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Traffic Jam in Dhaka City

Traffic Jam in Dhaka City

Traffic Jam in Dhaka City

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The mega city of Dhaka cannot afford the burden of 140 million people on its 360 kilometers of land. The concentrated populated itself poses a potential threat. The high- rise buildings, continuously rising industries, increasing number of transports and growing

slums continue aggravating the situation. 60 percent of her citizens live beyond the city facilities in spite of their living in the ambit of the city. They throng to the city just to earn their living. Driven by extreme poverty, insecurity, river erosion, serious unemployment problem have sent them to this city. Quickly this situation cannot be changed. Environmentalists have expressed concern that the encroachment on the river Buriganga, the life line of Dhaka city, traffic congestion, pollution and diseases are turning this once majestic city into a choking hell. About fifty percent of the river's pollution load comes from the industrial source while sewerage and domestic wastes contribute to the remaining fifty percent. Between 1980-2009 the population of Dhaka has swelled from three million to more than ten million and its importance has increased manifold but the basic amenities

have not kept up with the changes

Water from the river Buriganga and Shitalakhya that

.. would have supplemented the need of drinking water and other purposes such as cooking and washing has been fouled as much by raw sewerage as by a number of industrial and chemical units and even pesticides.

Traffic jam stands as the number one problem of Dhaka city. 93%city dwellers are directly related to it. It was followed by pollution 62 percent, higher fares 46 percent, and frequent accidents 26 percent, hijacking 26 percent The city's vehicle population has almost increased ten times since 1992 as a result of our failure to introduce mass transport. Eighty percent of the vehicles are three wheelers, small buses of the old days and cars which spew more than half the major pollutants. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, photochemical oxides e.g. ozone, nitrogen oxides, particular matter and lead are the main culprits .A recent study indicates that motor vehicles are a major or primary source of other toxic air pollutants including 1.3 butadiene, benzene and a number of carcinogens. In developed countries governments have fought for clean air by regulating all major and many minor sources of air pollution. Industrial emissions have been significantly reduced. As a result of new motor vehicle emission standards introduced in 1988, new vehicles in developed nations are 90 percent cleaner than those manufactured in 1970s.

The city dwellers, city planners, policy makes, the experts and researchers who think about the city will unanimously agree that Dhaka is one of the most unplanned cities of the world.

It is lengthy in south and northern directions while its width consisting of east and western directions is few kilometers only. There is hardly any scope of its expansion in eastern and western side to a visible extent.

There are different types of vehicles namely car, bus, jeep, truck, minibus, microbus, auto- rickshaw, tempo, mini-truck, motorcycles and innumerable rickshaws. Many of the vehicles that ply on Dhaka's streets daily are faulty and emit black smoke in excess of the prescribed limit. Black smoke is primary unburning carbon that agglomerates into small particles caused by over-load and faulty engine condition of vehicles. A two-stroke engine emits 30 times more pollution than a normal car.

Non-mechanized vehicles that mostly rickshaws fall the victim of any decision to ease traffic jam. Now question arises are cars more efficient than rickshaws in terms of road space occupancy? Despite constant claims of the city officials that rickshaws are the main source of traffic jams, data indicate that rickshwas are far superior to cars as far as road space occupancy and pollution contribution is concerned. In the base case, i.e. before the fuel-free transport ban, rickshaws made up 67.8% of vehicles, yet unlisted only 43.5% of road space to transport 59.4% of passengers. Cars made up only 6.4% of vehicles, yet occupied as much as 29.9% of the road space in the base case to transport far fewer passengers than by rickshaw. Despite being removed from the main roads, rickshaws are still the most popular mode of transport serving 30% of the passengers whereas cars serve only 8.5% of all types.

Making a separate line for rickshaws like Dhaka cantonment area mechanized and non- mechanized vehicles can be allowed to run without causing serious jam.

