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You are on page 1of 16

TITLE

PAGE

1.0

Abstract

2.0

Introduction

3.0

Objectives

4 .0 Theory

5.0

Materials/Apparatus

6.0

Procedure

7.0

Results

8.0

Calculations

8.1 Laminar flow

8.2 Transitional flow

8.3 Turbulent flow

9.0 Discussion

8

9

10

11

12

10.0 Conclusion

14

11.0 Recommendations

14

12.0 Reference

15

13.0 Appendices

16

1.0

ABSTRACT

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In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless quantity that

is used to help predict similar flow patterns in different fluid flow situations. The

objective of this experiment is to compute Reynoldss number (Re). In addition, it is to

observe the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of dye streak in water. Hence,

during experiment we need to produce the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of

water by using the Osborne Reynoldss Demonstration. We need to adjust the dye

control needle until the identifiable dye line is achieved. At the same time, allowed the

small overflow to maintain a constant level and regulated the water inlet valve to form

different type of water flow. Then, in 10 seconds a volume of water is collected. Hence,

the Reynolds number (Re) of water can be calculated by using volumetric method. The

average result for laminar flow is101 (Re< 2100) , transitional 2172 ( 2100< Re <4000)

and turbulent 5812 (Re> 4000). Therefore, we achieved the supposedly Reynolds

number (Re) for every each of the different type of water flow.

2.0 INTRODUCTION

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Experiment on the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of water can be examine by

Osborne Reynolds Demonstration (Model: FM 11) that has been designed for students. It

consists of a transparent header tank and flow visualization pipe. Therefore, the header tank is

provided with a diffuser and stilling materials at the bottom to provide a constant head of water

to be discharged through a bell mouth entry to the flow visualization pipe. Then, by using a

control valve at the discharge end the flow through this pipe can be regulate. The water flow

rate through the pipe can be measured using the volumetric cylinder and velocity of the water

can be determined to allow the calculation of the Reynolds Number. On top of the header

tank, a dye injection system is installed. Thus, flow pattern in the pipe can be visualized.

The Osborne Reynolds Demonstration apparatus is equipped with a visualization tube for

students to observe the flow condition. The rocks inside the stilling tank are to calm the inflow

water so that there will not be any turbulence to interfere with the experiment. The water inlet /

outlet valve and dye injector are utilized to generate the required flow. When performing

scaling of fluid dynamics problems, Reynolds numbers frequently arise, and as such can be

used to determine dynamic similitude between two different cases of fluid flow. Different flow

regimes of the similar fluid can be categorized such as laminar flow occurs at low Reynolds

numbers. Moreover, where viscous forces are dominant, and is characterized by smooth,

constant fluid motion; turbulent flow occurs at high Reynolds numbers and is dominated by

inertial forces, which tend to produce chaotic eddies, vortices and other flow instabilities.

Pipe Flow Conditions, for water flowing in pipe or circular conduits, L is the diameter of the

pipe. Then, for Reynolds number less than 2100, the pipe flow will be laminar. For Reynolds

number from 2100 to 4000 the pipe flow will be considered a transitional flow. Turbulent occur

when Reynolds number is above 4000. The viscosity of the fluid also determines the

characteristic of the flow becoming laminar or turbulent. Fluid with higher viscosity is easier to

achieve a turbulent flow condition. The viscosity of fluid is also dependent on the temperature.

There being no interaction (mixing) between shear planes as laminar flow denoted a steady

flow condition where all streamlines follow parallel paths. Under this condition the dye

observed will remain as a solid, straight and easily identifiable component of flow.

Transitional flow is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow with turbulence in the center of

the pipe, and laminar flow near the edges. Each of these flows behaves in different manners in

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terms of their frictional energy loss while flowing, and have different equations that predict their

behavior. Turbulent flow denotes an unsteady flow condition where streamlines interact

causing shear plane collapse and mixing of the fluid. In this condition the dye observed will

become disperse in the water and mix with the water. The observed dye will not be identifiable

at this point.

3.0 OBJECTIVES

The objective of this experiment is to compute Reynoldss number (Re). In addition, it is to

observe the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of dye.

4.0 THEORY

Fluid flow can be characterized as laminar, transitional and turbulent flow. Reynold number, Re

is used to determine the fluid flow condition. Re can be defined as:

L : length or diameter (m)

V : kinematic viscosity (m2/s)

For the Re less than 2000, the pipe flow will be laminar. Transitional flow, the Re is in between

2000 to 4000 and when the Re is above 4000, the turbulent flow will be occur. The viscocity is

also important to determine the characteristics of fluid flow condition. Fluid with higher velocity

is easier to achieve a turbulent flow condition. The characteristics of the laminar flow is all

streamlines must follow the parallel paths, there being no interaction between the shear

planes. The dye that must be observe will remain as solid, straight and easily identifiable

components of flow.

