You are on page 1of 321

PREFACE

This manual combines under one cover complete service information for the 1949-50-51 Ford
Passenger Cars. All aspects of the servicing of
the parts, assemblies, or systems involved will be
found here. Repair men will find step by step
procedures plus disassembled views of all of the
assemblies used in these models. The diagnostician will find that working procedures for each
kind of trouble he will encounter are covered.
Maintenance and lubrication data is provided
for those interested in this aspect of service.
Service Managers and salesmen will find hints
of everyday care that they can pass on to their
customers. Collision men will find construction
detail well illustrated to assist them in collision
work. Electrical men will find simply written
principles, not only of operation, but of testing
as well fc£,!ach of the electrical units or systems.
Upholstery men will find how-to-do-it procedures
for their work.
Step-by-step procedures for the disassembly,
inspection, and repair are presented throughout
this manual. In addition, each assembly has been
illustrated disassembled, with each of the component parts arranged in the order of assembly
or disassembly. In many cases, a glance at these
illustrations will tell you all you need to know
about how the parts go together. These illustrations carry basic part numbers for each of the
parts. These basic numbers plus the model number of the car will permit you to order parts
from any Ford dealer even though you may not
have a "Parts Book."
In recognition of the specialization that is currently practiced in many service establishments,
this manual has been divided into five major
divisions. These five parts are as follows:
Part ONE—POWER PLANT—has to do with
the Ford engines and the various systems that
are necessary to their operation. These include
fuel system, ignition system, and the cooling
system.
Part TWO—CHASSIS—starting with the
clutch, covers the entire power train (clutch,
transmission, drive line, rear axles, etc.) and the
running gear (wheels, tires, brakes, springs, suspension, frames, steering gear, and linkages, etc.).
Part THREE—ELECTRICAL AND ACCESSORIES—covers all of the electrical systems
and units (other than ignition which is covered

in Part ONE) and all of the accessories for
Ford cars.
Part FOUR—BODIES—contains complete information on the maintenance and repair of all
body components, including adjustment and
alignment not only of the body proper, but also
of doors, deck lids, hoods, fenders, and shields.
Part FIVE—MAINTENANCE, TROUBLE
SHOOTING, AND SPECIFICATIONS—has
been arranged in the back of the book separately
for the convenience of quick service men. In
this part, all of the information ordinarily required for quick service men and service salesmen has been combined into three separate
chapters.
The Table of Contents on the next page shows
not only the part break-down as described above,
but also the chapters that have been established
in each of the five parts. Each chapter has been
divided into sections which also are listed in
the Table of Contents. Regardless of the aspect
of service in which you are interested or the
unit of the vehicle in which you may be specializing, a glance at the Table of Contents will
quickly direct you to the portion of this manual
in which you are interested. If you are interested
in maintenance procedures, trouble shooting, or
specifications, the information you desire will be
found in Part FIVE. Otherwise, it will fall in
one of the four other parts. A quick glance at
the chapter and section listings under the part
involved will direct you to the page desired.
Throughout this manual the top of each lefthand, even-numbered page gives the name of the
chapter; and the top of each right-hand, oddnumbered page gives the name of the section
involved. Thus, regardless of where you open the
manual, a glance at the top of the two pages
will tell you exactly what subject matter is discussed at that point.
No one expects even the most experienced
mechanic to remember all details of servicing
these cars and you will find that you will have
to occasionally refer to this manual. Keep your
manual where it will be readily available for
reference at all times.
FORD DIVISION
FORD MOTOR COMPANY
SERVICE DEPARTMENT

CHAPTER II—ACCESSORIES
Page

Section 1 Radio
2 Heater
3 Overdrive

181
190
194

Page

Section 4 Windshield Wiper.
5 Miscellaneous Accessories

201
202

Part FOUR-BODIES
CHAPTER I - B O D Y CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
Section 1 Construction Details
2 Alignment

204
210

Section 3
4

Quarter Panel Repair
General Body Maintenance. . . . .

216
218

CHAPTER II—HARDWARE, GLASS, UPHOLSTERY, AND FLAT TRIM
Section 1
2
3
4

Door Locking Mechanism.
Window Regulators
Door and Quarter Glass
Windshield and Rear Window

220
224
. 225
231

Section 5 Grille and Hood
6 Deck Lid Locking Mechanism.
7 Door and Quarter Trim Panels
8 Headlining Replacement.

234
235
238
241

CHAPTER H I - C O N V E R T I B LE COUPE, CRESTLINER, AND STATION WAGON
Section 1 Convertible Coupe Power System
2 Convertible Coupe Top Alignment
3 Convertible Coupe Window
Adjustments
4 Convertible Coupe Top Material
Replacement

243
250
252
255

Section 5

Convertible Coupe and Crestliner
Top Preservation
6 Crestliner Top Material Replacement. .
7 Care of Station Wagon Paneling
8 Station Wagon Paneling Replacement..

259
262
263
264

Part FIVE - MAINTENANCE, TROUBLE SHOOTING,
AND SPECIFICATIONS
CHAPTER I—MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
Section 1 Engine Tune-up
2 Wheel Alignment
3 Brake Adjustment. . .

207
269
274

Section 4
5

Lubrication
Preventive Maintenance.

276
278

CHAPTER II—TROUBLE SHOOTING
Section 1 Power Plant
2 Suspension, Steering Gear, and
Tire Wear. . ,
3 Trouble Shooting Brakes . . , . . . •

281
291
292

Section 4 Electrical and Instruments
5 Accessories
6 Power T r a i n . . . . . .
7 Door Locks. . . .

292
302
306
306

CHAPTER III—SPECIFICATIONS
Section 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Wheels and Tires
..
Brakes
Wheel Alignment and Steering
Rear Axle
Frame and S p r i n g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engines
Clutch and Transmission
Cooling.

308
308
308
309
310
310
313
314

Section 9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Fuel System
Generating System.
Starting System. .
Ignition
Lights and Horns
Wiring Diagrams. . .
Tools and Equipment

.

. , . 314
315
315
316
316
317
319

Part ONE

POWER PLANT
Chapter

H-Series — 6-Cyimder
Section

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

'

g

Engine Removal and Installation
Manifolds
Cylinder Head
Oil Pan, Oil Pump, and Pressure Relief Valve
Crankshaft Damper
Engine Front Cover.
Valves, Springs, Guides, and Seats.
Camshaft Gear, Camshaft, and Bearingis
Crankshaft, Bearings, and Flywheel.
Connecting Rods, Pistons, and Pins
Muffler, Inlet Pipe, and Outlet Pipe .

The material presented in this chapter covers the H
series 6-cylinder engine illustrated in figs. 1, 2, and 3. This
engine is a 95-horsepower L-head engine with a 3.3 inch
, ,
,
A A > *. «,,
r
cylinder bore and a 4.4 inch piston stroke. The piston
displacement is 226 cubic inches.

'

5
7
......'.-. 8
g
0
n
21
;
12
...
.. 15
. .
ig
24
29

Complete removal, repair, and installation information
covering all of the component parts of the engine as
listed a b o v e are included in this
chapter. Always install
new
gaskets when any installation is ma<fe^ A complete
e n g i n e o v e r h a u l g a s k e t k i t i l l u s t r a t e d i n fig. 4 ^ a v a i l a b l e
for engine overhaul.

1. ENGINE REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
A detailed procedure is outlined below for the removal
and installation of the 6-cylinder car engine. It includes
the steps necessary for mounting the engine on a work
stand after it has beten removed.

I

a. r e m o v a l .
Remove the hood and battery. Drain the crankcase
and cooling system. Disconnect the upper radiator hose

1013

Fig. 1-7949-50 6-Cy/inder Engine (Sectional View)

at the engine and the lower hose at the radiator. Remove
the radiator. Disconnect the heater hoses at the engine,
Remove the air cleaner,
Disconnect the generator wires, the temperature sender
wire, the oil pressure sender wire, and the ignition switch
t o coil

^^

Fold the cable harness out of the w a y

1551

Fig. 2 - 7 9 5 7 H-Series 6-Cylinder Engine f % Front View)

Chapter I—H-Series—6-Cylinder

Tool—6000-P

1173

Fig. 5—Removing Engine

1532
Fig. 3-7.951 H-Series 6-CyUnder Engine <3A Rear View)

Disconnect the flexible fuel line connection. Disconnect
the choke wire, the throttle linkage, and the windshield
wiper hose at the carburetor.
Disconnect the starter cable at the starter motor terminal, the muffler inlet pipe, and the clutch spring and rod.
Remove the engine front support bolt. Install the
engine lift bracket and take up the load with a hoist.
Support the transmission with a jack. Remove the transmission to flywheel housing screws. Rock the engine and
pull it away from the transmission, then raise the engine
carefully (fig. 5). Be sure it clears all parts of the compartment. Do not let the engine swing against the grille.

With the engine clear of the car and hanging on the
hoist, remove the manifold assembly. Install the engine
on a work stand (fig. 6).

b. Installation.
Remove the engine from the workstand. With the
engine hanging on the hoist, install the manifold assembly. Shift the transmission into gear. Raise the transmission until it just touches the floor pan. Center the
clutch release bearing on the clutch and lower the engine
into the compartment carefully. Start the transmission
main shaft into the clutch.

NOTE: It may be necessary to adjust the position of
the transmission with relation to the engine. If the
engine "hangs up" after the pilot enters, turn the
crankshaft slowly until the splines seat.
Install the transmission to flywheel housing screws and
torque them to 40-50 foot-pounds. Remove the jack from
under the transmission. Lower the engine to the frame
Engine Lifting Eye
Tool—6000-P

1143

Fig. 4—-Engine Overhaul Gasket Kit

1174

Fig. 6—Installing Engine on Workstand

Section 1—Engine Removal and Installation
and install the engine front support bolts. Remove the
lift brackets. Connect the starter cable, muffler inlet pipe,
and clutch release rod and spring. Adjust the clutch
pedal free play.
Connect the throttle linkage, the choke wire, and the
windshield wiper hose. Connect the flexible fuel line.
Connect the generator wires, the temperature sender

wire, the oil pressure sender wire, and the ignition switch
to coil wire.
Install the radiator. Connect the radiator and heater
hoses. Install the battery, hood, and air cleaner. Fill the
crankcase with the proper grade and amount of engine oil.
Fill the cooling system according to the prevailing temperature. Run the engine and check for leaks in the system.

2. MANIFOLDS
A chamber is built into the intake manifold center
section where the carburetor and exhaust manifold are
attached. An exhaust control valve, located in. the exhaust manifold, directs exhaust gases into this chamber
when the engine is cold to provide for quicker warm-up
during starting.

NOTE: Do not remove manifolds when hot. They
may warp and make reassembly difficult.

a. Removal.
Remove air cleaner. Disconnect hot water heater hose
at water pump. Disconnect distributor vacuum line at
carburetor. Disconnect fuel line at carburetor. Disconnect accelerator linkage at both sides of the bell crank
and at the carburetor. Remove carburetor. Disconnect
windshield wiper hose. Remove the screw holding the
intake manifold baffle assembly to cylinder head. Remove
the top nut from the engine right front support bracket
and remove the intake manifold baffle assembly. Disconnect muffler inlet pipe from exhaust manifold. Remove manifold hold down nuts and lift both manifolds
and gaskets from the block. Remove nuts holding manifolds together and separate the manifolds (fig. 7).

the dirt accumulation from the interior and exterior
of the manifolds.

c. Inspection.
Inspect the manifolds for cracks especially around the
heat chamber in the intake manifold. Make sure all
gasket surfaces are free from projections that may
interfere with sealing. Place a straight edge across the
port openings. The manifold should touch the straight
edge at all points. Replace the manifold if faulty.

d. Installation.
Use new manifold gaskets as shown in fig. 8.
Fasten the manifolds together (30-35 foot-pounds
torque). Place the manifolds on the engine block. Tighten
the nuts to 25-30 foot-pounds torque, starting in the
center and working outward. Install the carburetor,
then connect the windshield wiper hose. Connect the
accelerator linkage at bell crank and carburetor. Connect
the fuel line and the distributor vacuum line to the carburetor. Fasten the intake manifold baffle assembly to
the cylinder head. Install the top nut on the engine front
support bracket. Connect the muffler inlet pipe to the

b. Cleaning.
Remove all old gaskets and scrape the gasket surfaces
on the manifolds and the block. Scrape the carbon and

MANIFOLD GASKET KIT
t

INTAKE
MANIFQLD—9424
ACCELERATOR BELL
CRANK—9724

EXHAUST
MANIFOLD—9426

9

in

357692-S

EXHAUST THERMOSTAT
COUNTERWEIGHT—9458

Fig. 7—6-Cylinder Engine Manifolds

1519

CENTER GASKET

REAR GASKET

FRONT GASKET

9448

9441

9442

c

ig. 8-Manifold

1145

Gasket Set

8

Chapter I—H-Series—6-Cylinder

exhaust manifold. Connect the heater hose and install
the air cleaner.

e. Checking Exhaust Control Valve.
Move the counterweight through its complete travel

and check for sticking in any position. Inspect all parts
for breakage. Make sure the weld is not broken between
deflector plate and shaft.
Figure 7 shows both manifolds and location of exhaust
control valve.

3. CYLINDER HEAD
Cylinder heads are cast from the same high grade iron
as is used for the cylinder block. Expansion and contraction due to temperature variations is the same for
both head and block lessening the possibility of cylinder
head distortion.

NOTE: The OHM-6050 cylinder head is interchangeable with the 7HA-6050 cylinder head.
The cylinder head removal, cleaning, inspection, and
installation is given below.

a. Removal.
Drain the cooling system. Disconnect the radiator hose
from the cylinder head. Disconnect the lead from the
cylinder head temperature sending unit. Remove the
screw from distributor vacuum line clamp on forward
left corner of cylinder head. Disconnect the ignition
wires from the spark plugs and remove the plugs. Remove
the two screws from the coil bracket and let the bracket
hang from the distributor. Disconnect the heater hose.
Remove the screw from the intake manifold air baffle
assembly on the right side of the cylinder head. Remove
the cylinder head bolts and remove the cylinder head.

b. Cleaning.
Remove carbon from the combustion chambers with
a scraper and stiff wire brush. Be careful not to scratch
the machined surfaces on the cylinder head. Remove the
rust and dirt from the water passages.

c. Inspection.
Check the cylinder head for cracks or warped surfaces.

Check to see that water passages are open and the head
is clean. Make sure the head and block gasket surfaces
are free from grease, dirt, and raised projections that
may occur at screw holes.

d. Installation,
NOTE: Do not enlarge any gasket holes or over'
heating of the rear cylinders may result.
Install a new cylinder head gasket (fig. 9) with the
cut off corner at the left front corner of the block.

NOTE: // the gasket is installed improperly, water
will leak externally at the left rear corner of the
engine between cylinder head and block.
Place the cylinder head in position on the block, being
careful not to damage the gasket. Before installing the,
cylinder head bolts, coat the bolt threads with a light
coat of water resistant sealer. Insert the cylinder head
bolts and tighten to 65-70 foot-pounds in the sequence as
shown in fig. 10. Fasten intake manifold air baffle
assembly to cylinder head. Connect the heater hose.
Fasten the distributor vacuum line clamp to the cylinder
head. Connect the temperature sending wire. Install
the spark plugs. Torque the plugs to 24-30 foot-pounds.
Position the coil bracket and install the two holding
screws. Connect the secondary ignition wires to the
spark plugs. Connect the radiator hose. Fill the cooling
system according to the prevailing temperature. Operate
the engine for five minutes, stop engine, and refill the
cooling system to the normal level.

4. OIL PAN, OIL PUMP, AND PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
Procedures in this section cover removal, cleaning,
inspection, installation of the oil pan, reconditioning the
oil pump, installation of oil seal and pressure relief valve.

ard or overdrive transmissions a new oil pan 1HA-6675-C
is used in place of 8HA-6675-A or B. 1951 models with
automatic transmission use 1HA-6675-B.

a. Oil Pan.

NOTE: The engine must be removed from the
chassis in order to remove the oil pan.

For servicing 1949, 1950, and 1951 cars with standCYLINDER HEAD GASKET

UT-OFF CORNER TOWARD FRONT

Fig. 9—Cylinder Head Gasket Installation

1133

(1) REMOVAL. Remove the engine from the chassis.
Remove the screws that hold the oil pan to engine rear
plate. Remove the screws that hold the oil pan to the

1132
Fig. 10—Cylinder Head Bolt Tightening Sequence

Section 4 — O i l Pan, O i l Pump, and Pressure Relief Valve
PACKING—6701

22507-S
COVER AND INLET TUBE-6615
GASKET-6626

34846-S
20346-S

PACKING
6702

GASKET-6710
PACKING—6700
PACKING
6707

34846-S
20346-S
GASKET-6710

OIL PAN-6675
1000

Fig. 11—Oil Pan

engine block and the front cover plate. Remove the oil
pan from the engine fig. 11.
(2) CLEANING. Use a solvent to remove the sludge
and dirt from both the inside and outside of the oil pan.
Scrape the old gasket flange. Clean the oil sump strainer.
(3) INSPECTION. Inspect the oil pan for any external damage such as cracks or warped gasket surfaces.
Inspect the drain plug threads for damage that may
cause leakage. Check oil sump strainer for crimped passages. Repair any damage and cracks, or replace the pan
if repairs cannot be made.
(4) OIL SEAL INSTALLATION. Remove the oil
packing and thoroughly clean packing retainer grooves.
Soak packing (fig. 12) for two hours in S A E 20 oil
before installation. Install the short packing in the retainer grooves. "Roll-in" the packing with a round bar
(fig. 13), make sure the packing meets the gasket evenly.
(5) INSTALLATION. Spread a thin film of grease on
the oil pan gasket surface to hold the gasket in place
during installation. Install a new gasket (fig. 12) on the
pan. Lift the pan into place and install the screws that
hold oil pan to block and front cover plate. Torque the
screws to 15-18 foot-pounds.
NOTE: Alignment of oil pan can be simplified byusing two studs in opposite corners of the block.

Fig. 13-"Roll-in"

Oil Seal Packing

1157

the drain plug. Install the engine in the chassis. Fill
crankcase with proper quantity and grade of oil.

b. Oil Pump.
The rotor type oil pump is used on the 6-cylinder
series engine and is externally mounted. In order to remove the oil pump with the engine in the chassis, it is
necessary to raise the front of the engine so that the
pump will clear the frame side rail when it is pulled out.
NOTE: The oil pump and camshaft gear back lash
should be 0.003-0.005 inch.
Before removing the oil pump check the back lash
between the oil pump driven gear and the camshaft gear.
This can be done by moving the distributor rotor and
checking the distributor shaft free play. The rotor free
play should be less than x/i inch.
(1) REMOVAL. Disconnect the right hand front
engine support. Disconnect the radiator hoses. Raise the
engine so the pump will clear the frame when removed.
72432-SOIL PUMP
DRIVEN GEAR
6652-

Install the screws that hold the oil pan to the engine
rear plate. Torque screws to 10-15 foot-pounds. Install
Part Nt. V H A 6 W

34805-S

O

^—PACKING-6702

GASKET-6710
1144

Fig. 12—Engine Oil Pan Gasket Sef

•21531-S
Fig. 14—Rotor Type Oil Pump Disassembled

1081

10

Chapter I—H-Series—6-Cylinder
THICKNESS
OUTER ROTOR

INNER ROTOR
INNER ROTOR

1134

•OUTER ROTOR

Fig. 15—Measuring Clearance Between Oil Pump Rotors

Remove the screws that hold the pump to the block
and remove the pump.
(2) DISASSEMBLY. Figure 14 illustrates a disassembled rotor type pump. Remove the cover plate. Remove
the outer rotor. Remove the pin from the oil pump driven
gear. Remove the gear. Remove inner rotor and shaft.
(3) CLEANING. Remove any dirt and sludge formations from the pump parts. Clean all parts with a suitable solvent.
(4) INSPECTION. Visually check all parts for breakage. Measure clearance between rotors as shown in fig. 15.
Clearance should be 0.006-0.010 inch between the rotors.
Measure outer rotor to body clearance as shown in
fig. 16. Clearance should be 0.005-0.010 inch.
Make rotor measurements as illustrated in fig. 17.
Thickness should not be less than 0.998 inch. Outer rotor
outside diameter should not be less than 2.246 inches.

NOTE: If rotors are worn beyond the specified
limits, replace them with Oil Pump Rotor and Shaft
Kit number 7HA-6650 (fig. 18).
Check the cover plate for wear as shown in fig. 19. If
the clearance exceeds 0.001 inch replace the plate.
With rotors assembled in housing, place a straight
edge over the rotors and pump body. Measure the clearance between the pump body and the straight edge. Replace, the pump body if clearance is less than 0.001 to
0.003 inch.
Measure the pump shaft end play as shown in fig. 20.
End play should be 0.008-0.012 inch.
(5) ASSEMBLY. Install the inner rotor and the shaft
in the housing. Press the oil pump driven gear on the

1082

Fig. 77—Oil Pump Rotors

shaft until there is a shaft end play of 0.008-0.012 inch.

NOTE: Oil pump shaft end play can be changed by
pressing the driven gear on the shaft with the pin
hole at right angle to the old pin hole. Set the proper
clearance, drill shaft with a number 30 (0.1285)
drill, and install the pin. Peen both ends of the pin
after it is installed.
Install the outer rotor and lubricate the rotors with
engine oil. Install a new cover plate gasket and install
the cover plate. Tighten the screws to 7-10 foot-pounds.
(6) INSTALLATION. Use a new gasket between the
oil pump and block. Insert the pump into the block and
install the hold down screws. Tighten the screws to 10-15
foot-pounds. Time the engine.

c. Pressure Relief Valve.
A non-adjustable spring loaded oil pressure relief valve
is located in the left rear corner of the engine block.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the plug that retains the
spring and plunger from the block. Remove the spring
and plunger illustrated in fig. 21.
(2) INSPECTION. Test pressure relief valve spring.
*

OUTER ROTOR.

Feeler Gage

.INNER ROTOR

OUTER ROTOR

PUMP BODY

1135

Fig. 16—Measuring Clearance Between Outer Rotor and
Pump Body

SHAPT

1136

Fig. 18—Oil Pump Rotor and Shaft Kit

11

Section 4 — O i l Pan, O i l Pump, and Pressure Relief Valve

GASKET-6669

Straight, Edge

PLUNGER-6663

PLUG-6666
Feeler Cage

PUMP COVER

SPRING-6654
1137

figm 19—Measuring Oil Pump Cover Plate Wear

When compressed to 1.14 inches, the spring force should
be 12.75 pounds plus or minus 2 ounces. Replace spring
if not within specifications.

1525

Fig. 21-Q'J

Pump Relief Valve

(3) INSTALLATION. Insert the plunger and spring.
Install a new valve retainer plug gasket. Install the valve
retainer plug.

5. CRANKSHAFT DAMPER
The 6-cylinder engine is equipped with either a viscous
type or a rubber type damper. The damper outside diameters are different, requiring two timing pointers on
the engine front cover. Both type dampers can be replaced with the engine in the car. Figure 22 shows the
stamped dampers used on 1949-50 engines. Malleable
interchangeable iron dampers are used on 1951 engines.

The tool has two % inch screws to remove the viscous
damper and two %• inch screws to remove the rubber
damper. Pull the damper assembly from the crankshaft.

a. Removal.

NOTE: // engine is out of car, a damper replacing
tool (fig. 24) can be used to install the damper.

Remove the radiator. Remove the damper retainer
bolt and washer from end of crankshaft. Install damper
removing tool on damper assembly as shown in fig. 23.

b. Installation.
Align keyway in damper with Woodruff key on shaft
and press damper into place.

Install the damper retainer bolt and the washer in
the end of the crankshaft. Install the radiator.

6. ENGINE FRONT COVER
The engine front cover is either a stamping or an
aluminum diecasting. The cover has two timing pointers
to correspond with the different size dampers. The upper
half of the crankshaft front packing is retained by the

cover plate. Two dowels are used to locate the cover on
the block.
The cover removal, inspection, oil seal installation,
and cover installation is given below.

a. Removal.
Remove the radiator. Remove the damper. Remove
the two screws that hold the oil pan to the front cover.
Remove the cover retaining screws and remove the cover.

DRIVEN GEAR

PUMP BODY

Thickness Gauge

VISCOUS TYPE DAMPER

RUBBER TYPE DAMPER

1050

1139

Fig. 20—Measuring Oil Pump End Play

Fig. 22—7949-50 Vibration Dampers

Chapter l-H-Series-6-Cylinder

12

LOCKS^-6518

SPRING—6513

SCREW

6549

TAPPET ASSEMBLY
6500

RETAINER
6514

VALVE
INTAKE—6507
EXHAUST—6505
\

GUIDE—6510
1142

Fig. 25—Valve and Related Parts

Soak the new packing (fig. 4) in SAE 20 oil for two
hours before installation. Install new oil seal packing.
Make sure the packing and cover gasket meet evenly.
"Roll in" the packing with a round bar to make sure it
is seated properly (fig. 13).
1140
Fig. 23—Damper Remover

d. Installation,

b. Inspection.
Inspect the cover for cracks or a damaged gasket surface. Replace if cover is cracked or damaged.

c. Oil Seal Installation.
Remove the old packing and clean the packing groove.

Position a new gasket on the cover. Place the cover on
the block and install the screws. Be sure to install the
two screws that hold the oil pan to the cover. Torque
the screws to 15-18 foot-pounds. Install the damper. Install the radiator.

7. VALVES, SPRINGS, GUIDES, AND SEATS
The procedures for reconditioning valves and valve
seats, replacement of guides, and tappet adjustment are
covered in this section. Figure 25 shows the 1949-50
valve and its related parts as used in the 6-cylinder
engine. Figure 26 shows the rotatable valve used in
1951 engines.

a. Valves and Valve Guides.
Rotatable intake and exhaust valves are used in 1951

engines. This type of valve has a two piece spring retainer differing from the single piece spring retainers.
Rotatable valves and parts can be installed in engines
not so equipped by changing the spring retainer, intake
valve, and exhaust valve.
Openings in the valve chamber should be covered before removing valves to prevent valve locks from falling
into the oil pan.
As parts of the valve assemblies are removed, tag or
otherwise identify them so they can be installed for reassembly in the valve port from which they were removed.