Traffic jam causes air pollution which affects the respiratory tract, causes irritation, headache, fatigue, asthma, high blood pressure, heart diseases and cancer. Experts say if this trend continues unabated, most residents of the metropolis would become exposed to the risk of those ailments and different other health hazards and complications. The development of mental fault of children would be impaired by lead pollution that could also affect the central nervous system and causes of urinal damage and hypertension. The massive traffic congestion taking its toll on human health should not be allowed any more. Behavior scientists have long since done experiments to show that even insects demonstrate aggressive behavior when they are placed in a crowded situation.

Therefore, it comes as no surprise to see that Dhaka's pedestrians, the rickshawpullers, babytaxi drivers, vanwallas, and bus and truck drivers all vie for tiny spaces with noticeable and utter disregard for other's right of way.

This obviously creates serious problems such as unnecessary traffic holdup and some unhappy incidents. Serious vehicular-related accidents are growing at an accelerated rate for growing traffic problem. It is reported that government has decided to withdraw about 70000 old and dilapidated vehicles from the road. Very old and decrepit vehicles will not be allowed to ply. All these measure are aimed at mitigating the problem. When will it see the light of implementation is unknown to us.

Non-mechanized vehicles that mostly rickshaws fall the victim of any decision to ease traffic jam. Now
Non-mechanized vehicles that mostly rickshaws fall the victim of any decision to ease traffic jam. Now
Non-mechanized vehicles that mostly rickshaws fall the victim of any decision to ease traffic jam. Now

Part No.

Topic Name

 

Introduction

Part: 01

Background of study:

Scope of the report:

Objective:

Significant of the study

Limitation of study:

Part: 02

Methodology:

Part: 03

Sample design

Part: 04

Selection Of Research Model

Part: 05

Developing the data analysis

Part: 06

Recommendations

conclusion

Part 1

1.1 Origin of the Report

iv

We are the student of Bangladesh University of Business & Technology (BUBT) prepared this report to complete Research Methodology for Business. This report is prepared as a

requirement for the course- Research Methodology for Business Bangladesh University of Business & Technology.

(BUS 405) for BBA. program at

The report is being submitted to Mr. S.M. Nasim Azad, Assistant Prof. of Statistics, Bangladesh University of Business & Technology. This report is prepared on the topic of “ Traffic Jam in Dhaka city”. It Is based on the real life scenario.

  • 1.2 Scope of the report:

This report is focus on the people who live in Dhaka city and suffer from traffic jam. We target different people to gather information which is based on our topic.

  • 1.3 Significance of the Report

The report will help to reduce the traffic jam in Dhaka city. And will give the idea how to reduce it.

  • 1.4 Objective of the Report

To learn the procedure how to do an effective research, we choose the topic- Traffic Jam in Dhaka city. We try our best to make this report.

To understand how much people affect from traffic jam To identify the problems of the projected research. To determine the factor affecting in traffic jam in dhaka To determine the impacts of traffic jam To determine the impacts of traffic jam in job sector To identify the respondents opinions about traffic jam

  • 1.5 Limitations of the Report

We have tried our best to make this research as perfect as possible;

still there are some limitations of this research. It is acknowledged that the work here is exploratory study because previously no study was done. The survey took some time due to personal visits. Time constraints and cost are also the limitation of our study.

Part Two

Methodology:

  • 3.1 Type of Research:

This is an Exploratory type of research. This research will help us to identify the impacts and affects of traffic jam on the society.

  • 3.2 Sources of data:

In order to attain the objective of the study in this research repot all-necessary information are collected and prepared using primary sources of data. We have applied survey method by using questionnaire to gather primary data on impact of internet in young generation

  • 3.3 Report evaluation & preparation instrument:

Data has analyzed & report prepared by using - MS Excel

MS Word

Mechanical Devices(calculator)

  • 3.4 Group Discussion:

We have discussed with a group include 6 members to analyze data and prepare the report on Traffic jam in Dhaka city, based on related data that we have collected & calculated. We took help from our honorable course teacher Mr. S. M. Nasim Azad.

Sample design:

Part Three

Sample selection

In our research we have focused all people lived in the Dhaka city. Our survey has conducted based on Non-probability sampling techniques. We have used Convenience sampling for the purpose of this research to select our required sample respondents. Interviewers have randomly moved toward respondents available at different locations of Dhaka city. This method has used due to inadequate time and resource constrains.

Determine Sample size

Using statistical tools to determine sample size would have demanded the need for calculations on various other factors, but for the time constrains & convenience sampling technique none of that was required. So, our honorable course teacher has set our sample size. The total sample size is 100.

Summary of overall sample design

The overview of the sample design that we have considered for our specific research on the selected topic, Traffic jam in Dhaka city”, is summarized below-

Target Population: Office, school, college going people.

Identifying survey population is one of the critical parts of the research. If population is not defined properly then we may not get actual result from the research. Population is quite different for different research problems. The people who share common characteristics are called population.

Sample:

We have taken 120 selected respondents.

Sampling Procedure:

Non-probability

sampling

techniques.

We

have

especially

focused

on

Convenience

sampling.

Part Four

Selection Of Research Model:

Research Design

This collection of primary data is done through survey method with written questionnaire. The survey has performed based on personal interview and select people sample for one- to-one face-to-face conversation. Survey questions were sought to gather both qualitative and quantitative data about the sample. The nature of questions used in the questionnaire was mainly simple-dichotomy questions with few determinant-choice questions, frequency-determination questions, attitude rating scale and open-ended questions.

Objective of using the questionnaire

The whole report is based mostly on primary information, based on which the questionnaire has been designed to collect relevant information. The survey method has been selected as the research tool for following reasons.

Accuracy of Report: Survey is the best way to research. Questionnaire is one kind of tool of survey research. So we used it.

Time efficiency: We had time constraints, and getting questionnaires filled up by the respondents was also time-consuming, so making short format questionnaire.

Convenience: Questionnaire design is a simpler and easier way to collect responses and conduct the survey. So it was convenient for us to use this tool.

Cost efficiency: We found that this method was relatively cheaper as we only needed to print a copy and then make copies of it and then distribute them to the respondents.

Less possibility of getting wrong information: Here if the respondent did not understand any meaning of the questionnaire, then we could easily make them understand. So there was less possibility of making mistake.

Measurement Scales

When we have prepared a questions, at first we have tried to avoid leading and loading questions, double barreled question and ambiguity. We have made our questions relevant that is supportive for us to solve our research problem.

To measure the attitude or response of the respondents on questions of research topic, we have used several measurement scales in our questionnaire, like-

Simple Attitude scale.

Category scale.

Likert scale.

Monadic Rating scale etc

Part Five

Developing the data analysis:

We have analyzed our collected data of questionnaire survey-

Editing: Editing is the process of checking the data for necessary corrections. We found different types of errors in responses-some of the questions were not filled up properly, some of them were left incomplete. We wanted to avoid missing values as much as possible. We also corrected some of our mistakes in the end which we made while analyze.

Coding: Each question was being coded to a computer readable form. We have transformed the qualitative data into quantitative. Then the data were entered from the questionnaires. This was time consuming and needed much skill. (Code: Yes/ Agree- 1, No/ Disagree- 2)

Data entry: After entering all the responses from each question, the data entering part was done. Then we proceeded forward for the final job, which was analysis.

Data Analysis: By using MS Excel, we put the formula, and then the software automatically gave us the result. We have got a number of tables, charts by this process. Then we proceeded for the data conversion and interpretation part.

Data conversion: All the analyzed result sheets have converted into managerially understandable form. We converted them to word documents, made tables, graphs and wrote the analysis with words.

Recommendations

Part SIX

ix

However, it is understandable that resolving the problem of traffic jam in Dhaka city is not possible within a short time. It needs both short-term and long- term strategies. Short-term strategies may include re-adjusting the school and office time keeping at least one hour difference, re-routing the public transport, reducing and replacing private transport with convenient and cheaper public transport, fixing different fare for rush and non-rush hour and finally keeping the foot-ways free from hawkers and shopkeepers.

