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You are on page 1of 23

Outline:

• Ratios!

What is a Ratio?

How to Use Ratios?

How to Simplify?

Proportions!

What is a proportion?

Properties of proportions?

How to use proportions?

• Mysterious Problems…

What is a Ratio?

• A ratio is a comparison of two numbers.

• Ratios can be written in three different ways:

a to b

a:b

a

b

Because a ratio is a fraction, b can not be zero

Ratios are expressed in simplest form

**How to Use Ratios?
**

• The ratio of boys and girls in the class is

12 to11.

This means, for every 12 boys

you can find 11 girls to match.

Howcould

manybe

dogs

cats do

• There

justand

12 boys,

11I

have? We don’t know, all we

girls.

knowcould

is if they’d

fight,

• There

be 24 start

boys,a22

each dog

has to fight 2 cats.

girls.

4cm

• There could be 120 boys, 110

1cm

girls…a huge class

**• The ratio of length and width of this rectangle
**

is 4 to 1.

What is the ratio if the

rectangle is 8cm long and

2cm wide?

Still 4 to 1, because for every

4cm, you can find 1cm to

match

.• The ratio of cats and dogs at my home is 2 to 1

**How to simplify ratios?
**

• The ratios we saw on last

slide were all simplified.

How was it done?

Ratios can be expressed

a

in fraction form…

b

a

b

**This allows us to do math
**

on them.

**The ratio of boys and girls in the
**

class is 12

11

The ratio of the rectangle is

4

1

**The ratio of cats and dogs in my
**

house is 2

1

**How to simplify ratios?
**

• Now I tell you I have 12 cats and 6 dogs. Can you

simplify the ratio of cats and dogs to 2 to 1?

12

6

2

12

/

6

=

=

1

6/6

Divide both numerator and

denominator by their

Greatest Common Factor 6.

**How to simplify ratios?
**

A person’s arm is 80cm, he is 2m tall.

Find the ratio of the length of his arm to his total height

To compare them, we need to convert both

numbers into the same unit …either cm or m.

•

Let’s try cm first!

arm

height

80cm

2m

80cm

200 cm

80

200

2

5

**Once we have the
**

same units, we can

simplify them.

**How to simplify ratios?
**

•

Let’s try m now!

arm

height

80cm

we have the

0.8m Once

same units, they

simplify to 1.

2m

2m

8

20

**To make both numbers
**

integers, we multiplied both

numerator and denominator by

10

2

5

**How to simplify ratios?
**

• If the numerator and denominator do not

have the same units it may be easier to

convert to the smaller unit so we don’t

have to work with decimals…

3cm/12m = 3cm/1200cm = 1/400

2kg/15g = 2000g/15g = 400/3

5ft/70in = (5*12)in / 70 in = 60in/70in = 6/7

2g/8g = 1/4

**Of course, if they are already in the same units, we
**

don’t have to worry about converting. Good deal

More examples…

8

24

40

200

27

9

1

3

12

50

=

1

5

27

=

18

=

3

1

=

=

6

25

3

2

Now, on to proportions!

What is a proportion?

a c

b d

A proportion is an equation

that equates two ratios

**The ratio of dogs and cats was 3/2
**

The ratio of dogs and cats now is 6/4=3/2

So we have a proportion :

3 6

2 4

Properties of a proportion?

3 6

2 4

2x6=12

Cross Product Property

3x4 = 12

3x4 = 2x6

Properties of a proportion?

•

Cross Product Property

a c

b d

ad = bc

means

extremes

Properties of a proportion?

Let’s make sense of the Cross Product Property…

For any numbers a, b, c, d:

a c

b d

a

d c

b

a

c

d d

b

d

a

d b bc

b

ad bc

Properties of a proportion?

• Reciprocal Property

If

Then

3 6

2 4

2 4

3 6

**Can you see it?
**

If yes, can you think

of why it works?

**How about an example?
**

7 x

2 6

7(6) = 2x

42 = 2x

21 = x

Solve for x:

Cross Product Property

**How about another example?
**

7 12

2 x

Solve for x:

7x = 2(12)

Cross Product Property

7x = 24

x = 24

7

**Can you solve it
**

using Reciprocal

Property? If yes,

would it be easier?

**Can you solve this one?
**

7

3

x 1 x

7x = (x-1)3

Solve for x:

Cross Product Property

7x = 3x – 3

4x = -3

3

x= 4

Again, Reciprocal

Property?

**Now you know enough about properties,
**

let’s solve the Mysterious problems!

If your car gets 30 miles/gallon, how many gallons

of gas do you need to commute to school

everyday?

5 miles to home

5 miles to school

Let x be the number gallons we need for a day:

30miles (5 5)miles

1gal

x _ gal

x=

1

3 Gal

30 10

1

x

**Can you solve it
**

from here?

5 miles to home

5 miles to school

**So you use up 1/3 gallon a day. How many gallons would
**

you use for a week?

Let t be the number of gallons we need for a week:

1 / 3 gal t _ gal

1day

5days

What property

is this?

1 t

3 5

1(5) 3t

1/ 3 t

1 5

5

t Gal

3

**So you use up 5/3 gallons a week (which is about 1.67
**

gallons). Consider if the price of gas is 3.69 dollars/gal,

how much would it cost for a week?

Let s be the sum of cost for a week:

3.69

s

1

1.67

3.69 dollars s _ dollars

1gallon

1.67 gallons

3.69(1.67) = 1s

s = 6.16 dollars

5 miles to home

5 miles to school

**So what do you think?
**

5 miles

10 miles

**You pay about 6 bucks a week just to get to school!
**

What about weekends?

If you travel twice as much on weekends, say drive

10 miles to the Mall and 10 miles back, how many

gallons do you need now? How much would it cost

totally? How much would it cost for a month?

Think proportionally! . . . It’s all about proportions!

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