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# Independent samples are from different set of populations.

Whereas, dependent samples are from single populations with two or more treatment results.
INFERENCE ABOUT THE TWO INDEPENDENT POPULATION MEANS
F test (tests the ratio of two variances)
- from two sample variances, F test determines whether two population variances may be inferred to be equal, or not.
s12

s22

where

s1 s2

## t test for difference of two independent means

assuming equal population variances ( 12 22 )
- homoscedastic
t

x1 x 2
n1 1s n 2 1s 22 1 1

n1 n 2 2
n1 n 2

12 22 . Otherwise, 12 22 .

## assuming unequal population variances ( 12 22 )

- heteroscedastic
t

df = n1 + n2 2

2
1

x1 x 2
s12 s 22

n1 n 2

df =

s12 s 22
n n
2
1

s 2 2 s 2 2
1 2
n1 n 2
n 1 n 1
2
1

EXAMPLES:
1. The accompanying data are the amounts of fat (in ounces per 100 ounces of meat) found in samples of two types of meat products
from the leading meat shops. Assuming that the variances of the fat contents are equal, do all the meats from the two different meat
shops have different fat contents? Test at = 0.05.
Meat Shop 1
30
26
30
19
25
37
27
38
26
31
30
28
27
Mean = 28.77
Variance = 24.53

2.

Meat Shop 2
40
34
28
29
26
36
28
37
35
42

a) Ho: ____________________________________________________
Ha: ____________________________________________________
b) test statistic:

c) critical value:
Mean = 33.5
Variance = 30.28

d) decision:
conclusion:

A survey, gathering the number of minutes that a respondent listens to FM radio per day, was conducted. The ages of
the respondents were classified into two groups: 18 to 34 years old age group and 35 to 50 years old age group. The data
are summarized below.
18 to 34 years old
35 to 50 years old
Can we conclude that people of
Mean
58.99 minutes
52.96 minutes
18 to 34 years old listen to radio
Variance
946.97 minutes2
1876.44 minutes2
more than the 35 to 50 years old?
250
250
Test at = 0.05.
Sample size
a) Ho: ____________________________________________________
Ha: ____________________________________________________
b) test statistic:

c) critical value:
d) decision:
conclusion:

3.

The president of Tastee, Inc., a baby-food producer, claims that her companys product is superior to that of her leading competitor,
because babies gain weight faster with her product. To test the claim, a survey was undertaken. Mothers of newborn babies were
asked which baby food they intended to feed their babies. Those who responded Tastee or the leading competitor were asked to
keep track of their babies weight gains over the next two months. There were 15 mothers who indicated that they would feed their
babies Tastee and 25 responded that they would feed their babies the
product of the leading competitor. Each babys weight gain (in ounces)
was recorded and summarized below. Can we conclude, using weight
gain as our criterion, that Tastee baby food is indeed superior? Test at
= 0.05.
a) Ho: ____________________________________________________
Ha: ____________________________________________________
b) test statistic:

c) critical value:
d) decision:
conclusion:

4.

Recent Studies seem to indicate that using a cell phone while driving is dangerous. One reason for this is that a drivers reaction
times may slow while he or she is talking on the phone. Researchers at Miami University measured the reaction times of a sample of
drivers who owned a car phone and the other half was not on the phone. The reaction times are filed and using Microsoft Excels
Data Analysis, the summary is shown below. Can you conclude that the reaction times for drivers using cell phones are slower? Test
at 95% confidence interval.

Ho: ____________________________________________________
Ha: ____________________________________________________
decision:
conclusion:

## INFERENCE ABOUT TWO DEPENDENT POPULATION MEANS

t
1.

d
sd

; df = n 1

For determination of whether or not a heat treatment is effective in reducing the number of bacteria in skim milk at
Kroft Foods, Inc., Counts were made before and after treatment on 12 samples of skim milk, with the results shown
below. The data are in the form of log DMC, the logarithms of direct microscopic counts. Test at =0.05.

a) Ho: ____________________________________________________
Ha: ____________________________________________________
b) test statistic:

c) critical value:
d) decision:
conclusion: