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PA Standards and Learning Objectives

Subject(s): Science and Visual Arts
Pennsylvania Standards:
3.2.3.A1. Differentiate between properties of objects such as size, shape, weight and properties
of materials that make up the objects such as color, texture, and hardness.
Arts and Humanities Standards:
9.1.3.J: Know and use traditional and contemporary technologies for producing, performing and
exhibiting works in the arts or the works of others.
Learning Objectives:
SWBAT understand and explain that the clarity of a reflection in an object depends
heavily on the physical properties of the object’s surface (i.e shininess, dullness,
roughness, smoothness, etc.)
SWBAT strategically desgin their own reflective mirrors out of household materials
based on their acquired knowledge of light reflection and mirrors.
SWBAT define and explain key terms Spectacular Reflection and Defused Reflection
 Dry Erase board
 Reflection of 3 Pools Worksheet
 Visual Diagram
 3 small-circular pools
 Silver reflective film
 Aluminum foil
 Magnifying glasses (1 per group)
 Old mirror (1 per group)
 New mirror (1 per group)
 Cardboard
 Thins sheets of metal
 Mesh
 Tape
 Glue
 Plastic

Science Journals
Writing Utencil

Learning Plan (55-75 minute plan)
Anticipatory Set: The lesson will begin with a Journal response, the entry will be written on the
Dry Erase board in the front of the class. The entry will read… Think about the word Reflection.
What is a reflection? Have you ever looked at an object and saw a reflection of yourself in it?
What did that object look like? Was it smooth, rough, dull, shiny, brightly colored, transparent,
fuzzy, etc.? Think about past experiences were you may have seen a reflection yourself in an
object, list all the objects you can think of and describe each object’s physical properties.
Expected Student Responses

Mirrors- shiny, smooth
Metals- shiny, smooth
Cars- shiny, smooth, brightly colored,
Windows- smooth, transparent
Pools- transparent, shiny
Water- transparent, shiny

Students’ responses will vary; teacher hopes that the majority of students identify at least
two of these objects and their characteristics
Teacher will give students ten minutes to respond to the journal entry in their Science Journals.
Students will use these journals throughout the entire lesson therefore, science journals will not
be collected nor assessed until the end of the lesson. This entry will activate student’s knowledge
before they begin to explore the physical properties of mirrors and how the scientific concept
correlates with how clearly we see our reflections in real life.
3Pools Activity
After students complete their journal entries, the teacher will distribute worksheets to each
student. The worksheet, Reflections of 3 Pools, is a short questioner that will be the main tool
used by students for the activity; it will also be used to assess their understanding.
Students will be directed to the back of the classroom, there will be three small- circular pools
filled with water. The first pool with only contain water, the second will contain water and be
lined with aluminum foil, and the last pool will contain water and be lined with silver reflective
film. Students will be instructed to view their reflections in each pool of water, as they are
observing, students will answer questions on the accompanying Reflections of 3 Pools
worksheet. After students complete their worksheets they will staple them onto a blank page in
their science journal. They will then examine a piece of aluminum foil and a piece of silver
reflective film; they will list similarities and differences in the properties of each object on the

following page. They will also write a short paragraph (3-5 sentences) explaining why they think
the reflection was clearer in one pool verse the others. The main goal of the activity is to help
students determine which pool gave them the clearest reflection. They should also wonder why
that particular pool gave them such a clear reflection and make predictions about how its
physical properties of the pool contributed to the clarity of the reflection.
Next, Teacher will ask students to return to their tables for a short, informal lesson (students will
be seated in cooperative learning groups).The following materials will be at each table;
magnifying glass, old-dull mirror, new-shiny mirror. Teacher will instruct students to look at the
old mirror through the lens of the magnifying glass. Students will be given two minutes to
observe, then teacher will say, “When we look at the old mirror thought the magnifying glass
what word can we use to describe what type of surface this mirror has?”
Teacher expects students to say:


Teacher will then ask the students to repeat the step, this time with the new mirror.
Teacher expects students to say:


Teacher will then explain that all reflective surfaces have bumps (that can only be seen under a
microscope). These bumps contribute to the ways in which light reflects off the surface which
directly effects the clarity of our reflections. Shiny surfaces contain small bumps, when light hits
these surfaces it reflects back providing a clear reflection (Spectacular Reflection). Rough or dull
surfaces have large bumps, when light hits these surfaces it reflects in different directions
(defused reflection) causing the reflection that you see to be blurry. There will provide students
with a visual diagram that reiterates the key concept, students will staple this handout to the next
blank page in their science journal.
In the same learning groups, students will create their own mirrors. Students will be give the
following materials

Thins sheets of metal

Silver reflective film
Aluminum foil

The students can choose any of the provided materials to create a mirror that gives off the
clearest reflection. Students should strategically design their mirror, they should be
resourceful and wise. Once students are finished creating their mirror they will write a
paragraph (5-7 sentences) listing the materials they used to create their mirror, they should
also explain why they chose to use each material and how they help the mirror give off the
clearest reflection.
Lastly students will respond to the following journal entry in their science journal… Now that
we know about the relationship between the physical properties of mirrors and their ability to
produce clear reflections, explain the concept in your own words and provide a drawing (similar
to the provided diagram) to visually explain your response. Students are required to use key
terms spectacular reflection and defused reflection in their explanation.

Attached Assessments
Reflections of 3 Pools Worksheet
1. Explain the way your reflection looks in pool #1?
2. Explain the way your reflection looks in pool #2? Is it different from pool #1? If so,
explain how.
3. Explain the way your reflection looks in pool #3? Is it different from pools #1 and #2?
If so, explain how.
4. Based on your observations, which pool do you think gave you the clearest
5. Why do you think your reflection was so clear in this pool?

Visual Aid