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Jammu also known as Duggardesh, is one of the three administrative

divisions within Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost state in India.

Jammu city is the largest city in Jammu and the winter capital of Jammu and
Kashmir. Jammu City is also known as "City of Temples" as it has many
temples and shrines, with glittering shikhars soaring into the sky, which dot
the citys skyline, creating the ambiance of a holy and peaceful Hindu city.
Home to some of the most popular Hindu shrines, such as Vaishno Devi,
Jammu is a pilgrimage tourism destination in India. The majority of
Jammu's 5.9 million population practices Hinduism, while Islam and
Sikhism enjoy a strong cultural heritage in the region. Due to relatively
better infrastructure, Jammu has emerged as the main economic center of
the state. The Jammu region, is bounded on the north by the Pir Panjal
Range of the middle Himalayas, in the south by Punjab, to the east by
Ladakh and close to the west in Pakistan. The lower Himalayan ranges
begin behind the town of Jammu, which rests on a slope of over 1300 feet
above sea level, overlooking and commanding the plain watered by the
Chenab, Ravi, Tawi and Ujh rivers. The Jammu region consists of ten

, Ramban
The city of Jammu is the winter capital of the state of J&K.

The Jammu Dogras traditionally more inhabited the area between the
slopes of Shivalik range of mountains, the sacred lakes of Saroien sar and
Mannsar but they spread over whole of Jammu region. They generally
speak the Dogri and other dialects too have similarity with Dogri. Majority
are followers of Hinduism but a good number in J&K of Dogra believes in
other religions also. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, some
Dogras embraced Sikhism and some embraced Islam; these factors,
together with the effects of immigration into the region, have resulted in
the J&K Dogra population including members of all three religions. The
Duggar Raj emerged as a Regional domain, more particularly with
Maharaja Gulab Singh emerging as a warrior and the subjects of in his
domain getting special martial recognision by the British Government/
Empire. The rule of Gulab Singh extended over whole of Jammu Region and
large part of Ladakh region even by March 1846 and was more known as
Dogra Raj (although a large part of Punjab (now Himachal Pardesh) too
was traditionally known as Dogra clan / race irrespective of the religious
faith one held); and it was in March 1846 that the Kashmir Valley was also
handed over to Gulab Singh by British Government (being part of the
territories ceded to the British Government by the Lahore State according
to the provisions of Article IV of the treaty of Lahore, dated 9 March 1846)
under Treaty of Amritsar , the Dogra king of Jammu and the State was
thereafter known as the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir State (Raj), also
referred as Kashmir State thereafter. The term Dogra hence is more akin to
the subjects of Himachal Pradesh, some areas of Punjab and whole region
of Jammu of J&K State that was ruled by Raja Gulab Singh as part of Dogra
Raj irrespective of the religion one practised

Many historians and locals believe that Jammu was founded by Raja Jambu
Lochan in the 14th century BC. During one of his hunting campaigns, he
reached the Tawi River where he saw a goat and a lion drinking water at
the same place. Having satisfied their thirst, the animals went their own
ways. The Raja was amazed, abandoned the idea of hunting and returned to
his companions. Recounting what he had seen, he exclaimed that this place,
where a lion and a lamb could drink water side by side, was a place of
peace and tranquility. The Raja commanded that a palace be built at this
place and a city was founded around it. This city became known as JambuNagar, which then later changed into Jammu. Jambu Lochan was the
brother of Raja Bahu Lochan who constructed a fort on the bank of river
Tawi. Bahu Fort is a historical place in Jammu.
Remains from the Maurya, Kushan, Kushanshahs and Gupta periods have
also been found in Jammu. After 480 AD the area was dominated by the
Hephthalites and ruled from Kapisa and Kabul. They were succeeded by the
Kushano-Hephthalite dynasty from 565 to 670 AD, then by the Shahi from
670 to the early 11th century, when the Shahi were destroyed by the
Once a seat of the Dogra Rajput dynasty, Jammu came under the control of
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji in the 19 century and became a part of the Sikh
Empire. Maharaja Ranjit Singh soon appointed Gulab Singh Ji the ruler of
Jammu. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Punjab, The Sikh Empire
was defeated by the British after Maharaja Duleep Singh was taken by the
British to England under the orders of The Company. Not having the
resources to occupy the hills immediately after annexing parts of Punjab,
the British recognized Maharaja Gulab Singh, the strongest ruler north of
the Sutlej River, as ruler of Jammu and Kashmir. But for this he had to pay a
sum of Rs. 75 Lakhs in cashthis payment being legal as the Maharaja was
a former vassal of the Sikh Empire and was partly responsible for its treaty
obligations. Maharaja Gulab Singh is thus credited as the founder of Jammu
and Kashmir.During the partition of India the ruler was Maharaja Hari
Singh and he along with all the other princes was given the choice
according to the instruments of partition of India in 1947, to freely accede
to either India or Pakistan, or to remain independent.

