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TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE

PAGE

1.0

Abstract

2.0

Introduction

3.0

Objectives

4 .0 Theory

5.0

Materials/Apparatus

6.0

Procedure

7.0

Results

8.0

Calculations
8.1 Laminar flow
8.2 Transitional flow
8.3 Turbulent flow
9.0 Discussion

8
9
10
11
12

10.0 Conclusion

14

11.0 Recommendations

14

12.0 Reference

15

13.0 Appendices

16

1.0

ABSTRACT

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OSBORNE REYNOLDS APPARATUS


In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless quantity that
is used to help predict similar flow patterns in different fluid flow situations. The
objective of this experiment is to compute Reynoldss number (Re). In addition, it is to
observe the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of dye streak in water. Hence,
during experiment we need to produce the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of
water by using the Osborne Reynoldss Demonstration. We need to adjust the dye
control needle until the identifiable dye line is achieved. At the same time, allowed the
small overflow to maintain a constant level and regulated the water inlet valve to form
different type of water flow. Then, in 10 seconds a volume of water is collected. Hence,
the Reynolds number (Re) of water can be calculated by using volumetric method. The
average result for laminar flow is101 (Re< 2100) , transitional 2172 ( 2100< Re <4000)
and turbulent 5812 (Re> 4000). Therefore, we achieved the supposedly Reynolds
number (Re) for every each of the different type of water flow.

2.0 INTRODUCTION

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Experiment on the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of water can be examine by
Osborne Reynolds Demonstration (Model: FM 11) that has been designed for students. It
consists of a transparent header tank and flow visualization pipe. Therefore, the header tank is
provided with a diffuser and stilling materials at the bottom to provide a constant head of water
to be discharged through a bell mouth entry to the flow visualization pipe. Then, by using a
control valve at the discharge end the flow through this pipe can be regulate. The water flow
rate through the pipe can be measured using the volumetric cylinder and velocity of the water
can be determined to allow the calculation of the Reynolds Number. On top of the header
tank, a dye injection system is installed. Thus, flow pattern in the pipe can be visualized.
The Osborne Reynolds Demonstration apparatus is equipped with a visualization tube for
students to observe the flow condition. The rocks inside the stilling tank are to calm the inflow
water so that there will not be any turbulence to interfere with the experiment. The water inlet /
outlet valve and dye injector are utilized to generate the required flow. When performing
scaling of fluid dynamics problems, Reynolds numbers frequently arise, and as such can be
used to determine dynamic similitude between two different cases of fluid flow. Different flow
regimes of the similar fluid can be categorized such as laminar flow occurs at low Reynolds
numbers. Moreover, where viscous forces are dominant, and is characterized by smooth,
constant fluid motion; turbulent flow occurs at high Reynolds numbers and is dominated by
inertial forces, which tend to produce chaotic eddies, vortices and other flow instabilities.
Pipe Flow Conditions, for water flowing in pipe or circular conduits, L is the diameter of the
pipe. Then, for Reynolds number less than 2100, the pipe flow will be laminar. For Reynolds
number from 2100 to 4000 the pipe flow will be considered a transitional flow. Turbulent occur
when Reynolds number is above 4000. The viscosity of the fluid also determines the
characteristic of the flow becoming laminar or turbulent. Fluid with higher viscosity is easier to
achieve a turbulent flow condition. The viscosity of fluid is also dependent on the temperature.
There being no interaction (mixing) between shear planes as laminar flow denoted a steady
flow condition where all streamlines follow parallel paths. Under this condition the dye
observed will remain as a solid, straight and easily identifiable component of flow.

Transitional flow is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow with turbulence in the center of
the pipe, and laminar flow near the edges. Each of these flows behaves in different manners in
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terms of their frictional energy loss while flowing, and have different equations that predict their
behavior. Turbulent flow denotes an unsteady flow condition where streamlines interact
causing shear plane collapse and mixing of the fluid. In this condition the dye observed will
become disperse in the water and mix with the water. The observed dye will not be identifiable
at this point.

3.0 OBJECTIVES
The objective of this experiment is to compute Reynoldss number (Re). In addition, it is to
observe the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of dye.

4.0 THEORY
Fluid flow can be characterized as laminar, transitional and turbulent flow. Reynold number, Re
is used to determine the fluid flow condition. Re can be defined as:

Where, U : velocity (m/s)


L : length or diameter (m)
V : kinematic viscosity (m2/s)
For the Re less than 2000, the pipe flow will be laminar. Transitional flow, the Re is in between
2000 to 4000 and when the Re is above 4000, the turbulent flow will be occur. The viscocity is
also important to determine the characteristics of fluid flow condition. Fluid with higher velocity
is easier to achieve a turbulent flow condition. The characteristics of the laminar flow is all
streamlines must follow the parallel paths, there being no interaction between the shear
planes. The dye that must be observe will remain as solid, straight and easily identifiable
components of flow.
Transitional flow is the mixture of laminar and turbulent flow where the turbulent must be in
center of the pipe and laminar should be near the edges of the pipe. Turbulent flow is an
unsteady flow condition where all streamlines interact to aech other. These interaction may
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cause the shear plane collapse and mixing. The dye that be observed will not be identifiable at
this point.

