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BITUMEN AS A

CONSTRUCTION
MATERIAL
-BASIC TEST
-TEST RELEVANCE AND PURPOSE
-ASPHALT MIX DESIGN AND PURPOSE
-SUPERPAVE DESIGN CRITERIA
BY COLLINS DONKOR
PRINCIPAL ENGINEER

BITUMEN
DARK BROWN OR BLACK
CEMENTITOUS MATERIAL
- OCCURRS NATURALLY
(as Trinidad Lake Asphalt and Bermudez
Lake Asphalt)
- PETROLEUM DISTILATION

BITUMEN COMPONENTS
ASPHALTENES- DARK BROWN
FRIABLE SOLID
(INSOLUBLE PRECIPITATES) PENTANE ETC

MALTENES- RESINS (SEMI-SOLID AND DARK)


- OILS (HOMOGENEOUS LIQUID)

HISTORY OF BITUMEN
BITMEN IS THE OLDEST ENGINEERING
MATERIAL
USED IN SHIP BUILDING INDUSTY IN 6000 B.C BY
THE SUMERIANS
USED ALSO BY ANCIENT INDUS VALLEY(INDIA) FOR
PUPLIC BATHS AROUND 3000 B.C
2600 B.C IN EGYPT FOR MUMMIFICATION,
WATERPROOFING AND BUILDING STRUCTURES

HISTORY
FISRT SHEET ASPHALT USING
TRINADAD LAKE ASPHALT WAS
CONSTRUCTED IN 1876 ON
PENSYLVANIA AVENUE IN
WASHINGTON D.C
IN EARLY 1900 CRUDE PETROLEUM
REFINERIES BEGAN PRODUCING
BITUMEN

TYPES OF BITUMEN
NATURALLY OCCURRING BITUMEN
- LIQUID BITUMEN SUCH AS LAKE TRINIDAD
(TRINIDAD), AND LAKE BERMUDEZ (VENEZUELA)
- SOLID BITUMEN SUCH AS GILSONITE FROM
(UTAH USA)

PETROLEUM BITUMEN
- STRAIGHT RUNS (AC- 20, AC-30, PG 70-10)
- EMULSION ( CRS -1, CSS)
- CUTBACKS ( MC-250, MC-70)

USES
ROAD BUILDING
SUCH AS HOT MIX ASPHALT CONCRETE, AC - 20
PRIME AND TACK COAT , CSS-1 , MC-70, MC 250

WATERPROOFING
FELT ETC.

BITUMEN GRADING SYSTEM


CHEWING SYSTEM EARLY TEST
PENETRATION SYSTEM 1918 (BPR)
FIRST PUBLICATION 1931 AASHTO

VISCOSITY SYSTEM 1960 (FHWA,


ASTM, AASHTO)
PERFORMANCE SYSTEM 1985
(SHRP)

PHYSICAL TEST ON BITUMEN


CONSISTENCY TESTS
ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY AT 60C
KINEMATIC VISCOSITY AT 135C
PENTRATION AT 25C
SOFTENING POINT TEMPERATURE

DURABILITY TEST
DUCTILITY TEST AT 25C
THIN FILM OVEN TEST

PERFORMANCE TEST
ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN TEST AT 163C

PHYSICAL TEST ON BITUMEN


PRESSURE AGING VESSEL AT 90, 100, 110 c AND
2070 KPA FOR 20HOUR
ROTATIONAL VISCOSITY 135 c
DYNAMIC SHEAR RHEOMETER (SERVICE TEMPS)
BENDING BEAM RHEOMETER (COLD TEMPS)
DIRECT TENSION TEST (COLD TEMPS)

BITUMEN SPECIFICATION

BINDER SPECIFICATION FOR


SUPERPAVE MIXTURE

ASPHALT MIX
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS!
What is
the
meaning
Sir?