Culture of Jammu
Culture plays an important role in understanding the local inhabitants of
Jammu. Their festivals and lifestyle tell you a lot about them. During your
visit to Jammu you will meet residents belonging to various tribes, religion
and castes. These people's lifestyle has been influenced by the mountainous
terrain of the Himalayas.
The Dogras are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group in South Asia. Being a
diversified group, the Dogras include both Savarnas such as Brahmins,
Rajputs and Non-savarnas. The Dogras also incluide merchant castes
(Vaishyas) such as Mahajans. Rajput Dogras are believed to be Suryavanshi
along with chandravanshi Rajputs of Chattari origin, migrating many
centuries ago from Rajputana (now called Rajasthan) to the hilly areas
ofJammu and lower altitude areas of Himachal Pradesh (Una, Kangra,
Mandi, Bilaspur and Hamirpur).
Dogras- belong to the Aryan tribe who came to India in ancient times. They
later branched out into higher castes of Brahmins and Rajputs, as well as,
merchant classes of Mahajans and others. Some embraced Sikhism and
Islam when these religions influenced this region of India. They speak
Dogri, which is one of the India's national languages. Like Punjabis, Dogras
are known to be brave people. The Dogra Regiment in the Indian Army is
proof of this fact. Heren and Kud are Dogra styles of theatre and dance that
are performed during festivals in Jammu.
Gujjars - Muslim Gujjars form a major section of Jammu inhabitants. They
are basically from Gujarat and Rajasthan and speak Gujari. They are unlike
hilly people; they are tall and have handsome features. Their lifestyle is
semi-nomadic to nomadic. Herding sheep and mountain cattle is their
primary occupation.
Chibali - Chibalis are a small race in Jammu. They are usually followers of
Islam. Though, some are also Buddhists. They speak the language, Dogri,
and are of Punjabi descent.


Dances express the innermost joy and happiness of a man. These are the
real pictures of the life of the people and their folk culture. Dances are
always connected with some fairs, festivals or worship of God or Goddess.
Main dances of Jammu Province are Dogri Bhangra, Gogri Dance, Letri
Naach, Chowki Naach, Jattar, Jagarana, Keekli and Rouf etc.
In actions, costumes and songs, Dogri Bhangra is totally different from
Punjabi Bhangra. These dances performed on the fairs and festivals, every
action depicts the harvesting process. Performers with sticks and
handkerchiefs dance in a circle on the drumbeat. The Bhangra details the
joys and sorrows of lover's meetings and partings.
Letri: This dance is performed while cutting the grass hence known as
labor dance. The person who wants to get the grass cut from his land
invites the professional grass cutters and a drum player is also invited. The
grass cutters, which can be 10 to 50 in number, start dancing, cutting grass
on rhythm. The Hindus serve them with lunch and ghee, while the Muslims
serve rice, sugar and ghee.
Sopahiya: Sopahiya is a song in the praise of a lover who has gone to fight
war. Armed Forces Personnels leave their wives at their native places and
leave for services and the song is sung by the lovely wives remembering
their Sepahies,
Chann and Dholan: Chann & Dholan are pahari romantic songs & are full
of praise of beloved, who is compared with, Chann, (Moon). Dholan word
is also used for lover. Every line of the song ends with the word, Dholan.
Chowki Naach: The dance in Rajouri and the popular Dogri folk dance
"Fummaniyan" are very similar. People from all communities perform this
dance jointly, which shows a nice picture of communal harmony and
natural integration. This dance is purely a religious dance in the honor of
the Gram-Devta or Kul-Devta. People assemble in the temple or place or
worship on a particular date and perform Jaatar with iron chains
(Saunglan) in their hands and devotional songs are also accompanied with