5.0 MATERIALS/APPARATUS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Dye reservoir
Dye injector
Head tank
Observation tube
Distilled water
stopwatch

6. Water inlet, V1
7. Bell mouth
8. Water outlet, V2
9. Overflow valve, V3
10. Graduated cylinder
11. goggle

6.0 PROCEDURE
1.

The dye injector was lowered until it is seen in the glass tube.

2.

The inlet valve, V1 was opened and allowed water to enter stilling tank.

3.

A small overflow spillage through the over flow was ensured to maintain a constant level.
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4.

Water was allowed to settle for a few minutes.

5.

The flow control valve was opened fractionally to let water flow through the visualizing
tube.

6.

The dye control needle was slowly adjusted until a slow flow with dye injection was
achieved.

7.

The water inlet valve, V1 and outlet valve, V2 was regulated until a straight identifiable
dye line was achieved. The flow will be laminar.

8.

The flow rate was measured using a volumetric method.

9.

The experiment was repeated by regulating water inlet valve, V1 and outlet valve, V2 to
produce transitional and turbulent flow.

7.0 RESULTS
Table 7.0: Average Re for laminar, transitional and turbulent flows.
Volume

Time

Flow rate,

Flow rate,

Reynolds

Average Reynolds

(ml)

(s)

Q (L/s)

Q (m3/s)

Number, Re

calculation, Re
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Laminar flow
12.00

10

1.2x10-1

1.2x10-6

110
= 101

11.00

10

1.1x10-3

1.1x10-6

101

10.00

10

1.0x10-3

1.0x10-6

92

230.00

10

0.023

2.3x10-5

2111

Transitional flow

= 2172
240.00

10

0.024

2.4x10-5

2202

240.00

10

0.204

2.4x10-5

2202

630.00

10

0.063

6.3x10-5

5782

Turbulent flow

= 5812
630.00

10

0.063

6.3x10-5

5782

640.00

10

0.064

6.4x10-5

5873

8.0 CALCULATIONS
Laminar flow: Re < 2100
Transitional flow: 2100 < Re < 4000
Turbulent flow: Re > 4000
Kinematics viscosity for 25C water = 0.89 x 10-6 m/s

(Mean velocity, U) (Glass tube diameter, D)


(Kinematic viscosity, V)

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Re

Thus,

Re

Since,

UD
V

Q
A

Glass tube diameter (D) = 0.0156 m


Area (A) = 1.91x10-4 m2

Thus,

Re

Q D
A V

8.1 Laminar flow:

8.1.1

First reading: 12.00 mL

Q= 1.2x10-6 m3/s
Therefore,
From the flow rate, the value of velocity is:
U

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= 110

=
= 6.2827x10-3 m/s

8.1.2

Second reading: 11.00 mL

Q = 1.1x10-6 m3/s
Therefore,
From the flow rate, the value of velocity is:
u

=
= 101

=
= 5.7592x10-3 m/s

8.1.3

Third reading: 10.00 mL

Q = 1.0x10-6 m3/s
Therefore,
From the flow rate, the value of velocity is:
u

=
= 92

=
= 5.2356x10-3 m/s

8.1.4

Average Re

Average Re =
= 101
8.2 Transitional flow:

8.2.1

First reading: 230.00 mL

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Q = 2.3x10-5 m3/s
Therefore,
From the flow rate, the value of velocity is
u

=
= 2111

=
= 0.1204 m/s

8.2.2

Second reading: 240.00 mL

Q = 2.4x10-5 m3/s
Therefore,
From the flow rate, the value of velocity is
u

=
= 2202

=
= 0.1257 m/s

8.2.3

Third reading: 240.00 mL

Q = 2.4x10-5 m3/s
Therefore,
From the flow rate, the value of velocity is
u

=
= 2202

=
= 0.1257 m/s

8.2.4

Average Re

Average Re =
= 2172

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8.3 Turbulent flow:

8.3.1

First reading: 630.00 mL

Q = 6.3x10-5 m3/s
Therefore,
From the flow rate, the value of velocity is
u

=
= 5782

=
= 0.3298 m/s

8.3.2

Second reading: 630.00 mL

Q = 6.3x10-5 m3/s
Therefore,
From the flow rate, the value of velocity is
u

=
= 5782

=
= 0.3298 m/s

8.3.3

Third reading: 640.00 mL

Q = 6.4x10-5 m3/s
Therefore,
From the flow rate, the value of velocity is
u

=
= 5783

=
= 0.3351 m/s

8.3.4

Average Re

Average Re =
= 5812
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9.0 DISCUSSIONS
This experiment was conducted to compute Reynoldss number, Re and observe the laminar,
transitional and turbulent flows of dye in water. The valves were controlled until the flow of dye
becomes laminar, then transitional and turbulent flows. The volume of water out within 10
seconds was collected three times by using measuring cylinder to get an average reading of
volume. Then Reynolds number for each flow can be calculated.