Transitional flow is the mixture of laminar and turbulent flow where the turbulent must be in

center of the pipe and laminar should be near the edges of the pipe. Turbulent flow is an

unsteady flow condition where all streamlines interact to aech other. These interaction may

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cause the shear plane collapse and mixing. The dye that be observed will not be identifiable at

this point.

5.0 MATERIALS/APPARATUS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Dye reservoir

Dye injector

Head tank

Observation tube

Distilled water

stopwatch

6. Water inlet, V1

7. Bell mouth

8. Water outlet, V2

9. Overflow valve, V3

10. Graduated cylinder

11. goggle

6.0 PROCEDURE

1.

The dye injector was lowered until it is seen in the glass tube.

2.

The inlet valve, V1 was opened and allowed water to enter stilling tank.

3.

A small overflow spillage through the over flow was ensured to maintain a constant level.

5|P a g e

4.

5.

The flow control valve was opened fractionally to let water flow through the visualizing

tube.

6.

The dye control needle was slowly adjusted until a slow flow with dye injection was

achieved.

7.

The water inlet valve, V1 and outlet valve, V2 was regulated until a straight identifiable

dye line was achieved. The flow will be laminar.

8.

9.

The experiment was repeated by regulating water inlet valve, V1 and outlet valve, V2 to

produce transitional and turbulent flow.

7.0 RESULTS

Table 7.0: Average Re for laminar, transitional and turbulent flows.

Volume

Time

Flow rate,

Flow rate,

Reynolds

Average Reynolds

(ml)

(s)

Q (L/s)

Q (m3/s)

Number, Re

calculation, Re

6|P a g e

Laminar flow

12.00

10

1.2x10-1

1.2x10-6

110

= 101

11.00

10

1.1x10-3

1.1x10-6

101

10.00

10

1.0x10-3

1.0x10-6

92

230.00

10

0.023

2.3x10-5

2111

Transitional flow

= 2172

240.00

10

0.024

2.4x10-5

2202

240.00

10

0.204

2.4x10-5

2202

630.00

10

0.063

6.3x10-5

5782

Turbulent flow

= 5812

630.00

10

0.063

6.3x10-5

5782

640.00

10

0.064

6.4x10-5

5873

8.0 CALCULATIONS

Laminar flow: Re < 2100

Transitional flow: 2100 < Re < 4000

Turbulent flow: Re > 4000

Kinematics viscosity for 25C water = 0.89 x 10-6 m/s

(Kinematic viscosity, V)

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Re

Thus,

Re

Since,

UD

V

Q

A

Area (A) = 1.91x10-4 m2

Thus,

Re

Q D

A V

8.1.1

Q= 1.2x10-6 m3/s

Therefore,

From the flow rate, the value of velocity is:

U

8|P a g e

= 110

=

= 6.2827x10-3 m/s

8.1.2

Q = 1.1x10-6 m3/s

Therefore,

From the flow rate, the value of velocity is:

u

=

= 101

=

= 5.7592x10-3 m/s

8.1.3

Q = 1.0x10-6 m3/s

Therefore,

From the flow rate, the value of velocity is:

u

=

= 92

=

= 5.2356x10-3 m/s

8.1.4

Average Re

Average Re =

= 101

8.2 Transitional flow:

8.2.1

9|P a g e

Q = 2.3x10-5 m3/s

Therefore,

From the flow rate, the value of velocity is

u

=

= 2111

=

= 0.1204 m/s

8.2.2

Q = 2.4x10-5 m3/s

Therefore,

From the flow rate, the value of velocity is

u

=

= 2202

=

= 0.1257 m/s

8.2.3

Q = 2.4x10-5 m3/s

Therefore,

From the flow rate, the value of velocity is

u

=

= 2202

=

= 0.1257 m/s

8.2.4

Average Re

Average Re =

= 2172

10 | P a g e

8.3.1

Q = 6.3x10-5 m3/s

Therefore,

From the flow rate, the value of velocity is

u

=

= 5782

=

= 0.3298 m/s

8.3.2

Q = 6.3x10-5 m3/s

Therefore,

From the flow rate, the value of velocity is

u

=

= 5782

=

= 0.3298 m/s

8.3.3

Q = 6.4x10-5 m3/s

Therefore,

From the flow rate, the value of velocity is

u

=

= 5783

=

= 0.3351 m/s

8.3.4

Average Re

Average Re =

= 5812

11 | P a g e

9.0 DISCUSSIONS

This experiment was conducted to compute Reynoldss number, Re and observe the laminar,

transitional and turbulent flows of dye in water. The valves were controlled until the flow of dye

becomes laminar, then transitional and turbulent flows. The volume of water out within 10

seconds was collected three times by using measuring cylinder to get an average reading of

volume. Then Reynolds number for each flow can be calculated.