Kenchi: Kenchi is a love song of a pahari belle, in other words is a true love
story of a pahari girl with "Munshi" of a forest contractor. Kenchi expresses
the broken heart of the heroine and still brings tears in the eyes of the
Bakhan: This folk song is a widely prevalent form of mass entertainment in
our region. The haunting Melody of Pahari songs add to the beauty and joy
of daily life. There are certain songs which are independent of instruments.
"Bakhan" is such a best example. "Bakhan" are in verse. The metre is
irregular and is determined by modulation in tone. The movemtn of hand
indicates the variations in the note. This is the only form of lyric in Dogri,
which resembles the Western harmony of sounds without loosing its
individual note and rhythm.
Keekli: It is a simple but entertaining dance. No instrument is used. The
girls perform this dance. They catch hold of each other's opposite hand and
rotate themselves fastly but in a balanced way. The main instruments
played with these folk songs and folk dances are algoza, Dokra, Sarnai,
Glass, Thumbak Nari, Sargi, flute, Dholak and Dhol etc.
Kud It is basically a ritual dance performed in honour of Lok Devatas.
This dance style is performed mostly during nights. It is spontaneous dance
and people of all ages and sexes participate in this folk dance form.
Instruments used during this dance are Narshingha, chhaina, flute, drums
etc. It is the rhythm of music which controls the movement of participants.
This dance continues for the whole night. Number of participants ranges
from 20 to 30 members.
Heren It is a traditional theatre form performed during Lohri festival by
1015 members. This style is mostly performed in hilly regions of Jammu.
Fumenie and Jagarana This dance style is performed by the ladies on
the eve of groom's departure to in-laws house. Both the songs are sung by a
group of females consisting of 1520 members. This traditional dance form
depicts the feelings and emotions of women folk.
Gwatri A singingdance combined tradition in which the singers narrate
some text which is enacted by the Gwatari dancers.
Karak A tale ballet singing form sung by a community called 'Jogies'.
They narrate a popular folk tale in their dance style, performed by three
members with accompaniment of a typical folk instrument called 'Rabab'.



Jammu offers Great, Delicious and Healthy Dogri Food/ cuisine like Ambal,
Khatta Meat, Dal Patt, Madra, Rajma, Auriya.
Jammu is famous for its exotic local food and Rajma is known as staple and
favourite dish of Jammu. Pahalwan Di Hatti is the most famous Sweet Shop
of Jammu and Tourists like to go their and taste its various foods.
Dogra Cuisine is simply Laa-Jawab, so says Veenu who is currently writing
a treatise on choicest dogri food- DOGRI CUISINE- a treat beyond
Compare. The editor wishes her all the very best for success in her launch
of the first book on dogri food.
Expert cooks are called siyan, and community meals are called dhaam and
are served on large lotus leaves, or stitched leaves (pattals) and cups
(doona). A Dogra verse has it that a man can never fail in his missions if
he takes a radish on Tuesdays, sweets on Wednesdays, curd on
Thursdays, rai on Fridays, uses oil on Saturdays, chews betel on
Sundays, and looks into a mirror on Mondays.
A:: Madra of various kinds:: Dogri Cuisine which is simply Laa-Jawab

Mitha Madra
Gucchiyein da Madra
Maayein da Madra
Rajmein da Madra
Rongi da Madra
Chitte Chholein da Madra

B :: Khatte Niyode with anardana

Ambal Aloo
Ambal Kachaloo
Ambal Danthal
Ambal kaddoo
Khatta Meat
Khatte Rajma
Kachaaloo rongi
Khatte Kachaaloo
Aaloo da Auriya

C :: Achaar aur Moorabbe

Aaloo da Aachhar Aur aala

Zimikand da Aachaar
Kasrod da Aachaar
Tyaoo da Aachaar
Seyoo da Murabba

D :: Rice Dishes

Daal Putt Maani

Chichi Putt
Mitha Putt
Rajma Chol
Kulthein di Khichdi
Gucchiyein aale Chol

E :: Specialities

Suttoo Puttoo
Aate da Choorma
Kalaadiein da niyoda

F:: Aur Bhi Specialities

Kulche Rajma
Mithi Saiyyan
Kulthein di Daal
Dabwan Aaloo
Peeth aale Khameere
Kasrod da saag
Kalaadiein da niyoda


Dogri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in

India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir,
Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and
Kashmir, and elsewhere. Dogri speakers are called Dogras, and the Dogrispeaking region is called Duggar. Dogri is a member of the Western Pahari
Group of languages. The language is referred to as Pahari in Pakistan.
Unusually for an Indo-European language, Dogri is tonal, a trait it shares
with other Western Pahari languages and Punjabi.
Dogri was originally written using the Takri script, which is closely related
to the Sharada script employed by Kashmiri and the Gurmukh script used
to write Punjabi. It is now more commonly written in Devangar in India,
and the Nasta'liq form of Perso-Arabic in Pakistan and Pakistaniadministered Kashmir
The Dogri-Kangri languages, traditionally known as Western Pahari, are
a range of languages and dialects spoken across the Himalayan range, from
Pakistan to Nepal.
The Dogri-Kangri languages are tonal, like their close relative Panjabi but
unlike most other Indic languages. Although traditionally called Western
Pahari, they are not as close to the other Pahari languages as they are to
Panjabi. Varieties considered distinct languages include,

Dogri (official in India since 2003)

Kangri (closer to Dogri than either are to the other languages)
Kullu Pahari
Harijan Kinnauri
Mahasu Pahari

Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with

Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the IndoEuropean family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of
Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of
the 22 scheduled languages and an official language of five states. Based on
the Khariboli dialect of Delhi, Urdu is derived from Sanskrit and developed
under the influence of Persian, Arabic, and Turkic over the course of almost
900 years.[4] It began to take shape in what is now Uttar Pradesh, India
during the Delhi Sultanate (12061527), and continued to develop under
the Mughal Empire (15261858). Urdu is mutually intelligible with
Standard Hindi (or Hindi-Urdu) spoken in India. Both languages share the
same Indic base and are so similar in phonology and grammar that they
appear to be one language. The combined population of Hindi and Urdu
speakers is the fourth largest in the world.
The Pahari languages are a geographic group of Indic languages spoken in
the lower ranges of the Himalayas, from Nepal in the east to the Indian
states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir in the
Though traditionally considered Pahari, and often Hindi or Panjabi, they
are more closely related to each other than to other Indic languages. In
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu, and other surrounding areas, it is the same as
Dogri. Both words, Pahari and Dogri, are used alternatively as well.
The origin of Pahari language and its main region where it was bred and
spread to other portion of region can be traced back to the ancient time
when Jammu and Kashmir was a Pure Hindu state.
Potwari is a rich dialect spoken in the Pothohar Plateau around Kahuta,
Gujar Khan, Jehlum, Hazara in the north, Azad Kashmir (Pahari) in the east
and also by Sikhs from the Pothohar region now living in India. It is
considered a transitional dialect between Lahnda and Pahari, Hindko
as well as Dogri. It is often referred to as Pahari-Potwari. Semi Dialects
include, Chibhali, Mirpuri, Jhelumi, Pindiwali and Punchhi (Poonchi). Pahari
is translated as 'mountain' in the Potwari language and its use is prevalent
in Azad Jammu and Kashmir