(a) Laminar flow

(b) Transitional flow

(c) Turbulent flow

Figure 9.0: Flow types of dye


It was observed to be laminar flow, as shown in Figure 9.0 (a) when straight identifiable dye
line was achieved. In laminar flow, sometimes called streamline flow, the velocity, pressure
and other flow properties at each point in the dye remain constant, which the dye travels
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smoothly or in regular path (Figure 9.1). The velocity of dye flow out is slow and the volume
collected is not too much, then the average Reynolds number from the result obtained was
101. Since it is less than 2100, it is absolutely right to be laminar flow.
However, as in Figure 9.0 (b), the condition of transitional flow was the dye observed become
dispersed, and then mix in the water. The observed dye will not be identifiable at this point.
The properties of this flow are not remains constant anymore. The volume collected also in a
large amount than the laminar flow since the velocity of water becomes greater. Average
Reynolds number from the result that has been calculated was 2172. The flow is transitional
since its value was between 2100 and 4000.
Figure 9.0 (c) shows that the observed dye was in turbulent flow. The dye undergoes irregular
fluctuations or mixing. The velocity of dye at a given point continuously varies in magnitude
and direction, which result in swirling and eddying as the bulk of the dye moves in specific
direction. Based on the result obtained, the volume of water collected for three times are much
greater than laminar and transitional flow. the velocity also become higher. The average
Reynolds number is more than 4000, which is 5812. Therefore, it is turbulent.
Below (Figure 9.1) is an illustration of laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of dye streak.

Figure 9.1: laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow of dye streak.


In conducting this experiment, the error in Reynolds number depends on the velocity of the
water, which affect volumetric flow rate to calculated Re. When wrong in visualized the flow of
dye to be laminar, transitional, or turbulent, it probably effect the amount of water collected.

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Besides, sometimes the volume collected might be too much or too little. Then, it can be
parallax error while using graduated cylinder.

10.0

CONCLUSION

The objective of this experiment is to compute Reynoldss number, Re and to observe the
laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of dye streak in water. If Re is less than 2100, it is
laminar flow. Re that is between 2100 and 4000, the flow is transitional. The turbulent flow will
have Re more than 4000.
In conclusion, average Re for laminar, transitional and turbulent flows are 101, 2172 and 5812
respectively. In this experiment, all the observed dye is equivalent to the results obtained and
the calculated Re. Three times of volume was taken to reduce the error of Re by taking an
average.

11.0

RECOMMENDATIONS

There are several recommendations that will significantly give better observations which would
not deviate too much from the theoretical observations. The experiment should be repeated for
a few times to get an average reading. Hence, more accurate reading can be recorded to
increase accuracy and to ensure consistency in readings of volume, which carried out to
reduce experimental error by calculating the average value.
To collect the water, make sure that there will not be too much or too little whithin that fixed
time. While observe the level of water in graduated measuring cylinder, white blank paper can
be put at the back of it to avoid the parallax error. All steps in the procedure should be followed
to get an accurate result. Besides, take alert for any changes of result in the physical
condition, such as the flow of the dye and others.
Before conducting the experiment, all the apparatus must be make sure in a good condition
especially the Osborne Reynolds apparatus. The instructions of laboratory technician must be
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followed. Besides, the experiment should be handle carefully to prevent any unwanted things
to happen. After the experiment is done, switch off the apparatus.

12.0

REFERENCES

Laboratory #7 Laminar and Turbulent Flow. Retrieved April 10, 2014, fromhttp://www.ce.utexas
.edu/prof/kinnas/319LAB/Lab/Lab%207-Laminar%20and%20Turbulent%20Flow/7-LamTu
b.htm
Laminar flow. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition.
Encyclopdia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 11 Apr. 2014. <http://www.britannica.
com/EBchecked/topic/328742/laminar-flow>
Rafeqah. Universiti Teknologi Mara Faculty Of Chemical Engineering Laboratory
Manual Engineering Chemistry Laboratory.
Rreynolds number. Retrieved April 8, 2014 from http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reynolds
_number
Turbulent flow. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://www.merriam- webster.com/ dictionary/
turbulent%20flow

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13.0

APPENDICES

Figure 13.0

Figure 13.1

Figure 13.2

Figure 13.3

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