Long-term strategies, on the other hand, may be constructing long flyover from one end to another end of city, introducing underground rail service, undertaking co-ordinate and integrated strategies among different agencies working for city development, replacing rickshaws by assuring proper rehabilitation of rickshaw-pullers, constructing under-pass and foot-over-bridge in different important junctions and finally decentralizing the city itself.

To reduce traffic congestion in Dhaka City, the most vital prerequisite that I feel, is the development of public consciousness. Unless and until we change our perception and develop a mind to abide traffic rules, whatever strategy we take, that will not work properly. I believe our law-abiding consciousness, good-intention and sincere co-operation can remarkably reduce traffic jam in Dhaka city.

Thank you very much our teacher for his intellectual response. Again, we would like to take the honor to extend my cordial thanks and appreciation to the all participants for there response we can complete these research. we hope and expect, in future, Bangladesh can overcome these serious problem and becoming a traffic jam free city.

Conclusion:

Part Seven

Traffic jam causes air pollution which affects the respiratory tract, causes irritation, headache, fatigue, asthma, high blood pressure, heart diseases and cancer. Experts say if this trend continues unabated, most residents of the metropolis would become exposed to the risk of those ailments and different other health hazards and complications. The development of mental fault of children would be impaired by lead pollution that could also affect the central nervous system and causes of urinal damage and hypertension. The

massive traffic congestion taking its toll on human health should not be allowed any more. Behavior scientists have long since done experiments to show that even insects demonstrate aggressive behavior when they are placed in a crowded situation.

Therefore, it comes as no surprise to see that Dhaka's pedestrians, the rickshawpullers, babytaxi drivers, vanwallas, and bus and truck drivers all vie for tiny spaces with noticeable and utter disregard for other's right of way.

This obviously creates serious problems such as unnecessary traffic holdup and some unhappy incidents. Serious vehicular-related accidents are growing at an accelerated rate for growing traffic problem. It is reported that government has decided to withdraw about 70000 old and dilapidated vehicles from the road. Very old and decrepit vehicles will not be allowed to ply. All these measure are aimed at mitigating the problem. When will it see the light of implementation is unknown to us.

Growing insecurity in presence of law enforcing agencies and even sometimes their involvement in various forms make the city dwellers and the guest dwellers who come to city just do get their official and business work done make panic stricken. Everyday pickpockets, hijackers and extortionists rein the city in every nook and corner. Only the victim knows how much painful it is. To our utter surprise the victims don't have any place to lay complaint and they take the law in their hands. Someone will say why not in the police station. Actually no victim wants to go there just to avoid further harassment. Only God knows when this situation will change. Again, mob beating or unleashing torture in the doubt of pickpocket or hijackers is another serous concern of this city. Sometimes it may happen that the gang of pickpockets or hijackers attack any ordinary passenger or passers -by just to save themselves. So, in no way people should be allowed to take law in their own hands. Strict law must be imposed regarding this matter.

Part Eight

Data Analysis

1. Where do you live in?

 

f

R.f

c.f

R.c.f

At mirpur

86

  • 0.716667 86

 

0.716667

At Banani

9

0.075

95

0.791667

At old DOHS

4

  • 0.033333 99

 

0.825

Others side

21

0.175

120

1

 

120

     

1. Where do you live in? f

18% 71% 3% 8%
18%
71%
3%
8%
  • At mirpur

  • At Banani

  • At old DOHS

  • Others side

2. By which transprt you go to your destination?

 

f

r.f

c.f

r.c.f

By bus

48

0.4

48

0.4

By CNG

 

3

0.025

51

0.425

   

18

0.15

69

0.575

By private car By rickshaw

 

51

0.425

120

1

 

120

     
 

2. By which transprt you go to your destination? f

   

