucosa
non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
-(under the effect of estrogen)
vaginal epithelium accumulates a large amount of glycogen 
- bacteria in the vagina metabolize glycogen and form lactic acid 
loose CT
-rich in blood capillaries, elastics fibers, lymphocytes & neutrophils
interlacing bundles of smooth muscle fibers
-arranged both in longitudinally & circumferentially
dense CT
- rich in think elastic fiber, extensive venous plexus, blood capillaries, nerve
fibers & group of nerve cells

mucous found in vaginal luman comes from the gland of cervix!

 responsible for the vacuolated appearance of mucosa in H&E section
 responsible for normal low pH of the vagina

*orifice is surrounded by thin layer of striated muscle fibers

Histology of PLACENTA
- consists of the chorion
- has a chorionic plate at the point where chorionic villi start to invade the desidua basalis
- each chorionic villus is composed of :
i) a core of CT derived from the extraembryonic mesenchyme & contains fetal BV
ii) surrounded by cytotrophoblast & syncytiotrophoblast
- chorionic villi are embedded within the deciduas basalis  their surfaces are
surrounded by maternal blood in the lacunae (intervillous space)
*it is the site of exchange of substances between fetal & maternal blood
-syncytiotrophoblast remains until the end of pregnancy,
but cytotrophoblast disappears gradually during the second half of pregnancy
- modified deciduas basalis in which embryo is implanted
- after implantation, deciduas undergoes some changes that are called decidual changes
i) stromal cells of endometrium enlarge & have vacuolated cytoplasm that accumulate
glycogen & lipid material  stromal cells are then called decidual cells
ii) endometrial capillaries become congested & dilated to form wide irregular sinusoids

- NO direct contact between maternal blood in intervillous space
& fetal blood in the chorionic villi.
- the 2 types of blood are separated by placental barrier.
- composed of:
1. Endothelial lining the fetal chorionic blood capillaries
2. Basement membrane of the endothelium
3. Fetal CT of the core of villus
4. Basement membrane of cytotrophoblast
5. Cytotrophoblast cells (before 4th month of pregnancy)
6. Syncytiotrophoblast layer
* Fx of placenta:
1. Endocrine gland ( HGC, estrogen, progesterone, relaxin, HCS)
2. Diffusion of :
- foodstuff (maternal fetal)
- excretory products (fetal maternal)
- oxygen & carbon dioxide

organ

epithelium

UTERUS

CERVIX

simple columnar partially ciliated
epithelium

simple columnar partially
ciliated epithelium

lamina
propria

- highly cellular
- simple tubular glands
lined by columnar cells
with basal nuclei

loose CT
-with large number of BV

layers

1. Superficial functional
layer
-shed, coiled artery
2. Basal resting layer
- not shed, straight
artery

composed
of

smooth muscle fibers

layers

1. Submucosal layer
-longitudinal
2. Vascular layer
- oblique
3. Supravascular layer
- circular
4. Subserosal layer
- longitudinal

composed
of

non-keratinized
stratified
squamous epith
-mucous cervical gland,
extensively branched

FALLOPIAN TUBE

VAGINA

OVARY

non-keratinized stratified 1. Germinal epith.
squamous epithelium
squamous cell 
(after puberty)
low
cuboidal epith.
loose CT
-rich in blood capillaries,
2. Tunica Albuginea
elastics fibers
- condensed collagen
fibers
3.Stromal cells
-long spindle-shaped
cells with elongated
nuclei

smooth muscle fibers
- inner circular
- outer longitudinal

interlacing bundles of
smooth muscle fibers
( longi. & circum.)

uterus

connective tissue
at certain areas covered
by mesothelial cells
fallopian tube

connective tissue
-containing LARGE-sized
BV (uterine BV)
- covered externally by
one layer of flat
squamous cells
(peritoneum)

dense CT
- rich in think elastic
fiber, extensive venous
plexus, blood cap.

- stroma of loose CT
-rich in elastic fibers
-numerous large BV

PLACENTA

each chorionic villus is
composed of :
i) a core of CT derived
from the
extraembryonic
mesenchyme &
contains fetal BV
ii) surrounded by
cytotrophoblast &
syncytiotrophoblast
-syncytiotr/blast
remains,
cytotr/blast disappears

decidual changes
i) stromal cells of
endometrium enlarge
& have vacuolated
cytoplasm that
accumulate glycogen &
lipid material 
stromal cells are then
called decidual cells
ii) endometrial
capillaries become
congested & dilated to
form wide irregular
sinusoids