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The End of WWII

CHC 2D

Recap
after Pearl Harbor, Germany declares war on the United
States, strengthening German ties to Japan
Germany defeated at Battle of Stalingrad (July 1942-Feb.
1943)
Allied bombing of Germany increases
D-Day: June 6, 1944
by late 1944 the Red Army had driven Germany back to
central Europe and the Allies were closing in on the West

Liberation of the Netherlands

May 5 is Liberation Day in Holland


Canada has a special connection to The Netherlands
Previously occupied by Nazi Germany, The Netherlands were
liberated largely by Canadian troops, assisted by Brits and
Americans
Canada also offered shelter to the Dutch royal family during the
war
Princess Juliana and her two small daughters boarded a vessel
for Canada. We protected her here during war and she was able
to have her third child, Magariet, safely on Dutch soil.

A gift to Canada
To thank Canadians for
sheltering Princess Juliana and her
daughters during the War, the
Dutch Royal Family sent 100,000
tulip bulbs to Ottawa
Every year after that, we have
received a gift of tulip bulbs,
which led to the founding of the
Tulip Festival in 1953

April 1945
Soviet forces attack the
outskirts of Berlin
Roosevelt dies on April 12
Hitler celebrates his 56th
birthday on April 20
Hitler urged to flee, but
decides to stay in Berlin
Hitler believed to have killed
himself on April 30. His body
was burned by SS officers.

Victory in Europe
By April of 1945,
American and Soviet
troops were closing in on
Berlin.
Adolf Hitler committed
suicide on April 30, and
Germany officially
surrendered on May 7.
The endless procession of
German prisoners
marching through the
ruined city streets to
captivity.

Red army soldiers raising the Soviet flag on the roof of the
Reichstag (German Parliament) in Berlin, Germany.

On May 8, the
Allies
celebrated V-E
Day (Victory in
Europe).
Churchill
waves to
crowds in
Britain after
broadcasting to
the nation that
the war with
Germany had
been won, May
8, 1945.

V-E Day celebrations, Bay Street, Toronto, Canada


May 7, 1945

THE PACIFIC WAR DRAGS ON


Despite victory in Europe, the Allies were still fighting
a war against Japan in the Pacific theatre, and it had
been a long, bloody battle.
Following the Pearl Harbour attack, Japan recorded
successive victories against the Allies, and by May of
1942, Japan controlled Northern China, Burma, Laos,
Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia,
The Philippines, Hong Kong, Singapore and Macau.

PACIFIC WAR CONTD


Below is a map showing Japanese territory at the
height of their conquests in WWII:
The taking back of
these territories
would be long and
arduous, and the
Allies were looking
for some way to get
Japan to surrender
quickly.

THE MANHATTAN PROJECT


Beginning in 1939, under US President Franklin D.
Roosevelt, and at the urging of scientists who
believed the Germans were on their way to
developing nuclear weapons, the US, with support
from Canada and the UK, began a project to construct
a nuclear bomb.
Dubbed The Manhattan Project, a
team of physicists led by J. Robert
Oppenheimer (at left) began researching
and testing the weapon that would
ultimately end the war.

THE MANHATTAN PROJECT,


CONTD

What a nuclear bomb basically does is trigger the


spitting of an atom by some sort of device (in some
cases, its actually a gun). Materials with high atomic
numbers and unstable atoms are preferable to
guarantee a big explosion.
The bomb at right is a gundetonated nuclear bomb the
same type that was dropped on
Hiroshima (Little Boy).

THE MANHATTAN PROJECT,


CONTD
In other cases, the explosion is caused by small
explosions actually moving inward, creating so much
internal force that an atom splits, and the explosion
then is outwardly released.
This is the bomb model
used for Fat Man, which
was dropped on Nagasaki
on August 9th, 1945.

THE MANHATTAN PROJECT,


CONTD
The energy found in a pound of highly enriched
uranium (the material used in an atomic bomb) is
equal to something on the order of a million gallons
of gasoline.
When you consider that a pound of uranium is
smaller than a baseball and a million gallons of
gasoline would fill a cube that is 50 feet per side (50
feet is as tall as a five-story building), you can get an
idea of the amount of energy available in just a little
bit of Uranium.

THE MANHATTAN PROJECT,


CONTD
The explosion that results from an atomic bomb detonation is
therefore massive in scale it was unlike any sort of conventional
bomb that had been produced before.
Not only was the explosion great, but the radioactivity released by
the bomb had the effect of poisoning the environment.
Science, it seemed, had produced the ultimate weapon.

THE POTSDAM
CONFERENCE
From July 16th to August 2nd, 1945, the USA, the USSR and the UK met
in Potsdam, Germany (Germany had surrendered by this time) to
discuss how to punish Germany, as well as discuss the establishment
of post-war order.
On the agenda was also how to deal with Japan, with whom the USA
and the UK were still at war (the USSR had remained neutral with
Japan).
On 16 July 1945, the USA successfully tested an atomic bomb at the
Trinity test in the New Mexico desert - Churchill and Truman agreed
that the weapon should be used.

Defeat of Japan
The U.S. planned to invade Japan in 1945, though experts
warned that the invasion could cost over a million casualties.

Stalin, Truman and Churchill at the


Potsdam Conference.

Upon learning
about the atomic
bomb, Pres.
Truman sent the
Japanese the
Potsdam
Declaration,
warning them to
surrender or face
prompt and utter
destruction.