(1) REMOVAL.
NOTE: When removing valves with the engine in
the vehicle, remove the right front wheel and the
front fender apron panel in addition to the following procedure.
Remove the cylinder head. Remove the manifolds.
Remove the valve chamber covers. Crank the engine
until the tappet rests on the heel of the cam. Compress
the valve spring and remove the valve spring retainer
locks. Remove the valve. Remove the valve spring and
spring retainer as shown in fig. 27. The valve spring retaining sleeve used with rotatable valves will remain on
Tool—6306-N

RETAINER-6514
LOCKS-6518

VALVE

1141
Fig. 24—Damper Replacer

\ INTAKE-6507
1EXHAUST-6505

SPRING-6513

SLEEVE-6517
1728

Fig. 26—Rotatable Valve and Related Parts

Section 7—Valves, Springs, Guides and Seats

Fig. 27—Valve Spring Remover and Replacer

1147

the tappet when the spring is compressed and can easily
be lifted out.
(2) CLEANING. Scrape carbon and lead deposits
from head and stem of valve. Remove varnish from stem
with lacquer thinner.
(3) INSPECTION.
Check valve for a burned or
warped head. Measure stem diameter and replace if less
than 0.341 inch.
(4) SPRING TESTING. Test valve spring (fig. 28)
for compression. When compressed to 2.11 inches, the
valve spring pressure should be 47-53 pounds.. Replace
any burned, warped, or worn valves.
(5) REFACING VALVES. Grind valve face 45 degrees on a valve refacing machine as shown in fig. 29.
Replace valve if the edge of the valve head is less than
\ii inch thick after grinding.
(6) VALVE GUIDE INSPECTION. Valve stem
clearance in the guide should not exceed 0.0031 inch.
Figure 30 illustrates the method of measuring valve guide

Fig. 29—Refacing Valve

13

1086

wear with a telescope gauge and a micrometer. Replace
the guide if it is not within the above tolerance. Replace
guide if either end is bellmouthed.
(7) VALVE G UIDE REPLACEMENT. Pull the valve
guide from the block as shown infig.31.
To install the valve guide, position the new guide in
the bore. Drive the guide in the block as shown infig.31.
Drive the exhaust valve guides to a depth of 1.08 inches
and the intake valve guides to 1.18 inches measured:!
from the top of the valve guide to the cylinder block
surface as shown in fig. 32.
(8) REFACING VALVE SEATS. Clean seats thoroughly with a wire brush to prevent carbon from becoming embedded in the grinding wheel when refacing steel
valve seats. Keep grinding dust from entering the engine.
Remove only enough stock to clean up pits and other
depressions.
NOTE: Worn valve guides must be replaced before
refacing valve seats.
After regrinding valve seats, the width of the seat

Bore gouge

valve spring—6513

1037
Fig. 28—Checking Valve Spring Pressure

1042

Fig. 30—Checking Valve Guide Wear

Chapter I—H-Series—6-Cylinder

14

1035
Fig. 33-Correct

1040

Fig. 31—Removing and Installing Valve Guide

must not exceed \{§ inch measured across the face of the
seat as shown in fig. 33.
If the valve seat is too wide, remove just enough stock
from the top or bottom of the valve seat to reduce the
width to approximately ^6 inch. This can be done by
using a 30 degree angle grinder to remove stock from the
bottom of the valve seat, or a 60 degree angle grinder to
remove stock from the top of the valve seat. The finished
valve seat should not exceed 0.005 inch run-out. Check
the valve seat run-out with a dial indicator in (fig. 34).
(9) INSTALLATION.
Install the retainer and the
valve spring with the tightly wound coils in the up position against the block using the tool shown in fig. 27.
Insert the valve in the guide and align it with the spring
retainer. For non-rotating valves, press the spring and
install the valve spring retainer locks as shown in fig. 35.
For rotating valves, compress the spring, lift the valve,
align the retainer sleeve with entrained valve locks under

valve, lower the valve and seat locks with your finger.
Release tne spring slowly while holding the locks in place.
Install the valve chamber covers. Install the manifolds
and the cylinder head.

NOTE: // the procedure was made with the engine
in the car, install the right front fender apron and
the right front wheel.

b. Seats.
Special alloy valve seat inserts are pressed into the

Fig. 34—Checking Valve Seat Run-Out

T
INTAKE VALVE
GUIDE

Valve Seat Width

EXHAUST VALVE
GUIDE

Fig. 32—-Valve Guide Depth Measurement

1041

TOOL—6518-N

TOOL—6513-R

Fig. 35—Installing Valve Stem Locks

15

Section 7—Valves, Springs, Guides and Seats
counterbore in the cylinder block exhaust valve port
(fig. 36). These inserts are from 0.0015 to 0.0030 inch
press fit.
The inserts can be removed by driving a wedge under
the insert and prying the insert out of the counterbore.
Before installing a new insert, make sure the counterbore is clean and free of any burrs.
When installing a new insert, pack it in dry ice for
approximately 15 minutes, then position it over the
counterbore. Use a tool that fits the diameter of the
insert and drive it into place.

c. Tappet Adjustment.
The adjustable type tappet (fig. 37) has a self-locking
adjustment screw requiring no lock nut. The valve clearance is adjusted by the use of two open end wrenches,
one holding the tappet body and the other turning the
adjusting bolt. The adjustment is illustrated in fig. 38.
Valve gap settings are 0.013-0.015 inch for intake and
0.017-0.019 inch for exhaust valves when used with the
new camshaft with the letter "O" stamped on the forward end. For old camshafts with no letter stamping, set
intake at 0.009-0.011 inch and exhaust at 0.013-0.015 inch.

8. CAMSHAFT GEAR, CAMSHAFT, AND BEARINGS
The camshaft is supported by four bearings which are
pressed into the block and is driven by a gear which
meshes with a gear on the crankshaft. A special cam on
the camshaft contacts the fuel pump operating arm and
operates the fuel pump. A bolt-on type aluminum timing
gear is used on the early 1949 cars and a pressed-on type
fiber timing gear is used on the late 1949, 1950, and 1951
cars. The camshaft thrust is controlled by a plate which
is bolted on the front of the engine block.
The procedure for removal, inspection, and installation of the camshaft gear, camshaft, and camshaft bearings is given below.

a. Camshaft Gear.
The bolt-on type timing gear is secured to the camshaft gear hub by four screws which are locked with
retaining tabs. The mounting holes are spaced to make
it impossible to install the gear incorrectly. The cam1
shaft gear hub can be replaced as shown in figs. 39 and 40.
The pressed-on type gear is pressed on the camshaft
and is located on the shaft by a key. Two types of
pressed-on gears are used. One type has two tapped holes
in the hub and the other does not have any holes.
All oversize camshaft gears can be identified by the
pitch diameter stamped on the outer edge of the gear.
(1) REMOVAL. If the engine is in the vehicle, access
to the camshaft gear can be obtained by removing the
radiator. Then remove the vibration damper. Remove
EXHAUST VALVE SEAT INSERT—6057

VALVE PORT COUNTERBORE

Fig. 36—Valve Seat Insert

the engine front cover screws and be sure to include the
two screws from the forward end of the oil pan. Remove
the front cover and bend the oil slinger outward.
Follow the instructions given below for the type of
camshaft gear that applies.
(a) BOLT-ON GEAR. Bend the lock ring tabs away
from the cap screws (fig. 41). Remove the cap screws
and lock plate. Pull the gear off the camshaft.
(b)

PRESS-ON GEAR (WITH TAPPED HOLES). Use

a

puller which fits the two %"—14 tapped holes in the
gear hub and pull the gear off the camshaft.
(c) PRESSED-ON GEAR (WITHOUT TAPPED HOLES).

Drill hub with the special tool as shown in fig. 42 to relieve the press fit.
Remove the gear with a puller as shown in fig. 43.
(2) INSTALLATION.
When the timing gear is installed be sure the timing marks on the camshaft gear
and the crankshaft are aligned as shown in fig. 44. After
installing the gear, check the gear backlash. The backlash should be between 0.001 to 0.002 inch.

NOTE: Oversize camshaft gears are available for
service. Install the next oversize gear when excessive
backlash exists between the camshaft gear and the
crankshaft gear.
The 8HA:6256 camshaft gear can be used with camshaft OHA-6250-A. However, if this is done, the 15°
chamfer must be increased to 45°. The OHA-6256-A gear
can be used with the 7HA-6250-C camshaft.
(a) BOLT-ON TYPE GEAR. Install the gear on the camshaft aligning the holes. Install the lock plate and screws.
Tighten the screws to 15-20 foot-pounds torque and bend
the lock plate tabs. Install the front cover and the gasket. Install the vibration damper.

ADJUSTABLE TYPE

1025

Fig. 37—Adjustable Type Tappet

16

Chapter I—H-Series—6-Cylinder

Thickness Gauge

1032
Fig. 38—Adjusting Tappets

THRUST PLATE

NOTE: If the engine is in the vehicle install the
radiator.
(b) PRESS-ON TYPE GEARS. The following procedure
applies to both types of press-on gears.
Position the camshaft gear on the camshaft with the
slot in the gear hub in alignment with the key in the
camshaft (fig. 45).
Press the gear on the camshaft (fig. 46).
NOTE: Be sure the mark on the gear is in alignment
with the marks on the crankshaft gear (fig. 44).
Bend the oil slinger back to its original shape. Install
the front cover. Install the vibration damper.
NOTE: If the engine is in the vehicle install the
l
radiator.

h. Camshaft.
Late 1950 engines are equipped with an OHA-6250
camshaft which replaces the 7HA-6250-C camshaft used
in the 1949 and early 1950 engines. This camshaft can be
identified by the letter "O" stamped on the forward end
of the camshaft. The 1951 engines are equipped with an
OHA-6250-B which can be identified by the letter " B "
stamped on the forward end of the camshaft.
The undercut at the point where the camshaft gear
post joins the camshaft proper was eliminated on the
OHA-6250 camshaft and a radius was incorporated. This

Tool-6269-N

THRUST PLATE

\

1199
Fig. 40—Removing Camshaft Gear Hub

radius made it necessary to increase the chamfer on the
inside diameter of the camshaft gear hub from 15° to 45°
in order to avoid interference. The camshaft gear OHA6256-A with a larger chamfer incorporated on the hub is
available for use with the OHA-6250 camshaft.
Engines equipped with the OHA-6250 camshaft are
identified by the letter"OH" stamped on ^he right-hand
side of the cylinder block and directly above the number 3 intake port.
If 7HA-6250-C camshaft is used to replace the OHA6250 camshaft, it will be necessary to change the valve
gap spacing to 0.009-0.011 inch for the intake and 0.0130.015 inch for the exhaust valve.
If an OHA-6250 camshaft is used to replace a 7HA6250-C camshaft, it is necessary to change the valve gap
spacing to 0.013-0.015 inch for the intake valves and
0.017-0.019 inch for the exhaust valves. Stamp the letters "OH" on the cylinder block directly above the number 3 intake port to identify new type camshaft.
It will be necessary to replace the camshaft when the
cam lobes are worn to such an extent that the valve lift
is less than 0.3375 inch for the intake valves and 0.3335
inch for exhaust valves. Make valve lift measurements
when the engine is cold and valve gaps are within specifications. Check the valve lift with a dial indicator as
shown in fig. 47.
CAMSHAFT BEARINGS—6262

CAMSHAFT

-6256

20310-S
34906-S

I
CAMSHAFT—6250

1196
Fig. 39—Installing Camshaft Gear Hub

Him

R9RA

KEY
74147-S
LOCKING

1063
Fig. 41—Bolt-on Type Camshaft Gear and Camshaft
Disassembled

Section 8—Camshaft Gear, Camshaft, and Bearings

TIMING MARKS

17

1188

Fig. 42—Drilling Camshaft Gear

Fig. 44—Timing Marks

(1) REMOVAL. Remove the cylinder heads, manifolds, and valves. Lift the valve tappet assembly and
hold in the up position with spring clothespins or rubber bands.
NOTE: If engine is on an engine stand and the valves
have been removed, invert the block to eliminate
tappet interference.

eter for wear and out of round. Replace the camshaft if
the journals measure less than 1.924 inches in diameter.
Measure the inside diameter of the bearings with an
inside micrometer or telescope gauge. The difference in
measurements (amount of clearance) should be 0.001 to
0.002 inch for a new camshaft and bearings and not over
0.005 inch for a used camshaft and bearings.
Check the fuel pump eccentric for wear (deep groove
worn by the push-rod end). Inspect the oil pump drive
gear for worn, chipped, or broken teeth.
Replace camshaft if any of above conditions exist.
(3) INSTALLATION.
Position the thrust plate on
the camshaft with the oil groove toward the journal.
Press the gear or the hub on the camshaft far enough so
the camshaft thrust plate has 0.003 to 0.006 inch clearance. Carefully slide the camshaft through the bearings.
Secure the thrust plate to the block. Tighten the screws
to 15-18 foot-pounds torque. Install the bolt-on type
gear if that type of gear is used.

Loosen the oil pump. Remove the front cover and the
camshaft gear. Remove the thrust plate. Remove the
camshaft by pulling it through the bearings.
NOTE: Exercise care so that the camshaft bearings
are not damaged by the lobes on the camshaft.
If engine is mounted in car, remove the grille and
radiator to permit removing camshaft.
(2) INSPECTION. Check the camshaft journal surface for grooves or scratches.
Measure the diameter of the journals with a microm-

1028

Fig. 43—Removing Camshaft Gear

1190

Fig. 45—Camshaft Gear Keyway Alignment Tool

18

Chapter I—H-Series—6-Cylinder

Camshaft Bearing Press—6005-N

1186
Fig. 48—Removing Camshaft Bearings

Tool—6256- BB

Fig. 46—Installing Camshaft Gear

1071

Check the camshaft gear run-out. It should not exceed
0.002 inch. Install the front cover and gasket. Connect
the oil pump. Remove the valve tappet holders if used.
Install the valves. Install the cylinder head and the
manifolds.

c. Camshaft Bearing Replacement.
Under normal usage the camshaft bearings will not
require replacement. However, they should be replaced
if they are damaged or worn. It will be necessary to
remove the engine from the vehicle to make the bearings accessible.

Bearings are finished to size and should not be line
bored or reamed after installation.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the camshaft. Remove the
plug at the end of the block. Remove the camshaft bearings using the tool shown in fig. 48.
(2) INSTALLATION. Select the correct size camshaft bearings after measuring the camshaft journal outside diameter and the inside diameter of the camshaft
bores in the block. Position the camshaft bearing at the
bearing bore and press the camshaft bearings into place.
Be sure the oil hole in each bearing and bore are in alignment. The tool shewn in fig. 48 is used to remove and
install camshaft bearings. Apply sealer on the camshaft
rear bearing plug and install the plug. Install the
camshaft.

9. CRANKSHAFT, BEARINGS, AND FLYWHEEL
This section contains data on removal, inspection, and
replacement of the crankshaft, bearings, and flywheel.
Each of these parts are covered under the descriptive
headings given below.

a.

Crankshaft.

The function of the crankshaft is to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston into the rotary motion of
the driveshaft.
The crankshaft is made of cast alloy steel with integral
counterweights and is dynamically and statically bal350816-S
y-355599-S
I RETAINER—7609 / y-34846-S

J
/
<*L.X

^^///

/ //-MAIN BEARING-6331
•-GASKET RETAINER-6335
PACKING—6701
6344
i-PACKING-6700
GEAR-6306
OIL SLINGER
6310

20639-s
PACKING
6702
MAIN BEARING
6331

351582-S

MAIN B
1164

Fig. 47-Checking Valve Lift

PACKING—6707

KEYS—74153-S
MAIN BEARINGS
6333
1044

*Tig. 49-Engine Crankshaft

Section 9—Crankshaft, Bearings, and Flywheel
anced. Oil distribution holes are drilled through the shaft
for main bearing and connecting rod lubrication.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the engine from the chassis.
Then remove the flywheel housing assembly, clutch and
clutch plate, flywheel, starter and engine rear plate
assembly, damper, front cover assembly, oil pan, and
oil pump screen cover assembly. A disassembled view of
the crankshaft is shown in fig. 49.
When removing the clutch and clutch plate, make certain that the clutch and flywheel are marked so that the
clutch may be reassembled to the flywheel in the same
relationship as when it was removed. It is important to
do this so the assembly will be properly balanced.
Before removing any of the bearings, make sure that
they are marked so that the bearings may be replaced
exactly as they were originally installed. Remove all connecting rod bearing caps and inserts. If the four main
bearing caps and inserts are now removed, the crankshaft may be removed.
(2) INSPECTION. Examine the shaft for evidence
of cracks. Make certain that the dowel pins in the flange
are not loose or damaged. Pins that are slightly nicked
on the end may be chamfered with a mill file.
Main bearing inserts that are scratched, show fatigue
pockets, or have the overlay wiped out, should be replaced.
A bearing that has only light scratches may be re-used
providing the clearances are satisfactory. Scratched bearings are shown in fig. 50. Fatigue failure can be recognized by the breaking away of the bearing overlay material (fig. 51). Figure 52 shows two bearings with the
overlay wiped out.

19

NOTE: Any engine that has experienced rod or piston failure must have all the oil passages thoroughly
cleaned before rebuilding the engine.
A bearing showing signs of excessive wear on one side
of the bearing half (fig. 53) indicates a tapered bearing
journal. The journal should be reground to the next
undersize to remove the taper and undersize bearings
installed. Similarly, bearings showing excessive wear at
the center or end of the bearing around the circumference
(fig. 54) indicate high spots on the bearing journal which
should be corrected before the engine is rebuilt.
Bearings that show bright sections across the back of
the bearing (fig. 55) indicate the bearings have been loose
in the bore either because of an undersize outside diameter, because of the bearing bore being too large, or by
the bearing not having sufficient "crush."
Grooved or scored main bearing or crank pin journals
will cause bearing failure and should be machined or the
crankshaft should be replaced. Light scores or scratches
can be removed with a hone, then polished with No. 320
grit polishing paper.

(3) MEASURING CRANKSHAFT

JOURNALS.

Measure each crankshaft journal diameter at a minimum
of four places to determine size, out of round, and taper.
If any of the journals are out of round more than 0.0015
inch or if taper of more than 0.001 inch exists, they
should be machined. Journals that are worn evenly and
have less than 0.001 inch taper or a 0.0015 inch out of
round condition will not require machining if the available bearings will provide not more than 0.0022 inch
clearance for the main bearings, or not more than 0.0027
inch clearance for the crank pin bearings.

DIRT IMBEDDED INTO
BEARING MATERIAL

Fig. 50—Bearing Scratched by Dirt

Fig. 5? —Fatigue Failure of Bearing

Chapter I—H-Series-6-Cylinder

20

The main journals have a maximum diameter of 2.8740
inches. The crank pin journals have a maximum diameter of 2.2988 inches.

(4) REGRINDING CRANKSHAFT

JOURNALS.

After measuring the crankshaft journal diameters, select
the next undersize bearing diameter from those shown
in Table 1, and grind the journals to that size.

CAUTION: Never grind journals in excess of 0.030
inch undersize.
Always grind the same size radii at the ends of the
bearing journals as the shaft had originally. The radii
distribute stress at this point. Undersize radii will cause
radii ride at the end of the bearing, resulting in early
bearing fatigue.
Extreme care should be used to obtain the finest possible finish on the bearing journals.
Use a number 320 grit emery cloth and motor oil to
polish the bearing journals; Crocus cloth may also be used.
Table 1—Crankshaft Journal Bearings

FRONT AND INTERMEDIATE BEARINGS

Part Number
OHA-6333-A
OHA-6333-B
7HA-6333-A
7HA-6333-B
7HA-6333-C
7HA-6333-D
7HA-6333-E

Size
Standard *
Standard**
Standard
0.002 inch U / S
0.010 inch U / S
0.020 inch U / S
0.030 inch U / S

Crankshaft
Diameter
(Inches)
2.8736/2.8740
2.8732/2.8736
2.8732/2.8740
2.8649
2.8559
2.8459

REAR MAIN BEARING
Part Number
OHA-6331-A
OHA-6331-B
7HA-6331-F
7HA-6331-G
7HA-86331-H
7HA-6331-J
7HA-6331-K

Size
Standard •
Standard**
Standard
0.002 inch U / S
0.010 inch U / S
0.020 inch U / S
0.030 inch U / S

Crankshaft
Diameter
(Inches)
2.8736/2.8740
2.8732/2.8736
2.8732/2.8740

b. Rear Oil Seal Installation*
Always install oil seals at general overhaul or whenever
seal deterioration or oil leakage is evident. Soak the oil
seals at least two hours in oil before installation. Roll the
seal into position in the recess by using bar stock slightly
smaller than the diameter of the crankshaft bearing.
Trim the ends of the seal flush with the block.

CAUTION: Oil seals extending below the mating
surfaces of the block will result in oil leaks at the
main bearing.

c. Main Bearings.
Steel backed copper lead insert bearings are used in
the four main bearings supports of the engine. These
bearings are held in place with indentations on the end
of the insert which locate themselves in machined notches
in the cylinder block and cap when installed.
Care should be used in fitting main bearings since the
crankshaft carries the entire engine load. Lubrication
must be maintained or the main bearings will wear out
rapidly with possible damage to the crankshaft journals.
Crankshaft end thrust is controlled by the rear main
bearing flange.
Bearing inserts are precision manufactured and are
ordered by size to re-establish the manufacturer's tolerance when the engine is overhauled. The bearing
inserts can be removed and replaced without removing
the crankshaft.

(1) REPLACEMENT

WITHOUT

REMOVING

CRANKSHAFT.
After the bearing cap has been removed, a special tool designed for removing the upper
bearing insert may be inserted in the oil hole in the
crankshaft as shown in fig. 56. Figure 57 shows the tool
in position ready to bear against the insert. When the
crankshaft is rotated in the direction opposite to engine
rotation the tool will force out the bearing insert.

2.8649
2.8559
2.8459

CONNECTING ROD BEARING
Crankshaft
Diameter
Part Number
Size
(Inches)
7HA-6211-A
Standard
2.2980/2.2988
7HA-6211-B
0.002 inch U / S
2.2964
7HA-6211-C
0.010 inch U / S
2.2884
7HA-6211-D
0.020 inch U / S
2.2784
7HA-6211-E
0.030 inch U / S
2.2684
NOTE: U / S means undersize.
•Bearing thickness 0.09575/0.09625 inch.
••Bearing thickness 0.09615/0.09665 inch.

Fig. 52—Bearing Failure Due;toLack of Oil

1158

Section 9—Crankshaft, Bearings, and Flywheel

21

BRIGHT (POLISHED) SECTIONS

OVERLAY G O N E FROM ENTIRE SURFACE

1161

Fig. 53—Bearing Failure Due to Tapered Journal

To install the upper main bearing insert, place the
plain end of the bearing over the locking lip side of the
shaft. Using the same tool, rotate the crankshaft in the
direction of engine rotation until the bearing seats itself
in the bearing support.

(2) FITTING MAIN BEARINGS (PLASTIGAGE
METHOD). Remove the bearing cap and wipe the oil
from the bearing and journal.

NOTE: Keep the other bearing caps tight while
checking the fit of a hearing.
Place a piece of Plastigage the full width of the bearing on the bearing insert.
Install the bearing cap and torque the retaining bolts
to 95-105 foot-pounds. Leave the cap tight for at least
one minute and then remove it.
RADII RIDE

SCRATCHES

1163

Fig. 55—Bearing Showing Bright Spots Because of
Improper Seating

CAUTION: Do not turn the crankshaft while the
Plastigage is between the bearing and the journal.
Remove the bearing cap. Without moving the plastic,
check its width (at the widest point) with the graduations on the Plastigage container as shown infig.1181.
If the bearing clearance is not over 0.002 inch, the
bearing insert is satisfactory. If the clearance is greater
than 0.002 inch, install an OHA-6333-B bearing (front
and intermediate) or an OHA-6331-B bearing (rear) and
recheck the clearance.
Where the OHA-6333-B or OHA-6331-B bearing is
used and the clearance is excessive, grind the crankshaft
main bearing journals for use with the next undersize
bearing insert. These inserts are available in the following undersizes: 0.010, 0.020, and 0.030 inch.

(3) FITTING

MAIN BEARINGS

(SHIM

METHOD). Place a 0.002 inch brass shim Yi inch wide
by 1 inch long between the bearing insert in the cap and

DIRT IMBEDDED IN BEARING MATERIAL
FATIGUE FAILURE FROM EXCESSIVE LOAD

RADII RIDE

SCRATCHES

F/g. 54—Bearing Showing Radii Ride

1162

Tool-6331

CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL

F/g. 56—Install Bearing Remover in Oil Hole

1130

Chapter I—H-Series—6-Cylinder

22

MAIN BEARING INSERT

Fig. 57—Removing Main Bearing Insert

the crankshaft journal. Coat shim with light engine oil.
Torque the main bearing cap bolts to 95-105 foot-pounds.
Turn the crankshaft one inch in either direction.
If the crankshaft is locked with the 0.002 inch shim,
and is free without the shim, the bearing insert used is
satisfactory.
If the crankshaft can be moved freely with the 0.002
inch shim, install an OHA-6333-B bearing (front and
intermediate) or an OHA-6331-B bearing (rear) and
repeat the above check.
If the crankshaft turns easily, excessive clearance is
indicated and the crankshaft should be reground to the
next undersize bearing insert size.
Bearing inserts are available as follows: 0.010, 0.020,
and 0.030 inch undersize.
.002" CLEARANCE

Flattened Plastic

Fig. 59—Checking Crankshaft End Thrust

NOTE: Rotate the crankshaft to he sure that the
bearing is not too tight.
(4) CHECKING CRANKSHAFT END TJJRUST.
When installing new rear main bearing inserts the crankshaft end play should be checked. To check the crankshaft end play, pry the crankshaft toward the rear of the
engine. Place a dial indicator against the forward side
of the rear counterweight. Set the dial to zero and then
pry the shaft forward.
If the dial indicator shows more than 0.008 inch end
play, the rear main bearing insert should be replaced with
a new insert to take up the thrust. The manufacturing crankshaft end clearance is 0.004-0.008 inch. Checking the crankshaft end thrust is illustrated in fig. 59.

d. Crankshaft Gear.
The crankshaft gear is attached to front end of the
crankshaft.
(1) INSPECTION. When it is necessary to replace
the camshaft gear, it is advisable to inspect the crankshaft gear. Check the crankshaft gear for chipped,
cracked, or worn teeth. Check the crankshaft gear runout. The maximum allowable runout is 0.0015 inch.
(2) REMOVAL. To remove the crankshaft gear it is
CRANKSHAFT-6303

CRANKSHAFT GEAR-6306

Crankshaft Gear
GRADUATED CONTAINER

Fig. 58—Measuring Flattened Plastigage

1181

Pu//er--6306-C
1048

Fig. 60—Removing Crankshaft Gear

Section 9—Crankshaft, Bearings, and Flywheel

23

necessary to remove the damper assembly, the front

engine cover, the oil slinger, the oil pan, and the front
main bearing cap. Remove the gear with a crankshaft
gear puller. The crankshaft and the crankshaft gear
puller are shown infig.60.
(3) INSTALLATION.
Check the condition of the
bore, keyway, and teeth of the crankshaft gear. Install
the Woodruff key. Start the gear on the shaft making
sure the keyway aligns with the key and the timing
marks are away from the engine block. Position the
crankshaft gear installing tool on the crankshaft, making sure the puller stud is fully threaded into the crankshaft. Assemble the sleeve and wing nut and tighten the
nut pulling the gear firmly into place (fig. 61).

CAUTION: Make sure the timing gear marks align
as the teeth of the gears engage. Make sure the teeth
engage freely before pulling the gear into place.
Check the gear lash by inserting a feeler gauge between
the teeth of the crankshaft and the camshaft gears. The
lash should be between 0.002 and 0.003 inch. Install the
oil slinger with the concave side outward. Inspect the
condition of the oil seal in the timing gear cover and in
the oil pan. Replace if necessary.
Install the engine front cover using a new gasket. Trim
the gasket flush with the cover and block.
Install the damper assembly, making sure the oil seal
has not been damaged while installing the assembly.
Install the oil pan using new gaskets.

e. Flywheel
The flywheel acts to carry over and smooth out the
separate thrusts of each piston. The rear face of the flywheel is used as a friction surface which is engaged by
the clutch plate. The flywheel ring gear which is engaged
by the starter pinion when starting, is secured to the
flywheel by a shrink fit.
(1) INSPECTION. The flywheel should be cleaned
and inspected. Flywheels that have a burned or scored

Fig. 61—Installing Crankshaft Gear

1049

Tool
6384-N

Fig. 62-Checking
Flywheel Runout

1179
Fig. 63—Pulling Flywheel
with Puller

friction face surface should be replaced or machined.
Check the flywheel runout by clamping an indicator to
the backing plate (fig. 62). Position the indicator needle
on the outer edge of the flywheel pressure plate area.
If the runout exceeds 0.005 inch total indicator reading and the flywheel has double timing marks, remove
the flywheel and turn it 180°, then re-install and recheck
runout. If runout is still in excess of 0.005 inch check the
runout of the mounting side of the flywheel. If the runout is within limits, it indicates that the flywheel has
been refaced without being "trued-up" before refacing.
In this event true up the mounting side of the flywheel
and reface it, if the flywheel has sufficient stock.

NOTE: Runout of the crankshaft flange should he
established before discarding the flywheel for excessive runout.
Examine the ring gear for cracks, damaged teeth, and
for looseness on the flywheel. Cracks in the gear can be
detected by sounding with a hammer.
(2) REMOVAL. Remove the transmission, clutch
SHOE

CUTTER BLADE

SHOE

PILOT ADJUSTING SCREW

Fig. 64—Removing Cylinder Ridge

1153

Chapter I—H-Series—6-Cylinder

24

housing, and clutch. The flywheel is mounted to the
crankshaft rear flange with dowel pins and self-locking
bolts. It may be necessary to use a wheel puller after
removing the flywheel bolts. Figure 63 shows a wheel
puller in position on the flywheel.
CAUTION: Mark the clutch assembly so that it may
be remounted on the flywheel in the same position
from which it was removed.
(3) REFACING. If if is necessary to remove more
than 0.045 inch from the original thickness of the flywheel to obtain a smooth surface, it should be replaced.
(4) RING GEAR REPLACEMENT. To replace a

ring gear, drill a l % inch hole nearly through the ring
gear on the engine side of the gear, and cut the remaining portion with a chisel. Heat the new ring evenly to
360° F, and place it in position on the flywheel and allow
it to cool. Check the ring gear runout. The runout must
not exceed 0.010 inch.
(5) INSTALLATION.
Assemble the flywheel to the
mounting flange and install the mounting bolts. Install
the clutch and clutch plate to the flywheel making sure
that the clutch is in the same position on the flywheel as
it was before removal. Install the clutch housing and
transmission.

