Components of Communication

Communication is a two way process of transmitting & receiving verbal & nonverbal messages & exchanging ideas or information. Communication is considered effective when it achieves the desired response from the receiver. There are six components through which communication can be effective, these are discussed below: • • • • • • Context Sender-Encoder Message Medium Receiver-Decoder Feedback

Context :Every message whether oral or written starts with context. Context is a broad term that includes country, culture, organization & external & internal stimuli. Every country, culture & organization has its own conventions for processing & communicating information. This aspect is a playing field on which we must plan, communicate & design the message successfully. Another aspect is the external stimulus that prompts us to send a message. The message may be letter, email, fax or telephone call & response to this message may also be oral or written. Next internal stimuli have a complex influence on how we translate ideas into a message. Our attitudes, opinions, likes & dislikes, education all influence the way we communicate our ideas. So we must consider all these aspects of context in order to communicate a message successfully. Sender-Encoder :Encoder is the sender of message, the writer or speaker depends on whether the message is oral or written. We use symbols, graphics or pictures to express our message so that the receiver will understand it & react with the response we desire. After considering all these factors, we decide which symbol best convey the message & which message channel will be most effective among oral & written media. Message :The message is the core idea we wish to communicate. It consists of both verbal & nonverbal symbols. Our first task is & what content to include. We must consider our context & especially the receiver of our message, how the receiver will interpret it & how it may affect our relationship. Medium :Medium is the way through which the sender sends the message. Like message content the choice of medium is influenced by the relationship between sender & receiver. It depends on the message, cost of message, the amount of information & number of receiver to select the channel of message. The written channel is preferred when the message is long, technical & formal in nature while oral medium is effective when the message is urgent or immediate feedback is required.


Receiver-Decoder :Decoder is the receiver of the message & he may be more than one. The receiver as well as the sender are influenced by context & by external & internal stimuli. Both receive messages through the eyes & ears but are also influenced by nonverbal factors such as touch, taste & smell. All factors of message are filtered through receiver's view & experience in the world. Feedback :It is the response of receiver based on a clear understanding of the symbols. Feedback can be oral or written. It can also be an action such as silence which is almost ineffective. Sender need feedback in order to determine the success or failure of the message.

Sender-Encoder (experiences, attitudes, skills) Perception Idea encoding Symbol decisions Sending mechanism
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