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Harris/Griffith 1

Bibliography
Primary:
Arkansas Civil Rights Heritage Trail. 1957. Arkansas Civil Rights Heritage. Accessed 28 Oct.
2014. http://arkansascivilrightsheritage.org
This website contains all the individual pictures I used of the Little Rock Nine. Each
member of the nine has a different headshot on the website. These pictures show them as
a person and give an idea on who the children actually were.
Daisy Bates, letter to Roy Wilkins, December 17, 1957.
Daisy Bates letter to Roy Wilkins shows some of the abuse the Nine would have to
endure along with punishments that would be given to those who were caught harming
the Nine in some way. The letter also shows how Daisy Bates was involved with the
integration in how she would protect the kids and trys to get money to support the
integration.
Elizabeth Eckford, September 1957. Courtesy of Everett Collection/Alamy Images
This picture of Elizabeth Eckford being yelled at by a white girl shows the hatred many
people had towards the students trying to integrate Central High School. Elizabeth was
just trying to walk into school and learn, but was threatened and verbally abused.
Executive Order 10730 of September 24, 1957, Providing Assistance for the Removal of an
Obstruction of Justice Within the State of Arkansas. Code of Federal Regulations. (1957)
This is the official order from President Dwight D. Eisenhower to stop all efforts to keep
the Little Rock Nine out of Central High School. The order says that The Secretary of
Defense has permission to use military enforcements to keep obstruction of justice from
happening and letting the Little Rock Nine enter the school.
Little Rock and School Integration. 2010. Boise State. Accessed 29 Oct. 2014. http://edtech2.
boisestate.edu/croninv/502/Virtual_Field_Trip/Virtual_Fieldtrip_littelrock.html
This is a picture of the statue created in honor of the Little Rock Nine and what they have
done to change the school system. It shows how they have left a legacy worth building a
statue over.
McBride, Earnest. Dasiy Bates and the Little Rock Nine. 1957. Jackson Advocate. Accessed 28
Oct. 2014. http://www.jacksonadvocateonline.org/little-rock-schools-still-facingdesegregation-issues/
This is a picture of Daisy Bates and the Little Rock Nine in Mrs. Bates own home. This
was a picture taken at a press conference which was one of many held at the Bates

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household. It shows how Daisy was a mentor to the kids and used her own home to
support them.
Snodgrass, Steve. The Crisis at Central High. 2010. Wikimedia Commons. Accessed 28 Oct.
2014. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Little_Rock_Central_High_School.jpg
This is a modern picture of central high that I edited to be black and white and used it as
my background picture for all my tabs. I also used this picture in color on my last page as
a closing picture of the modern day central.
Supreme Courts of the United States. Judgment of Brown V.Board of Education, 1955.
This is the official ruling of the Brown V.Board of Education case, which led to the start
of desegregating schools. It says that public schools should admit on a racially
nondiscriminatory basis meaning to allow all students into public schools despite of race.
Walking into History: The Beginning of School Desegregation. 1957. Southern Spaces. Accessed
29 Oct. 2014. http://southernspaces.org/2009/walking-history-beginning-schooldesegregation
This website is filled with pictures of protest involving civil rights. Many pictures come
from protest outside of Central High School, and these are the pictures I used. These
pictures show the amounts of people against integration and some of the hateful things
said to the nine students as well as peoples beliefs.
What Faubus Wrought? The Mob Action and the Pacification of Little Rock. Life 7 Oct.
1957.
This article in time magazine discusses Orval Faubus view on the integration , which he
does not support. The article also has many pictures that show the mods attacking African
Americans showing their support for segregation. The article latter goes into what
President Eisenhower did to help the black students enter the school. More pictures in the
article show the military enforcement and other images for the integration involving the
Nine.
Secondary:
Bates, Daisy Lee Gatson. World Book. Accessed October 4, 2014. http://www.
worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar753407
This article on Daisy Bates is a brief overview on where she came from and how she
became involved with the Little Rock Nine and the NAACP. The article also tells about
awards Daisy Bates was awarded and some of what she did after the integration of
Central High School.

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Beyond Central, Toward Acceptance. Little Rock: The Butler Center for Arkansas Studies, 2010.
This book is a collection of stories from students and others involved or surrounded by
the integration of Central High School. The interview Central is Probably Better Now
is a great example on how school have changed, but are they really completely. The story
Struggle for a Better America is also a good example on how desegregation has come a
long way, but we are still far from complete desegregation. Overall the book has many
stories and interviews discussing the events with race and desegregation.
Brodie, Ralph, and Marvin Schwartz. Central In Our Lives. Little Rock: The Butler Center for
Arkansas Studies, 2007.
In Central In Our Lives the sections of Social Integration and Silence and Do the
Right Thing both describe how hard it was for the Nine to come into central and how
unprepared the school was for the integration showing how they had to be strong and led
themselves. Also in Threats to Families it shows more of what the Little Rock Nine and
those around them had to go through.
Dwight D. Eisenhower: Presidential Library, Museum and Boyhood Home.
eisenhower.archives.gov. http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/research/
online_documents/civil_rights_little_rock.html.
This article has a brief summary of Dwight D. Eisenhowers involvement with the
desegregation and what is known as the Little Rock Crisis. This source also led to
many primary sources that further helped with our research.
Garrow, David J. "Little Rock Nine." World Book. Accessed October 4, 2014 http://www.
worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar753406
David Garrow wrote a summary of the events before, during, and after the integration of
central. This summary has important details including dates, Earnest Green graduating
information, and awards given to the nine and Daisy Bates. Overall, this article provides
an easy understanding of the event.
Fitzgerald, Stephanie. The Little Rock Nine: Struggle for Integration. Minneapolis: Compass
Point Books, 2007.
Stephanie Fitzgeralds book The Little Rock Nine: Struggle for Integration is filled with
many pictures that help provide a better understanding of the events that look place
during the integration and has brief descriptions for each. The timeline at the back of the
book also gives an outline of the events to show what happened and when.
Juan Williams. Daisy Bates and The Little Rock Nine. Npr.com. 21 Sept. 2007.
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14563865

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This source is all about Daisy Bates and what see did for the integration of public schools
as events took place. Her story on how she became president of the NAACP and what she
did for the Little Rock Nine are major parts in this source. Also a detailed legacy is
included in this source which ties in with out thesis.
History of Brown V.Board of Education. United States Courts. Accessed October 4, 2014.
http://www.uscourts.gov/educational-resources/get-involved/federal-courtactivities/brown-board-education-re-enactment/history.aspx
The History of Brown V. Board of Education is all about the Brown v.Board case. The
source shows other examples of similar cases that led up to the Brown case. It tells how
the brown case was the one to finally get actions started in desegregation and gives
detailed information about the case and its ruling.
Little Rock Central High School Memory Project. Little Rock Central High School Memory
Project, 2010. http://lrchmemory.org/wordpress/?paged=3.
Little Rock Central High School Memory Project is an example of the legacy left
behind by Daisy Bates and her efforts with the Little Rock Nine, and themselves. The
project was created in honor of them to gather information about the desegregation and
peoples opinions to get a better understanding of the situation and how far we have
come.
Little Rock Central High 1957-2007: Commemorating 50 Years of Integration. Lrsd.org.
http://www.lrsd.org/centralhigh50th/default.cfm
In this source it goes into brief detail about each of the nine African American students
that entered Central High School. It also goes into what they did after central and the
legacy that they left behind. What each of these students did after Central is amazing
information to discuss their legacy.
The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture. The Central Arkansas Library System,
2006. http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net.
The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture provides information on what
happened after the Brown v.Board case, but before the children were in the school. It also
talks about the abuse they received and what happened because of that abuse.