10. CONNECTING RODS, PISTONS, AND PINS
This section gives the removal, inspection, and installation procedures for connecting rods, pistons, and pins.
Complete data is given on the fitting of all bearings and
the fitting of new rings and pistons.

push the rod and piston assembly out the top of the
cylinder with the handle end of a hammer. Install the
bearing cap on the connecting rod. Repeat this procedure
for each assembly.

a. Remove Piston and Connecting Rod
Assemblies.

NOTE: Each rod and bearing cap is numbered from
1 to 6 beginning at the timing gear end of the engine.
The numbers on the rod and bearing cap must be
on the same side when reinstalling them into their
respective cylinder bores. If a connecting rod is ever
transposed from one block to another, make sure all
the bearings are new and that the number on the rod
is restamped or prick punched to correspond with
the cylinder number.

Remove the engine from the car. Remove the oil pan
and cylinder head.
Before removing a piston from the engine, remove
any ridges that may be present along the upper part of
each cylinder.
Move the piston to the bottom of its travel and place
a cloth on the piston head to collect the cuttings. Position
the ridge remover in the cylinder and adjust the ridge
remover pilot to the cylinder size. Make sure the cutter
is at the top side of the roller bar and that the cutter
does not extend beyond the roller. Make sure the ridge
remover shoes are tight. Hold the ridge remover tightly
against the block and turn the arbor clockwise with a
wrench (fig. 64).

CAUTION: ISever cut into the ring travel area in
excess of 1/32 inch when removing ridges.
Remove the ridge remover from the cylinder bore.
Turn the crankshaft until the piston is at the top of its
stroke and carefully remove the cloth with the cuttings
from the piston head.
Turn the crankshaft until the rod of the piston being
removed is down. Remove the nuts from the connecting
rod studs. Lift the rod bearing cap from the rod and
PISTON, PIN, AND RETAINER ASSY.-6108

b. Disassembly of Piston and Connecting
Rod Assemblies.
File the cylinder number on the inside bottom of the
piston skirt prior to removing the rods from the pistons,
for identification of the piston with the bore for reassembling purposes.
Remove the piston rings. Remove the lock rings at
each end of the piston pin. Push the piston pin out of
the piston or, if necessary, heat the assembly in hot
water and remove the pin by tapping with a light hammer
on a brass drift slightly smaller than the pin diameter.
Remove the rod bearing cap and the bearing inserts.
The piston and rod assembly is shown in fig. 65.

BEARINGS

6211"
Groove Cleaning Tool

P.STONP.N
6135

CONNECTING ROD
ASSEMBLY-6200

"
6140

NUTS
6212
1054

Fig. 65—Piston and Connecting Rod Assembly—
H Series Engine

1574
Fig. 66—Cleaning Piston Ring Grooves

Section 10—Connecting Rods, Pistons and, Pins

25

c. Cleaning Piston and Connecting Rod
Assemblies.
Remove the carbon from the piston head with a
scraper or carbon brush. Clean the piston ring grooves
with a ring groove cleaner (fig. 66). Clean the carbon
from the oil return holes in the oil ring grooves by running a drill through the holes. Make sure the drill is the
same size as the hole.
Clean all the parts and passages in mineral spirits or
gasoline. Never use caustic cleaning solution. Remove
the bearing inserts (identify them if they are to be used
again) and thoroughly clean the rod bore and the back
of the inserts.

d. Inspection of Piston and Connecting
Rod Assemblies.
Connecting rods with damaged threads, nicked studs,
deep nicks, signs of fractures, scored bore, or bore out
of round more than 0.002 inch should be replaced.
Use a new piston pin to check the piston pin bushing
in the connecting rod for wear. The pin should have a
0.0001 inch to 0.0003 inch clearance in the rod bushing.
If the new pin falls through the bore by its own weight,
ream the bore for the next oversize pin (fig. 67), or replace the bushing.
Connecting rods with twists or bends should be replaced. Check every connecting rod for alignment on a
fixture after fitting the piston pins (fig. 68).

(1) CONNECTING ROD BEARINGS. Replace bearing inserts that are scored, have the overlay wiped out,
show fatigue failure, or are badly scratched (figs. 50
through 55).
Install the bearing inserts in the cap and rod section.
The bearing should snap into place and remain there. If
the bearing slides in freely and will fall out readily, the
bearing has lost its spread and should be replaced. Check
the inside edge of the bearing at the parting line for sharp
burrs. Remove the burrs if any are apparent. The part-

PISTON PIN

CONNECTING R

Connecting Rod
Aligner

1060
Fig. 68—Checking Connecting Rod Alignment

ing edges of the bearings should be free of dirt or other
foreign particles'.

CAUTION: Remove only enough stock to remove
any burrs as a chamfer at this location can cause low
oil pressure.
With the insert held firmly in the cap, place a straight
edge over the open end of the bearing. There should be
0.001 to 0.003 inch clearance between the straight edge
and the parting line of the cap to provide for bearing
"crush. " I f the parting line of the insert and the cap are
flush, the bearing should be replaced. Bearing "crush"
tends to hold the bearing firmly in the bearing bore to
give support to the bearing and also assures better dissipation of heat from the bearing to the rod.
(2) PISTONS. Inspect pistons for fractures at the
ring lands, skirt, and pin bosses. Replace pistons showing
signs of wavy ring lands, fractures, or damage from
detonation. Spongy eroded areas near the edge of the
Telescope Gauge

CONNECTING ROD

Fig. 67—Reaming Connecting Rod Bushing

1 0 57

1017
Fig. 69—Measuring Cylinder Bore

Chapter I—H-Series—6-Cylinder

26

piston top, usually on the side opposite the valves, are
caused by detonation. In some instances holes are also
burned through the piston top. Replace any pistons that
show excessive skirt clearance.
(3) PISTON PINS. Replace piston pins showing signs
of fractures or etching. Piston pins that show wear or fit
loose in the piston or rod bushing should be replaced.
Replace all piston pin retainers.
(4) CYLINDER BLOCK. Make a thorough check for
cracks. Minute cracks not visible to the naked eye may
be detected by coating the suspected area with a mixture
of 25% kerosene and 75% light motor oil. Wipe the part
dry and immediately apply a white coating of zinc oxide
dissolved in wood alcohol. If cracks are present, the white
coating will become discolored at the defective area.
Inspect the cylinder bores for scoring. Check the cylinders closely for bulging at the top. Bulging indicates
overheating. Inspect the expansion plugs for rust at the
edge of the plug. Rust indicates leakage. If leakage is
indicated, remove the plug by drilling a small hole through
it and use a punch to pry it out. Replace with a new
plug. Always use a sealer when installing new plugs or
leakage may result.
Check the cylinder bore for taper, out of round, and
wear. Use a cylinder gauge, telescope gauge, or inside
micrometers. Only experienced personnel should be permitted to take these measurements.
Record measurements taken lengthwise and crosswise
at the top and bottom of the block as follows:
Lengthwise of the block, measure and record as "A"
the diameter of the cylinder at the top of the cylinder
where the greatest ring wear occurs. Also lengthwise of
the block, measure and record as "B" the cylinder diameter at the bottom of the piston skirt travel.
Crosswise of the block, measure and record as "C" the
diameter at the top of the cylinder at the greatest wear
point. Measure and record as "D" the diameter at the
bottom of cylinder bore, also crosswise of the block.
Reading "A" compared to reading "B" and reading
"C" compared to reading "D" indicates cylinder taper.
If the taper is greater than 0.015 inch the cylinder must

be rebored and honed for the next oversize piston.
Reading "A" compared to reading "C" and reading
"B" compared to reading "D" indicates whether or not
the cylinder is out of round. If the out of round exceeds
0.003 inch, the cylinders must be rebored and honed for
the next oversize pistons.
Measuring cylinder bore with a telescope gauge is
illustrated in fig. 69.

e. Fitting Pistons.
Proper assembly tolerances of pistons are required if
satisfactory engine; operation is to be obtained. Cylinder
bores must be checked for taper and out of round condition before fitting a piston.
Before installing a piston and new rings in a used
block, remove the high polish on the cylinder wall to
aid ring seating by passing a hone through the cylinder
bore a few times. Do not hone more than enough to
rough up the polish. Make sure that wet rags are placed
in the bore to catch the hone dust and that the cylinder
is thoroughly cleaned before installing the piston.
To fit a new piston in a new bore, attach a tension
scale to the end of a feeler ribbon x/i inch wide and having the correct feeler ribbon thickness as given in Table 2.
Position the feeler ribbon on the thrust side of the
piston (camshaft side) 90° from the piston pin hole.
Invert the piston, then push the piston in the cylinder so
the end is about Y^ i n c h below the top of the block. Keep
the piston pin bores parallel with the camshaft. Pull out
the feeler gauge while noting the reading (fig. 70).
The pull limits for new pistons and used pistons in
new or used bores is given in Table 2.

Table 2—Piston Fitting Specifications
Piston
New Piston in New Bore
Gauge Thickness (inches)
Pounds Pull
New Piston in Used Bore
Gauge Thickness (inches)
Pounds Pull
Used Piston in Used Bore
Gauge Thickness (inches)
Pounds Pull

7HA

OHA

0.003
6-12

0.002
3-12

0.003
6-12

0.002
3-12

0.003
6-12

0.003
3-12

rig. 70—Fitting Piston to Cylinder Bore

1055

27

Section 10—Connecting Rods, Pistons, and Pins

If the scale reading is greater than the maximum allowable pull, try another piston or hone the cylinder bore to
obtain the proper fit. If the scale reading is less than the
minimum allowable pull, try another piston. If none can
be fitted, rebore cylinders to next oversize (Table 3).

f. Boring Cylinder Block.
To assure maximum engine performance and balance
of the reciprocating parts of the engine, all cylinders must
be bored to the same size even though only one cylinder
requires reboring and the others are within tolerance.
Manufacturers recommendations on how to use boring
equipment should be followed and the work performed
only by experienced personnel.
Bore the cylinder with the most wear first to determine
the proper oversize. If the cylinders will not clean up at
0.060 inch oversize, the block must be replaced.
When reboring the cylinders allow 0.0015 inch stock
for honing when fitting pistons. Hone the bores to fit the
pistons so as to provide a 6-12 pound pull on a 0.003 x
Y2 inch feeler ribbon for 7HA piston and 0.002 x }/% inch
feeler ribbon for OH A piston when pulled from between
the thrust side of the piston and the cylinder wall. Use a
number 220 to 280 grit hone for this operation.
CAUTION: Thoroughly clean the block to remove
all particles of abrasive after the honing operation.

g. Fitting Piston Pins.
Check the piston pin fit in the piston. Piston pins must
be a hand-push fit in the piston pin bore at normal room
temperature (70°F.).
If oversize piston pins are to be used, or if the piston
pins are too tight, use an expansion type piston pin
reamer. Place the reamer in a vise and revolve the piston around the reamer (fig. 71).
Set the reamer* to the size of the piston bore, then
expand reamer very slightly and trial ream the bore }4
inch deep in the piston using a pilot sleeve of the nearest
size to maintain alignment of the piston pin bores.
CAUTION: Take a very light cut and do not allow
the reamer to enter the bore more than % inch.
Check the reamed hole size using a new piston pin as
a gauge. If the bore is small, finish reaming the hole, then
turn the piston around and ream the other hole.
Expand the reamer slightly and make another trial

Table 3—Piston Kits Available for Service
Piston Kit
Part No.

Type

Piston Skirt Dia.
Limit (Dimension
At Skirt—Inches)

7HA-6108-A
Standard
3.2996-3.3008
7HA6108-D
0.020 inchO.S.*
3.3180-3.3190
7HA-6108-E
0.030 inch O.S.
3.3280-3.3290
7HA-6108-F
0.040 inch O.S.
3.3380-3.3390
7HA-6108-G
0.060 inch O.S.
3.3580-3.3590
OHA-6108-A
Standard
3.3003-3.3015
OHA-6108-B
0.0025 inch O.S.
3.3016-3.3028
OHA-6108-C
0.020 inch O.S.
3.3191-3.3203
OHA-6108-D
0.030 inch O.S.
3.3291-3.3303
OHA-6108-E
0.040 inch O.S.
3.3391-3.3403
OHA-6108-F
0.060 inch O.S.
3.3591-3.3603
*O.S. means oversize.
There are four pistons of each type (standard and
oversize) with skirt diameter variation in steps of
0.0003 inch for selective fitting of OHA pistons.
cut, then repeat the procedure outlined until a piston
pin fit is obtained.
Similarly ream all the pistons in which pins need to
be fitted, checking each with the pin to be used in the
piston.

h. Fitting Piston Rings.
Install the piston ring in the cylinder bore. Invert the
piston and use the top to push the ring about halfway
into the bore to true the ring with the cylinder bore.
Measure the ring gap with a feeler gauge. The gap should
be 0.007-0.047 inch (all rings). If the gap is less than
the minimum limit the ring will have to be removed
and the ends filed until the proper clearance is obtained.
If the ring gap exceeds the maximum limit, the next
oversize ring must be used. After the rings have been
fitted in the cylinder bore, they should be immediately
installed on the piston or identified with the piston and
cylinder bore in which they are to be installed.
Check the ring to groove clearance on the proper
piston for the cylinder as shown in fig. 72.
PISTON
Feeler Gauge

NEW PISTON RING

Fig, 71—Reaming Piston Pin Holes

1581

1206

Fig. 72—Checking Piston Ring Clearance

Chapter I—H-Series—6-CyIinder

28

0.015 inch or for excessive oil consumption conditions
when the cylinder bore is not to be honed.

The rings should have the following clearance:
Clearance in
Piston Groove
(inch)

End Gap of Ring
in Cyl. Bore
(inch)

.0.0015-0.0030
.0.0010-0.0025
.0.0010-0.0025
0.0010-0.0025

0,007-0.047
0.007-0.047
0.007-0.047
0.007-0.047

Ring

1st Top Compression. .
2nd Top Compression..
3rd Oil Ring
...
4th Oil Ring.

NOTE: When the steel section OHA ring sets are not
available, the steel section 7HA may be used on the
OHA piston by installing the oil ring expander in the
3rd groove rather than in the 4th groove as specified
on the 7HA pistons.

Remove stock from tight rings by rotating the ring
over emery cloth placed on a surface plate or plate glass
until the ring fits the groove within the above limits.
Three different type rings are available in sets for
service, the standard ring, the expander ring, and the
steel section ring.
The standard (snap in type) is designed for use in a
new engine or whenever the block is rebored and new
pistons installed and a light hone is recommended.
The expander type is designed for use after a light
honing job and the taper of the cylinder bore does not
exceed 0.006 inch or whenever an oil consumption condition is encountered.
The steel section type ring should be used in cylinders
where the taper of the cylinder bore is between 0.006 and

PISTON RING LAND—A ^ - C Y L I N D E R
1

i. Fitting Connecting Rod Bearings
(Plastigage Method).
Place a piece of Plastigage plastic the length of the
cap in the bearing cap. Install the cap and tighten to
45-50 foot-pounds.

NOTE: Do not turn the crankshaft with Plastigage in
place.
Remove the bearing cap and using the Plastigage
scale measure the width of the flattened piece of plastic
at the widest point. If reading is not over 0.003 inch,
standard size connecting rod bearings should be used; if
over 0.003 inch, install 0.002 inch undersize bearing; and
recheck. Where use of the 0.002 inch undersize bearing
results in excessive clearance grind the crankshaft and
install undersize bearing inserts.

PISTON RING LAND—H

WALL

111
|*

liii

TAPER

—CYLINDER
WALL
.^^TAPER
«

PISTON RING LAND—+

—CYLINDER
WALL

INNER RING-

SLOTTED CAST
IRON OIL RING

INNER RING

EXPANDER TYPE
COMPRESSION RING

PISTON RING LAND

STEEL SECTION
COMPRESSION RING

A —CYLINDER
WALL

RING LAND

K

PISTON RING LAND

SLOTTED CASTv
IRON OIL RING

EXPANDER TYPE OIL RING

—CYLINDER
WALL

-CYLINDER
WALL

—STEEL
SECTION

STEEL SECTION OIL RING

d

PISTON RING LAND
COUNTERIBORE

BEVEL

CAST IRON RING

-

INNER RING-

SLOTTED CAST
IRON OIL RING

SNAP OIL RING

STEEL
-SECTION

CAST IRON
SECTION

-CAST
IRON RING

INNER RING

SNAP COMPRESSION RING

— CYLINDER
WALL

PISTON RING LAND

-•-CYLINDER
WALL

CAST IRON RING

BEVELED INSIDE DIAMETER
SNAP COMPRESSION RING

COUNTERBORED INSIDE DIAMETER
SNAP COMPRESSION RING

Fig. 73—Piston Ring Types

1087

Section 10—Connecting Rods, Pistons, and Pins

j . Fitting Connecting Rod Bearings (Shim
Method).
Place 0.003 brass shim J^ inch wide by 1 inch long in
the bearing cap with a new standard insert and install
the cap. Tighten the nuts to 45-50 foot-pounds torque.
Attempt to move the connecting rod endwise on the
crank pin by hand and then by a light tap of a hammer.
Remove the shim and repeat the above test, then move
the rod endwise by hand. If connecting rod did not move
by hand, but moved by tap of hammer in the previous
test and moved freely with shim removed, the standard
bearing as installed should be used. If rod could be moved
by hand when used with the shim, install the 0.002 inch
undersize bearing and repeat the above test.
After determining that the correct bearing insert has
been fitted, tighten connecting rod bearing cap nuts to
45-50 foot-pounds torque. Then rotate the shaft to be
sure the bearing is not too tight.

k. Assembly.
Lubricate all parts with light engine oil.

NOTE: The oil squirt hole should be toward the
valve side of the engine when assembly is installed.
Position the connecting rod in the piston and push the
pin into place.

NOTE: The OHA type piston is serviced as a piston,
pin9 and retainer assembly; and the retainer has a tang
for aiding the removal of the retainer from the

29

groove. The piston does not have the slot which is
in the 7HA type piston.
Insert new piston pin retainers. Install the piston
rings following the instructions for the type of ring you
are installing (fig. 73).
Insert the bearing halves in the rod end cap.

1. Installation.
Oil the cylinder wall with light engine oil. Make sure
the ring gaps are equally spaced around the circumference of the piston. Compress the rings with a compressing
tool and tap the piston down with a soft faced hammer
(fig. 74) until it is slightly below the top of the cylinder.

NOTE: Install the OHA type piston with the indentation in the piston head toward the front of the engine.
Turn the crankshaft throw down. Oil the crank pin
and push the piston all the way down until the rod bearing seats on the crank pin. Install the bearing cap
(line up the stamped numbers) and tighten the retaining
nuts to 45-50 foot-pounds torque. Install new lock nuts
and tighten to 4-5 foot-pounds torque.
Install the oil pan and cylinder heads. Install the engine in the car. Fill the crankcase with the proper grade
and amount of lubricant. Fill the cooling system.. Start
the engine and run it slowly. Make sure there is sufficient
oil pressure. Check the temperature to make sure the
engine does not overheat. Overheating can be caused by
too tight bearings.

11. MUFFLER, INLET PIPE, AND OUTLET PIPE
The exhaust system on the 6-cylinder passenger car
consists of a muffler, an exhaust outlet pipe, and an
exhaust inlet pipe.
The following procedure covers the removal and installation of the units of the exhaust system (see fig. 75).

frame but also relieve the exhaust system from twisting
or bending stresses.

a. Muffler Replacement.
Extra heavy double-wall construction mufflers are
available for service.
(1) REMOVAL. Loosen muffler inlet and outlet pipe
clamps. Slide clamps away from the muffler, the inlet
pipe, and the outlet pipe. Loosen front and rear outlet
pipe clamps and disengage outlet pipe from muffler by
sliding the outlet pipe to the rear. Remove the muffler
from the inlet pipe.
(2) INSTALLATION. Place muffler in position on
the inlet pipe and slide outlet pipe into the muffler. Place
the inlet pipe and the outlet pipe clamps in position on
the muffler and tighten clamps. Tighten the front and
rear outlet pipe clamps.

b. Outlet Pipe Replacement.
The outlet pipe is attached to the frame by flexible
sound deadening materials which not only prevent the
exhaust noises from being conducted through the chassis

Tool-6150-N

Fig. 74—Tapping in Piston

1177

Chapter I—H-Series—6-Cylinder

30

(1) REMOVAL. Loosen the muffler outlet pipe clamps,
leaving the clamp on the muffler. Remove the outlet
pipe front and rear support clamps and disengage the
outlet pipe from the muffler.
(2) INSTALLATION. Position outlet pipe in the
muffler. Place the outlet pipe rear support bracket clamp
on the outlet pipe. Install the front support bracket clamp
and tighten nut. Position the rear outlet pipe clamp on
rear bracket and tighten nut.

c. Inlet Pipe Replacement.
The exhaust inlet pipe is designed to give the exhaust

gases leaving the exhaust manifolds a direct through
passage to the muffler, thereby increasing the over-all
efficiency of the exhaust system.
(1) REMOVAL. Loosen the muffler inlet pipe clamp.
Remove the two nuts holding the inlet pipe to the exhaust
manifold, then remove the gasket. Disengage the inlet
pipe from the muffler by sliding the inlet pipe forward.
(2) INSTALLATION. Place the inlet pipe in the
muffler. Install gasket on the inlet pipe and secure the
pipe to the exhaust manifold with two nuts. Tighten the
muffler inlet pipe clamp.
34846-S

S^34846-S
5260

34808-S

33>97-S

33816-S
1191

MUFFLER INLET PIPE—5246

Fig. 75—Muffler and Related Parts

SERVICE LETTER REFERENCE
Letter No.

Date

Subject

Changes Information
on Page No.

Part ONE

POWER PLANT
Chapter

B-Series — 8-Cylinder Engine
Section

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Page

Engine Removal and Installation
Manifolds
...
Cylinder Heads.
Oil Pan, Oil Pump, and Pressure Relief Valve
Crankshaft Pulley Replacement.
Cylinder Front Cover
Valves, Springs, Guides, and Seats
Camshaft, Bearings, and Camshaft Gears.
Flywheel, Crankshaft, and Bearings.
Connecting Rods, Pistons, and P i n s . . . . . . :
Muffler, Crossover Pipe, Inlet Pipe, and Outlet Pipe

Complete procedures for the overhaul and repair of
the 8-cylinder car engine are contained in this chapter.
To help locate the information you desire, the chapter is
divided into the sections listed above.
The 8-cylinder "B" series passenger car engine (fig. 1)
has a bore of 3 % inches, a stroke of Z% inches, and is
rated at 100 horsepower.
Engine^accessories are mounted on the intake manifold.

32
33
34
35
. . 37
37
38
. 40
43
47
53
Servicing operations can be readily conducted with this
arrangement. Front and rear views of the engine are
shown in figs. 2 and 3 respectively.
A complete engine overhaul gasket kit is illustrated in
fig. 4.

1528

1530

Fig. 2-1951

Fig. 1—1951 8-Cylinder Engine Cutaway

31

S-Cylinder Engine (% Front View)

Chapter II—B-Series—8-Cylinder Engine

32

1. ENGINE REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
A detailed procedure is given here for the removal and
installation of the 8-cylinder passenger car engine including the mounting of the engine on a work stand.

a. Removal.
Remove the hood and the battery. Drain the crankcase and the coolant. Disconnect the upper radiator
hoses at the engine and the lower hoses at the radiator.
Remove i:he radiator. Disconnect the heater hoses at
the engine. Remove the air cleaner.
Disconnect the generator wires, oil pressure sender
wire, ignition switch to coil wire, and temperature
sender wire. Spread the cable clips and fold the cable
out of the way.
Disconnect the flexible fuel line connection. Disconnect
the choke wire, throttle linkage, and the accelerator
pedal rod. Push the cross shaft back against the dash
panel. Disconnect the windshield wiper hose at the
carburetor.
Disconnect the muffler inlet pipe, the starter cable (at
starter motor terminal), and the clutch retracting spring
and release rod. Remove the two top transmission to
flywheel housing bolts.
Remove the engine front support nuts. Install the
engine lift brackets and yoke and take up the load with
a hoist. Support the transmission and remove the two
lower transmission to flywheel housing bolts. Rock the
engine and pull it away from the transmission until the
pilot and shaft separate from the clutch, then raise the
engine carefully. Be sure it clears all parts of the engine
compartment. Do not let engine strike the grille.
With the engine clear of the car and hanging on the

1529

Fig. 3—7957 8-Cylinder Engine (% Rear View)

1182

Fig. 4—Engine Overhaul Gasket Kit

hoist, remove the crossover pipe and the right-hand
manifold. Install the engine on a work stand (fig. 5).

b. Installation.
Remove the engine from the work stand. With the
engine hanging on a hoist, install the right hand exhaust
manifold and crossover pipe. Shift the transmission into
gear. Place a jack uncfer the transmission and raise the
transmission until it just touches the toe board.
Center the clutch release bearing in the clutch and
lower the engine into the engine compartment carefully.
Start the transmission pilot and spline into the clutch.

Tool-6000-N

1172

Fig. 5—Installing Engine on Work Stand

Section 1 —Engine Removal and Installation

33

NOTE: It may be necessary to adjust the height of
the transmission with relation to the engine until the
pilot enters the clutch. If the engine "hangs up" after
pilot enters, turn crankshaft slowly until splines seat.
Install the transmission to flywheel housing bolts and
torque them to 40-50 foot-pounds torque. Remove the

jack under the transmission. Lower the engine to the
frame and install the engine front support nuts. Remove
yoke and lift brackets.
Connect the starter cable, muffler inlet pipe, and clutch
release rod and spring. Adjust the clutch pedal free play.
Connect the throttle linkage and foot pedal rod. Connect
choke wire, windshield wiper hose, and flexible fuel line.
Connect the generator wires, the oil pressure sender
wire, the temperature sender wire, and the ignition
switch to coil wire. Install the cable in the retaining clips.
Install the radiator and connect the hoses. Connect

1527

Fig. 7—Intake Manifold

the heater hoses. Install the air cleaner, battery, and
hood. Fill the crankcase with the proper grade and
amount of oil. Fill the cooling system. Run the engine
and check for leaks in the system.

2. MANIFOLDS
Procedures for removal, cleaning, inspection, and
installation of the exhaust and intake manifolds are
outlined below. Intake and exhaust manifolds are covered separately. Figure 6 illustrates the manifold gasket
kit.

a. Intake Manifold.
It is not necessary to remove the carburetor when the
manifold is removed unless the manifold is defective and
must be replaced. The intake manifold is shown in fig. 7.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the carburetor air cleaner.
Disconnect generator wires. Remove the fan and generator. Disconnect the temperature sending unit wire.
Disconnect the fuel lines at the fuel pump and remove
the pump. Pull out the pump push rod. Disconnect the
carburetor throttle linkage, choke wire, and carburetor
to distributor vacuum line at the carburetor. Loosen the
crankcase breather pipe clamp and remove the breather
pipe. Remove the manifold retaining bolts, clear the
spark plug wires out of the way, and remove the manifold and gasket.
(2) CLEANING. Brush out rust and dirt from the
inside of the manifold. Wash oil and grease from the
outside with solvent and dry the manifold.
(3) INSPECTION. Inspect the manifold for cracks

GASKETS-9448

Fig. 6-Manifold

Gasket Kit

and warped sealing surfaces. Replace the manifold if it
is cracked or warped.
(4) INSTALLATION.
Align a new gasket with the
proper holes in the cylinder block and lay the manifold
on the gasket, aligning the bolt holes. Install and tighten
the manifold retaining bolts. Torque bolts to 23-28 footpounds.
.

NOTE: The ignition cable mounting brackets must
be placed under the two bolts located just forward of
the carburetor pad.
Insert the fuel pump push rod into its guide in the
cylinder block and install the fuel pump. Be sure the
push rod is seated in the pump rocker arm. Tighten the
retaining nuts to 6-9 foot-pounds torque. Connect the
fuel lines to the pump.
Install the crankcase breather and tighten the retaining clamp. Connect the carburetor throttle linkage, choke
wire, and carburetor to distributor vacuum line. Connect the temperature sending unit wire. Install generator
and fan and adjust belts. Install air cleaner.

b. Exhaust Manifold.
1949 and early 1950 models use a butterfly type

1193

1183

Fig. 8—Exhaust Manifold

Chapter II—B-Series—8-Cylinder Engine

34

WATER HOLES MUST BE OPEN

^STAMPED AS SHOWN

Fig. 9—Cylinder Head Gasket

1155

exhaust thermostat located between the crossover pipe
and the right-hand manifold. Late 1950 models and 1951
models use a "duck-bill" type thermostat located inside
the crossover pipe. The manifolds are illustrated infig.8.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the crossover pipe. Disconnect the muffler inlet pipe when removing the right hand
manifold. Remove the manifold retaining screws and
remove the manifold and gaskets.
(2) CLEANING. Use a wire brush to remove carbon
deposits from manifold. Clean flange and gasket faces.
(3) INSPECTION. Check the manifold for cracks or

Fig. 11—Cylinder Head Gasket Installation

holes. Check the gasket surfaces for warping. Replace
cracked or warped manifolds.
(4) INSTALLATION. Install the manifold with new
gaskets between the manifold and cylinder block. Install
the retaining screws and tighten them to 25-30 footpounds torque. Install the crossover pipe. Connect the
muffler inlet pipe when installing the right-hand manifold.

3. CYLINDER HEADS
Procedures for removal, cleaning, inspection and installation of cylinder heads are given below. The procedures include preliminary instructions for removing parts
that interfere with the removal of each head. Figure 9
illustrates the cylinder head gasket and the cylinder head
is shown infig.10.

the coolant holes.

a. Preliminary.

Position the head gaskets as shown in fig. 11. Lay the
head oh the gasket and install one head bolt finger tight
at each end of the head to align the head and gasket
with the cylinder block. Use a water resistant sealer to
prevent leakage past the cylinder head bolts. Install the
remaining head bolts and tighten the bolts in the order
shown in fig. 12 to 65-70 foot-pounds torque. Install the
spark plugs and torque to 24-30 foot-pounds. Install the
spark plug wires. Connect the radiator hose and fill the
radiator with coolant.

When removing the left hand cylinder head, disconnect
and remove the oil filter. Disconnect the generator wires
and fold back. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
When removing the right hand cylinder head, remove
the coil bracket mounting screws. Disconnect the heater
hose at the cylinder head elbow.

b. Removal.
Drain coolant and disconnect the radiator hose at the
cylinder head elbow. Disconnect the spark plug wires and
remove the spark plugs. Remove the head bolts and
remove the head and gasket.

c. Cleaning.

d. Inspection.
Check the cylinder head for cracks or warped surfaces.
Replace the head if it is cracked or warped.

e. Installation.

NOTE: On the left hand cylinder head install the oil
filter, generator wires, and battery ground strap. On
the right hand cylinder head, install the coil and
heater hose.

Remove carbon deposits by brushing with a wire brush
or by scraping. Be careful not to scratch the gasket
surfaces of the cylinder head. Clean out dirt or rust from

1156

Fig. 10—Cylinder Head

1194

Fig. 12—Cylinder Head Bolt Tightening Sequence

Section 4 — O i l Pan, O i l Pump, and Pressure Relief Valve

35

4. OIL PAN, OIL PUMP, AND PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
Detailed procedures for repair and replacement of the
oil pan, oil seals, oil pump, and pressure relief valve are
presented in this section. Information can be located by
referring to the headings which describe the particular
unit or operation. The oil pan gasket kit is illustrated in
fig. 13.

NOTE: The 1951 (1BA-6675) oil pan cannot be used
to replace the 1949 or 1950 (8BA-6675) oil pan.

a. Oil Pan.
Procedures covering the oil pan and oil seal are
presented here under headings indicating the nature of
the procedure. Removal, cleaning, inspection, and installation of the oil pan and the steps necessary for oil seal
installation are all described below. The oil pan is
illustrated infig.14.
(1) REMOVAL Drain the crankcase. Remove the
starter motor, clutch return spring, and the flywheel
housing front cover. Remove the bolt retaining the road
air breather duct and remove the duct. Remove the
bolts retaining the steering gear idler arm bracket to the
frame. Remove the steering gear arm and drop the idler
arm connecting rod until it hangs from the spindle arms.
Unscrew the oil level indicator tube. Remove the oil
pan retaining screws and the oil pan. The two front
retaining screws can be reached through access holes
provided in the frame front cross member.
NOTE: On some engines it will be necessary to disconnect the front engine supports and lift the front
of the engine.
(2) CLEANING. Wash the pan in solvent. Brush any
dirt or metal particles from the inside of the pan. Scrape
off old gasket material on the gasket surface of the pan.
Dry any remaining solvent.

cracks and holes or replace the pan if repairs cannot
be made.
(4) OIL SEAL REPLACEMENT. Pry out the old
packing in the front and rear seal retaining grooves.
Install new packing in the recess at each end of the oil
pan. "Roll" the packing in with a round bar as shown in
fig. 15 to make sure it is seated properly in the recess.
NOTE: Soak oil seal packing in light engine oil for
at least two hours before installation.
(5) INSTALLATION. Make sure the gasket surface
of the cylinder block is clean. File off any burrs around
the threaded bolt holes. Tie each half of the gasket to the
pan through two of the bolt holes to hold the gakset in
place while installing the pan.
Hold the pan in place on the cylinder block and install
two screws (not tight) in each side (not in the same holes
as those used for tying the gasket). Remove the string
ties and install the remaining screws and tighten them
to 15-18 foot-pounds torque. Install the oil level indicator
tube, the road air breather duct, and the flywheel housing
front cover.

NOTE: Align the flywheel housing front cover by
installing the two shoulder bolts in the top holes.
Install the starter motor and the clutch return spring.
Install the steering idler arm support bracket and the
steering gear arm. Fill the crankcase with the proper
grade and amount of oil. Run the engine and check
for oil leaks.

b. Oil Pump and Pressure Relief Valve.
The gear type oil pump is mounted on the cylinder
block inside the oil pan at the rear of the engine. The
pressure relief valve is mounted in the pump housing.

(3) INSPECTION. Check the pan for stripped threads,
cracks, holes, or warped gasket surfaces. Repair any
-6347
GASKET—L.H.—6711

-6700
WASHER— 34806-S
CAP SCREW - 2 0 3 4 6 - S
1184

Fig. 13-Oil Pan Gasket Kit

671
GASKET^-6734

OIL PAN—6675

Fig. 14-Oil Pan

1023

36

Chapter II—B-Series—8-Cylinder Engine

The oil pump used on early 1949 engines is equipped
with spur gears. The increased capacity oil pump used
on late 1949, 1950 and 1951 engines is equipped with
helical gears. There is no visible difference between the
pumps. To determine which pump you have, remove the
oil pump tube and screen, and check the gears.
Oil pump removal, disassembly, cleaning, inspection,
assembly, and installation procedures are presented
below. The pressure relief valve is covered in the disassembly and assembly procedures for the pump since the
valve is a part of the pump.
(1) REMOVAL. Drain the oil and remove the oil
pan. Remove the oil pump retaining screw and remove
the pump and strainer assembly.
(2) DISASSEMBLY. Remove the strainer assembly
retaining screws, the strainer, and the gasket. Remove
the cover plate and the pump driven gear. Remove the
lock wire and the pressure relief valve (plug, gasket,
spring, and valve).
Drive out the pin and remove the upper driven gear.
Slide the shaft and drive gear assembly out of the housing. The oil pump is shown completely disassembled in
fig. 16.
(3) CLEANING. Wash all the parts in solvent and
dry them thoroughly. Brush the inside of the pump
housing to make sure no dirt or metal particles remain.
(4) INSPECTION.
Check the pump housing for
cracks or excessive wear. The pump shaft should have a
free running fit without excessive play in the bushings
(0.0005 to 0.0025 inch clearance). Check the pump gear
teeth for scratches and wear. Measure the clearance
between the pump gears and the pump body. It should
be no greater than 0.005 inch. Check the compression of
the relief valve spring. It should be 12 pounds plus or
minus 2 ounces when the spring is compressed to 1.14

inches. Replace any worn or defective parts.
(5) ASSEMBLY. Apply a light coat of engine oil to
all moving parts. Slide the shaft and drive gear assembly
into the housing. Install the upper driven gear, insert
the retaining pin, and rivet the end of the pin to hold it
in place.

NOTE: When a new shaft and pump drive gear
assembly is installed, it will be necessary to drill the
retaining pin hole in the shaft. Set the end clearance
to 0.016 inch and use a number 30 (0.1285) drill for
the retaining pin hole.
Install the pump driven gear, the cover plate gasket,
and the cover plate. Tighten the cover plate screws to
7-10 foot-pounds torque. Install the pressure relief valve,
the spring, the gasket, and the plug. Insert a piece of
lock wire through the hole provided in the plug and twist
the wire around the housing extension. Install the strainer
gasket and strainer and tighten the screws securely.
(6) INSTALLATION. Slide the pump into the cylinder block (make sure the upper driven gear meshes
properly) and install the pump, retaining screw with a
lockwasher. Tighten the screw to 12-15 foot-pounds
torque. Install the oil pan and fill the crankcase with
the proper grade and amount of oil.
IDLER SHAFT—6656
BUSHING—6657

WASHER
CAP SCREW

GEAR
OVER-6658

PIN—6661
BUSHING—6612

ET—6669
LUG—6672

BODY
ASSEMBLY

PLUNGER—6663
GASKET—6626

6603

SHAFT'AND
GEAR ASSEMBLY
6608

COVER AND
TUBE-6615

R-6610
SCREEN—6623

GASKET—6619

PLATE—6616
WASHER-34805-S

CAP SCREW
24309-S

Fig. 75-"Ro//ing In" Oil Seal Packing

RETAINER SPRING
1079

Fig. 116—Oil Pump Disassembled

Section 5—Crankshaft Pulley Replacement

37

5. CRANKSHAFT PULLEY REPLACEMENT
BEARING HOLE FOR OBA
DISTRIBUTOR SHAFT

OIL GR

ALUMINUM
Tool1—6312-N

1169

Fig. 17—Removing Crankshaft Pulley

CAMSHAFT THRUST
BEARING SURFACE

OBA TYPE

8BA TYPE

Fig. 79—Cylinder Front Covers

The 8-cylinder engines are equipped with a double
groove pulley keyed to the crankshaft and held in place
with a bolt and washer. If the pulley is to be replaced
with the engine in the car, remove the radiator.

CAST IRON
1722

b. Installation.

a. Removal.

Start the pulle}' on the shaft by tapping it with a
soft-faced hammer. Use a tool as shown in fig 18 to install
the pulley tightly against the crankshaft shoulder. Install
the retaining bolt and washer. Install and adjust the
fan and generator belts.

Remove the fan and generator belts. Remove the
retaining bolt and lockwasher. Use a tool as shown in
fig. 17 to remove the pulley.

NOTE: With the engine in the vehicle, it will be
necessary to press the pulley on far enough to permit
using the pulley retaining bolt for seating the pulley.

6. CYLINDER FRONT COVER
The 1949 and early 1950 engines are equipped with a
cast iron front cover. The distributor drive gear is sup-

ported by the distributor housing. Late 1950 engines and
1951 engines have an aluminum front cover with a support for the end of the distributor shaft. The procedure
for removing and installing either cover is the same with
minor differences which are noted below. Oil seal replacement is covered separately. Figure 19 shows both the
cast iron and aluminum cylinder front covers.

Too/—6306-N

1170

Fig. 18—Installing Crankshaft Pulley

Fig. 20—llRolling In" Oil Seal Packing

Chapter II—B-Series—8-Cylinder Engine

38

GUIDE-6510

INTAKE-6507
VALVE EXHAUST-6505

SPRING-6513

LOCKS-6518
1726

Fig. 21—Rotatable Valve and Related Parts

a. Removal.
Remove the fan. Remove the distributor. Remove
the front cover retaining screws and remove the cover
and gasket.

NOTE: On some models the road air breather clamp
bracket is mounted under one of the cover screws and
will be removed when the screw is taken out.
1198

b. Oil Seal Replacement.

Fig. 23—Replacing Valve Spring Retainer Locks

Pry out the old packing from the recess in the cover.
Install new packing in the recess and "roll" the packing
in with a round bar to make sure it is seated properly
(fig. 20).

c. Installation.

finger tight. Tap the top edge of the cover with a softfaced hammer until the ridge inside the cover seats in
the cylinder block recess. Install the remaining screws
(replace the air duct clamp, support if necessary) and
tighten the screws to 12-15 foot-pounds torque. Install
the distributor, fan, and generator. Adjust the belts and
check the ignition timing.

Install the cover (with a new cover gasket) by placing
the lower end over the crankshaft and tight against the
cylinder block. Install the two lower retaining screws

CAUTION: Do not install the upper edge of the cover
first, or the oil pan gasket may be damaged by the
sharp lower edge of the cover.

NOTE: Soak the oil seal packing in light engine oil
for two hours previous to installing the packing.

7. VALVES, SPRINGS, GUIDES, AND SEATS
Removal and installation of valves, seats, and guides
are presented below. Valve and seat refacing and tappet
adjustment procedures are also given. The procedures
are identified by headings that describe the material
included.

a. Valves.
Exhaust and intake valves serviced for Ford 8-cylinder
engines are m&#e of nickel-chrome alloy to withstand
the high operating temperatures encountered. Rotatable
intake and exhaust valves are used in 1951 engines. This
type of valve (fig. 21) has a two piece spring retainer

that differs from previous single piece spring retainer.
A shorter valve spring is used but no change has been
made in the valve locks.
Rotatable valves and parts can be installed in engines
not so equipped by changing the spring retainer, valve
spring, intake valve, and exhaust valve. When removing
valve assemblies from the engine be sure to identify
each assembly so it can be replaced in the same valve
port from which it was removed.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the cylinder heads and
intake manifold. Compress the valve spring down against
the valve locks and remove the valve guide retainer as
shown in fig. 22. Pry up on the tappet end of the valve
spring to remove the assembly.
(2) CLEANING. Clean the assembly by washing it
VALVE GUIDE—6510

LOCKS—6518

VALVE—6505

SEAL—6571
SPRING-6513

Tool-6513-N

Too/—657 3-Q

Fig. 22—Removing Valve Guide Retainer

1197

RETAINER-6512

RETAINER—6514

f i g . 24—Valve and Related Parts

1029

Section 7—Valves, Springs, Guides, and Seats

39

valve spring—657 3

1037
Fig. 25—Checking Valve Spring

in solvent. Scrape carbon and lead deposits from head
and stem of valve.
(3) DISASSEMBLY.
Compress the spring with a
compressing tool as shown in fig. 23 and remove the
valve spring retainer locks. Remove the valve spring
retainer, valve spring, and the valve guide (fig. 24).
(4) INSPECTION. Check the valve face for pitted
or burned spots. Check valve spring pressure as shown
in fig. 25. The valve spring should have a pressure of 40
to 43 pounds when compressed to 2.130 inches for 1949
and 1950 non-rotating valves and 1.89 inches for 1951
rotatable valves. Check the clearance between the valve
stem and the guide. The clearance should be 0.00150.0035 inch. Replace any warped, burned, pitted, or
worn valves. Replace worn guides or weak valve springs.
(5) REFACING VALVES. Remove all carbon from
the valve head and stem. Grind the face of the valve at
a 45° angle as shown in fig. 26. If the edge of the valve

Fig. 27—Grinding Valve Seats

head is less than ^ inch thick at the outer edge replace
the valve.
(6) REFACING VALVE SEATS. Cover the cylinder
bores with paper and masking tape. Clean all carbon
from the valve seat with a wire brush. Grind the seat
with an eccentric grinder as shown in fig. 27. Remove
only enough stock to clean up pits or grooves in the seats.
Thoroughly clean out all grinding dust by blowing
compressed air in the valve seat and opening. After
refacing valves and seats it is recommended that the
valve be lapped to match the seat by hand lapping with
a fine lapping compound. If the valve seat face is wider
than l/{§ inch after grinding, relieve the seat face by
grinding at 30° and 60° angles as shown in fig. 28. Check
valve seat runout with a dial indicator as shown in fig.
29. Runout should not exceed 0.005 inch.
(7) ASSEMBLY. For 1949-50 type valves, install the
valve guide on the valve. Install the spring, the spring
retainer, and place the assembly in the compressing tool

1086
Fig. 26—Grinding Valve Face

1034

Fig. 28—Relieving Valve Seat Face

1035

Chapter II—B-Series—8-Cylinder Engine

40

(fig. 23). Compress the spring and install the retainer
locks with the lock replacer.
For 1951 rotatable valves, place the valve, spring,
guide, and spring retainer in the compressing tool. Place
the valve locks in the valve spring retainer sleeve. Hold
the locks in the sleeve, start the sleeve over the end of
the valve, compress the valve spring, and work the sleeve
and locks into place with your finger (fig. 30).
(8) INSTALLATION.
Slide the valve and spring
assembly in the valve chamber. Compress the valve
spring and insert the guide retainer in the groove provided in the valve guide. Be sure the guide retainer seats
properly when you release the spring. Install the cylinder
heads and intake manifold.

Toot-6513'P

CAUTION: Be sure the rubber seal around the intake
valve guide starts evenly in the valve guide opening.
Otherwise part of the seal may be sheared off by the
sharp edge of the hole.

1727
Fig. 30—Assembling Rotatable Valve

b. Valve Seats.

c. Valve "Tappet Clearance.

Some engines are completely equipped with valve
seat-inserts, others use inserts in the exhaust valve ports
only, and some have no inserts at all. Procedures for the
removal and installation of inserts are given below.
(1) INSERT REMOVAL. Remove cylinder heads,
intake manifold, and valve assemblies. Remove the
insert by driving a wedge under the insert and prying
it out.
(2) INSERT INSTALLATION. Chill the inserts with
dry ice before inserting them in the cylinder blocks. Tap
the inserts with a soft faced hammer until they seat
firmly in the recess. After installing the valve seat
inserts, grind them concentric to the valve guides. Install
valve assemblies, intake manifold, and cylinder heads.

The solid type tappets are not adjustable. However
tappet clearance can be increased by grinding the end
of the valve stem, or decreased by grinding the valve face.
Check the tappet clearance as shown in fig. 31.
The clearance should be as follows:
Valve

Early 1949 Engine
Clearance (inch)

Late 1949, 1950, and
1951 Engine Clearance
(inch)

Intake
Exhaust

0.010-0.012
0.014-0.016

0.013-0.015
0.017-0.019

If the clearance is too small, grind the required amount
of material from the end of the valve stem. If the clearance is too large, grind the face of the valve until the
clearance is within the limits.

8. CAMSHAFT, BEARINGS, AND CAMSHAFT GEAR
Procedures for the removal, inspection and installation
of the camshaft, camshaft bearings, and camshaft gear

are presented below under headings identifying the
subject and type of procedure contained.
.

a. Camshaft Replacement.
It will be necessary to replace the camshaft when the
cam lobes are worn to such an extent that the valve lift
is less than 0.291 inch for the intake valves and 0.287
VALVE SPRING-6513

1036

Fig. 29—Checking Valve Seat Runout

TAPPET

Thickness Gage

g. 37—Checking Valve Clearance

1033

Section 8—Camshaft, Bearings, and Camshaft Gear

41

Oil Pump Drive Gear Puller 6614-N

OIL PUMP DRIVE
GEAR-6254
CAMSHAFT -6250
Brass Jaws

CAMSHAFT-6250

'

1068

Fig. 34—Removing and Installing Oil Pump Drive Gear

Fig. 32—Checking Valve Lift

inch for exhaust valves. Make valve lift measurements
when the engine is cold and valve gaps are within specifications. Check the valve lift with a dial indicator
clamped to the cylinder block as shown in fig. 32.
Camshafts in late 1949, 1950, and 1951 engines have
the letter "B" stamped on the forward end. Late 1949
engines have the valve gap specification "intake 0.014
inch, exhaust 0.018 inch" stamped on the top of the
cylinder block as shown in fig. 33. Service limits on the
valve gap spacings are: intake 0.013-0.015 inch, exhaust
0.017-0.019 inch. Early 1949 engines have service limits
of: intake 0.010-0.012 inch, exhaust 0.014-0.016 inch.
When installing a new type camshaft in an old block,
stamp the specifications on the block.

NOTE: If the valve gap setting for the old design
camshaft is used for the new design camshaft, the
valve timing will not be correct resulting in loss of
power.
Engines used in 1950 and 1951 passenger cars are not
stamped with gap specifications. However, cylinder assemblies for service are stamped.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the cylinder heads, the
intake manifold, and all the valve assemblies. Remove the
tappets by lifting them into the valve chamber. Remove
the cylinder cover and the camshaft gear. Remove the

•FRONT FACE OF BLOCK

STAMP AS SHOWN
IN THIS AREA

1202

Fig. 33—Valve Gap Specification Stamp Location

camshaft by pulling it through the camshaft bearings.
Be careful not to scratch or gouge the bearings with the
tips of the cam lobes while removing the camshaft.
NOTE: / / the engine is mounted in the car, remove
the grille and radiator to permit pulling the camshaft.
(2) INSPECTION. Check the camshaft journal surfaces for grooves or scratches. Check camshaft runout.
Replace if not within 0.005 inch. Check the fuel pump
eccentric for wear (deep groove worn by the push rod
end). Inspect the oil pump drive gear and the distributor
drive gear for worn, chipped or broken teeth. Replace
the camshaft if it is worn or damaged. Replace the oil
pump and distributor drive gears if they are worn or
chipped (figs. 34 and 35).
(3) INSTALLATION.
Carefully slide the camshaft
through the bearings. It may be necessary to turn the
shaft to engage the oil pump gear. Install the camshaft
gear and front cover.
Install the tappets and the valve assemblies.

CAUTION: Be sure to install the tappets and valves
in the same cylinder from which they were removed.
Install the cylinder heads and the intake manifold.

b. Camshaft Bearing Replacement.
Under normal usage the camshaft bearings will not

Tool—6614-N

Fig. 35—Removing Distributor Drive Gear

1069

42

Chapter II—B-Series—8-Cylinder Engine

need replacement. However they should be replaced in case
they are damaged through insufficient lubrication or worn
because of severe usage. It will be necessary to remove and
disassemble the engine to make the bearings accessible.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the engine from the vehicle
and mount it on a work stand. Remove cylinder heads,
intake manifold, valve assemblies, tappets, oil pan, and
front cover. Remove the camshaft. Disconnect the connecting rods, push the pistons up in the cylinders, and
remove the crankshaft. Remove the clutch housing,
clutch plate assembly, and flywheel. Remove oil pump
drive cover and idler gear. Remove the camshaft bearings with a bearing puller as shown in fig. 36.
(2) INSTALLATION.
Install the camshaft bearings
with a bearing installation tool as shown in fig. 37.
Install the oil pump drive idler gear and cover. Install
fiywheel, clutch plate assembly, and clutch housing.
Install the crankshaft, connecting rods, camshaft and
camshaft gear. Install the front cover and the oil pan.
Install tappets, valve assemblies, intake manifold, and
cylinder heads. Install the engine in the car.

c. Camshaft Gear Replacement.

CAMSHAFT BEARING-6261

f"

Camshaft Bearing
Replacer-6005N

CYLINDER BLOCK-bUlU

1074

Fig. 37—Installing Camshaft Bearings

Two types of camshaft gears, aluminum and fibre, have
been used on 1949 and 1950 engines. The aluminum type
and the fibre type gears are secured to the camshaft by
means of four screws which are locked with retaining
tabs. The mounting holes are spaced to make it impossible to install the gear incorrectly. Only the fibre type
gear is used on the 1951 models.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the generator and fan. Remove the front cover. Rotate the crankshaft until the
timing marks line up. Bend the lock tabs away from the

retaining screws and remove the screws. Remove the
camshaft gear.
(2) INSTALLATION.
When the timing gear is installed be sure the timing marks on the camshaft gear
and the crankshaft gear line up as shown in fig. 38.

NOTE: Oversize gears are available for service.
Install the next oversize gear when excessive backlash
exists between the camshaft gear and the crankshaft gear.
Install the gear on the camshaft flange and align the
bolt holes. Install the lock-plate and screws. Tighten
the screws to 15-20 foot-pounds torque and bend the
lock plate tabs against the screws. Install the front cover,
the generator, and the fan. Adjust the belt tension.

Camshaft Bearing Remover
and Replacer—6005-N
>

CAMSHAFT BEARING—(

Fig. 36—Removing Camshaft Bearings

1073

Fig. 38—Timing Marks

1072

Section 9—Flywheel, Crankshaft, and Bearings

43

9. FLYWHEEL, CRANKSHAFT, AND BEARINGS
Procedures in this section cover the removal, inspection, repair, and installation of the crankshaft, rear oil
seal, main bearings, crankshaft gear, and flywheel.

a. Flywheel.
The flywheel is mounted on the crankshaft rear flange
with dowel pins and self-locking bolts. The reaf face of
the flywheel is a friction surface for clutch plate engagement. The starter ring gear is not an integral part of the
flywheel. It is held on the flywheel by a shrink fit.
The flywheel can be checked for runout, removed, and
installed with the engine mounted in the vehicle. Support the rear end of the engine on an engine support and
remove the transmission, flywheel housing, clutch assembly, and starter motor.
(1) INSPECTION. Cfceck flywheel runout with a
dial indicator (fig. 39). If runout exceeds 0.005 inch,
remove flywheel, turn it 180°, reinstall, and again check
runout. If runout is still excessive, remove flywheel and
check runout of crankshaft mounting flange. True up
flange if necessary.
NOTE: Runout of the crankshaft flange should be
established before discarding the flywheel for excessive runout.
If the flange is not at fault, the flywheel should be replaced or machined. Machine the friction surface of the
flywheel if it is burned or scored.
(2) REMOVAL. Remove starter motor, clutch housing, clutch pressure plate, and disc. Remove the flywheel
bolts and locking ring. Bolt flywheel puller to rear face
of flywheel and remove the flywheel (fig. 40),
(3) REFACING. If it is necessary to remove more
than 0.045 inch of stock from the original thickness, the
flywheel should be replaced.
(4) RING GEAR REPLACEMENT. Flywheel ring
gear should not runout more than 0.010 inch. Replace
gear if teeth are worn, chipped, cracked, or have excessive runout.
To replace a ring gear, drill a % m c n hole nearly
through the ring gear on the engine side of the gear and
cut the remaining portion with a chisel. Heat the new

1178

Fig. 39-Checking Flywheel
Runout

1179

Fig. 40—Removing
Flywheel

ring gear evenly to 360° F and place it in position on
flywheel. Make sure the gear is seated properly against
the shoulder.
(5) INSTALLATION. Align flywheel on dowel pins,
install and torque bolts to 75-85 foot-pounds. Install
clutch pressure plate and disc. Torque screws to 17-20
foot-pounds. Install clutch housing and torque bolts to
37-42 foot-pounds. Install starter motor.

b. Crankshaft.
Crankshafts are made of cast alloy steel with integral
counterweights and are both statically and dynamically
balanced. Drilled oil passages (fig. 41) provide lubrication to main and connecting rod bearings.
Remove engine from chassis and mount on work stand.
Figure 42 shows the crankshaft and its related parts.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the spark plugs, oil pan,
clutch housing, clutch, and flywheel. Remove the connecting rod caps and push the pistons up into the cylinders. Remove the main bearing caps. Lift out the
crankshaft and place it where it will not be dropped or
damaged.
(2) CLEANING AND INSPECTION.
Wash the
crankshaft in solvent. Blow out the oil passages with
compressed air. Examine the shaft for evidence of cracks.
Check the dowel pins in the flange for looseness. Remove
any nicks on the ends of the pins with a file.
CAUTION: Do not file the body diameter of the
dowel pins,
(a) MEASURING CRANKPINS AND JOURNALS. Measure

each crankpin and journal for diameter, out of round,
and taper at several places around the circumference of
the shaft. If the pins or journals are out of round in
excess of 0.0015 inch or tapered more than 0.001 inch,
regrind the shaft for the next undersize bearing.
Crankshaft dimensions are:
, .
Mfg. Dia. (inches)
Main bearing journals
2.4982-2.4990
Crankpin
2.138^-2.1390
(b) CHECK M A I N BEARING BORE ALIGNMENT. Remove
bearing inserts and install an aligning bar 0.00075 under
the bearing bore size. Install the bearing caps and torque
the bolts to 95-105 foot-pounds. Attempt to turn the
bar with a 15* inch wrench. If the bar turns, the bearing

SLUDGE TRAPS (DRILLED IN EACH JOURNAL—INDIVIDUAL
OIL PASSAGES FROM SLUDGE TRAP TO EACH ROD
BEARING—PRESSED-IN HOLLOW PLUGS SEAL OPENINGS.)