42%

42% 40%

40%

 

15%

3%

By bus By CNG By private car By rickshaw

By bus

By bus By CNG By private car By rickshaw

By CNG

By bus By CNG By private car By rickshaw

By private car

By bus By CNG By private car By rickshaw

By rickshaw

 

3. What is the average time to reach your destiny?

 
 

r.f

c.f

 

f

   

r.c.f

Minimum 1 hour

42

  • 0.35 42

 

0.35

Less then 1 hour

54

  • 0.45 96

 

0.8

Min 2 hour

18

 
  • 0.15 114

0.95

More then 2 hour

6

 
  • 0.05 120

1

 

120

     

3. What is the average time to reach your destiny?

5%

15% 35% Minimum 1 hour Less then 1 hour Min 2 hour More then 2 hour
15%
35%
Minimum 1 hour
Less then 1 hour
Min 2 hour
More then 2 hour

45%

4. Do you face any major problems because of traffic jam?

 
 

f

r.f

c.f

r.c.f

Yes

89

0.741667

89

0.741667

No

31

0.258333

120

1

 

120

     
Yes 1% f r.f 99%
Yes
1%
f
r.f
99%

Do you concentrate properly in your works because of traffic jam?

 

f

r.f

c.f

r.c.f

Yes

37

0.308333

37

 

No

31

0.258333

68

 

Some time not

52

0.433333

120

 
120
120

6.Do you think that traffic jam waste your valuable time?

 

f

r.f

c.f

r.c.f

Yes

98

0.816667

98

0.816667

No

22

0.183333

120

1

 

120

     

7.To reduce the traffic jam - what should be taken you think?

 
 

f

r.f

c.f

r.c.f

Making over bridge

49

  • 0.408333 49

 

0.408333

 

38

  • 0.316667 87

 

0.725

proper traffic system Different area for different vehicles

18

0.15

105

0.875

other

15

0.125

120

1

 

120

     

7.To reduce the traffic jam  what should be taken you think?

13%

15%

40% Making over bridge proper traffic system Different area for different vehicles other
40%
Making over bridge
proper traffic system
Different area for
different vehicles
other

32%

8.What is your suggestion to reconstruct for reducing the major problems of traffic jam?

 

f

r.f

c.f

r.c.f

To make tunnel

20

0.166667

 
  • 20 0.166667

to make different lanes

30

0.25

 
  • 50 0.416667

 

33

0.275

 
  • 83 0.691667

to make over bridges to make underground railway

37

0.308333

120

1

 

120

     

xiv

To make tunnel 17% 31% to make different lanes to make over bridges 25% 27% to
To make tunnel
17%
31%
to make different lanes
to make over bridges
25%
27%
to make underground
railway

9. Lack of experience in driving is one of the major causes of traffic jam?

 
 

f

r.f

 

c.f

 

r.c.f

Yes

92

0.766667

 

92

0.766667

 

No

28

0.233333

 

120

 

1

 

120

     

10. Who are the main victims of traffic jam?

 
 

f

r.f

 

c.f

r.c.f

 
   
  • 26 0.216667

 

26

0.216667

 

Office going people students

 
  • 23 0.191667

 

49

0.408333

   
  • 15 0.533333

0.125

64

 

emergency services (ambulance) all of these

 
  • 56 0.466667

 

120

1

 

120

     

11. The traffic jam has a great impact on our economy?

 
 

f

r.f

c.f

r.c.f

Yes

86

0.716667

86

0.716667

No

34

0.283333

120

1

 

120

     

12. If you the prime minister for on day, what is your activity for the purpose of traffic jam?

   

f

r.f

c.f

 

r.c.f

 
 

making over bridge

 

65

0.541667

 

65

0.541667

   

41

0.341667

 

106

0.883333

 

under ground railway don’t think

 

14

0.116667

 

120

 

1

 

120

     
 

12. If you the prime minister for on day, what is your activity for the purpose of traffic jam? f

   
 

