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Freak  Show:    

A  Parliament  of  Monsters,  a  Consequence  of  Hormone  Dysfunction  
All moveables of wonder, from all parts,
Are here--Albinos, painted Indians, Dwarfs,
The Horse of knowledge, and the learned Pig,
The Stone-eater, the man that swallows fire,
Giants, Ventriloquists, the Invisible Girl,
The Bust that speaks and moves its goggling eyes,
The Wax-work, Clock-work, all the marvellous craft
Of modern Merlins, Wild Beasts, Puppet-shows,
All out-o'-the-way, far-fetched, perverted things,
All freaks of nature, all Promethean thoughts
Of man, his dulness, madness, and their feats
All jumbled up together, to compose
A Parliament of Monsters. Tents and Booths
Meanwhile, as if the whole were one vast mill,
Are vomiting, receiving on all sides,
Men, Women, three-years' Children, Babes in arms.

Wordsworth's  description  of  Bartholomew  Fair  (from  The  Prelude,  Book  7.  1805,  lines  706  –  721)  
http://www.westland.net/coneyisland/articles/freaks.htm        

 
The  living  werewolf,  world’s  ugliest  woman  and  the  smallest  or  tallest  man  
were  some  of  the  main  attractions  during  the  Sideshow  era  from  the  mid-­‐
1800s  to  mid-­‐1900s.    Onlookers  would  pay  admission  to  view  individuals  
with  deformities  or  conditions  that  rendered  them  more  beast  than  man.    
All  classes  of  people,  including  Queen  Victoria  I  itook  in  the  traveling  
spectacle  of  the  sideshow.      
Many  sideshows  boasted  live  werewolf  specimens.    Lionel,  a  famous  
sideshow  performer  was  covered  with  downy  hair  on  his  entire  face  so  only  
his  eyes  and  lips  were  visibleii.    Often  fantastical  stories  were  used  to  
‘explain’  the  abhorrent  medical  condition  of  the  afflicted  werewolf.    These  
stories  often  further  dehumanized  the  sideshow  performer.    Today  Lionel’s  
condition  would  be  described  as  ‘hypertrichosis’  literally  meaning  ‘excess  
hair’.    Hypertrichosis  can  be  caused  by  genetic  anomalies  
as  well  as  a  thyroid  disorder  known  as  hypothyroidism.      
Another  spectacle  included  The  World’s  Ugliest  Woman,  Mary  Ann  Bevan,  whose  face  
and  limbs  were  greatly  enlarged.    She  was  a  fixture  at  Coney  Island  for  thirteen  years  
before  her  death  in  1933iii.    It  was  not  until  Mary  Ann  was  35  years  of  age  that  she  
started  to  exhibit  some  of  the  symptoms  of  acromegaly,  a  condition  causing  the  
excessive  growth  of  specific  body  parts  due  to  imbalances  in  human  growth  
hormoneiii.      

Coney  Island’s  Dreamland  exhibition  also  featured  a  “midget  brigade”  with  the  most  famous  performer,  
General  Tom  Thumb,  who,  at  the  age  of  11,  stood  only  25  inches  tall  and  
weighed  approximately  15lbsiv.    Tom  Thumb  experienced  very  little  growth  in  
his  lifetime,  reaching  a  maximum  height  of  3ft.  in  his  adult  yearsv.    General  
Tom  Thumb  was  more  a  performer  than  a  museum  specimen  and  often  wore  
costumes  and  performed  comedy  actsv.    His  petite  figure  brought  him  great  
wealth  and  far-­‐reaching  celebrity  status.      Tom  Thumb  was  even  an  invited  
guest  to  President  Lincoln  at  the  White  Housevi.    His  exceptionally  small  stature  
was  thought  to  be  caused  by  growth  hormone  deficiency  in  his  early  
developmental  years.      
Sideshow  performers  like  Lionel,  Tom  Thumb  and  Mary  Ann  Bevan  were  once  
dubbed  ‘monstrous  spectacles’.    An  increase  in  medical  knowledge  about  
hormones  reveals  the  sideshow  performers’  visible  afflictions  were  merely  a  
consequence  of  bad  biochemistry.      
 
 
                                                                                                                       
i

 Durbach,  N.  (2010).  Spectacle  of  Deformity:  Freakshows  and  Modern  British  Culture.    London:  University  of  California  Press.      
 
ii
 Nickell,  J.  (2005).  Secrets  of  the  Sideshows.  Lexington  (KY):  University  Press  of  Kentucky.  
 
iii
 Allen,  G.,  Carlson,  E.,  Lombardo,  P.,  Micklos,  D.  (1999)    Mary  Ann  Bevan,  the  world’s  ugliest  woman.  Retrieved  February  22,  2011  from  
Eugenics  Archive.    http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/eugenics/image_header.pl?id=834&printable=1&detailed=  
 
iv
 Toulmin,  V.  (2007).  Freak  Shows.  In  National  Fairground  Archive.  Retrieved  February  22,  2010  from  
http://www.nfa.dept.shef.ac.uk/history/shows/freaks.html    
v

 Kriegel,  L.  (1969).  Uncle  Tom  and  Tiny  Tim:  Some  Reflections  on  the  Cripple  as  Negro.  In  American  Scholar  38  (Summer  1969):  412-­‐30,  
http://www.disabilitymuseum.org/lib/docs/678card.htm,  Disability  History  Museum,  www.disabilitymuseum.org  (November  1,  2001).    
vi

 Kimmel,  S.  (1967).  Mr.  Lincoln’s  Washington.  South  Brunswick  (NJ):  Coward-­‐McCann.  

Photo  references:  
Mary  Ann  Bevan:    
Allen,  G.,  Carlson,  E.,  Lombardo,  P.,  Micklos,  D.  (1999)    Mary  Ann  Bevan,  the  world’s  ugliest  woman.  Retrieved  February  22,  2011  from  Eugenics  
Archive.    http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/eugenics/image_header.pl?id=834&printable=1&detailed=    
 
Tom  Thumb:    
Brady,  M.  (1920).  Tom  Thumb.    In  American  Treasures  of  the  Library  of  Congress.    Retrieved  February  22,  2011  from  
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trr137.html    
 
Lionel:    
Bettman,  J.  (1923).  Lionel  Bilrouki,  the  Lion-­‐Faced  Man.  Retrieved  February  22,  2011  from  
http://www.corbisimages.com/Enlargement/BE044696.html