Fig, 41 —Crankshaft Oil Passages

1523

Chapter II—B-Series—8-Cylinder Engine

44

bores are in line. If the bar will not turn, replace the
cylinder block.
(3) REGRINDING CRANKSHAFT JOURNALS.
Calculate the correct undersize from the crankshaft
dimension given above. Bearings are available in 0.002,
0.010, 0.020, 0.030, and 0.040 undersize diameters.
EXAMPLE: If the main bearing journal will "clean
up" before it is ground to 2.499—0.010 == 2.489
inches diameter, finish it to that diameter and install
0.010 undersize bearings.
CAUTION: Never grind journals or crankpins in
excess of 0.040 undersize.
Always reproduce the same radii in the corners of the
pin or journal that existed originally. Too small a radius
may result in crankshaft failure, while too large a radius
will result in bearing failure.
After grinding, polish the pin or journal with No. 320
grit emery cloth and engine oil. Crocus cloth may also
be used.
(4) REAR OIL SEAL. Remove the oil seal retainer
from the cylinder block, pry out the packing and "roll
in" new packing.
NOTE: Soak packing in engine oil for at least two
hours before installing.
Clean the retainer slot in the cylinder block. Install
the retainer making sure it seats all the way in the slot.
The edges of the retainer should be flush with the
cylinder block.
(5) INSTALLATION.
Install the bearing inserts in
the crankcase bearing bores and oil them with engine
oil. Lay the crankshaft in the bearings. Install the bearFLYWHEEL-6375

34808-S
20350-S
FLYWHEEL AND
CLUTCH HOUSING

6392

ing caps (with inserts) and tighten the retaining bolts to
95-105 foot-pounds torque. Push the pistons down and
install the connecting rod bearing caps. Install the flywheel, clutch, and housing. Install the oil pan and spark
plugs.

c. Main Bearings.
The main bearings can be replaced with the crankshaft
removed (described previously) or without removing the
crankshaft as described below.
(1) REPLACEMENT WITHOUT REMOVING
CRANKSHAFT.
Remove oil pan. Remove the main
bearing caps, one at a time allowing the other two caps
to support the crankshaft.
NOTE: / / all bearings are to be replaced, replace the
intermediate bearing first.
Turn the crankshaft until the oil hole is near the
un-notched edge of the bearing half. Insert the bearing
removing tool in the oil hole and rotate the crankshaft
J/2 turn to remove the bearing (fig. 43).
Oil the new bearing half and lay it in the same position the old bearing was when it was taken off the journal. Rotate the crankshaft x/i turn in the opposite direction until the insert is flush with the cylinder block.
Install the bearing insert in the cap and replace the cap.
Torque the cap retaining bolts to 95-105 foot-pounds.
Repeat the procedure for replacing the other bearings.
Install the oil pan.
(2) FITTING MAIN BEARINGS (PLASTIGAGE
METHOD). Remove the bearing cap and wipe the oil
from the bearing and journal.

OIL SEAL
RETAINER—6335
MAIN BEARINGS
6333

3508

CRANKSHAFT—6303

357654-S
SUNGER-6310

20639-S

33797
CRANKSHAFT GEAR
6306

COVER-6366
34806-S
33798-S
REAR MAIN BEARING-6331

351590-S

PULLEY-6312

MAIN BEARINGS—6333

1167
Fig. 42—Crankshaft and Related Parts

Section 9—Flywheel, Crankshaft, and Bearings

45

MAIN BEARING INSERT

CRANKSHAFT JOURNAL

Tool-6331

1046

Fig. 43—Removing Main Bearing Insert

NOTE: Keep the other bearing caps tight while checking the fit of a bearing.
Place a piece of Plastigage the full width of the bearing on the bearing insert. Install the bearing cap and
torque the retaining bolts to 95-105 foot-pounds. Leave
the cap tight for at least one minute and then remove it.

CAUTION: Do not turn the crankshaft while the
Plastigage is between the bearing and the crankshaft
journal.
Remove the bearing cap. Without moving the plastic,
check its width (at the widest point) with the graduations on the Plastigage container as shown in fig. 44.
If the bearing clearance is not over 0.002 inch, the
bearing insert is satisfactory. If the clearance is greater
than 0.002 inch, install a 0.002 inch undersize bearing
and recheck the clearance.
Flattened Plastic

.002" CLEARANCE

1047
F/g. 45—Checking Crankshaft End Thrust

Where the 0.002 inch undersize bearing is used and
the clearance is excessive, grind the crankshaft main
bearing journals for use with the next undersize bearing
insert. These inserts are available in the following undersizes: 0.002, 0.010, 0.020, 0.030, and 0.040 inch.
(3) FITTING MAIN BEARINGS (SHIM
METHOD). Place a 0.002 inch brass shim ^ inch wide
by 1 inch long between the bearing insert in the cap and
the crankshaft journal. Coat shim with light engine oil.
Tighten the main bearing cap bolts to 95-105 footpounds torque. Turn the crankshaft one inch in either
direction. If the crankshaft is locked with the 0.002 inch
shim, and is free without the shim, the bearing insert
used is satisfactory. If the crankshaft can be moved
freely with the 0.002 inch shim, install a 0.002 inch
undersize bearing insert and repeat the above check. If
the crankshaft turns easily, excessive clearance is indicated and the crankshaft should be reground to the next
undersize bearing insert size.
Bearing inserts^are available as follows: 0.002, 0.010,
0.020, 0.030, and 0.040 inch undersize.

NOTE: Rotate the crankshaft to be sure that the
bearing is not too tight.

(4) CHECKING CRANKSHAFT END THRUST.
CRANKSHAPT-6303

GRADUATED CONTAINER

Fig. 44—Measuring Flattened Plastigage

1181

_

CRANKSHAFT

Crankshaft Gear
Puller—6306-C
1048

Fig. 46—Removing Crankshaft Gear

46

Chapter II—B-Series—8-Cylinder Engine

LOCATING MARK

OF

49T-PISTON

1201

Fig. 48—8BA Piston and 491 Piston
Fig. 47—Installing Crankshaft Gear

1049

Remove the oil pan. Pry the crankshaft toward the rear
of the engine. Insert a feeler gauge between the crankshaft thrust flange and the flange face of the rear main
bearing or use a dial indicator as shown in fig. 45.
Allowable end thrust is 0.002-0.006 inch, Replace the
thrust bearing insert if the end thrust is too great.
Install the oil pan.

PISTON RING LAND—H —CYLINDER
WALL

SI

«

SNAP COMPRESSION RING

-"CYLINDER
WALL

The crankshaft gear is pressed on and keyed to the
shaft.
(1) INSPECTION. Remove the oil pan and front
cover. Check the gear teeth for cracks, nicks, or wear.
If the gear teeth are cracked, badly nicked, or show
signs of excessive wear, replace the gear.
(2) REMOVAL Remove the oil pan and front cover
-CYLINDER
WALL

—CAST
IRON RING

•CYLINDER
WALL

PISTON RING

-TAPER

TAPER

1

PISTON RING LAND

PISTON WNG LAND-

d. Crankshaft Gear.

CAST IRON
SECTION-

INNER

I-

STEEL
SECTION

INNER RING

EXPANDER TYPE
COMPRESSION RING

STEEL SECTION
COMPRESSION RING

PISTON RING LAND—4 —CYLINDER
WALL

RING

-CYLINDER
WALL

S55SSS5
INNER RING-

SLOTTED CAST
IRON OIL RING

INNER RING-

SLOTTED CAST
IRON OIL RING

SNAP OIL RING

PISTON RING LAND-

SLOTTED CAST
IRON OIL RING

EXPANDER TYPE OIL RING

—CYLINDER
WALL

BEVEL-

CAST IRON RING

PISTON RING LANDCOUNTERBORE

-STEEL
SECTION

STEEL SECTION OIL RING

—CYLINDER
WALL

CAST IRON RING

INSIDE DIJ
SNAP COMPRESSION RING

VrV/UNTCKDUKBU INSIDE

DIMHCIBK

SNAP COMPRESSION RING

Fig. 49—Piston Ring Types

1087

Section 9—Flywheel, Crankshaft, and Bearings
SHOE

47

SHOE

1085

Fig. 52—Cleaning Piston Ring Grooves

CUTTER BLADE

PHOT ADJUSTING SCREW

1153

Remove the crankshaft pulley and front main bearing
cap. Remove the gear with the pulling tool as shown in
fig. 46.
(3) INSTALLATION. Press the gear on the crankshaft with the tool as shown in fig. 47. Be sure the
keyway and key are aligned.
Install the bearing cap, front cover, and oil pan.
Install the pulley.

Fig. 50—Removing Ridge from Cylinder

10. CONNECTING RODS, PISTONS, AND PINS
Procedures for complete overhaul of pistons and connecting rods are outlined below with headings describing
the material contained under each heading. The removal,
disassembly, cleaning, inspection, assembly, and installation of the connecting rod assembly are covered
separately. Information is also presented on the fitting
of pistons, rings, pins, and connecting rod bearings.
The 1949 and early 1950 engines are equipped with
4-ring split skirt pistons. The piston part number prefix
is 09T. For service the piston is available only as an
assembly which includes the piston, piston pin and retainer under a 49T part number prefix. Therefore, in
this manual, 49T type piston is the nomenclature used
when any reference is* made to the split skirt piston.
On late 1950 engines and 1951 engines, a solid skirt
4-ring piston (8BA Piston) was installed for quieter
engine operation. The 8BA piston is cam ground and
maintains a close tolerance across the thrust axis of the
cylinder when the engine is cold. As the engine warms
up to operating temperature, expansion is controlled
along the piston pin axis which causes the piston to
PISTON, PIN, AND
RETAINER ASSY.—6108

6149

SW

/ CL

BUSHING
6207

PISTON PIN^*^RETAINER
6135
6140

INSERT BEARINGS
6211

CONNECTING ROD
ASSEMBLY-6200

become circular and provide close tolerance around the
entire piston circumference. The 8BA piston is identified
by a locating mark on top of the piston (fig. 48) which is
used for proper installation.
The 8BA pistons can be used in engines formerly
equipped with 49T pistons but installation of 49T pistons in engines equipped with 8BA pistons is not recommended. Replacement should be in sets of 8 but installation of one or more is permissible as required.
In addition to the oversizes of 0.0025 inch, 0.020 inch,
0.030 inch, 0.040 inch, and 0.060 inch, service pistons
are available in four grades in 0.0003* inch steps for
selective fitting.

NUTS
6212

CHECK NUTS

1060

1052

Fig. 51—Piston and Connecting Rod Assembly

Fig. 53—Checking Connecting Rod Alignment

48

Chapter II—B-Series—8-Cylinder Engine

Reamer

CONNECTING ROD

1057

Fig. 54—Reaming Connecting Rod Bushing

Three types of piston ring sets are used in servicing
Ford engines. They are: the "snap" type or standard
ring set; the "expander" type ring set; and the "steel
section" type ring set. Figure 49 shows the various
compression and oil control rings included in the above
ring sets.
The standard or snap type is designed for use in anew
engine replacement or whenever a block is rebored and
new pistons installed. A light hone is recommended in
either case.
The expander type is designed for replacement after
a light hone job and the taper of the cylinder bore does
not exceed 0.006 inch or whenever an oil consumption
condition is encountered.
The steel section type is designed for replacement in
worn cylinders where the taper of the cylinder bore is
more than 0.006 inch but not more than 0.015 inch. Also
for excessive oil consumption conditions when the cylinder bore is not to be honed.

1159

Fig. 56—Fatigue Failure of Bearing

NOTE: To service 8BA pistons, 8BA piston ring sets
must be used. Do not attempt to install 29A piston
ring sets as they are not interchangeable.

a. Removal.
Drain the crankcase and the coolatn. Remove the
cylinder heads and the oil pan. Check the upper cylinder

DIRT IMBEDDED INTO
BEARING MATERIAL

1160

Fig. 55—-Bearing Failure Due to Lack of Oil

Fig. 57—Bearing Scratched by Dirt In the Oil

49

Section 10—Connecting Rods, Pistons, and Pins
wall to see if a ridge has been worn by the piston. If any
appreciable ridge is pru—nt, it will be necessary to remove
the ridge before removing the piston.
To remove the ridge, rotate the crankshaft until the
piston is at the bottom of the cylinder and place a cloth
on the piston to collect any cuttings made in removing
the ridge. Adjust the ridge removing tool to the cylinder
size and move the cutter blade to a depth just below the
ridge (no more than ^2 below). Make sure the ridge
remover is held tightly against the top of the block and
turn the arbor to cut away the ridge (fig. 50).
After the ridge has been removed turn the crankshaft
to bring the piston to the top of the cylinder and carefully remove the cloth and cuttings from the piston head.
Repeat the procedure for the other cylinders.
Turn the crankshaft until the throw is down. Remove
the lock nuts and retaining nuts from the connecting rod
studs. Remove the cap and each half of the bearing.
Push the rod and piston assembly up through the top of
the cylinder. Each rod assembly is numbered to correspond to. the cylinder in which it operates. Keep all parts
of the assembly together when it is removed.

b. Disassembly.

RADII RIDE

SCRATCHES

DIRT IMBEDDED I N BEARING MATERIAL
FATIGUE FAILURE FROM EXCESSIVE LOAD

RADII RIDE

Spread and remove the piston rings with an expanding
tool. Remove the piston pin retainers with a needle-nose
plier or by prying them out of the groove. Push out the
piston pin. Press out the connecting rod bushing, The
piston and rod are shown completely disassembled in
fig. 51.

c. Cleaning.
Remove carbon from the piston head with a scraper
or wire brush. Clean the piston ring grooves with a
groove cleaner (fig. 52).
Clean the oil return holes by running a drill through
the holes. Be sure the drill is the same size or slightly
smaller than the holes.
Clean all parts in solvent. Do not use caustic base
cleaner for this operation. Clean the connecting rod
bearing bore and the back of the bearing inserts (if they
are to be re-used).

SCRATCHES

1162

Fig. 59—Bearing Showing Radii Ride

d. Inspection,
Check the parts of the rod and piston assembly for the
following signs of wear or damage.
(1) CONNECTING ROD. If the rod has damaged
studs, deep nicks, cracks, or scored bearing bores, it
should be replaced. If the rod is twisted it should be
replaced. Check the alignment of the rod on a fixture as
shown in fig. 53.
The clearance at the pin should not exceed 0.0005 inch.
Check the connecting rod bushing by inserting a new
piston pin. The bushing should hold the pin when the
BRIGHT (POLISHED) SECTIONS

OVERLAY G O N E FROM ENTIRE SURFACE

1163
1161

Fig. 58—Bearing Failure Due to Tapered Journal

Fig. 60—Bearing Showing Bright Spots Because of
Improper Seating

50

Chapter II—B-Series—8-Cylinder Engine

pin is in a vertical plane. If the pin falls through of its
own weight, ream the bushing for the next oversize pin
(fig. 54).
(2) BEARINGS. Replace any bearing inserts that
are scored, badly scratched, show fatigue failure, or have
the overlay wiped out (figs. 55 through 60).
Check the fit of the bearing inserts by installing them,
in the rod and cap. The bearing should snap in place and
remain there. If the bearing is loose it has lost its spread
and should be replaced.
Check the inside edge of the bearings at the parting
line. Remove any burrs from this edge.
CAUTJION: Remove only the burrs. If a chamfer is
found at the parting line it can cause low oil pressure.
Place a straight edge on the bearing and check the
clearance between the straight edge and the cap or rod.
There should be 0.001 to 0.003 clearance to permit
"crushing" the bearing when the cap is installed. Bearing "crush" holds the bearing firmly, supports it all the
way around, and assures better dissipation of heat from
the bearing to the rod.
(3) PISTONS. Check the pistons for cracks at the
bottom of the ring grooves, skirt, and bosses. Spongy
corroded areas near the top edge of the piston are usually
caused by deterioration. In some cases, holes may be
burned through the piston head. Replace any such pistons.
Replace piston if grooves are worn more than 0.0045 inch.
(4) PISTON PINS. Replace any pins that show
cracks or excess wear ridges. If the piston pin is loose
(clearance exceeds 0.0007 inch) in the piston it should
be replaced. 8BA and 49T pistons use the same piston pin.
(5) CYLINDERS. Make a thorough check for cracks.
Minute cracks can be located by coating the cylinder
'C" AND " D " MEASUREMENTS
MADE ACROSS ENGINE

wall with a mixture of 25 percent kerosene and 75 percent
light engine oil, wiping the wall dry, and then applying
a light coating of zinc oxide powder dissolved in wood
alcohol. The cracks will show as discolored lines on the
zinc oxide coating.
Inspect the bore for scratches or scuffing. Check for
bulging at the top of the cylinder bore. Replace any
leaking expansion plugs (indicated by rust around the
plug). Use a sealing compound under the new plug.
Check the cylinder bore using a telescopic gauge and
outside micrometers, cylinder gauge, or inside micrometers. Measure and record as "A," "B," "C," and "D"
the dimensions shown in fig. 61.
Compare "A" with "C" and "B" with "D" to determine the. amount of taper in the bore. If the taper is
greater than 0.015 inch, the cylinder must be rebored or
straightened by honing.
Compare "A" with "B" and "C" with "D" to determine how much the cylinder is out of round. If the bore
is more than 0.003 out of round it must be rebored.

e. Fitting Pistons.
Before installing; or fitting pistons with new rings in
an old block, remove the high polish on the cylinder walls
by passing a hone through the bore a few times. Clean
all honing dust out of the cylinder after this operation.
To fit a new piston in a new bore, attach a tension
scale to one end of a feeler ribbon (0.003 x Y^' wide for
49T piston; 0.0015 x Y£ wide for 8BA piston). Position
the feeler ribbon on the thrust side of the cylinder (side
away from the camshaft in the right hand bank; toward
the camshaft in the left hand bank), invert the piston,
and push it in the cylinder so the skirt is }/£ inch below

"A" AND "B" MEASUREMENTS
MADE PARALLEL TO ENGINE AXIS

REAR

FRONT

TOP OF BLOCK
MEASUREMENTS " A " AND " C " MADE BELOW
RIDGE OR AT THE TOP OF RING TRAVEL

MEASUREMENTS "B" AND " D " MADE
AT BOTTOM OF RING TRAVEL

Fig. 61—Cylinder Bore Measurements

1176
Fig. 62—fitting Piston to Cylinder Bore

Section 10—Connecting Rods, Pistons, and Pins
the top of the cylinder. Keep the piston pin bore parallel
to the camshaft. Pull out the feeler ribbon noting the
reading on the spring scale (fig. 62). The reading should
be 6-12 pounds for a 49T piston and 3-12 pounds for an
8BA piston. If the reading is more than 12 pounds try
another piston or hone the cylinder to obtain a fit. If
the reading is less than 6 pounds for a 49T piston or
3 pounds for an 8BA piston, try another piston. The
various size pistons available for service are given in
Table 1.
If a fit cannot be obtained rebore the cylinder to the
next oversize.
mv
>^ clearance between the bottom of the piston skirt
and the cylinder for the 8BA piston is 0.0005-0.0011
inch and for the 49T piston the clearance is 0.00180.0023 inch.
The specifications for fitting pistons are included in
Table 2.

f. Boring Cylinder Block.
Bore all cylinders to the same size when they require
reboring. Bore the cylinder with the most wear first to
determine the proper oversize. If the cylinder bore will
not clean up at 0.060 inch oversize, the block must be
replaced. Allow 0.0015 inch stock for honing when fitting
the pistons. Fit pistons as described previously. Use
No. 280 grit hone for this operation.

NOTE: Be sure to remove all abrasive dust from the
cylinder block after honing.

g. Fitting Piston Pins.
Piston pins must be a hand push fit (0.0001-0.0003
loose) in the piston with both piston and pin at room
temperature (70°F). If the pins are too tight or oversize
Table 1-Piston Kits
Piston Kit Part No.

49T-6108-A
49T-6108-C
49T-6108-D
49T-6108-E
49T-6108-F8
8BA-6108-A
8BA-6108-B
8BA-6108-C
8BA-6108-D
8BA-6108-E
8BA-6108-F

Type

Standard
0.020 inch O.S.
0.030 inch O.S.
0.040 inch O.S.
0.060 inch O.S.
Standard
0.0025 inch O.S.
0.020 inch O.S.
0.030 inch O.S.
0.040 inch O.S.
0.060 inch O.S.

Piston Skirt
Diameter Limits
(Dimension at Skirt
-—inches)

3.1855-3.1865
3.2055-3.2065
3.2155-3.2165
3.2255-3.2265
3.2455-3.2465
3.1879-3.1891
3.1891-3.1903
3.2067-3.2079
3.2167-3.2179
3.2267-3.2279
3.2467-3.2479

O.S. = Oversize.
There are four pistons of each type (standard and oversize)
with skirt diameter variation in steps of 0.0003 inch for selective fitting of 8BA pistons.

51

pins are to be fitted, use an expansion type reamer to
enlarge the piston pin holes.
Set the reamer to the present size of the bore, then
expand the reamer slightly and trial ream the bore
x
/% inch deep. Use a pilot the nearest size to the existing
bore to maintain alignment of the reamer.
Check the trial reamed hole by inserting the new pin
as a plug gauge. If the bore is still small, finish reaming
the hole, turn the piston around, and ream the other
hole. Repeat the trial reaming and finish reaming until
the pin is a push fit.

h. Fitting Piston Rings.
Install the ring in the cylinder bore. Invert a piston
and push it about half way into the bore to square the
ring with the bore. Measure the ring gap. It should be
0.007 to 0.047 inch in a worn cylinder. If the gap is
smaller than 0.007 inch file the ends of the ring until
clearance is obtained.
If the ring gap exceeds 0.047 inch install the next oversize ring. Be sure to identify the rings so they will be
installed in the same cylinder in which they were fitted.
Check the ring to groove clearance on the proper piston
for the cylinder as shown in fig. 63.
The rings should have the following clearance:
Ring Location

Ring Groove
Mfg. Clearance (Inches)

1st—Top Compression.
2nd—Compression
3rd—Oil Ring
4th—Oil Ring

0.0015-0.0030
0.0010-0.0025
0.0010-0.0030
0.0010-0.0030
Remove stock from tight rings by rotating the ring
over emery cloth placed on a surface plate or plate glass
until the ring fits the groove within the above limits.

i. Fitting Connecting Rod Bearings
(Plastigage Method).
Place a piece of Plastigage plastic the length of the
cap in the bearing cap. Install the cap and tighten to
45-50 foot-pounds.
'Table 2—Piston Fitting Specifications
PISTON TYPE
49T

8BA

New Piston in New Bore
Gauge Thickness
Pounds Pull

0.003
6-12

0.0015
3-12

New Piston in Used Bore
Gauge Thickness
Pounds Pull

0.003
6-12

0.0015
3-12

Used Piston in Used Bore
Gauge Thickness...-....'
Pounds Pull

0.004
6-12

0.003
3-12

Use a J^ inch wide feeler gauge.

52

Chapter II—B-Series— 8-Cylinder Engine

NOTE: Do not turn the crankshaft with Plastigage in
place.
Remove the bearing cap and using the Plastigage scale
measure the width of the flattened piece of plastic at the
widest point. If reading is not over 0.003 inch, standard
size connecting rod bearings should be used; if over
0.003 inch, install 0.002 inch undersize bearing and recheck. Where use of the 0.002 inch undersize bearing
results in excessive clearance grind the crankshaft and
install undersize bearing inserts.

j . Fitting Connecting Rod Bearings
(Shim Method).
Place 0.003 inch brass shim y2 inch wide by 1 inch long
in the bearing cap with a new standard insert and install
the cap. Tighten the nuts to 45-50 foot-pounds torque.
Attempt to move the connecting rod endwise on the
crank pin by hand and then by a light tap of a hammer.
Remove the shim and repeat the above test, move the
rod endwise, by hand. If connecting rod did not move by
hand, but moved by tap of hammer in the previous test
and moved freely with shim removed, the standard
bearing as installed should be used. If rod could be moved
by hand when used with the shim, install the 0.002 inch
undersize bearing and repeat the above test.
After determining that the correct bearing insert has
been fitted, tighten connecting rod bearing cap nuts to
45-50 foot-pounds torque. Rotate the shaft to be sure
the bearing is not too tight.

k. Assembly.
Position the connecting rod in the piston so the connecting rod squirt hole will face toward the front of the
engine upon installation and push the pin in place.
NOTE: Connecting rods with metered hole should
only be used in conjunction with engines equipped
with neoprene seals on the intake valve guides and
the increased capacity oil pump. This pump and
guide can be used with the old-style connecting rods
without the squirt hole. It is permissible to replace
the SBA connecting rod and bearings with OBA rod
and bearings but the OBA types should not be
replaced with SBA types.

Insert the pin retaining clips. Install the piston rings
with the side up that is counterbored, beveled, or
stamped "top."
Insert 4the bearing halves in the rod and cap.
NOTE: Rings with a beveled or counterbored inside
diameter must be assembled with the counterbore or
bevel up in order to obtain full advantage of their
sealing abilities.

1. Installation.
Oil the cylinder wall with light engine oil. Make sure
ring gaps are equally spaced around circumference of
piston. Compress the lower ring with a ring compresser
and start the piston in the cylinder by tapping the
piston head with a soft hammer.
NOTE: Position SBA pistons so the indentation in
the piston head is toward the front of the engine.
This is necessary as the SBA piston pin is offset 1/16
inch.
Shift the compressor to the three upper rings, compress them, and tap the piston in with a soft hammer
(fig. 64) until it is slightly below the top of the cylinder.
Turn the crankshaft so the throw is down and push the
piston all the way down until the rod bearing seats on
the crankpin. Install the bearing cap, lining up the
stamped numbers, and tighten the retaining nuts to 4550 foot-pounds. Install new lock nuts.
Install the oil pan and cylinder heads. Fill the crankcase with the proper grade and amount of lubricant. Fill
the cooling system. Start the engine and run it slowly.
Make sure there is sufficient oil pressure. Check the
temperature to make sure the engine does not overheat.
Overheating can be caused by too tight bearings.