WHAT IS ASPHALT
CONCRETE
IT IS COMPLEX MIXTURE OF
AGGREGATES, BITUMEN AND AIR
AGGREGATES- SOLID AT ALL C
BITUMEN SOLID/LIQUID C
DEPENDENT
AIR IS GASEOUS AT ALL C

FACTORS TAKEN INTO


CONSIDERATION FOR A GOOD
ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURE
TO SERVE THE INTENDED
PURPOSE
PURPOSES

CRACK RESISTANCE
RUT RESISTANCE
DURABLE AGAINST WEATHER
SKID RESISTANT SURFACE
APPROPRIATE COST

FACTORS INFUENCING
DESIGN
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
- HOT , COLD, WET OR DRY
TRAFFIC CONDITIONS
- HEAVEY , MEDIUM OR LOW
MIX DESIGN METHODOLOGY
-MARSHALL, SUPERPAVE, ETC

LEADING TO CHOICE OF
MATERIALS
TYPE AND GRADE OF BINDER
- STRAIGHT RUN, EMULSION OR
CUTBACK
- PG 67-22, 60/70 PEN , AC-20
AGGREGATES
- SIZE
- STRENGTH
- GRADATION

LEADING TO CHOICE OF
DESIGN METHOD
MARSHALL VOLUMETRIC METHOD
HVEEME METHOD
SUPERPAVE VOLUMETRIC
METHOD
OTHERS

HOW DO WE START

MARSHALL METHOD

MARSHALL CRITERIA

MARSHALL METHOD
GRADATION
GRADATION DESIGN GRADATION
PERCENTAGE PASSING (%)

100
90
80
70
60

MID PT.SPEC 2

50

low er limit
upper limit

40
30
20
10
0
0.01

0.1

SIEVE SIZE (mm)

10

100

SUPERPAVE CRITERIA
BINDER
EVALUATION

AGGREGATE
EVALUTION

MIXTURE
EVALUTION

MIXTURE EVALUATION
TRIAL BLEND
DETERMINATION OF OBC
Nini, Ndes, Nmax (Number of gyrations)
BASED ON TRAFFIC AND CLIMATE
VOLUMETRICS
%AC, %Gmm@ Nini, %Gmm@Nmax,
VTM, VMA, VFB
MOISTURE SUSCEPTIBILITY
AASTHO T283

SUPERPAVE METHOD

US ARMY
GYRATORY
COMPACTOR

AUSTRALIAN
GYRATORY
COMPACTOR

SUPERPAVE GRADATION

CHOICE OF TYPE
MIXTURE

COARSE VRS FINE GRADED MIXTURE


COARSE GRADED

FINE GRADED

COMPONENTS OF ASPHALT
CONCRETE MIXTURE

FINE GRADED

GAP GRADED

COARSE GRADED

STRESSES ON ASPHALT
CONCRETE MIXTURE
VERTICAL COMPRESSIVE
STRESSES
HORIZONTAL TENSILE STRESSES

NEAR SURFACE SHEAR


STRESSES

STRESSES IMPOSED BY RADIAL


TIRES ASPHALT PAVEMENT

RUTTING AND CRACKING SHEAR


STRESS INDUCED BY RADIAL
TYRES

PERFORMANCE
CRACKING
RUTTING
MOISTURE DAMAGE

VERTICAL RUT PROFILE OF


TRUCK RADIAL TYRE ON AC
PAVEMENT
VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT(mm)

TRANSVERSE PROFILE 90000 VRS 100 PASSES OF


HVS -TRACK 3B
8
6
4
2
0
-2 0

50

100

-4
-6
-8
-10
WIDTH OF LASER TRAVEL(cm)

150

PROFILE
90000PASS
PROFILE
100PASSES

RUTTING ON ASPHALT LAYERS

PROBLEMS OF ASHALT
CONCRETE MIXURES

CRACKING
RUTTING
BLEEDING
SEGREGATION
MOISTURE DAMAGE
ETC(POOR DESIGN, SPECIFICATION,SUPERVION,
OWNERSHIP..)

INSTABILITY RUTTING

INSTABILITY RUTTING

EXTREME BLEEDING

LONGITUDINAL TENSILE
CRACK ON ASPHALT
PAVEMENT

ALLIGATOR CRACKING

MOISTURE DAMAGE

STRIPPED AND UNSTRIPPED


ASPHALT CORES

HIGHLY STRIPPED INTERIOR OF


CORE WITH MUD STAINS

WHICH IS THE BEST


SHOULD WE GO FOR

COARSE GRADED

OR
FINE
GRADED

IT SHOULD WORK
AFTERWARDS

THANK YOU