THE ATOMIC
BOMBING OF JAPAN

NECESSARY MEASURE
OR CALCULATED ACTIONS?

Hiroshima
&
nAGASAKI

Unaware of the atomic bombs, the Japanese ignored the


Potsdam Declaration.

Little Boy, the first


atomic bomb ever made
was a uranium-enriched
bomb. It was dropped on
the city of Hiroshima,
Japan, on August 6,
1945.

Using the material found in the reading


Victory over Japan and from this video
presentation, make a T-chart in your
notes that compares and contrasts the
views and experiences of the Americans
(including the crew of the Enola Gay)
and the people of Hiroshima.

What do you think about the American


decision to drop the bomb? Was it
justified?

Little Boy
Length: 10 feet 6 inches
Diameter: 29 inches
Weight: 9,700 lbs.
Yield: 12.5 kilometers

Crew of the Enola Gay, which dropped an atomic bomb on


Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945. Center - Pilot Paul Tibbets.

On August 6, 1945, the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on


Hiroshima, Japan, killing at least 70,000 people and
destroying most of the city.

A Uranium bomb, the first nuclear weapon in the world, was


dropped in Hiroshima City. It was estimated that its energy was
equivalent to 15 kilotons of TNT. Aerial photograph from 80
kilometers away, taken about 1 hour after the dropping.

The aftermath of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.

Ohmura Navy Hospital:

A 14 year old girl after the


bombing of Hiroshima at
Ohmura Navy Hospital on
August 10-11.

Severe burns. Only his waist was protected from a burn by a


waistband he wore (within 1km from the hypocenter).

Kimono pattern.
Burned areas on the
back and on the
dorsal portion of the
upper arm show that
thermal rays
penetrated the black
or the dark colored
parts of kimono she
wore.

The Big Picture:


Hiroshima, 64 years
ago

On August 9, the U.S. dropped another atomic bomb on the


city of Nagasaki, killing at least 40,000 people.

Atomic Warfare (3:18)

Mushroom cloud from the


nuclear explosion over
Nagasaki rising 60,000
feet into the air on the
morning of August 9 1945

Bockscar

Fat Man

Nagasaki
Explosion

Before and after photos of downtown Nagasaki.

Number of Atomic Bomb Casualties: Hiroshima and Nagasaki


Use the graph to estimate the number of casualties in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

In 10,000s
Deaths

Injuries

JAPAN SURRENDERS
On August 10, the Japanese government presented a letter of protest
for the atomic bombings to the government of the United States via
the government of Switzerland.
Despite the letter of protest, the US was planning more atom bomb
attacks if Japan did not surrender unconditionally.
On August 12, Japans Emperor Hirohito, informed the imperial family
of his decision to surrender, and on August 15th, he announced
Japans surrender on public radio.

On August
14, Japan
officially
surrendered
ending World
War II. This
date became
known as
V-J Day
(Victory
over Japan).
Crowd of people, many waving, in Times Square on
V-J Day at time of announcement of the Japanese
surrender. (August 14, 1945)

NECESSARY MEASURES?
Debate rages, even to this day, about whether or not
the use of the atom bombs on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki was necessary.
FOR

AGAINST

Saved Lives

Militarily unnecessary

Japanese refused to surrender

Fundamentally immoral

A part of total war

Racially motivated

ARGUMENTS FOR
It Saved Lives:
A full-scale invasion of Japan may have resulted in deaths on both
sides ranging from hundreds of thousands to millions.
A quick end to the war also meant a stop to the deaths all over Asia
from ongoing battles that were occurring in the tens of thousands on
a monthly basis.

ARGUMENTS FOR CONTD


The Japanese Refused to Surrender
Surrender is against Japanese war culture, as soldiers are taught to
prefer death or suicide to surrender or capture a tactic of the
Japanese was to send Kamikaze pilots directly into warships and other
targets.
Many Japanese military leaders publicly stated they were willing to
fight to the last man.

ARGUMENTS FOR CONTD


A Part of Total War
The destruction of civilian targets was something Japan itself did
(Nanking), and was a tactic of warfare in WWII.
Civilian targets are justifiable as they are part of the engine of war.

ARGUMENTS AGAINST
Militarily Unnecessary
The Japanese were actually in the process of surrendering at the time
of the bomb drops, and therefore the use of the bomb to hasten
this was not really necessary the conventional bombing campaigns
and sea blockade of Japan had already had the desired results.
Even if the first bomb on Hiroshima was justifiable, the second on
Nagasaki, only three days after, was not Japan was not given an
opportunity to surrender.

ARGUMENTS AGAINST CONTD


Fundamentally Immoral
The bomb affected such a wide area and had such destructive force
that it killed indiscriminately this was very different from
conventional attacks on military targets.
The destructive power of the bomb and the after-effects that last for
decades means their choice over conventional bombings is
fundamentally wrong.

ARGUMENTS AGAINST CONTD


Racially Motivated
The choice to attack Japan
with these weapons was
racially motivated, as
Americans had been
taught to de-humanize the
Japanese and see them as
beasts that only
understood violence.

CONCLUSION
The debate about the atomic bomb attacks on Japan will probably rage on
for years to come.
The destructive power of the bombs, and the fact that they ushered in an
era of paranoia and constant fear, however, is unquestionable.

Even today, the ghosts of Hiroshima and Nagasaki linger on, as we watch
nuclear weapons get into the hands of unstable regimes.
The only thing that seems to prevent their use now is the fear of total world
annihilation.
I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but I
know that World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones. Albert
Einstein