'PISTON

NEW PISTON RING

Fig. 63—Checking Piston Ring Clearance

1088

Tool-6150-N

Fig. 64—Tapping in Piston

1177

Section 11 — Muffler, Cross Over Pipe, Inlet Pipe, and Outlet Pipe

53

11. MUFFLER, CROSS OVER PIPE, INLET PIPE, AND OUTLET PIPE
SUPPORT BRACKET

5259
23438-S-W / 33798-S

88393-S

pL /

23438-S
MUFFLER INLET PIPE
6

,23438-S

5251 \

MUFFLER OUTLET PIPE
5255

20369-S

/34846-S

y^Pfei
20357-S

5260
34846-S \

5270

33797-S
MUFFLER INLET CROSS-OVER PIPE
8-CYLINDER ENGINE
5267

1665

Fig. 65—Muffler and Related Parts

The exhaust system on the 8-cylinder passenger car
consists of a muffler inlet cross over pipe, an exhaust
inlet pipe, muffler, and an outlet pipe.
The following procedure covers removal and installation of individual units of the exhaust system (fig. 65).

a. Muffler Replacement.
Extra heavy double wall construction, corrosion
resistant materials and low moisture formation inherent
in reverse-flow design, assure long life of the muffler.
(1) REMOVAL. Loosen muffler inlet and outlet pipe
clamps. Slide clamps away from muffler on the inlet pipe
and the outlet pipe. Loosen front and rear outlet pipe
clamps and disengage outlet pipe from muffler by sliding
outlet pipe to rear. Remove muffler from inlet pipe.
(2) INSTALLATION.
Place muffler in position on
inlet pipe and slide outlet pipe into muffler. Place inlet
pipe and outlet pipe clamps in position on muffler and
tighten clamps. Tighten front and rear outlet pipe
clamps.

frame but also relieve exhaust system from twisting or
bending stresses.
(1) REMOVAL. Loosen muffler outlet clamp, leaving clamp on muffler. Remove outlet front and rear support clamps and disengage outlet pipe from muffler.
(2) INSTALLATION. Position outlet pipe in muffler.
Place pipe rear support bracket clamp on outlet pipe.
Install front support bracket clamp and tighten unit.
Position rear outlet pipe clamp on rear bracket and
tighten unit.

c. Inlet Pipe Replacement.
The exhaust inlet pipe is designed to give the exhaust
gases leaving the exhaust manifolds a direct through

b. Outlet Pipe Replacement.
The outlet pipe is attached to the frame by flexible
sound deadening materials which not only prevent
exhaust noises from being conducted through chassis

SIDE VIEW

TOP VIEW

1521

1721

Fig. 66—"Duck Bill" Type Exhaust Control Valve

Fig. 67—Butterfly Type Exhaust Control Valve

Chapter II—B-Series—8-Cylinder Engine

54

passage to the muffler, thereby increasing the overall
efficiency of the exhaust system.
(1) REMOVAL. Loosen muffler inlet pipe clamp.
Remove inlet pipe from exhaust manifold, then remove
gasket. Disengage inlet pipe from muffler by sliding
inlet pipe forward.
(2) INSTALLATION.
Place inlet pipe on muffler.
Install gasket on inlet pipe and secure pipe to exhaust
manifold. Tighten muffler inlet pipe clamp.

d. Muffler Inlet Cross Over Pipe.
The exhaust control valve is of the "duck bill" type

(fig. 66) and is located in the muffler inlet cross over
pipe just ahead of the right hand exhaust manifold in
late 1950 and 1951 engines. The 1949 and early 1950
engines have the butterfly type (fig. 67) mounted between
the cross over pipe and the right hand exhaust manifold.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove 4 nuts and lockwashers
holding cross over pipe to exhaust manifolds, then
remove manifold making sure gaskets are removed.
(2) INSTALLATION.
Place gaskets on cross over
pipe and fasten cross over pipe to exhaust manifold with
4 nuts and lock washers.

SERVICE LETTER REFERENCE
Letter No.

Date

Subject

Changes Information
on Page No.

Part One

POWER PLANT
Chapter

III

Ignition, Fuel, and Cooling System
Section

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Page

Ignition System
Distributor Minor Repair and Adjustment
Distributor Overhaul
.. .
Carburetor Operation, Tests, and Adjustments
6-Cylinder Carburetor\ Overhaul
8-Cylinder Carburetor Overhaul
Fuel Pumps and Vacuum Booster
Fuel Tanks and Lines
Fans and Belts
. .. . .
Water Pumps ,
Radiator, Hoses, and Thermostats

55
59
62
66
69
72
75
79
80
81
84

The ignition, fuel and cooling systems are all necessary components of the engine itself. However, due to
the fact that service on these systems is performed
separately from engine service they have been grouped
together here in one chapter. Another advantage to
this grouping, lies in the fact that most quick service
operations involve one or more of these systems, and

you now have the service information necessary for
performing quick service operations in one place, arranging in easy to find sections as listed above,
Information contained in this chapter includes adjustments, testing, replacement and repair of the parts
which are included in the ignition system, fuel system,
and cooling system.

1. IGNITION SYSTEM
( 2 ) CLEANING. The main object in cleaning plugs
is to remove all of the carbon and lead deposits from
the insulator, shell, and electrodes. This can be done on
a sand blast cleaner. Do not prolong the use of the
abrasive blast as it will wear the insulator and damage
the plug. A thorough cleaning of spark plugs should
always include removing carbon and other deposits from
the threads with a stiff wire brush. These threads are
the means of carrying the heat away from the plug.
Any deposits will retard the heat flow from the plug
to the cylinder head, causing overheating and preignition.
The electrode construction (fig. 1) is such that the
cleaning process sometimes does not remove the deposits from all surfaces of the electrodes. Therefore,
it is important to clean the electrode surfaces with a
small file of the type used on distributor contacts. Dress
the electrodes to secure flat parallel surfaces on both
the center and side electrode.
By restoring the flat surfaces and providing sharp
edges on the electrodes, the voltage required to jump
the gap is reduced and the spark plug performance is
improved. A visual inspection will indicate when the

The ignition system consists of the distributor assembly which includes the condenser, the coil, the spark
plugs, and the necessary wires and terminals for connecting these units.
Information on how to perform all repairs and adjustments on the ignition system with the exception of
the distributor, are given in this section.
Spark plug replacement, testing, and adjustment are
covered in "a. Spark Plugs." "b. High Tension (Secondary) Wires" gives procedures for replacement of the
secondary ignition wires on both the 6 and 8-Cylinder
engines. Coil replacement and testing are procedures
described in "c. Coil." "d. Timing" gives the engine ignition timing procedure.
J

a. Spark Plugs.
Spark plugs should be cleaned and inspected, adjusted, and tested at least every 5000 miles.
( 1 ) REMOVAL. Pull the wire off each spark plug.
Use compressed air to clean the area around each spark
plug. Remove the plugs with a spark plug wrench. Be
sure to remove the spark plug gasket when the plug is
removed.
55

56

Chapter III—Power Plant

plug has been properly cleaned. The insulator appearance should be white and the metal case clean.
After cleaning, examine the plug carefully for crackecf
or broken insulators, badly pitted electrode, or other
signs of failure and replace as required.
(3) ADJUSTMENT. Set the spark plug gap
(0.029-0.032 inch). All adjustm|*its should be made
by bending the side electrode only.
(4) TESTING. After setting the gap, test the plugs
on an approved tester. Compare the sparking efficiency
of the cleaned and re-gapped plug with a new plug.
Replace the plug if it fails to meet requirements.
During this test, check the plug for pressure leakage
at the insulator seal. Cover with oil the shoulder of the
plug where the insulator projects through the shell and
the top of the plug where the center electrode and
terminal project from the insulator. Place the plug under
pressure and if oil bubbles appear, the plug is leaking
and must be replaced. If the plug is satisfactory, wipe it
clean before installing it in the engine.
(5) INSTALLATION. Clean the area around the
spark plug port, to ensure proper seating of the plug
gasket. Use a new gasket when installing a spark plug.
After the plugs are installed, connect the spark plug
wires and operate the engine until it reaches its normal
operating temperature. Remove the wires, tighten each
plug to the proper torque (24-30 foot-pounds), and reconnect the wires.

b. High Tension (Secondary) Wires.
The high tension wires include the wires connecting
the distributor cap to the spark plugs, and the wire
connecting the center terminal of the distributor cap to
the center terminal of the ignition coil.
TERMINAL NUT

TERMINAL STU
EMENT
' C H A M P I O N CERAMIC"
INSULATOR

1093

Fig. 2—Installing Wire Terminal

At regular intervals clean and inspect the wires for
cracked insulation and loose terminals. If any of these
conditions exist, replace the wires.
The wiring used for the ignition systems is available
in sets or in 100 foot rolls. When making up an ignition
set from the roll wire, use the old wires for a pattern to
obtain the correct: length. Clip the terminals on the end
of the wire with terminal pliers as shown in fig. 2.
(1) REPLACEMENT (6-CYLINDER). A spark
plug wire set for 6-cyUnder engines, which consists of
parts shown in fig. 3, is available from Ford Dealers.
(a) REMOVAL. Disconnect the wires at the spark
plugs and at the distributor cap and pull the wires out
of the ignition coil mounting strap bracket. Disconnect
the ignition coil to distributor high tension wire assembly from the coil and distributor cap.
(b) INSTALLATION. Place the shielding cover on the
No. 3 wire and position wires in the bracket as shown
in fig. 4. Connect: the proper wires to the proper spark
plugs. Install the weather seals on the distributor end
of the wires and insert the end of the wire in the correct
socket in the distributor cap. Be sure the wires are forced
all the way down into their sockets and that they are
held firmly in position. Sockets are numbered to identify
the correct socket for inserting the wire which will connect the distributor and the correct spark plug. Install
the coil to distributor wire and push the weather seals
into position.
(2) REPLACEMENT (8-Cylinder). Two types of
ignition wire brackets (figs. 5 and 6) are used on the
8-cylinder engines. The procedure for replacing the

ENTER ELECTRODE

SHELL

J'SILLMENT" SEAL

ASKET

G R O U N D JELECTRODE

1428

SPARK GAP

Fig. ? —Spark Plug

1500

Fig. 3-6-Cyl/nder Wire Set

Section 1 — Ignition System

CARBURETOR

SPARK WIRE AND
COIL BRACKET

COIL HIGH TENSION WIRE
PRIMARY WIRE

DISTRIBUTOR
VACUUM LINE

DISTRIBUTOR CAP
DISTRIBUTOR LOCK CLAMP^

DISTRIBUTOR

1094

Fig. 4—6-Cylinder Ignition Wire Installation

wires is the same except that on the spread type bracket
be sure to install the wires in the proper holes in the
bracket.
A spark plug wire set containing the parts shown in
figure 7 is available from Ford Dealers.
To remove the wires from the engine, disconnect the
wires from the spark plugs and the distributor cap. Pull
the wires out of the rnounting brackets. Disconnect the
coil high tension wire from distributor cap and coil.
CARBURETOR

SPARK
PLUGS

To install the wires, place the shielding on the No.
8 wire and position the wires in the brackets as shown
in figs. 5 and 6. Install the weather seals in the distributor end of the wires. Insert the wires in the proper
distributor cap socket. Be sure the wires are forced all
the way down into their sockets. These sockets are
numbered to correspond with the proper spark plug.
Install the coil to distributor high tension lead and push
all weather seals into position.
NO. 8

NO. 7 NO

NO. 6

SPARK PLUGS

VACUUM ASSEMBLY
COIL HIGH
TENSION WIRE

DISTRIBUTOR
DISTRIBUTOR CAP (TERMINAL HOUSING)
1095

Fig. 5—8-Cylinder Ignition Wire Installation with
7RA-12111-A Bracket

TURN BRACKET INWARD

1501

Fig. 6-8-Cylinder Ignition Wire Installation with
OBA-12111 Bracket

Chapter III—Power Plant

58

c. Coil.
The same coil is used on all Ford passenger cars. This
metal clad coil is mounted on the plug wire and coil
bracket on the 6-cylinder engine. On the 8-cylinder engine a bracket attached to the front end of the righthand cylinder head holds the coil.
(1) REMOVAL. Disconnect the high tension lead
and the primary leads from the coil.
Loosen ignition coil mounting strap and remove coil.
(2) INSTALLATION. Position the coil in the
mounting strap, then tighten the mounting strap. Insert
the high tension lead into the coil socket and connect
the primary wires to the coil. Push the weather seal
tightly against the coil.
(3) TESTING ON CAR. Place the spark plug end
of a spark plug wire approximately 3/16 inch from the
cylinder head. Run the engine at idle speed. If the spark
will jump the gap regularly the coil and the condenser
are satisfactory.
(4) TEST ON DISTRIBUTOR STROBOSCOPE.
Install the coil on the test set as shown in fig. 8 and
check the coil output. The spark should jump a 14
kilovolt setting regularly at 2000 R.P.M.

d. Timing.
The 6-cylinder engine is equipped with either a viscous type damper having a groove timing mark or a
rubber type damper having a ball timing mark. Because
of the difference in diameter between the two types of
dampers, two timing pointers are located on the engine
front cover (fig. 9). The pointer nearest to the outer
circumference of the damper should be used to time
the engine. A pointer on the engine front cover and a
mark on the crankshaft pulley are used to time the
8-cylinder engine.
When the pointer, as shown in fig. 9, is in line with
the timing mark, No. 1 or No. 6 cylinder is in firing
position, depending on which piston is on the compression stroke.
In order to determine which piston is on compression
stroke, use a compression gauge or block the spark plug
hole with your thumb. Pressure will be high on the compression stroke.

SPARK PLU G
WIRE SIT

SPARK GAP ADJUSTMENT
KNOB WITH... .KILOVOLT SCALE

OIL
HIGH TENSION LEAD
POSITIVE
LEAD

1112

Fig. 8—Testing Coil on Distributor Sfroboscope

(1) INITIAL TIMING. Align the rotor with the
No. 1 spark plug wire terminal in the distributor cap,
when the No. 1 cylinder piston is on the compression
stroke and timing marks are aligned.
With the timing mark in line with the pointer, the
distributor points should just start to open. It may be
necessary to rotate the distributor body approximately
15 degrees clockwise, and then slowly rotate it counterclockwise until the contacts start to open. Tighten the
distributor lock plate cap screw. Start the engine and
check the timing with the aid of a timing light as shown
in fig. 10.
(2) CHECKING TIMING WITH TIMING
LIGHT. Always disconnect the distributor vacuum line
before checking the timing.
Connect the timing light to the engine with the high
tension lead on No. 1 spark plug and the other two
leads to the proper battery terminals. Clean the grease
and dirt from the timing mark and, if necessary, cover
TIMING POINTER USED WITH 7.63
TIMING POINTER USED WITH 8.50 DIAMETER DAMPER

DAMPER

iii urn ' ' " H

ut-mss

\

//
FRONT COVER

DAMPER
1502

Fig. 7—8-Cylinder Spark Plug Wire Set

TIMING INDICATOR
1114

Fig, 9—6-Cylinder Engine Timing Mark

Section 1—-Ignition System

the timing mark and pointer with white chalk. Start the
engine and operate it at idle speed. Direct the light on
the timing mark as shown in fig. 10. It should flash just
as the timing mark lines up with the pointer, indicating
correct timing. The operator should stand so that his
eye is in line with center of damper and timing pointer.

If the timing mark and the pointer do not line up,
rotate the distributor until the timing mark is in line
with the stationary pointer.
To advance the timing, rotate the distributor body
counterclockwise and to retard the timing, rotate the
distributor body clockwise.

2. DISTRIBUTOR MINOR REPAIR AND ADJUSTMENTS
Ford distributors are known as the Loadomatic type,
with the spark advance regulated by the vacuum differential at the carburetor. This distributor advance is
operated by a vacuum unit mounted on the distributor.
One side of this vacuum unit is connected to the breaker
plate by direct linkage and the other side is connected
by a vacuum line to the carburetor.
The spark advance characteristics are controlled by
two breaker plate springs working against the distributor
diaphragm (fig. 12). The amount of spark advance is
determined by the amount of vacuum supplied to the
distributor and by adjustment of breaker plate spring.
The carburetor has a vacuum passage with openings
at both the venturi tube and a point just above the
throttle plate (fig. 11), so that the vacuum in the distributor line is at all times a combination of the carburetor throat and venturi vacuums. The lower opening
is above the throttle plate when the engine is idling, and
at idle speed the spark is retarded.
Under normal road load or part throttle operation the
vacuum ("B" fig. 11) is high, and the spark will become
fully advanced at 18 to 35 miles per hour.
When the engine is accelerating the vacuum at the
venturi increases as the engine speed increases; however, the manifold vacuum (vacuum at the throttle body
throat) decreases considerably from the road load vac-

uum. The net result of these two changes is to lower
the vacuum at the distributor diaphragm while the
springs retard the spark advance from its road load setting. As the vehicle speed increases, the venturi vacuum
and the manifold vacuum continue to increase.
The procedure for replacing, testing, or adjusting the
distributor points, testing the condenser, and replacing
the distributor is given below.

a. Distributor Points.
The distributor point assembly in the loadomatic distributor consists of the stationary distributor point
bracket assembly, breaker arm, and primary wire terminal. This assembly is mounted on the breaker plate
as a unit and can be replaced without removing the
distributor from the engine (fig. 12).
Although the distributor point assembly spring tension is set by the manufacturer, the tension should be
adjusted, it is not within specifications.
(1) REMOVAL. Disconnect the primary and condenser leads. Remove the screws which secure the point
assembly to the breaker plate. Remove the point
assembly.
(2) INSTALLATION. Place the primary and condenser leads, lock washers, and nut on the point assembly primary terminal and tighten the nut securely.

1 SPARII PLUG

Z VENTURI

Inn

VACUUM PASSAGE

DAMPER

Timing Light

1 1|5

Fig. 10—Checking Timing with Timing Light

1O97

Fig. 11—Carburetor Vacuum Passage

60

Chapter III—Power Plant

Position the point assembly on the breaker plate. Install
the holding screws. Be sure the ground wire terminal
is on the screw nearest to the adjustment slot and the
lock washer is used under the screw at the opposite end.
Adjust the distributor point spacing.
(3) CHECKING SPRING TENSION. Place the
tension gauge as near as possible to the distributor
points and push at right angle (90°) until the points
just open (fig. 13). Read the spring tension and adjust
if outside specifications (17-20 ozs.).
(4) ADJUSTING SPRING TENSION. Disconnect
the wires at the distributor point terminal, and loosen
the nut holding the spring in position. Move the spring
toward the screw stud to increase the tension and in
the opposite direction to decrease the tension. Tighten
the nut securely and recheck the spring tension. After
the proper tension is obtained, install the primary wires
on the point assembly primary terminal and tighten the
nut securely.
(5) DISTRIBUTOR POINT SPACING ADJUSTMENT. The distributor points can be adjusted with
the distributor in the car or on a distributor stroboscope.
Before adjusting the points, they should be examined
and replaced if they are oily, severely pitted, badly
oxidized, or have an excessive amount of foreign matter
on the contact surfaces.
To increase point life and improve engine performance, it is important to adjust the point spacing accurately.
If the distributor point assembly is replaced or need
adjustment, crank the engine until the rubbing block
rests on the peak of a cam lobe. Loosen the lock screws,
insert a screw driver blade or adjusting blade of distributor adjusting wrench (fig. 14) in the adjustment
slot, and turn it to obtain the proper point spacing

Breaker Contact Spring
Tension Scale
SPRING LOCK NUT

Holding Block—12132-N-2'

Contacts just starting to open

TlOO

Fig. 13—Checking Breaker Arm Spring Tension

(0.024-0.026 inch on 6-cylinder engine and 0.014-0.016
inch on 8-cyUnder engine).
Tighten the lock screws and recheck the clearance
between the distributor points. Always retime the ignition after adjusting the distributor point gap.

b. Condenser,
The condenser can be removed from the distributor,
either when the distributor is in the engine or when
it is removed from the engine.
(1) REMOVAL. Disconnect the condenser lead
from the distributor point primary terminal and remove
the screw that holds the condenser on the breaker plate.
Lift the condenser out of the distributor.
(2) INSTALLATION. Position the condenser on
the breaker plate., Install the condenser holding screw.
Connect the condenser lead to the primary terminal.
Contact alignment tool
Adjusting

wrench-12150-N

Spring adjustment tool

VACUUM DIAPHRAGM
ADJUSTMENT SLOTS
BREAKER PLATE SPRINGS
BREAKER PLATE
PRIMARY
TERMINAL
IT* I TO COIL

GROUND WIRE

BREAKER ARM '

\

PRIMARY WIRE

^^

STATIONARY CONTACT

CONDENSER
CAM
UA

1098

Fig. 12—Distributor Points and Condenser Installation

ADJUSTMENT SLOT
/
CONTACT ASSEMBLY LOCK SCREWS
"R" SERIES DISTRIBUTOR
1099

Fig. 14—Adjusting Distributor Contacts

Section 2—Distributor Minor Repair and Adjustments

(3) TESTING. Before removing the condenser to
make a test, it is advisable to first make the test on the
car.
(a) TEST ON CAR. This test is made at the same
time as the coil test. If the spark is not satisfactory, it
will be necessary to remove the condenser and test it
on a distributor stroboscope test set.
(b) TEST ON DISTRIBUTOR STROBOSCOPE. Install the
condenser on a distributor test set as shown in fig. 15.
Test the condenser for leakage, series resistance, and
capacity. Condenser capacity is 0.21 to 0.25 microfarads,
leakage should be greater than 5 megohms at room temperature and series resistance should be one ohm or less.

61

Fv* O M Oft?© TCi

Vacuum Hose

c. Distributor.
The distributor must be removed from the engine
when the vacuum advance is to be checked or adjusted.
(1) REMOVAL. Before removing the distributor
from an engine which is timed correctly, be sure to
scribe a mark on the distributor housing indicating the
position of the rotor, and another mark on the engine
and housing to indicate the position of the housing. The
distributor can be reinstalled when the rotor is in line
with the mark without rotating the engine crankshaft to
obtain the proper timing.
Remove the distributor cap. Disconnect the primary
wire and vacuum line. Loosen the distributor clamp lock
screw or distributor hold-down bolt and remove the
distributor assembly from the engine.
(2) CHECK VACUUM ADVANCE. Install the
distributor on the stroboscope as shown in fig. 16.
Connect the dwell lead and check the percent dwell.
If the dwell is not between 58 and 63 per cent and the
point spacing is not within limits, it will be necessary
to adjust the points. Check the breaker arm spring tension and adjust if required (17-20 ozs.). Set the distributor speed at 200 r.p.m., hold the distributor breaker
Distributor
Test Set

Sight

1108

Coil Lead

Fig. 16—Distributor Installed on Stroboscope

plate against the stops in full retard position, and rotate
the distributor housing until the spark lines up with
the zero degree position on the scale. Tighten the distributor holding clamp. Check the distributor according
to the speed and vacuum setttings given in Table 1.
Set the distributor speed to the proper r.p.m. and
apply the required vacuum. Read the spark advance on
the degree scale. If the spark advance is not within
these specifications, adjust the tension on the springs.
(3) VACUUM ADVANCE ADJUSTMENT. Install
distributor on a distributor stroboscope. Adjust the distributor point spacing. Set the distributor speed at 200
r.p.m., hold the distributor breaker plate against the
stops in full retard position, and rotate the distributor
Table 1—Distributor Vacuum Advance
Distributor

All 6-cyl. Models
7HA-12127

CONDENSER

CONDENSER TEST LEAD

1113

Fig. 75—Testing Condenser on Distributor Stroboscope

Distributor
R.P.M.

200
500
1000
1000
1500
2000

Distributor Degrees
Min.

Max.

0

0
3

sy2
nlA
s'A
ioy2

13

ny2

All 1949 and early 1950
8-cyl. Models
7RA-12127-C

200
500
1000
1500
2000

0

0

iM

sy4
7H

Late 1950 and 1951
8-cyl. Models
8BA-12127
OBA-12127

200
500
1000
1500
2000

0H
0

0
1

8%
10

10

7

5M

uH

Vacuum
(Inches of
Mercury)

0
0.4
1.4
5.5
2.9
4.1
0
0.4
1.7
2.8
3.7
0
0.30
1.32
2.85
3.7

Chapter III—Power Plant

62

housing until the timing light in the stroboscope, base
lines up with the zero degree position on the scale.
Tighten the distributor holding clamp. Release the tension on the two retard springs by turning both adjustment posts clockwise until the tension is relieved from
each spring as shown in fig. 17.
Adjust the primary (light) spring first and the secondary (heavy spring on H & R series distributor) last.
Two springs of the same kind are used as the primary
and the secondary spring on the OBA and 8BA type
distributors.
The procedure for setting the required tension on
each spring is given in Table 2.
Check the operation of the vacuum advance at the
various speeds. The degrees advance should be within
the limits given in Table 1. If the spark advance is not
within the limits under low vacuum, the primary spring
is at fault. If the spark advance is not within the limits
under high vacuum, the secondary spring is at fault.
If it is impossible to adjust both springs to give the
correct spark advance, one or both springs should be
replaced, and the spark advance readjusted.
(4) INSTALLATION. Align the rotor with the
mark previously scribed on the distributor body. Install
the distributor in the engine, with the housing mark in
alignment with the mark previously made on the engine.

Adjusting wrench— 12150-N
SPRING (SECONDARY)-12225
*D" HEAD ADJUSTMENT POST

VACUUM HOSE

4

Fig. 17—Adjusting Spark Return Spring Tension

Tighten the holding clamp cap screw. Check and adjust
the ignition timing, using a timing light.

3. DISTRIBUTOR OVERHAUL
Before disassembling the distributor for overhaul it
is advisable to place the distributor on a distributor
stroboscope and, after adjusting the distributor point
spacing, test the distributor for variation of spark and
correct vacuum advance. This test will give valuable
information on the distributor condition and indicate
the parts which need replacement.
This section covers the complete disassembly, inspection and assembly of the 6-cylinder distributor under the
heading "a. 6-cylinder." "b. 8-cyUnder" covers 8-cyUnder
distributor disassembly, inspection and assembly.

a. 6-Cylinder.
If the vacuum unit, ground wire and primary wire
are in satisfactory condition it is not necessary to
remove these parts from the distributor housing when
replacing bushings. Figure 18 illustrates the 6-cylinder
distributor parts and their relative positions.
(1) SHAFT AND CAM REMOVAL. File off the
rivet head. Drive out the collar rivet with a punch.
Slide the collar off the drive shaft. Remove the shaft
and cam assembly from the distributor housing.
(2) BREAKER PLATE REMOVAL. Place the

Table 2—Distributor Advance Adjusting Specifications
Primary (Light) Spring Adjustment Procedure
Distributor

7HA-12127
(1949-1950-1951
6-cylinder)
7RA-12127-C
(1949 and early 1950
8-cylinder)
8BA-12127 and OBA12127 (Late 1950-1951
8-cylinder)

Secondary (Heavy) Spring Adjustment Procedure

Apply Vacuum Turn Adjustment Set Distributor
Set Distributor
(inches Hg) to Post until Spark
Speed to
Speed to R.P.M.
distributor
is advanced to
R.P.M.
diaphragm
(degrees)

400

0.26

400

0.28

500

0.30

Apply Vacuum
(inches Hg) to
distributor
diaphragm

1000

1.4

1

1200

2.1

1

1000

1.32

Turn Adjusting
Post until Spark
is advanced to
(degrees)

6

63

Section 3—-Distributor Overhaul
distributor housing in a holding block, and clamp the
tool in a vise.
Remove the two screws holding the distributor point
assembly on the breaker plate. Disconnect the primary
wire and the condenser lead from the distributor point
assembly primary terminal. Lift the point assembly
from the breaker plate.
Remove the hair-pin retainer attaching the vacuum
unit rod to the breaker plate, and push the rod end
out of the breaker plate.
Release the tension on the two return springs by
rotating the adjustment posts to a position nearest to
the stationary posts. Remove the two springs.
NOTE: Do not stretch or bend the springs during
their removal as this might make it difficult to obtain
the correct spark advance adjustment.
Remove the lock ring attaching the breaker plate
to the upper bushing. Lift the breaker plate from the
distributor housing.
Disconnect the primary and ground wires from the
distributor housing.
(3) INSPECTION. Inspect the distributor shaft
and bushings for wear. The distributor shaft manufacturing minimum diameter is 0.4675 inch. The upper
bushing manufacturing limit inside diameter is 0.46850.4695 inch. Replace all parts that are not within these
limits.
(4) BUSHING REMOVAL. Drive the upper and
lower bushings from the housing by using the split drift.
(5) BUSHING INSTALLATION.
Bushings are
made of powdered metal and must not be reamed. Place

a new lower bushing in position on the bushing installation tool. Place the distributor housing and the "A"
spacer on the tool. Turn the T-handle until the lower
bushing is flush with the distributor housing. Remove
the T-handle and the "A" spacer. Position the upper
bushing on the housing with the lock ring end up. Place
the "A" spacer over the bushing. Turn the T-handle
until the spacer bottoms firmly against the distributor
housing.
Properly size the upper and lower bushing using the
burnishing tool.
(6) BREAKER PLATE INSTALLATION. Install
the ground wire and the primary wire in the distributor
housing. Position the breaker plate in the housing.
Install the lock ring to secure the breaker plate. Install
the condenser on the breaker plate. Place the condenser
lead, primary lead, lock washer, and nut on the distributor
point primary terminal, and securely tighten the nut.
Install the distributor point assembly. Be sure the
pivot pin enters the hole in the breaker plate. Install
the ground wire and the screw at the adjustment slot
end of the breaker assembly and the screw at the opposite end of the assembly. Install the vacuum unit on the
distributor housing if it was previously removed.
Install the two return springs on the adjustment and
body posts. Connect the vacuum unit rod to the breaker
plate, and attach it with the hair pin retainer.
(7) SHAFT INSTALLATION. Slide the shaft into
the housing. Place the collar in position on the shaft.
Install the collar rivet. Place the distributor in position

CAP—12106
ROTOR—12200

CAP-12106

1
12213

ROTOR—12200

12300
1221
CAM AND SHAFT
ASSY.—12175

12151
12264

34801-S
12216
12234
12171
12146 ,
12225
12192
12388
43243S

350032-S
12233
121
12144
10141
HOUSING—12130
12195
12175

DIAPHRAGM ASSY.