12%

12%
 
 
making over bridge

making over bridge

54%

 
54% under ground railway

under ground railway

34%

 
34% don’t think

don’t think

 

13. It wastes our valuable time

 
   

f

 

r.f

 

c.f

 

r.c.f

 
 

Fully Agree

 

76

 

0.633333

 

76

 

0.633333

 

Agree

 

38

 

0.316667

 

114

 

0.95

Neither Agree or Disagree

 

6

 

0.05

 

120

 

1

   

0

 

0

 

120

 

1

 

Disagree Fully Disagree

 

0

 

0

 

120

 

1

   

120

     

14. Ancient traffic system is the main cause of the traffic jam

 
 

f

r.f

c.f

r.c.f

Fully Agree

67

0.558333

67

0.558333

Agree

44

0.366667

111

0.925

Neither Agree or Disagree

 
  • 9 1

0.075

120

 
   
  • 0 1

0

120

 

Disagree Fully Disagree

 
  • 0 1

0

120

 
120
120
15. Lack of parking place also creates the jam r.f f c.f r.c.f Fully Agree Agree
15. Lack of parking place also creates
the jam
r.f
f
c.f
r.c.f
Fully Agree
Agree
Neither Agree or Disagree
Disagree
Fully Disagree
84
0.7
84
0.7
33
0.275
117
0.975
3
0.025
120
1
0
0
120
1
0
0
120
1
120
15. Lack of parking place also creates the jam f
0%
3%
0%
Fully Agree
28%
Agree
Neither Agree or Disagree
Disagree
69%
Fully Disagree
16. Everybody should work for reducing the
traffic jam.
f
r.f
c.f
r.c.f
Fully Agree
Agree
Neither Agree or Disagree
Disagree
Fully Disagree
79
0.658333 79
0.658333
39 0.325
118
0.983333
1
0.008333 119
0.991667
1
0.008333 120
1
0 0
120 1
120
17. Public awareness should be
increased
f
r.f
c.f
r.c.f
Fully Agree
Agree
Neither Agree or Disagree
Disagree
Fully Disagree
61
0.508333
61
0.508333
30 0.25
91 0.758333
29
0.241667 120
1
0
0
120
1
0
0
120
1
120

18.Do you think that by pass road can for reduce traffic jam ?

 
 

f

r.f

c.f

r.c.f

Yes

89

0.741667

89

0.741667

No

31

0.258333

120

1

 

120

     

19. Do you think unregistered vehicles should be eliminate?

 
   

f

c.f

r.c.f

Yes

92

0.766667

92

0.766667

No

28

0.233333

120

1

 

120

     
0% 23% 77% 0%
0%
23%
77%
0%
19. Do you think

19. Do you think

unregistered vehicles should be eliminate?

19. Do you think unregistered vehicles should be eliminate? Yes No
Yes

Yes

No

No

20. Are you satisfied the government steps to reduce the traffic jam?

f r.f c.f r.c.f 28 0.233333 28 0.233333 68 0.566667 96 0.8 24 0.2 120 1
f
r.f
c.f
r.c.f
28
0.233333
28
0.233333
68
0.566667
96
0.8
24
0.2 120
1
120

xix

1. Where do you live in?

   

Mean

2.5

Standard Error

0.645497224

Median

2.5

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

1.290994449

Sample Variance

1.666666667

 

3

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

2.054260257

 

2. By which transprt you go to your destination?

   

Mean

2.5

Standard Error

0.645497224

Median

2.5

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

1.290994449

Sample Variance

1.666666667

 

3

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

2.054260257

3. What is the average time to reach your destiny?

   

Mean

2.5

Standard Error

0.645497224

Median

2.5

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

1.290994449

Sample Variance

1.666666667

 

3

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

2.054260257

4. Do you face any major problems because of traffic jam?

 
     

Mean

 

2

Standard Error

 

0.577350269

Median

 

2

Mode

 

1

Standard Deviation

 

1

Sample Variance

 

1

   

2

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

 

2.484137712

 

Do you concentrate properly in your works because of traffic jam?