Lohri (13 January)
This festival heralds the onset of spring and is also known as Makar
Sankranti. The whole region wears a festive look on this day.Thousands
take a dip in the holy river, called Havan Yagnas, and candles light up
nearly every house and temple in Jammu. In the rural areas, it is customary
for young boys to go around asking for gifts from newly-weds and parents
of new-borns.A special dance called the Chajja is held on the occasion of
Lohri. It makes a striking picture to see boys along with their 'Chajjas'
elaborately decorated with coloured paper and flowers dance on the street
in a procession. The whole atmosphere of Jammu comes alive with
pulsating drumbeats.
Baisakhi (April 13 or 14)
The name Baisakhi is taken from the first month of the Vikram calendar.
Every year, on the first day of Vaisakh, the people of Jammu, celebrate
Baisakhi. Also known as the "harvest festival" it is considered auspicious
especially for marriages. Devotees who take a ritual dip every year, throng
the rivers, canals and ponds. Many people go to the Nagbani temple to
witness the grand New Year celebration.
The occasion is marked by numerous fairs and people come in thousands to
celebrate the beginning of the New Year and watch the Bhangra dance of
Punjab. For the Sikhs of Jammu, Baisakhi is the day their tenth guru, Guru
Gobind Singh, formed the Khalsa sect in 1699. The Gurdwaras are full of
people who come to listen to kirtans, offer prayers and feast on the prasad
from the common kitchen ('langar').
Bahu Mela (MarchApril and SeptemberOctober)
A major festival is held at the Kali Temple in Bahu Fort twice a year.
Chaitre Chaudash (MarchApril)
Chaitre Chaudash is celebrated at Uttar Behni and Purmandal, about 25 km
and 28 from Jammu respectively. Uttar Behni gets its name from the fact
that the Devak river (locally also known as Gupt Ganga) flows here in the
northerly direction.

Purmandal Mela (FebruaryMarch)

Purmandal is 39 km from Jammu city. On Shivratri the town wears a festive
look for three days as people celebrate the marriage of Lord Shiva to
Goddess Parvati. The people of Jammu also come out in their colourful best
to celebrate Shivratri at Peer Khoh Cave Temple, the Ranbireshwar Temple
and the Panjbhaktar Temple. In fact, if one visits Jammu during Shivratri,
one finds a celebration going on almost everywhere.
Jhiri Mela (OctoberNovember)
An annual fair is held in the name of Baba Jitu, a simple and honest farmer
who preferred to kill himself rather than submit to the unjust demands of
the local landlord to part with his crop. He killed himself in the village of
Jhiri, 14 km from Jammu. A legend has grown around the Baba and his
followers congregate at Jhiri on the appointed day from every corner of
North India; they revere him for his compassion, courage and honesty.
Navratri Festival (Sept-Oct)
Though the yatra to the shrine of Mata Vaishno Devi is a round-the-year
event, a pilgrimage undertaken during the Navratras is considered the
most auspicious. In order to showcase and highlight the regional culture,
heritage and traditions of the area during this period, the State Tourism
Department has instituted the Navratri Festival as an annual event to be
held during September/October for the nine auspicious days of the
Navratras. A large number of tourists pay their obeisance to the deity
during this period. This festival showcases the religious traditions as well
as the popular culture of the region among the millions of pilgrims who
visit the Vaishnodeviji Shrine during this period.
Diwali, Asvina 29 (October/November) -Diwali occurs fourteen days
after the full moon of Asvina. That is, it falls near a new moon in October or
November. It is a celebration commemorating Ram's return from exile, and
in some parts of India it marks the beginning of the Hindu New Year [on the
following day, Vikram Samvat/Goverdhan Puja]. It's alternate name,
Festival of Lights, comes from the tradition of lighting thousands of oil
lamps and electric lights throughout India. On this night the goddess of
prosperity, Lakshmi, is honored, Also known as Deepavali.