12370
12145
12144
12273
31144S
61489S
1105

Fig. 18—6-Cylinder Distributor, Disassembled

CAM AND SHAFT
ASSY.—12175

350032
12151
12264
310371223
12145
12144
122333512
350860-S
10141
12130

34051-S
34801-S
12171
12146
12216
12225
12192
12388
43243-S

+J*
.»$

DIAPHRAGM ASSY.
12370

12179
61465-S
12390

1104

Fig. 19—8-Cylinder Distributor Disassembled
7RA and 8BA Type

Chapter III—Power Plant

64

on the block tool and peen the end of the rivet. Adjust
distributor point spacing. Adjust vacuum advance.

b. 8-Cylinder.
Three different distributors are used in the 8-cylinder
engines. The 1949 and some early 1950 model engines
use the 7RA-12127 distributor which has a cast iron
housing fig. 19. The housing extends along the shaft
to the distributor gear and contains two bushings which
support the distributor shaft at both ends. The distributor shaft is held in position by the distributor gear
which is pressed on end of shaft and pinned in place.
Some Early 1950 models use an 8BA-12127 distributor which is the same distributor as the 7RA-12127
except the two spark advance return springs were
replaced with two 8EQ-12192 springs. These springs
are adjusted to 8BA-12127 distributor advance limits.
Late 1950 distributors, part no. 0BA-12127 have a
longer shaft and a die-cast housing with a short extension (fig. 20).
A collar on the distributor shaft holds the shaft in
position and controls the shaft end play. The gear is
installed on the shaft and allows the shaft to extend
below the gear (fig. 20). The additional length of the
shaft fits into a pilot hole in the engine front cover.
All 8-cylinder distributors have the same distance
between the distributor pad and the distributor gear.
The disassembly, inspection and assembly procedure
given below covers the three 8-cylinder distributors.
(1) SHAFT AND CAM REMOVAL. Position the
distributor housing on the repair block. File off the
rivet head on the distributor drive gear. On the 0BA12127 distributor also file off the collar rivet head.
Drive out the rivet or rivets with a punch (fig.21).
Pull the distributor gear (fig. 22). On the OBA-12127
distributor slide the collar off the shaft.
Slide the shaft out of the distributor housing.
(2) BREAKER PLATE REMOVAL. Place the
distributor housing in the holding block. Remove the
distributor point assembly. Remove the condenser.
Remove the hair pin retainer and disconnect the rod.
Release the tension on the return springs. Disconnect
the return springs.

Holding Block—12131 -N
DISTRIBUTOR DRIVE GEAR

1101

Fig. 27—Removing Pin From Distributor Gear

NOTE: Do not stretch the springs as this may distort the springs making it difficult to obtain adjustment.
Remove the lock ring attaching the breaker plate to
the upper bushing. Lift the breaker plate from the
housing. If required, disconnect and remove the primary
and ground wires.
(3) INSPECTION. Inspect the distributor shaft
and bushings for wear and replace if outside the limits.
The distributor shaft minimum diameter at the bushing is 0.4675 inch. The upper bushing manufacturing
limit inside diamejter is 0.4685-0.4695 inch.
(4) BUSHING REMOVAL. Drive out the lower
bushing with the distributor bushing remover as shown

EXTENSION TO FIT MACHINED
HOLE IN CYLINDER COVERDIE-CAST HOUSING
LONGER SHAFT

Puller

12390-N

•DISTRIBUTOR—OBA-12127

1102

1720

Fig. 20—8-Cylinder Distributor—0BA Type

Fig. 22—Removing Distributor Gear

65

Section 3—Distributor Overhaul
in fig. 23. Invert the distributor housing. Drive out the
upper bushing.
(5) BUSHING INSTALLATION. Place a new
lower bushing in position on the bushing installation
tool fig. 24. Place the distributor housing and the "A"
spacer on the tool. Turn the T-handle until the lower
bushing is flush with the distributor housing. Remove
the T-handle and the "A" spacer. Position the upper
bushing on the housing with the lock ring end up. Place
the "A" spacer over the bushing as shown in fig. 24.
Turn the T-handle until the spacer bottoms firmly
against the distributor housing. Burnish both bushings
to the proper size with a burnishing tool as shown in
fig. 25.
(6) BREAKER PLATE INSTALLATION. Install
the ground wire and the primary wire on the distributor
housing if they had been removed. Position the breaker
plate in the housing. Install the lock ring to secure the
breaker plate. Place the condenser lead, primary lead,
lock washer, and nut on the primary terminal, and
tighten the nut. Install the distributor point assembly.
Be sure the pivot pin enters the hole in the breaker
plate. Install the ground wire and the screw at the
adjustment slot end of the breaker assembly and the
screw and lock washer at the opposite end of the
assembly. Install the vacuum unit on the distributor
housing if previously removed during disassembly.
Install the two return springs on the adjustment and
body posts. Connect the vacuum unit rod to the breaker

T Handle
"A" Spacer

UPPER BUSHING
R SERIES DISTRIBUTOR

Screw Press-72732-P

1125
Fig. 24—Installing Bushing

plate, and attach the rod with the hair pin retainer.
(7) SHAFT INSTALLATION. Slide the shaft into
the housing. Place the spacer on the gear end of the
shaft (7RA & 8BA distributors only). On the OB A distributor slide the collar on the shaft. Install the pin and
peen the pin end. Press the gear on the shaft until
the hole in the gear and shaft are in alignment. End
clearance should be 0.002 to 0.005 inch. Insert the pin
through the shaft and peen the pin end.
If the shaft on the 7RA or 8BA distributor has been
replaced, it is necessary to position the gear on the
shaft with the marks on the end of the gear and shaft
in alignment. Establish the proper end play 0.002-0.005
inch then drill the shaft using a number 30 (0.1285)
drill.
If a new shaft is used on the 0BA type distributor,

Split Drift—72732

DISTRIBUTOR
HOUSING

LOWER BUSHING*

Fig. 23—Removing Bushings

1107

1103

Fig. 25—Burnishing Upper Bushing

Chapter III—Power Plant

66

it is necessary to position the collar on the shaft, establish the proper end play (0.002-0.005 inch) and drill the
shaft with a number 30 (0.1285) drill. Then install the
pin in the collar and peen the pin head.
Press the gear on the shaft until the bottom edge of

the gear is aligned with the junction of the two diameters
(0.94 inch from the end of the shaft). Drill a hole in
the shaft using a number 30 (0.1285) drill, install the
pin and peen the end. Adjust the distributor point
spacing. Adjust the vacuum advance.

4. CARBURETOR OPERATION, TESTS, AND ADJUSTMENTS
Carburetor operating principles, tests, and adjustments
are covered in this section under headings which describe the nature of the material contained. Adjustments
on the carburetor that pertain to the automatic transmission are covered in the Fordomatic Section.

a. Operation.
While some variation in design exists between the
6-cylinder and 8-cyUnder carburetors* each carburetor
has four fuel circuits and the principles involved are the
same for each. Minor variations in design are pointed
out throughout this presentation.
Each system is designed to supply the correct quantity -of fuel under a particular type of operation. The
operating principles of these separate circuits are presented under the following headings: "(1) Idle Fuel
System," "(2) Main Fuel System," "(3) Power Fuel
System," and "(4) Accelerating System."
The 8-cylinder carburetor construction is illustrated
in figures 26 and 27.
(1) IDLE FUEL SYSTEM. The idling system for
the different Ford carburetors are illustrated in figures
28 and 29.
The fuel from the carburetor bowl passes through the

1006
Fig. 26—8-Cy/inder Carburetor (Sectional View)

main metering jet and into the idle tube "F." Air is
introduced into the fuel stream by the idle air bleed "A"
and a small additional amount of air is bled in by a
small hole "B" in the aspirating nozzle. The idle mixture
goes around the aspirating nozzle, then travels down the
idle passages to the idle discharge holes "D" and "E."
When the engine is running at a speed of 450 r.p.m.,
the mixture is discharged from the lower hole "E" only.
As the throttle plate opens and the speed is increased,
the upper hole "D" starts discharging in addition to the
lower hole "E."
The action and timing are such that the discharge
from the upper hole "D" reaches a maximum at about
900 r.p.m., and then gradually becomes less effective
as the main nozzle starts to flow.
The lower discharge hole "E" is provided with an
idle adjusting screw. Turning this screw "out" gives a
richer mixture and turning the screw "in" gives a leaner
mixture.
(2), MAIN FUEL SYSTEM. The main fuel system
starts to operate as the idle system becomes less
effective and the main nozzle starts to deliver fuel (fig.
30 and 31). This occurs at about 900 r.p.m. Between
900 r.p.m. and 1250 r.p.m. there is a definite blend of
the idle system and the main metering system. In this

1698
Fig. 27—8-Cylinder Carburetor (Idle System)

Section 4—Carburetor Operation, Tests, and Adjustments

67

ASPIRATING NOZZLE

FLOAT CHAMBER VENT
" S " SPRING
POPPET VALVE "T"

NOZZLE BAR
CLAMPS

WIDE OPEN
CHOKE LOCK
MAIN BODY
GASKET

' H " MAIN FUEL
SUPPLY AIR BLEED

" F " IDLE TUBE

"A"
IDLE AIR BLEED

MAIN JET

IDLE PASSAGE

DRAIN PLUG

IDLE MIXTURE
ADJUSTING SCREW

THROTTLE
BARREL GASKET

MN VERTICAL WELL
NOZZLE BAR
GASKETS

" D " IDLE
DISCHARGE HOLES (UPPER)
" I " IDLE DISCHARGE HOLE (LOWER)

1605

•O" MAIN NOZZLE

1607

MAIN JET

Fig. 28—8-Cylinder Carburetor Idle Fuel System

range, all the fuel passes through the main jets up
through the main vertical well to the angle channel.
Here the fuel is atomized by the high speed bleed
"H" and an additional supply of air is introduced to
this mixture by the bleeder plug before being
discharged through vertical passage "G" into venturi.
(3) POWER FUEL SYSTEM. The power vacuum
piston and spring are actuated by the vacuum below
the throttle plate. At idle speed, vacuum is high but
decreases as the load increases. The diaphragm (on
8-cyUnder carburetors only) actuated by the vacuum,
holds the power valve "J" on its seat until the vacuum
drops to about 6 to 6.5 inches of mercury, which is not
high enough to resist the action of the spring "K" (fig.
33). Oil the 6-cylinder (fig. 32), the piston (actuated
by vacuum) and the spring are held in the "up" position
which allows the valve "J" to remain closed until the
vacuum drops to approximately 6.5 to 7.5 inches of
mercury.
Under load, as in climbing hills, etc., the vacuum
FLOAT CHAMBER VENT
"S" SPRING

Fig. 30—8-Cylinder Carburetor Main Fuel System

drops because it becomes necessary to open the throttle
wider in order to maintain speed. When the vacuum
drops below 6.5 inches of mercury, on the 8-cylinder
and below 7.5 inches on the 6-cylinder, the power valve
"J" is opened by the spring "K" on the 8-cylinder and
closed on the 6-cylinder carburetor. The fuel then flows
into the power valve chamber, through the high speed
restrictions, and into the main discharge nozzle. This
gives the additional fuel required for high speeds, for
heavy loads, and for low speeds at full throttle.

(4) ACCELERATING SYSTEM. The accelerating
pump illustrated in figs. 34 and 35 is connected directly
to the throttle linkage, and its function is to enrich the
mixture temporarily for rapid acceleration. The fuel is
drawn into the pump chamber, through the pump inlet
passage, and the pump inlet ball check valve "N," on
the upward stroke of the pump piston "O." When the
throttle is opened, the piston moves downward, closing
the pump check valve and overcoming the weight of
the pump discharge needle valve "P." The accelerating
fuel then goes around this valve, and out the pump
discharge jet.
ASPIRATING NOZZLE

POPPET VALVE "T"
"A"
IDLE AIR BLEED

WIDE OPEN
CHOKIE LOCK

"C" IDLE PASSAGE

" H " MAIN
FUEL SUPPLY
AIR BLEED

"F" IDLE TUBE

MAIN BODY
GASKET

IDLE DISCHARGE
HOLE (UPPER)

MAIN
VERTICAL WELL

NOZZLE BAR
CLAMPS

NOZZLE BAR
GASKETS
•G" MAIN NOZZLE

MAIN JET

" I " IDLE DISCHARGE
HOLE (LOWER)

IDLE MIXTURE
ADJUSTING SCREW
1606

Fig. 29—6-Cylinder Carburetor Idle Fuel System

1608
Fig. 31—6-Cylinder Carburetor Main Fuel System

Chapter III—Power Plant

68
AIR BLEED PLUG
(ASPIRATING NOZZLE)

PUMP OPERATING R O D CHOKE TORSION SPRING
CHOKE PLATE
CHOKE LEVER

PUMP SPRING

RELIEF VAL

PUMP
DISCHARGE
VALVE " P "

PUMP DISCHARGE
NOZZLE
MAIN
VERTICAL
WELL M

OZZLE BAR
GASKETS
HIGH SPEED
DISCHARGE

POWER VALVE " J
POWER VAL
SPRING K

THROTTLE
PLATE

PUMP PISTON " O f

ACCELERATING
PUMP LINK " R "
IDLE SPEED
ADJUSTING SCREW
THROTTLE-IS
AUTOMATICA
OPENED TO ST
POSITION BY CHOKE LEVER

PISTON EXPANDER SPRING
UMP INLET CHECK VALVE " N "

PUMP ADJUSTMENTS

1613

Fig. 34—Accelerating System—8-Cylinder Carburetor

POWER VALVE
CONTROL PASSAGE " L "
1612

Fig. 32—6-Cylinder Carburetor Power Supply System

A slot in the pump piston stem allows the pump
operating rod to overrun the pump piston when the
throttle is opened suddenly. This overrun causes the
pump piston to be subjected to the pressure of the
spring thereby giving a prolonged discharge of the
accelerating fuel.

b. Adjusting Idle Fuel Mixture.
The idle fuel mixture is controlled by the idle mixture
adjusting screw. Turn the screw "in" to restrict the
mixture flow, and turn the screw "out" to increase the
mixture flow. Make the initial idle fuel adjustment by
turning the idle adjustment screws "in" (6-cylinder
AIR BLEED PLUG (ASPIRATING NOZZLE)
MAIN VERTICAL WELL " M "

NOZZLE BAR
GASKETS

carburetor has only one screw) until it lightly touches
the seat. Then back off approximately one turn.

CAUTION: Do not turn the screw against its seat
tight enough to groove the point. If screw is
damaged, it must be replaced before proper idle
adjustment can be obtained.
Start the engine and allow it to run at idle speed
until normal operating temperature is reached.
Adjust the idle mixture to the highest and steadiest
vacuum reading. If a vacuum gauge is not available, turn
the adjusting screw out until the engine begins to "roll,"
then turn screw "in" until engine slows down. Turn the
screw out until an even smooth idle at the correct idle
speed is obtained. It may be necessary to reset the idle
speed stop screw after the idle mixture is obtained.

c. Adjusting Idle Speed.
A stop screw controls the engine idle speed (figs.
36 and 37). Turn the idle stop screw "in" to increase
the engine speed and "out" to decrease the engine
speed. Idle speed should be 475 to 500 r.p.m. (425 r.p.m.
on cars equipped with automatic transmission).
PUMP OPERATING ROD
CHOKE PLATE RELIEF VALVE

CHOKE
TORSION SPRING
CHOKE LEVER

PUMP SPRING
CHOKE PLATE
MAIN JET

PUMP DISCHARGE
NOZZLE

HIGH SPEED
DISCHARGE
POWER VALVE
SPRING " K "

PUMP DISCHARGE
VALVE " P "
PUMP INLET
CHECK VALVE " N

POWER VALVE " J "
THROTTLE IS AUTOMATICALLY
OPENED TO STARTING
POSITION BY CHOKE LEVER

HIGH SPEED GAS
RESTRICTION
THROTTLE PLATE
POWER VALVE CONTROL PASSAGE " L "

1610

Fig. 33—8-Cylinder Carburetors Power Supply System

^ACCELERATING PUMP
LINK " R "
PUMP
ADJUSTMENT

IDLE SPEED
ADJUSTING SCREW

Fig. 35—6-Cylinder Accelerating System

1615

Section 4—Carburetor Operation, Tests, and Adjustments

69

IDLE MIXTURE ADJUSTMENT

Float Position Gauge
6-Cylinder and V-8

FLOAT

LINK

9505-A

CARBURETOR
AIR H O R N
IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT

11618

Fig. 36—6-Cylinder Carburetor

d. Adjusting Accelerating Pump Stroke.
The quantity of fuel discharged by the accelerating
pump is controlled by changing the position of the
pump link in the throttle lever holes. Three positions
are provided, the shortest stroke (closest hole to the
throttle plate) is suitable for hot weather operation.
The center hole should be used for average conditions.
The longest stroke (hole farthest from throttle) which
provides the greatest accelerating charge is suitable for
cold weather operation.

e. Checking Accelerating Pump.
Remove the air cleaner. Operate the throttle and
observe the fuel flow from the discharge outlet. When
the system is in good condition a quick steady stream

1122

Fig. 38—8-Cylinder Carburetor Float Adjustment
will flow from the discharge outlet the instant the
throttle is opened.

f. Checking and Adjusting Float Level.
Hold the air horn upside down and with the float in
the closed position as shown in fig. 38. Check the
dimension from the flange surface of the air horn to
the bottom side of the float (not the soldered seam).
The correct distance is 1.322 to 1.353 inches.
To correct the float setting, bend the float lever arm
up or down to bring the float within the limits.

5. 6-CYLINDER CARBURETOR OVERHAUL
The procedure for removing, overhauling, and installing the 6-cylinder carburetor is given under the
following headings: "a. Removal," "b. Disassembly,"
"c. Cleaning," "d. Assembly," and "e. Installation."
Carburetors with and without automatic transmission
throttle lever are illustrated infig.39.

a. Removal.
Remove the air cleaner. Disconnect the accelerator
rod and choke wire from the carburetor. Remove the
line connecting the fuel pump to the carburetor. Disconnect the distributor vacuum, line. Remove the
carburetor holding nuts and lodk washers. Lift the
carburetor and gaskets off the manifold.

(1) REMOVE AIR HORN. Remove the carburetor
fast idler rod clips and fast idle rod. Remove the screws
holding the air horn on the main body and lift the air
horn and the gasket off the main body.
(2) REMOVE THROTTLE BODY. Remove the
carburetor accelerator pump to throttle shaft lever
retainer and lever. Remove the throttle body to main
body screws and separate the throttle body and gasket
from the main body.
(3) DISASSEMBLE MAIN BODY. Lift the accelerating pump assembly from the main body. Remove
the two nozzle bar clamps and lift the nozzle bar out of

b. Disassembly.
The throttle plate and shaft, and the choke plate
and shaft should not be removed from the carburetor
unless absolutely necessary as difficulty may be encountered when installing these parts in their correct position.

LINK

IDLE FUEL
ADJUSTMENT

1617

Fig. 37—8-Cylinder Carburetor

AUTOMATIC
TRANSMISSION

Fig. 39—1951 6-Cylinder Carburetors

1724

70

Chapter III—Power Plant

the main body. Remove the power valve. Remove the
main jet. Remove the pump discharge valve retainer.
Remove the carburetor pump check ball retainer with
a wire with a hook at one end. Place a hand over the
top of the main body, and turn the body over, being
careful to catch the pump check ball and the pump
discharge valve. Remove the idle tube and nozzle air
bleed plug from the nozzle bar.
(4) DISASSEMBLE AIR HORN. Remove the
float hinge pin and float from the air horn. Lift the float
needle valve from the valve seat. Remove the float
needle valve seat. Pull the power valve piston assembly
from air horn. Remove the choke lever, choke lever
plunger, and spring.
If absolutely necessary, remove the two choke plate
screws, hold the choke lever in the open position, and
remove the choke plate shaft and spring.
(5) DISASSEMBLE THROTTLE BODY. Remove
the carburetor idle adjustment needle and spring fig. 40.
If necessary, remove the throttle plate screws and slide
the throttle plate out of the throttle shaft. Remove the
shaft nut, lock washer, and accelerator pump lever.

c. Cleaning and Inspection.
Many carburetor troubles are the result of deposits
accumulating in the carburetor. A thorough cleaning
must be performed to assure the satisfactory performance of the carburetor. Clean all parts in solvent.
(1) THROTTLE BODY. Remove all gum and
varnish from the throttle bore. Clean the upper and
lower idle discharge hole with a number 53 (0.0595)
drill. Clean the distributor vacuum hole at the venturi
(upper hole) with a number 56 (0.0465) drill and the
THROTTLE ADJUSTMENTSCREW

lower hole with a number 55 (0.052) drill.
Inspect the fit of the throttle plate when held in the
closed position and observe the amount of light that
can be seen around the edges of the plate. A very snug
fit is necessary for proper idling and low speed operation. The complete assembly should be discarded if
wear or looseness is evident. Replace the idle adjusting
needle if a ridge is visible on the valve surface.
(3) MAIN BODY. Clean all passages with compressed air. Replace the main body if it is cracked, has
nicks large enough to permit leakage at any gasket
surface, or if it has stripped threads.
Inspect the accelerating pump and replace the pump
piston spring if it is broken. Replace the pump piston
if the leather cup is worn or damaged, or if the piston
expanding spring is broken.
Inspect the idle tube and replace if it is plugged, bent,
damaged, or the screw driver slot is damaged. Replace
the pump discharge needle if it is ridged. Replace the
nozzle bar air bleed plug if it is clogged, threads are
stripped, or if the screw driver slot is damaged. Replace
the power valve if it is leaking, has a broken spring,
or if the valve will not seat.
(4) AIR HORN. Replace the air horn if it is
cracked or has nicks large enough to permit leakage
at any gasket surface.
Close the choke plate and hold the horn in position
to observe the fit of the plate in the air horn. If the
choke plate does not fit tightly or if the shaft is loose,
replace the air horn assembly.
Inspect the solder on the float to make certain the
float does not leak. Inspect the float for leaks by holding the float under water that has been heated to just
below the boiling point. Bubbles will appear if the float
leaks. Another method to detect a leaking float is to

1

THROTTLE PLATE—9585
IDLE ADJUSTMENT
NEEDLE— 9541

AIR HORN ASSEMBLY

MAIN BODY GASKET

THROTTLE PLATE
SCREWS-9586

THROTTLE AND
CHOKE CONTROL
BRACKET

FAST IDLE R O D - *
MAIN BODY ASSEMBLY

THROTTLE BODY GASKET

IDLER LEVER—9584

PUMP
OPERATING
LEVER—9583

THROTTLE BODY
ASSEMBLY
PUMP LINK RETAINER-9599
PUMP LINK—9526

Fig. 40—6-CyUnder Carburetor Throttle Body,
Disassembled

1007
Fig. 41—6-Cylinder Carburetor, Disassembled

1623

Section 5—6-Cylinder Carburetor Overhaul

71
WASHER—9632
SCREW-31077-S
WASHER

PUMP OPERATING
ROD—9531

CARBURETOR
REPAIR KIT

NOZZLE BAR CLAMP
9928
IDLE TUBE-9542
SPRING-

NOZZLE AIR BLEED
PLUG—9924
GASKET-9925
^ * - SCREW - 3 1 0 7 7 - S
fF^WASHER
Cf
^^-NOZZLEBAR
^
^ ^ CLAMP—9928

PISTON-9631
POWER VALVE
67-9594
POWER VALVE
GASKET
PUMP CHECK BALL
RETAINER-9575

NOZZLE BAR
9920
ZZLE BAR
GASKET-9926

MAIN METERING
JET-9533
PUMP DISCHARGE
NEEDLE—78-9594
MAIN BODY—9512^

1511

Fig. 42—6-Cylinder Carburetor Overhaul Kit

shake the float and see if gasoline can be detected inside
the float. If the float leaks, replace1 it with a new one.
Polish the fuel needle contact surface of the float arm.
Inspect the fuel inlet needle valve and seat, and
replace both parts if there is any indication of wear on
either part. The parts are supplied in matched sets.
Make a visual inspection of the choke lever for wear
in the "v" opening. Replace the choke lever if excessive
wear is evident.

d. Assembly,
Always install new gaskets when rebuilding the
carburetor. A carburetor overhaul kit is also available
FLOAT LEVER SHAFT—9558
FLOAT—9550

POWER
VALVE PISTON
ASSEMBLY—9904

FUEL NEEDLE VALVE AND SEAT

9564

CHOKE PLATE
9549
CHOKE LEVER PLUNGER SPRING
9587

PUMP CHECK BALL—95<

Fig, 44—6-Cylinder Carburetor Main Body,
Disassembled

and contains the parts shown in fig. 42. Figure 41
illustrates the carburetor disassembled.
(1) ASSEMBLE AIR HORN. Install the float
needle valve seat and new gasket fig. 43. Install the
choke shaft and choke shaft spring if these parts had
been removed. Be sure the choke shaft spring is on
the peg provided on the air horn so the choke plate
will remain in the closed position. Place the choke
plate in the shaft, and install new choke plate screws
but do not tighten the screws. Centralize the valve by
tapping it lightly. Hold the valve in place while tightening the screws. Stake the screws in place on the shaft.
Install the choke lever, plunger, and spring on the
air horn. Place the choke lever on the boss. Make sure
the stop on the choke shaft lever is in the "v" of the
choke lever. Install the piston and stem power valve
piston assembly in the air horn.
Install the float needle valve and float in the air horn.
Adjust the float level to 1.322-1.353 inches.
(2) ASSEMBLE MAIN BODY. Place a new gasket
on the power valve and install the valve in the main
body (fig. 44). Install the correct size main jet. Table
3 shows the available main jets. Place the pump check
ball in the forward hole in the pump bore. Install the
Table 3—6-Cy/inder Carburetor Main Jets

CHOKE LEVER PLUNGER-9537
CHOKE LEVER—9548
AIR HORN
9524
WASHER
CHOKE SHAFT AND LEVER

VI

9546

1
CHOKE PLATE SCREWS
9586

SCREW

1633

Fig, 43—6-Cylinder Carburetor Air Horn, Disassembled

1949,and Early
1950 Jet

Carburetor
Part No.

Use

8HA-9510-A

Late 1950 and
1951 Jet
Part No.

Size

Part No.

Size

Up to 5,000 ft. alt.

5GA-9533-A

0.065

8HA-9510-B

5,000 to 10,000
ft. alt.

5GA-9533-B

0.063

1GA-9533-B

0.062

8HA-9510-C

10,000 to 15,000
ft. alt.