It was observed to be laminar flow, as shown in Figure 9.0 (a) when straight identifiable dye

line was achieved. In laminar flow, sometimes called streamline flow, the velocity, pressure

and other flow properties at each point in the dye remain constant, which the dye travels

12 | P a g e

smoothly or in regular path (Figure 9.1). The velocity of dye flow out is slow and the volume

collected is not too much, then the average Reynolds number from the result obtained was

101. Since it is less than 2100, it is absolutely right to be laminar flow.

However, as in Figure 9.0 (b), the condition of transitional flow was the dye observed become

dispersed, and then mix in the water. The observed dye will not be identifiable at this point.

The properties of this flow are not remains constant anymore. The volume collected also in a

large amount than the laminar flow since the velocity of water becomes greater. Average

Reynolds number from the result that has been calculated was 2172. The flow is transitional

since its value was between 2100 and 4000.

Figure 9.0 (c) shows that the observed dye was in turbulent flow. The dye undergoes irregular

fluctuations or mixing. The velocity of dye at a given point continuously varies in magnitude

and direction, which result in swirling and eddying as the bulk of the dye moves in specific

direction. Based on the result obtained, the volume of water collected for three times are much

greater than laminar and transitional flow. the velocity also become higher. The average

Reynolds number is more than 4000, which is 5812. Therefore, it is turbulent.

Below (Figure 9.1) is an illustration of laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of dye streak.

In conducting this experiment, the error in Reynolds number depends on the velocity of the

water, which affect volumetric flow rate to calculated Re. When wrong in visualized the flow of

dye to be laminar, transitional, or turbulent, it probably effect the amount of water collected.

13 | P a g e

Besides, sometimes the volume collected might be too much or too little. Then, it can be

parallax error while using graduated cylinder.

10.0

CONCLUSION

The objective of this experiment is to compute Reynoldss number, Re and to observe the

laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of dye streak in water. If Re is less than 2100, it is

laminar flow. Re that is between 2100 and 4000, the flow is transitional. The turbulent flow will

have Re more than 4000.

In conclusion, average Re for laminar, transitional and turbulent flows are 101, 2172 and 5812

respectively. In this experiment, all the observed dye is equivalent to the results obtained and

the calculated Re. Three times of volume was taken to reduce the error of Re by taking an

average.

11.0

RECOMMENDATIONS

There are several recommendations that will significantly give better observations which would

not deviate too much from the theoretical observations. The experiment should be repeated for

a few times to get an average reading. Hence, more accurate reading can be recorded to

increase accuracy and to ensure consistency in readings of volume, which carried out to

reduce experimental error by calculating the average value.

To collect the water, make sure that there will not be too much or too little whithin that fixed

time. While observe the level of water in graduated measuring cylinder, white blank paper can

be put at the back of it to avoid the parallax error. All steps in the procedure should be followed

to get an accurate result. Besides, take alert for any changes of result in the physical

condition, such as the flow of the dye and others.

Before conducting the experiment, all the apparatus must be make sure in a good condition

especially the Osborne Reynolds apparatus. The instructions of laboratory technician must be

14 | P a g e

followed. Besides, the experiment should be handle carefully to prevent any unwanted things

to happen. After the experiment is done, switch off the apparatus.

12.0

REFERENCES

Laboratory #7 Laminar and Turbulent Flow. Retrieved April 10, 2014, fromhttp://www.ce.utexas

.edu/prof/kinnas/319LAB/Lab/Lab%207-Laminar%20and%20Turbulent%20Flow/7-LamTu

b.htm

Laminar flow. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition.

Encyclopdia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 11 Apr. 2014. <http://www.britannica.

com/EBchecked/topic/328742/laminar-flow>

Rafeqah. Universiti Teknologi Mara Faculty Of Chemical Engineering Laboratory

Manual Engineering Chemistry Laboratory.

Rreynolds number. Retrieved April 8, 2014 from http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reynolds

_number

Turbulent flow. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://www.merriam- webster.com/ dictionary/

turbulent%20flow

15 | P a g e

13.0

APPENDICES

Figure 13.0

Figure 13.1

Figure 13.2

Figure 13.3

16 | P a g e

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