Basic Principles of Power Generation

PRINCIPLES OF POWER GENERATION

Basic Principles of Power Generation

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Power Generating Methods
• • • • • • • • Steam turbines Gas turbines Nuclear reactors Hydro plants Diesel engines Tidal Wave Wind turbines Co-generation – power generation & processes • Fuel cells – Using a variety of chemicals

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TE W A (6 4 M W ) 2 x 34MW GT G LG R (1 1 0 M W ) 1 x 110MW GT P R AI (3 6 0 M W ) 3 x 1 20 MW C ONV S G RI (1 3 0 3 M W ) 2 x 6 5 1 .5 M W C C P K LG (1 5 8 4 M W ) 4 x 3 00 MW C ONV 3 x 110MW GT 2 x 2 7 MW G T CBP S (8 8 4 M W ) 1 x 300MW CC 4 x 130MW GT 2 x 3 4 MW G T P DPW (4 4 0 M W ) 4 x 1 1 0 MW G T TJ P S (3 3 0 M W ) 2 x 5 7 M W CO N V 2 x 5 5 M W CO N V 3 x 1 2 0 MW C O N V P WT K

M a jo r G e n e r a ti n g S ta tio n s in P e n in s u la r M a la y s ia
P ER G A U4 x1 5 0 MW B E RS I A 3 x2 3 M W TE M EN G O R K E NE R IN G 4 x8 2 MW 3 x3 6 M W S G . P IA H U P P E R K E NYI R 4 x1 0 0 M W C H E N D ER O H 2 x 7 . 3 MW 3x10 MW 1 x8 MW P A KA (1 1 1 3 M W ) 3 x 2 8 4 MW C C 1 x 2 6 1 MW C C LE GE ND P OW E R S T A T IO N Hy d ro TN B IPP YT L P A K A ( 8 3 4 MW ) 2 x 417MW C C J O R 4 x 2 5 MW WOH 3 x 5 0 M W O DA K 3 x1 . 4 MW

S OU TH C H IN A S EA
S R DG ( 6 1 0 MW ) 2 x 1 1 0 MW G T 3 x 1 3 0 MW G T 2 1 2 2 x x x x

YTL P G (4 1 7 M W ) 1 x 417MW CC P GP S (7 8 9 M W ) 120MW C ONV 261MW CC 110MW GT 34MW GT

G S YN (7 1 0 M W ) 1 x7 1 0 M W C C

MC C A (3 3 0 M W ) 1 x 3 3 0 MW C C

(4 4 0 M W Basic Principles) of Power 4 x 1 1 0 MW G T Generation

No t e : CC - C o m b in e d C yc le G T - G a s T u r b in e CO N V - C o n ve n t io n a l T h e r m a l D es ig n b y Z u l Page

3

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Principles of Plant Operation
• Modern power station (bigger output capacity) – Based load operation • Intermediate power plant (smaller units) – ‘top up’ load demand • Gas turbine, oil fired & or hydro plant – Peak load demand – Rapid response to load demand – High cost operation • Wind turbine, wave • Control system frequency
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Principles of Power Generation

Basic Principles of Power Generation

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Steam Plant Major Components
• Boiler & its auxiliaries – Combustion system • Combustion air & flue gas system • Fuel system – Feedwater system • Turbine & its auxiliaries – Steam systems (main & reheat steam) – Cooling system (condenser, bearing, generator etc) – Condensate system – Turbine bearing lubricating oil system
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Steam Turbine Power Generation
• Power generating concept – Steam (heat energy)  mechanical energy (rotational energy) electrical energy • Steam (superheated) is produced in boiler (steam generator). • Undergoing several processes • Rotate turbine • Generator • Produce electrical load.

