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Florence Nightingale

1820-1910

NURS 324 Fall 2012
A presentation by Sara Anderson, Cristin Barnaby, Sherry Brabon and Stephanie Olson

Introduction




Crimean War
Increased rate of illness in her facility
Investigation found standing sewage under
hospital
Beginning of public health

Introduction continued
Training was focused on:
health promotion disease
prevention
research
ethics
safe work conditions
multi-disciplinary approach
nursing autonomy










Pioneer in Nursing
Introduced ethical principle 'do no harm'
Taught basic hygiene practices
Encouraged environmental sanitation
Advocated for infection control by
promoting sterilization and isolation
Introduced evidence-based health care
(Letizia, 2012)

Florence Nightingale believed the
foundations of good health were:
1. Decent housing
2. Clean water and air
3. Good nutrition
4. Safe Childbirth
5. Good childcare
(McDonald, 2007)

Philosophic Views
Client centered with a holistic approach.
Biological
Psychological
Social
(Dossey, 2005)



Nightingale believed
that nursing
interventions and
actions could meet,
resolve and alleviate
the needs and
problems of the clients.
( Nightingale, 1860)








Theory Assumptions
Natural laws
Mankind can achieve perfection
Nursing is a calling
Nursing is an art and a science
Nursing is achieved through environmental alteration
Nursing requires specialized education
Nursing is distinct and separate from medicine
(Selanders, 2010)

Environmental Adaptation Theory


Nightingale observed that healing and health could not
occur in poor environments.
"Environment could be altered to improve conditions so
that the natural laws would allow healing to occur." Florence Nightingale (Selander, 2010).

Environmental Theory Continued...
* Ventilation and warming

* Variety

* Light

* Chattering hopes and advices

* Noise

* Taking food - What food?

* Cleanliness of rooms

* Petty management

* Health of houses

* Observation of the sick

* Bed and bedding
* Personal cleanliness

These are referred to as Nightingale's 13 Canons (Nightingale, 1860)

Nursing Paradigms

Nightingale's documents contain her
philosophical assumptions and beliefs which
regard all elements that are found in the
metaparadigm of nursing.
(Selanders LC, 2010)

Four Global Concepts
1. Nursing:
o

o

Nursing is the "activities that promote health (as outline in
canons) which occur in any caregiving situation. They can
be done by anyone." (Nightingale, 1860)
Extended outside of hospital and into environmental
settings (Chitty & Black, 2011)

2. Person:
o

People are composed of biological, psychological, social
and spiritual components.
 All these components affect the patient and how they
will achieve health.

Global Concepts Continued
3. Health:
o

Health was focused on "not only to be well, but to be able
to use well every power we have." (Nightingale, 1860)

4. Environment:
13 canons influence
o Poor or difficult environments led to poor health and
disease
o Environment could be altered to improve conditions so
that the natural laws would allow healing to occur
o

Nightingale's Theory & Nursing
Practice
Nightingale's philosophy is influenced around
the the effects of the environment and how it
relates to the patient's health or recovery of
their illness.

Consequences


More focus on physical factors rather than
on psychological needs
Current practice understands the
psychological needs required for health

First of Her Kind


Informed Observation

Innovative and Reflective
o
o
o

Kept Journals
Developed Practice
Defined the Profession

Completely Unique

Influences on her Theory

Author of Global Concepts





Human Being
Environment
Health
Nursing

Broad Spectrum

Environmental Theory in ALL Settings

Holistic Nursing

Are YOU Interested in Learning More About
Holistic Nursing?

How Can I Use This Theory?

Focus on Health

Observe Your Patient

Collaborate with a Multidisciplinary Team

Intersectoral Collaboration

Take Action!
(Arseneault,26)

Case Study
Nightingale placed great value on altering the
environment to promote health. What are
some current issues where Nightingales
theory may be applied? Explain.

References
Arseneault, A.-M. (2011, Winter). Florence Nightingale's
beliefs and Primary Health Care (PHC). Info Nursing,
42(3), 25+. Retrieved from http://0go.galegroup.com.libcat.ferris.edu/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7C
A276353110&v=2.1&u=lom_ferrissu&it=r&p=AONE&sw
=w
Chitty, K. & Black, B.(2011). Professional nursing:
concepts & challenges. Maryland Heights, MO:
Saunders Elsevier
Dossey, B. (2005). Florence Nightingale and holistic
nursing. NSNA Imprint, Feb/March 2005, 56-58.
Retrieved from:
http://www.nsna.org/Portals/0/Skins/NSNA/pdf/Imprint_F

References
Letizia, Marilo. (2012). Infection prevention and control,
starting with Flo. MedSurg Nursing, 19(6), 315-316.
Retrieved from: http://0go.galegroup.com.libcat.ferris.edu/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCoun
tType=None&sort=DASORT&prodId=ITOF&tabID=T002&subjectParam=Q1&resul
tListType=RESULT_LIST&searchId=R1&displaySubject=Nig
htingale%2C+Florence&searchType=SubjectGuideForm&co
ntentSegment=&currentPosition=16&subjectAction=VIEW_S
UBDIVISIONS&searchQueryId=Q1&inPS=true&userGroupN
ame=lom_ferrissu&contentSet=GALE%7CA246717209&&d
ocId=GALE|A246717209&docType=GALE&role=
McDonald, L. (2007). The collected works of Florence
Nightingale. Retrieved from:
http://www.uoguelph.ca/~cwfn/nursing/theory.html

References
Nightingale, F. (1860). Notes on nursing: What it is and what it
is not. London: Harrison. Retrieved from:
http://books.google.com/books?id=YxIDAAAAQAAJ&printse
c=frontcover&dq=Notes+on+Nursing#v=onepage&q=Notes
%20on%20Nursing&f=false

Selanders, L.C. (2010). The power of environmental
adaptation: Florence Nightingale's original theory for nursing
practice. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 28(1), 81-89. doi:
10.1177/0898010109360257
Theory of Florence Nightingale. (2012). Retrieved from:
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Florence_Nighting
ale_theory.html