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8.2 Study Guide!

8.2.1 Identify different world energy sources!

World Energy Source .


Hydroelectric
Wind
Water Currents
Tidal Energy
Solar
Bio Fuels
Fossil Fuels
Nuclear Fission
Geothermal

CO
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No

Primary Energy Source


Sun
Sun
Sun
Moon & Sun's Gravity
Sun
Sun
Sun
Nucleus
Energy in Earth's Core

***Notice how the sun is most common primary energy source IB expects you to appreciate
this I dont quite know how they would test your appreciation for the sun, but I would
recommend reflecting on it on Thanksgiving day!***!

8.2.2 Outline and distinguish between renewable and non-renewable energy sources.!

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8.2.3 Define the energy density of fuel.!

Energy density - The amount of energy released per unit mass of fuel consumed. It is measured
in J kg-1!

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8.2.4 Discuss how choice of fuel is influenced by its energy density.!
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As a general rule of thumb, fuels with higher energy density will be chosen over one with a
lower energy density. Uranium-235 has the highest energy density, but it is expensive to start
and run a nuclear power generator. Among fossil fuels, which are used often, natural gas has
the highest density, followed by oil and then coal. !

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8.2.5 State the relative proportions of world use of the different energy sources that are
available!

. Energy Source .

Percent of world use .


33%
27%
21%
6%
2%
11%

Oil
Coal
Natural Gas
Nuclear (fission)
Hydroelectric
Biofuel, Solar, Wind, Geothermal

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Biofuel, Solar, Wind, Geothermal!


11%
Hydroelectric!
2%
Nuclear!
6%

Natural Gas!
21%

Coal!
27%

Oil!
33%

8.2.6 Discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of various energy sources.!

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Fossil fuels!

Advantage

Disadvantage

Found on every continent, so relatively easy to find Contributes heavily to the enhanced greenhouse
and use.
effect.
Easy to gain energy from - no large technological
demand relative to other sources.

Non-renewable - supplies will run out quite fast at


current rate of consumption

Easy to construct power station in basically any


area.

Low energy density

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Nuclear Energy!

Advantage
Extremely high energy density.

Disadvantage
High set up and maintanance costs

Doesn't contribute to the enhanced global warming Creates highly radioactive and hard-to-dispose-of
effect.
waste.
Possibility of a reactor meltdown.

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Hydropower!

Advantage

Disadvantage

Very efficient compared to other sources.

Requires large dams to be built - high cost.

Low running costs.

Causes up river flooding and down river drought.

Renewable.

Dam can break and release of water can cause


significant damage.

Doesn't contribute to the enhanced global warming Impact on the ecosystem of the river
effect.

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Wave power!

Advantage

Disadvantage

Very high potential power output.

Hard to build.

Doesn't contribute to the enhanced global warming High maintanance cost due to power of waves.
effect.

Tidal power!

Advantage

Disadvantage

Renewable.

Low energy output.

Doesn't contribute to the enhanced global warming Long construction times - high cost.
effect.

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Solar energy!
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Advantage

Disadvantage

Widespread source.

Very low energy output.

Doesn't contribute to the enhanced global warming Intermittent energy output.


effect.
Can work in more remote areas.

Can't work at night.

Wind Power!

Advantage

Disadvantage

Doesn't contribute to the enhanced global


warming effect.

High setup and maintanance costs.

Many possible sites for construction.

Creates noise pollution.

Can work in more remote areas.

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*** Suggested Practice Problems (they may show up on a quiz


hint hint ;) ***!

A power plant produces electricity by burning wood (energy density wood = 16


MJ/kg), using the thermal energy produced as input to a steam engine, which
makes a turbine turn producing electricity. The plant has a power output of 300
MW and operates at an overall efficiency of 30 %.!

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M = Mega = 1,000,000!
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a. Calculate the rate at which the thermal energy (input energy) is provided by
the burning wood in MW.!

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b. How much wood (in kg) is needed to be burned per second to meet this
demand (1 MW = 1 MJ/s)?!

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