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MAIN GRID IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
LAN GKAW I

PERLIS
Chuping Ka r nga Kota Bha ru Alor Kota S r eta Se tar Kua h

N
SO U T H SE C A H

KEDAH
Gurun TanahM ra e h

YAN
Be dong

PERGAU BERSIA TEMENGOR KENERING

Ge orge n tow

PRAI
Buk Tenga it h Junjung

PULAU PINANG

Kua la Te ngga re nu

IN

GELUGOR Bukit Tambun

SG PIAH UPPER SG PIAH LOWER CH D EN EROH
Kua Ka la ngsar

KELANTAN
KENYIR

A

TERENGGANU
PAKA YTL

PERAK
Ipoh Pa n pa Ba Ga tu jah

SEGARI
Aye Taw r ar

JOR WOH ODAK

Te Kalong lok

J AN AN G AM JUN

PAHANG

Kuantan

SELANGOR
KAPAR

Bukit Ta k re

Kg Aw ah

CON AUGH N T BRID GE

KL (E) KL (N ) Sha h Ala KL (S) m H icomG

WILAYAH PERSEKUTUAN
SERD G AN

NEGERI SEMBILAN
Sa k Tinggi la Se em n r ba

Le nggeng

Legend
H o Pow Station ydr er Therm l P er Sta a ow tion State Ca pital M jor TN Substa a B tion

GEN G TIN SAN YEN

PD POW PORT ER D ICKSON POW ERTEK

MELAKA

M ELAKA

M lak e a M la a e k

Yong Pe (E) ng Yong Pe (N) ng

ST
Existing Planned

JOHOR

Sedili

500kV Overhead Line 300kV HVDC Line 275kV Overhead Line 275kV Cable

R M AI EL T S A K OF A

Bukit Batu J ohor Ba hru

Scudai

YTL

PASIR GUDAN G

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Steam Cycle
• • • • • • • A boiler generates steam (high temp. & press) Steam expands in the turbine, producing work. Drive generator Condenser cools the steam Pumped into the boiler ( using boiler feed pump) Flow through feedwater heaters (preheat boiler water) Reheat steam (to increase steam temp.)

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Basic Steam Cycle

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Basic Rankine Cycle

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Types of turbine
• Shaft Arrangements – Tandem compound – Cross compound • Pressure – High press., Intermediate press. & Low press. • Blading – Impulse (HP turbine blade) – Reaction (LP blade) • Exhaust – Extraction • Electric power & process – Condensing

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CROSS COMPOUND TURBINE
Basic Principles of Power Generation

Mitsubishi’s 1,000MW -class steam turbines define high-temperature, highpressure, high-output performance.
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TANDEM COMPOUND TURBINE
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SINGLE SHAFT TURBINE

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SINGLE SHAFT TURBINE
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Power Generating Plant

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X-section of a steam turbine

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ST HP Rotor

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ST IP Rotor

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LP Rotor

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Tandem Compound Turbine
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Steam turbine operation principles
• Impulse turbine – The steam press decreases (at nozzle)[first stage] – Press constant (at fixed & rotating blades) – The enthalpy of the steam decreases – The steam velocity increases (at nozzle) – The volume of the steam increases • Reaction turbine – Steam press decreases – Velocity increases at fixed blades – Velocity decreases at rotating blades
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Condensing Turbines
• Straight-condensing turbines are advantageous, especially when large quantities of a reliable power source are required or an inexpensive fuel, such as process byproduct gas, is readily available. To improve plant thermal efficiency, steam is usually extracted from the intermediate stage of the turbine for feedwater heating.

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Extraction-Condensing Turbines
• Extraction-condensing turbines generate both process steam and stable electric power. Process steam, at one or more fixed pressures, can be automatically extracted as needed. This type of turbine has the flexibility to satisfy wide variations of process steam at a constant pressure and to meet electric power demands

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Back-Pressure Turbines
• Back-pressure turbines can be used when a large quantity of process steam is required. The turbine exhaust steam is supplied to the process and the electric output is dependent on the demand for the process steam. These turbines can also be used as top turbines to supply exhaust steam to existing units; this improves the entire plant's thermal efficiency.

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Extraction Back-Pressure Turbines

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• Extraction back-pressure turbines can be used when two or more kinds of process steam are required. High-pressure steam is supplied through the extraction openings and lowpressure steam is supplied through as the turbine exhaust. Electric output is dependent on the demand for process steam.