Shri Mata Vaishno Devi shrine: 13 kms away from Katra town, is
located at a height of 5300 feet on holy Trikuta Hills and is the most
popular shrine in India. Goddess Vaishno Devi's dham is in a 100 feet
long cave and holy Ganga's cold and crystal clear water washes the
lotus feet of the mata's' Pindian'. There are three natural pindies of
Maha Saraswati, Maha Lakshmi and Mahakaliwhich represent
creative, preservative and destructive aspects of the divine energy. It
is an ancient shrine whose reference is found in the Vedas and other
ancient scriptures.: Goddess Vaishno Devi is the incarnation or amsha
or power of the Three Devis, Goddess Saraswathi, Goddess Lakshmi
and Goddess Parvathi, in order to eliminate the evil Bhairovnath, a
wicked person and some other asuras.
The Shiv Khori Shrine: one the natural wonders of the region, is
considered second only to The Holy Shrine of Mata Vaishno Devi.
This supernatural cave is situated in a hillock in Runsoo, a small
village in Reasi District at a distance of about 112 Kms from
Udhampur. The Holy Cave of Shiv Khori was discovered about 100
years ago by the local shepherds known as 'Gaddies'. The cave of the
Shiv Khori is about half Kilometer long with very narrow, low
entrance, but about 250 feet of the narrow, zigzag passage leads to
the very large, high hall inside the cave with the capacity of 500
people at a time. On the ceiling of the cave there are the impressions
of Sheshnag, carved by His Majestic Architectures. There are
stalactites, stalagmites and milky water dripping from the ceiling.
The cave has hollow Shivling in the middle of the cave giving an
impression of the Lord Shiva's "Jatta", (long hair of a saint). Naturally
/ Self made "Sale grams", (small black stones) also encircle the
Sukrala devi shrine:The Most famous shrine dedicated to mother
goddess is Sukrala Devi Shrine at a distance of 9.60 Kms from
Billawar and about 75 Kms from Kathua. The Shrine is located at a
height of 3500 ft on a hillock amidst sylevan surroundings.. The holy
shirne is the abode of goddess Mal Devi, the re-incarnation of Sharda
Devi. The white line coated imposing edifice of the temple stands
erect majestically. The pilgrims have to scale flights of many steps to
reach venerated temple. The holy shrine is the abode of goddess Mal
Devi, the re-incarnation of Sharda Devi. The goddess has manifested
herselfhere in the shape of a Shilla (Stone Slab) seated on a Brass
Lion with a silver mounted head. Behind it is also an image of

Mahishasur Murdini (re-incarnation of Maha-Luxmi) standing on the

body of Mahishasur, the Demon King.
Buda Amarnath:In the north east of Poonch Town is situated an
ancient temple of Lord Shiva on the left bank of Pulsata stream. The
area is known as Rajpura Mandi, two kms above Mandi village. This is
a unique Shiva Temple which is located on the foot hill and not on the
hill top andsecondly the Shivling of white stone is not self-made. The
stream which flows near it, is the Loran stream but it is believed by
the locals that Ravan's grandfather Pulasta Rishi performed his
tapasya and thus is known as Pulsatastream. This shrine is older than
of Amarnathji of Kashmir. Thousands of people visit on Raksha
Shri Chandi Devi Mata Mandir, Machhail, Padder,
Kishtwar:Machhail Yatra to the famous shrine of Chandi Mata Is a
two-day journey from Atholi via Gulabgarh with a night halt at
Chashoti. The famous Machhail Yatra starts Bhaderwah and ends at
Machhail where the famous shrine of Chandi Mata is located. This
temple is situated at Padder. The fame of this temple has spread
much for some years. Machhail is about 8500 feet above the sea level.
This place is surrounded by snow peaked mountains.
Sudh Mahadev :The 2800 years old, Historic Temples Sudh Mahadev
is situated in the Chenaini Tehsil of District Udhampur. The Temple
of Sudh Mahadev is about 50Kms away from District Headquarter
ofUdhampur. The temple is one the oldest Shiva Temples of Jammu
&Kashmir State. The historic Sudhmahadev temple is said to be
2800years old. A popular legend is associated with this shrine is as::
Once, when Goddess Parvati was in deep in prayer, a demon called
Sudheet came to pay his respectful obeisance. But his demonic looks
frightened the Goddess and She made a loud shriek. Her cry revered
acted across the mountains surrounding the valley. Lord Shiva was
disturbed by the sound. When He opened His eyes, He saw the
demon, at whom he hurled His invincible Trident (Holy Trishul).




28TH FEB 2012 8:33:31 PM