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Flaw Calculations :

Distance to reflector from

The probe exit point :
Beam path X Sin A]
Depth of reflector from the
scanning surface level :
In Leg 1
[ before reflection from the
undersurface ]
beam path X Cos A
In Leg 2
[ after reflection from the
Undersurface ]
2 Thickness - ( Beam path X Cos A )
A is effective Angle of the Probe.

Angle 800 700 600 450

--------------------------------------Sin A .98 .94 .86 .7
Cos A .17 .34 .5
Tan A 5.67 2.74 1.73 1.0
Sec A 5.88 2.94 2.0 1.4
[ Sec A = 1 / Cos A ]

The defects in a test part usually

produce a clearly defined echo
envelope [ rise and fall of the echo
signal ]. These indications should be
analyzed thoroughly.
produce indications, detectable from
both the sides of the weld.
penetration can be detected from
one side only. A surface level
check [ profile of surface ] to
measure the misalignment of the
members is important.

Locating discontinuities :
When a discontinuity indication appears on the CRT screen, the probe is
moved carefully to maximize the indication. The discontinuity is now on the
axis of the sound beam.
The angle marked on the probe is the angle of this beam axis for steel
Before starting weld joint scanning, calculate beam path to hit the
undersurface, [ Plate thickness X Sec A ] and mark this distance on the CRT
screen. This will assist in identifying Leg 1 and Leg 2 region.
For locating a discontinuity with an angle beam probe, the distance between
the exit point of the probe to the weld centerline or a suitable reference point
is to be measured. The beam path from the exit point to the discontinuity
along the sound beam is also read from the CRT screen. The discontinuity
location is then calculated by triangulation method.

K. Chatterjee, JM 1501

Center for NDT

P 22 Rv 02

Self study material.