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Mixed-Pressure Turbines

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• Mixed-pressure turbines are driven by two or more kinds of steam admitted independently to the turbine. In applying duel heat sources, the optimum steam condition for each source can be selected. This type of turbine can also be used to combine an existing boiler and a new boiler, which makes it an effective means of improving plant thermal efficiency.

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Geared Turbines

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Geared Turbines

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• Geared turbines can be applied to smaller power generation units of up to around 40 MW. Compared with direct-coupled turbines, geared turbines have many advantages: • Higher efficiency Easier operation and maintenance Smaller initial investment Smaller space requirement Shorter delivery time

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Single-Cylinder Reheat Turbines

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• Traditionally, non-reheat turbines have been used for industrial applications. Recent demands, however, for higher efficiency and larger unit capacity call for reheat turbines in this field. Taking these demands into consideration, we have developed single-cylinder reheat turbines that are applicable to the 75 MW to 200 MW range. Single-cylinder reheat turbines offer • Smaller space requirements Shorter construction and erection periods Easier operation and maintenance Shorter overhaul periods Smaller initial investments

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Two-Cylinder Reheat Turbines

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• Two-cylinder reheat turbines can be used when a very high efficiency is required for steam turbines larger than 75 MW

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LP TURBINE ROTOR
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Gas Turbine
• Methods of Gas Turbine power generation – Open Cycle – Combined Cycle • Two types of Gas Turbine – Industrial Gas Turbine – Derivative Gas Turbine

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Single-Shaft Combined-Cycle Power Plant

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HRSG

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DERIVATIVE GAS TURBINE
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Combined Cycle Gas Turbine

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INDUSTRIAL GAS TURBINE
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CCGT

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GT Main Components
• Compressor • Combustor – Silo (Single or Twin Silo) – Annular – Can Annular • Turbine • Exhaust

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Derivative Gas Turbine

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ABB GT13E2

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ABB GT11N2

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GT: Compressor & Turbine Blade
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Can Annular Combustor

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Annular Combustor

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Hydro Power Generation
• Types of Hydro Generation – Dam – Run of river – Pump storage

Run of River

Hydro Dam
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Types of Hydropower Plants
• Run-of-river plants • These plants use little, if any, stored water to provide water flow through the turbines. Although some plants store a day or week's worth of water, weather changes especially seasonal changes cause run-of-river plants to experience significant fluctuations in power output. • Storage plants • These plants have enough storage capacity to off-set seasonal fluctuations in water flow and provide a constant supply of electricity throughout the year. Large dams can store several years worth of water.

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• Pumped Storage • In contrast to conventional hydropower plants, pumped storage plants reuse water. After water initially produces electricity, it flows from the turbines into a lower reservoir located below the dam. During off-peak hours (periods of low energy demand), some of the water is pumped into an upper reservoir and reused during periods of peak-demand.

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Hydro Turbine

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Micro Hydro Systems

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How Hydropower Works
• Hydropower converts the energy in flowing water into electricity. • The quantity of electricity generated is determined by the volume of water flow and the amount of "head" (the height from turbines in the power plant to the water surface) created by the dam. • The greater the flow and head, the more electricity produced.

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• A typical hydropower plant includes a dam, reservoir, penstocks (pipes), a powerhouse and an electrical power substation. • The dam stores water and creates the head • Penstocks carry water from the reservoir to turbines inside the powerhouse • The water rotates the turbines, which drive generators that produce electricity. • The electricity is then transmitted to a substation where transformers increase voltage to allow transmission to homes, businesses and factories

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Francis Turbine

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Hydro plant main systems
• • • • • • • • Main Intake (Water reservoir) Penstock Spiral Casing Inlet Guide Vane Turbine Draft Tailrace Generator

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Pergau Francis Turbine

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Tailrace

Spillway
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Penstock
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Francis

Pelton

Kaplan
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Francis
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Spiral Casing

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Diesel Engine

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Diesel Engine
• Two basic types – Otto cycle (constant volume) – Diesel cycle (constant pressure) • Used for small output generating capacity. – Remote areas • Industrial & trailer mounted. – For emergency & stand-by – Black start unit
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1.2 MW Diesel Generator
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diesel power plant, for the 3-15 MW range
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Wind Turbine

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Tidal Wave Power Generation

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