 
   

Mean

1.5

Standard Error

0.5

Median

1.5

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

0.707106781

Sample Variance

0.5

 

1

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

6.353102367

6. Do you think that traffic jam waste your valuable time?

   

Mean

1.5

Standard Error

0.5

Median

1.5

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

0.707106781

Sample Variance

0.5

 

1

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

6.353102367

7.To reduce the traffic jam  what should be taken you think?

   

Mean

2.5

Standard Error

0.645497224

Median

2.5

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

1.290994449

Sample Variance

 

1.666666667

 
   

3

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

 

2.054260257

 

8.What is your suggestion to reconstruct for reducing the major problems of traffic jam?

 
   

Mean

2.5

Standard Error

0.645497224

Median

2.5

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

1.290994449

Sample Variance

1.666666667

 

3

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

2.054260257

 

9. Lack of experience in driving is one of the major causes of traffic jam?

 
   

Mean

1.5

Standard Error

0.5

Median

1.5

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

0.707106781

Sample Variance

0.5

 

1

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

6.353102367

 

10. Who are the main victims of traffic jam?

 
   

Mean

2.5

Standard Error

0.645497224

Median

2.5

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

1.290994449

Sample Variance

1.666666667

 

3

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

2.054260257

   

Mean

1.5

Standard Error

0.5

Median

1.5

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

0.707106781

Sample Variance

0.5

 

1

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

6.353102367

12. If you the prime minister for on day, what is your activity for the purpose of traffic jam?

Mean

2

Standard Error

0.577350269

Median

2

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

1

Sample Variance

1

 

2

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

2.484137712

13. It wastes our valuable time

   

Mean

3

Standard Error

0.707106781

Median

3

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

1.58113883

Sample Variance

2.5

 

4

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

1.963243161

14. Ancient traffic system is the main cause of the traffic jam

   

Mean

3

Standard Error

0.707106781

Median

3

Mode

1

 

Standard Deviation

1.58113883

Sample Variance

2.5

 

4

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

1.963243161

 

15. Lack of parking place also creates the jam

 
   

Mean

3

Standard Error

0.707106781

Median

3

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

1.58113883

Sample Variance

2.5

 

4

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

1.963243161

 

16. Everybody should work for reducing the traffic jam.

 
   

Mean

3

Standard Error

0.707106781

Median

3

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

1.58113883

Sample Variance

2.5

 

4

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

1.963243161

 

17. Public awareness should be increased

 
   

Mean

3

Standard Error

0.707106781

Median

3

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

1.58113883

xxiv

Sample Variance

 

2.5

   

4

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

 

1.963243161

 

18.Do you think that by pass road can for reduce traffic jam ?

 
     

Mean

1.5

 

Standard Error

0.5

 

Median

1.5

 

Mode

1

 

Standard Deviation

0.707106781

 

Sample Variance

0.5

 
 

1

 

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

6.353102367

 
 

19. Do you think unregistered vehicles should be eliminate?

 
   

Mean

1.5

Standard Error

0.5

Median

1.5

Mode

1

Standard Deviation

0.707106781

Sample Variance

0.5

 

1

Range Confidence Level(95.0%)

6.353102367

 

20. Are you satisfied the government steps to reduce the traffic jam?

 

Mean

 

2

Standard Error

 

0.577350269

 

Median

 

2

 

Mode

 

1

 

Standard Deviation

 

1

 

Sample Variance

 

1

 

Range

 

2

 

Confidence Level(95.0%)

2.484137712

Reference

1.Lacture Sheet 2.Business Research Methods by William g. Zikmund 3.Research Methodology Methods & Techniques 2 nd edition by C.R. Kothari 4.www.Google.com Search 5.BUBT Library 7.And our Honorable Class Teacher Nasim Azad

Appendix