5GA-9533-C

0.061

1GA-9533-C

0.060

8HA-9510-D 15,000 ft. alt. and up 5GA-9533-D 0.059

1GA-9533-A 0.064

1GA-9533-D 0.058

72

Chapter III—Power Plant

check ball retainer in the pump bore, making sure the
bent end of the retainer is over the check ball. Install
the pump discharge needle and retainer. Install the idle
tube (fig. 44) in the nozzle bar. Place a new gasket on
each nozzle seat in the main body. Position the nozzle bar
and install the nozzle bar clamps, lock washers, and
screws. Install the air bleed plug and gasket. Install the
pump piston assembly.
(3) ASSEMBLE THROTTLE BODY. Install the
adjusting needle and spring.
If throttle plate and shaft were removed, slide the
shaft into the throttle body. Install the accelerating
pump lever and secure with the lock washer and nut.
Place the throttle plate in the shaft, and install new
throttle plate screws but do not tighten the screws.
Centralize the valve by tapping it lightly. Hold the valve
in place while tightening screws. Stake the screws.
(4) ASSEMBLE THROTTLE BODY TO MAIN
BODY. Position a new throttle body gasket on the main
body and secure the throttle body to the main body.
Insert the grooved pin (long pin) of the pump link in

the pump operating rod and the other pin in the pump
operating lever. Install the pump link retainer in the
groove of the pin. The hole farthest from the pivot point
is for extreme cold temperatures. The hole nearest to
the pivot is for extreme hot temperatures. The center
hole is for average driving conditions.
(5) ASSEMBLE AIR HORN TO MAIN BODY.
Position a new gasket on the main body. Position the
air horn on the main body and secure with the screws.
Be sure to install the choke control bracket under the
rear screw. Install the idle lever on the throttle body.
Install a cotter pin to secure the lever in place. Connect
the fast idle rod to the choke shaft lever. Connect the
idle lever to the fast: idle rod.

e. Installation.
Position a new gasket on the manifold. Place the
carburetor on the manifold and secure with the lock
washers and nuts. Tighten the nuts evenly. Connect
the choke, and throttle linkage to the carburetor. Connect the fuel line and the distributor vacuum line. Place
air cleaner on the carburetor and tighten clamp.

6. 8-CYLINDER CARBURETOR OVERHAUL
The procedure for removing, overhauling, and installing the 8*cyUnder carburetor is covered in this section
under "a. Removal," "b. Disassembly," *c. Cleaning and
Inspection," "d. Assembly," and "e. Installation."

Remove the line connecting the fuel pump to the carburetor. Disconnect the distributor vacuum line. Remove
^
V "

a. Removal.

•NOZZLE BAR CLAMP SCREWS
*LOCKWASHERS
^ NOZZLE BAR CLAMP SCREWS
^r^^LOCKWASHERS

Remove the air cleaner. Disconnect the accelerator rod
and choke wire at the carburetor.

NOZZLE BAR CLAMPS—9928
IDLE TUBES—9542
NOZZLE BAR AIR BLEED PLUGS-9924
»AIR BLEED PLUG GASKETS-9925
-NOZZLE BAR L.H.—9923
, NOZZLE BAR GASKETS
9926 (4 USED)

SCREWS

SCREW
31596-S

Hflt
WASHERS— 34803-S7
AIR H O R N - 9 5 2 4

FLOAT-9550

WASHER-34703-S
CHOKE LEVER-9805

BODY GASKET
9519

PUMP OPERATING»
ROD—9531
PISTON—9642
CARBURETOR THROTTLEKICKER-9597

•MAIN BODY
9512

13

SCREW-*" ;
DRAIN PLUGS
9562

WASHER

SPRIN
9599

THROTTLE BODY
GASKET—9516

ACCELERATING
PUMP LINK—9526

THROTTLE BODY
9518

WASHERS— 34804
WASHER—34805-S

SCREW-31646-S
SCREWS—31079-S

Fig. 45—8-Cylinder Carburetor, Disassembled

STRAINER-9542^^^™^/
"OZ%22RRM'^^^Wm

9922
^UKb>
LEVER-9531^^pr
WASHER-9632^^

J^SSS^
/

PUMP DS
I CHARGE

' ^^

CARBURETOR
^<Mm*.BODY-9512

jKr S
y NOZZLE GASKET-9580
'
W /
P U M P DISCHARGE
«
S
S
NEEDLE-9594

SPRING-9636
^Bfe.
ACCELERATOR
PUMP PISTON—9631
PUMP BALL
CHECK RETAINER-9575
PUMP BALL CHECK- 9576
THROTTLE KICKER-9597

IDLE SPEED ADJUSTMENT
SCREW
THROTTLE KICKER SPRING- 9599MAIN METERING JETS— 953:
DRAIN PLUGS GASKETS— 9563
DRAIN PLUGS—9562'
POWER VALVE GASKET-9909
|
POWER VALVE—9904

1008
1207

Fig. 46—8-Cylinder Carburetor Main Body,
Disassembled

73

Section 6— 8-Cylinder Carburetor Overhaul
the carburetor holding nuts and lock washers then lift
the carburetor and gaskets off the manifold.

CHOKE PLATE-9549

b. Disassembly.

•TENSION SPRING—9539

The throttle plate and shaft and the choke plate and
shaft should not be removed from the carburetor, unless
absolutely necessary as difficulty may be encountered in
installing these parts in their correct position.
(1) REMOVE CHOKE LEVER AND THROTTLE
KICKER. Remove the screw and flat washer that secure
the choke lever to the air horn, and remove the lever,
fig. 45. Lift the choke lever plunger and spring from the
air horn. Remove the screw and washer holding the
throttle kicker to the main body. Lift the throttle kicker
and spring from the main body. Disconnect the pump
link from the pump rod and throttle shaft lever.
(2) REMOVE THROTTLE BODY AND AIR
HORN FROM MAIN BODY. Remove the screws holding the throttle body to the main body. Lift the throttle
body and gasket from the main body. Remove the
screws holding the air horn on the main body. Lift the
air horn and gasket from the main body.
(3) DISASSEMBLE MAIN BODY. Lift the accelerating pump assembly from the main body (fig. 46).
Remove the screw from each nozzle bar clamp and
remove the clamps. Lift the pump discharge nozzle and
the two nozzle bars from the main body. Remove the
two drain plugs and gaskets from the main body. Remove
the two main jets as shown in fig. 47. Remove the power
valve and gasket. Remove the pump check ball retainer
from the main body. A tool for this operation can be made
by bending the end of a small wire to form a hook. Insert
the hook into the bore and engage the end of the retainer. Turn the assembly upside down, besure to catch the
pump check ball and pump discharge needle.
(4) DISASSEMBLE AIR HORN. Remove the float
lever shaft, float, and float needle valve from the air horn
(fig. 48). Remove the float needle valve seat with a jet
wrench. Remove the screws holding the choke plate to

CHOKE PLATE SCREWS—9586
AIR HORN
9524

CHOKE LEVER AND
SHAFT-9546
CHOKE LEVER

9805

»-CHOKE LEVER PLUNGER
9537
•PLUNGER SPRING-9587
FLOAT LEVER SHAFT-9558

VALVE AND SEAT-9564

1635

Fig. 48—8-Cylinder Carburetor Air Horn, Disassembled

the choke shaft. Remove the choke plate from the shaft,
then remove the shaft.
(5) DISASSEMBLE THROTTLE BODY. Remove
the two idle fuel needles and springs (fig. 49). Remove
the throttle plates. Remove the throttle lever stop spring
and throttle lever. Slide the shaft out of the throttle body.

c. Cleaning and Inspection.
Many carburetor troubles are the result of deposits
accumulating in the carburetor. A thorough cleaning
must be performed to assure the satisfactory performance of the carburetor.
rTHROTTLE PLATES-9585

CARBURETOR BODY

BODY-9518

THROTTLE SHAFT

AND LEVER-9581

MAIN JETS

Jet Wrench-9510-A

IDLE FUEL ADJUSTMENT
NEEDLES-9541
THROTTLE PLATE SCREWS

9586

1508

Fig. 47--Removing Main Jet from 8-Cylinder
Carburetor

1626

Fig. 49—8-Cylinder Throttle Body, Disassembled

74

Chapter III—Power Plant

Clean all parts in a cleaning solvent except the carburetor power valve. Cleaning solvent may damage the
power valve diaphragm.
(1) THROTTLE BODY. Make certain that any
gum or varnish is removed from the throttle bores. Clean
the upper idle feed holes in the throat above the throttle
plates with drills number 60 (.0.040) and number 65
(0.035), drill and the lower idle discharge holes with
a number 56 (0.0465) drill. Clean the distributor
vacuum hole in the carburetor throttle body with a number 56 (0.0465) drill. Clean the idle adjusting holes.
Inspect the fit of the throttle plates when held in
the closed position and observe the amount of light that
can be seen around the edges of the plate. A very snug
fit is necessary for proper idling and low speed operation. The complete assembly should be discarded if wear
or looseness is evident.
Replace the idle adjusting needle if a ridge is visible
on the valve surface of the needle.
(2) MAIN BODY. Clean all passages with compressed air. Replace the main body if it is cracked, has
nicks large enough to permit leakage at any gasket
surface, or if it has stripped threads.
Inspect the accelerating pump and replace the pump
piston spring if it is broken. Replace the pump piston
if the leather cup is worn or damaged, or if the piston
expander spring is broken.
Inspect the idle tube and replace if it is plugged, bent,
damaged, or the screw driver slot is damaged. Replace
the pump discharge needle if it is ridged. Replace the
nozzle bar air bleed plug if it is clogged, threads are
stripped, or if the screw driver slot is damaged.
Replace the pump discharge nozzle if it is plugged,
broken, or damaged in any way.
Examine the power valve seat and replace the body
if the seat is damaged so that the valve will not seat
properly. This would cause fuel to leak into the lower
body and affect the fuel mixture.
(3) AIR HORN. Replace the air horn if it is cracked
or has nicks large enough to permit leakage at any
gasket surface.
Close the choke plate and hold the air horn in position to observe the fit of the plates in the air horn. If the

choke plate does not fit tightly or the shaft is loose,
replace the air horn assembly.
Inspect the solder on the float to make certain the
float does not leak. Inspect the float for leaks by holding
the float under water that has been heated to just below
the boiling point. Bubbles will appear if the float leaks.
A leaking float can frequently be detected by shaking
the float vigorously, and observe the noise made by any
fuel inside the float. If the float leaks replace with a
new float. Polish the fuel needle contact surface of the
float arm.
Inspect the fuel inlet needle valve and seat, and
replace both parts if there is any indication of wear on
either parts as the fuel needle valve and seat are
matched in sets. Make a visual inspection of the choke
lever for wear in the "v" opening which operates the
lever on the choke plate shaft. Replace the choke lever
if the wear is excessive.

d. Assembly.
Always use new gaskets when rebuilding the carburetor. The gasket kit shown in fig. 50 is available from
Ford Dealers. An overhaul carburetor kit is also available and contains the parts shown in fig. 51.
(1) ASSEMBLE AIR HORN. Install the float
needle valve seat and new gasket. Install the choke shaft
and choke shaft spring in the air horn. Be sure the choke
shaft spring is in the slot provided in the air horn so the
choke plate will remain in the closed position. Place the
choke plate in the shaft and install new choke plate
screws but do not tighten the screws. Centralize the
valve by tapping it lightly. Hold the valve in place while
tightening the screws. Stake the screws in place on the
shaft. Install the float needle valve and float in the air
horn. Adjust the float level to 1.322-1.353 inches.
(2) ASSEMBLE MAIN BODY. Install standard
size number 51 main jets for sea level operation. At altitudes of 5,000 to 10,000 feet use number 49 and higher
altitudes use number 47. Install the two drain plugs

Oo ooo
O ooo

• O
Fig. 50—8-Cylinder Carburetor Gasket Kit

1507

Fig. 51—8-Cylinder Carburetor Repair Kit

Section 6—8-Cylinder Carburetor Overhaul
with new drain plug gaskets. Install the power valve,
using a new gasket. Position the pump discharge needle,
pump discharge nozzle, and a new gasket in the main
body. Place four new nozzle bar gaskets in the main
body. Place the two nozzle bars in position with the air
bleeds close to the pump discharge nozzle and secure
with the two nozzle bar clamps.
NOTE: The two long screws are used at the pump
discharge side.
Install the pump check ball and retainer. Install the
accelerator pump.
(3) ASSEMBLE THROTTLE BODY. Insert the
throttle shaft in the throttle body. Position the throttle
valve in the shaft. Install new throttle valve screws but
do not tighten them. Centralize valves by tapping lightly
and hold in place while tightening the throttle valve
screws. Stake the screws in position. Install the throttle
lever, spring, and throttle lever stop.
(4) INSTALL THROTTLE BODY AND AIR

75

HORN ON MAIN BODY. Place a new throttle body
gasket on the main body. Secure the throttle body to
the main body with three screws and lock washers.
Place a new gasket on the main body and secure the
air horn to the main body with the screws and lock
washers. Install the accelerator pump link and be sure
to use the correct adjustment hole.
(5) INSTALL CHOKE LEVER AND THROTTLE
KICKER. Attach the throttle kicker and spring to the
main body with a screw and flat washer. Install the
choke lever plunger spring and plunger in the main
body. Install the choke lever.

e. Installation.
Position a new gasket on the manifold. Place the carburetor on the manifold, install the lock washer and
nuts. Tighten the nuts evenly. Connect the choke and
throttle linkage to the carburetor. Connect the fuel line
and the distributor vacuum line. Place the air cleaner
on the carburetor, and tighten the clamp.

.7. FUEL PUMPS AND VACUUM BOOSTER
The fuel pump used on the 6 and 8-cylinder engines
are the same except differences in the method of operating these pumps. The 8-cylinder fuel pump is driven
by a push rod which is activated by an eccentric on the
camshaft (fig. 52).
The 6-cylinder fuel pump is driven directly off the
camshaft eccentric (fig. 53).
A combination fuel pump and vacuum booster is
available as standard equipment on late 1950 and 1951
cars equipped with Overdrive. This unit is actuated by
the camshaft as the single fuel pump assemblies. The
operation, testing, replacement, and overhaul of the 6
and 8-cylinder fuel pump as given in "a. Fuel Pumps."
"b. Fuel Pump and Vacuum Booster" covers the operation, testing, replacement, and overhaul of the combination fuel pump and vacuum booster.

a. Fuel Pumps.
For servicing the fuel pump, kits are available for
both the 6 and 8-cylinder engines (fig. 54 and 55).
(1) OPERATION. The rotation of the camshaft

1637

Fig. 52-—8-Cylinder Engine Fuel Pump

eccentric actuates the rocker arm "A" (through a push
rod in the 8-cylinder engine fig. 56) which pulls the
link "B" and diaphragm "C" downward against spring
pressure "D," which creates a vacuum in the pump
chamber "E."
On the suction stroke of the pump, fuel from the gas
tank enters through the inlet into the sediment bowl
"F" and passes through the strainer "G" and then
through the inlet valve "H" into the pump chamber "E."
On the return stroke, spring pressure "D" pushes the
diaphragm upward, forcing the fuel from the chamber
"E" through the outlet valve "J" and through chamber
"K" to the carburetor.
(
When the carburetor bowl is filled to the correct level,
the float valve will close, thus creating a pressure in the
pump chamber "E." This pressure holds the diaphragm
"C" downward against spring pressure "D" where it will
remain inoperative until the carburetor requires further
fuel and the float opens the float valve.
(2) TESTS. The following fuel pump tests can be
performed with the fuel pump on the engine.

1638

Fig. 53—6-Cy//nefer Engine Fuel Pump

76

Chapter Ill—Power Plant

FUSJ.
GASKET-9417

CHAMBER " K "
OUTLET VALVE " J "

GASK

CHAMBER " E "
STRAINER " G 1

DIAPHRAGM " C "

ROCKER ARM " A "
1640

SPRING-9380

Fig. 56—Cross Section of 8-Cylinder Engine Fuel Pump

VALVE-9352
DIAPHRAGM-9398
1642

Fig. 54-8-Cylinder

Fuel Pump Repair Kit

(a) PRESSURE TEST. Disconnect the carburetor line
at the fuel pump and attach a fuel pump pressure test
gauge to fuel pump outlet (fig. 57).
Operate the engine at idle speed on the fuel remaining in the carburetor and observe the pressure reading
on the gauge. Pressure reading should be 4 to 5 pounds
per square inch for 6 cylinder and 3V2 to 41/2 for 8-cylinder engines.
(b) VACUUM TEST. Install the vacuum gauge on the
inlet side of the fuel pump. Operate the engine at idle
speed and observe the reading on the gauge. The pump
GASKET-9364

ARM-9376

vacuum should increase until the gauge indicates a
vacuum of at least 10 inches of mercury. Stop the engine
and the gauge pointer should fall slowly at a rate which
will not allow it to reach zero in less than one minute.
If the rate is faster the intake valve is at fault.
(c) CAPACITY TEST. The capacity test is necessary
only when the pressure is within specifications.
Install a fitting with rubber tubing on the fuel pump
outlet. Position the end of the rubber tube in a pint
measure at the same height as the carburetor. Operate
the engine at idle speed. Observe the time required to
fill the one pint measure (should be 45 seconds or less).
(3) REMOVAL. The procedure for removing the
fuel pump from the 6- and 8-cylinder engines is given
below:
(a) 6-CYLINDER. Disconnect the two fuel lines at the
fuel pump. Remove the two cap screws and the fuel
pump from the engine block.
(b) 8-CYLINDER, Disconnect the two fuel lines at the
the dash connection, and unscrew the line from the
pump. Disconnect the fuel pump to carburetor fuel line.
Remove the two cap screws and the fuel pump.
(4) DISASSEMBLY. Remove the glass sediment
bowl gasket and screen. Scratch a line on the pump
PRESSURE. SCALE 0 TO 5 POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH
VACUUM SCALE
HOSE
0 TO 3 0 " MERCURY
\
VACUUM TEST
ATTACH
CORRECT
ADAPTER

RETAINER-9468
SCREEN-9368

GASKET-9367

\

/

OIL SEAL-9469

Fig. 55—6-Cylinder Pump Repair Kit

1512

CARBURETOR
DISCONNECT CARBURETOR FUEL1
LINE FROM FUEL PUMP

CARBURETOR!
FUEL PI
DISCONNECT FUEL LINE FROM
FUEL PUMP TO GAS TANK
1121

. 57—Fuel Pump Vacuum and Pressure Tests

Section 7—Fuel Pumps and Vacuum Booster
cover and body so that on reassembly inlet and outlet
holes will be in the correct position.
Remove the upset end of the rocker arm pin and
drive out the rocker arm pin using a long drift.
Remove the screws holding the cover to the pump
body while holding down on the fuel cover until all
screws are removed.
Turn diaphragm slightly to unhook the eye in the
pull rod from the rocker arm and remove the diaphragm
and spring. Remove the rocker arm and spring. Remove
the valve plate and lift the intake and outlet valves from
the cover. Figure 58 illustrates the relative position of
the 8-cylinder fuel pump parts. The 6-cylinder pump is
similar except the method of drive is different.
(5) CLEANING AND INSPECTION. Clean the
bowl, and fuel pump housing. Make certain that all corrosion is removed. Inspect the housing for cracks or
other damage and replace if required. It is advisable
to install the parts included in the repair kit when
rebuilding the fuel pump.
NOTE: Always use new gaskets when rebuilding
fuel pump.

a

(6) ASSEMBLY. Position the rocker arm and bushing in the 6-cylinder fuel pump body. For the 8-cylinder pump, place the link rocker arm bushing and rocker
arm in position in the body.
Install the rocker arm pin. Place the diaphragm spring
and diaphragm in the body, and hook the diaphragm
pull rod on the lower link Install the rocker arm spring
in the rocker arm. Install the valve gaskets, valves, and
SCREW
31628-S
OCK
WASHER
34803-S
Y-9354
GASKET-9367
VALVE-9352
JE-9361
SCREW
26466.S

SHIPPING PLUG-9411
SCREEN-9368
VALVEGASKET-9;

ROCKER ARM
(6 CYL.J-9376

77

plate in the pump cover. Hold the rocker arm in the
up position and position the cover on the pump body.
Install the screws, release the rocker arm, and tighten
the screws evenly. Install the sediment bowl gasket and
bowl.
(7) INSTALLATION. The procedure for installing
the fuel pump is given below:
(a) 6-CYLINDER. Install a new gasket and place the
pump in position on the block. Make sure the rocker
arm is against the eccentric on the camshaft. Secure the
pump with two cap screws. Connect the two fuel lines.
(b) 8-CYLINDER. Install a new gasket and place the
pump in position. Make sure the rocker arm socket is
properly seated on the push rod inside. Secure the pump
to the adapter with the two cap screws. Connect the two
fuel lines to the pump.

b. Fuel Pump and Vacuum Booster.
An overhaul kit (fig. 59) for servicing the combination fuel pump and vacuum booster is available.
(1) OPERATION. The rocker arm "A" actuated by
the pump push rod, as shown in fig. 60, moves the two
links "L" to which the booster diaphragm "M" is hooked,
downward against the diaphragm spring "N" which
expels the air in the lower pump chamber "O" through
the exhaust valve "P" and through the line to the intake
manifold. On the return stroke, the spring moves the
diaphragm upward, creating a suction in the pump
chamber "O," opening the intake valve and drawingSfeiir
through the inlet line "Q" from the windshield wiper.
When the windshield wiper is not being used, the
manifold vacuum holds the diaphragm down against
the spring pressure so that the diaphragm does not make
a complete stroke for every stroke of the rocker. Figure
60 shows a cross-section of the combination fuel and
vacuum booster pump.

IAPHRAGM

9398

SPRING
9396
PIN-937
BUSHINGROCKER ARM
(V-8)-9376
ADAPTER-9416
NUT-33798-S

BODY-9375

BOLT-12148
WASHER
351242-S

PUSH ROD-9400

GASKET-9374

Fig. 58—8-Cylinder Fuel Pump, Disassembled

1643

f 9371
18
27068-S 26466-S 99368
1712
31628-S
Fig. 59—Fuel Pump and Vacuum Booster Kit

78

Chapter Ill—Power Plant

(2) TEST. Disconnect both inlet and outlet lines
at the vacuum booster. Attach a vacuum gauge to the
wiper motor side of the booster.
Operate the engine at 1000 r.p.m. and observe the
reading. The reading should be between 7 and 12 inches
of vacuum. If reading is less than 7 inches of vacuum
the vacuum pump is not operating properly.
CAUTION: When making this test the pump outlet
should always be open as a closed outlet will damage
the unit.
(3) REMOVAL. Disconnect the fuel and vacuum
lines at the fuel pump and booster. Remove the pump
holding screws and remove the pump.
(4) DISASSEMBLY. Remove the sediment bowl,
gasket, and screen. Scratch a mark in line on both the
fuel and vacuum diaphragm flanges so these parts may
be reassembled in their correct position. Remove only
two cover screws from opposite sides of the vacuum section and install two 10-32x1 V2 inch screws. Remove
remaining short screws, then back out the two long
screws until the heavy spring tension is relieved. When
removing the diaphragm, avoid the possibility of damaging the built-in oil seal by first removing the rocker
arm pin, then wiggle the rocker arm to disconnect the
links from the diaphragm pull rods. This permits the
diaphragm to be drawn straight out of the body oil seal.
Place the pump in a vise with fuel pump section on
top. Remove screws from the fuel cover while holding
the fuel cover down until all screws are removed, then
release the pressure on the cover gradually until the
spring is expanded.
Remove the retainer holding the valves in the fuel
cover and remove the valves and gaskets. Remove the
retainer holding the valves in the vacuum cover and
remove valves and gaskets.
(5) CLEANING AND INSPECTION. Clean the
sediment bowl and fuel and vacuum booster housing.
Inspect the housing for cracks or damage and replace
if required. It is advisable to replace all parts in the
assembly with the new parts included in the repair kit.
(6) ASSEMBLY. Position the spacer with the projection for the rocker arm coil spring on each side of
the fuel pump link (short link) so that the holes line up
and the projection on the spacer for the spring points
toward the hood end of the link. Place one long link
on each side of spacer so that holes line up and so that
hook ends of long links come together. Be sure hooks
on long links point in the same direction as hook on
short link. Insert links and spacer in fork of rocker arm
so hooks point up when flat (cam) face of rocker arm
is up on 6-cyUnder and when push rod cup is down on
8-cylinder, and insert bushing through the holes in rocker arm, spacer, and links.
Insert links, busning and spring in pump body. Insert

a long tapered drift in place of rocker arm pin. Install
the new rocker arm pin, driving out the drift. Place the
flat washer over the pin and peen the hollow end of the
pin over the washer. Install new oil seal in fuel pump
side of pump body casting with lip toward the rocker
arm side.
Place new gaskets in recess of fuel cover. Install outlet
valve in center recess so three legs of valve caps are down.
Install inlet valve in outer recess so three legs are up.
Then install retainer with forks over the valve cages and
hump in retainer up. Position the spring between the fuel
diaphragm and housing. Position the fuel diaphragm in
the housing and hook the short center link to the diaphragm pull rod.
Assemble the fuel cover and place the cover over the
diaphragm. Be sure to align the marks on the flanges
and retain the cover with the screws until they just
engage the lockwashers.
Push the rocker arm in all the way and do not release
until all cover screws are tightened.
Hook vacuum diaphragm to both long links.
Install the inlet and outlet valves in the vacuum body.
Install the heavy spring over the diaphragm. Align the
housing marks and pull the cover down with the two
10-32x1 V2 inch screws. Install short screws. Remove
the long screws and tighten all cover screws securely.
Install a new bowl gasket and the sediment bowl.
(7) INSTALLATION. The procedure for installing
the fuel pump with booster is given below:
(a) 6-CYLINDER. Position a new gasket on the block.
Place the pump in position. Make sure the rocker arm
CHAMBER "K"
OUTLET VALVE " J "

CHAMBER "E"
DIAPHRAGM " C "
SPRING " D "
LINK "B"
ROCKER
"A"

TO WIPER
MOTOR " Q "

DIAPHRAGM " M "
CHAMBER " O "
TO MANIFOLD

DIAPHRAGM
SPRING " N u
EXHAUST VALVE

I4

P"
1729

Fig. 60-—fuel Pump and Vacuum Booster

79

Section 7—Fuel Pumps and Vacuum Booster
is against the eccentric on the camshaft. Tighten the
nuts 15-20 foot-pounds torque. Connect the vacuum
lines and the fuel lines.
(b) 8-CYLINDER. Position a new gasket on the adap-

ter. Install the pump on the adapter, tighten screws to
6-9 foot-pounds torque. Make sure the rocker arm socket
is properly seated on the push rod. Connect the vacuum
and fuel lines.

8. FUEL TANKS AND LINES
to the fuel tank. Place the filler pipe to* fuel tank hose
in position and install the hose clamp. Fill the tank and
check the fuel line connection for leaks.

The fuel tank is mounted on the bottom of the body
rear compartment floor pan and is held in position by
two metal straps. The fuel gauge sending unit may be
removed from the tank thru the opening in the floor pan..
A fuel line fastened to the frame left-hand side rail connects the tank to the fuel pump.
The procedure for replacing the fuel tank is given in
"a. Fuel Tank Replacement." "b. Fuel Line Replacement" covers the replacement of the fuel line.

b. Fuel Line Replacement.
The fuel line connecting the fuel tank to the flexible
line at the fuel pump is a %6 inch outside diameter line.
The %6 inch line is available in 25 foot rolls for service.
A XA inch line connects the fuel pump to the carburetor.
This VA inch line cut to the correct length with the two
connectors and ferrules installed, is available for service.
(1) REMOVAL. Drain the fuel from the tank. Disconnect the fuel line at the fuel tank, fuel pump flexible hose, and at the intermediate sections. Remove the
lines from the holding clips and remove the lines. Slide
the loom off the line.
(2) INSTALLATION. Cut the new line to approximately the same length as the original line allowing
additional length for the flaring operation. Square off
the end with a file, then ream the sharp- edges with the
reamer blade on the tube cutter.
Position the looms on the new lines. Place new connections on the line and flare the ends of the lines using
a flaring tool (fig. 62). Bend the new line to conform to
contour of the original line. Position the line in the clips
on the vehicle, and tighten the connections. Check the
connections for leaks.

a. Fuel Tank Replacement.
Before removing the tank, be sure to drain all of the
fuel from the tank.
(1) REMOVAL, Loosen the clamp on the filler pipe
and pull it away from the tank (fig. 61).
Disconnect the fuel line at the tank. Remove the nuts
and lock washers from the fuel tank support lower strap
assemblies. Lower the tank. Disconnect the fuel gauge
wire, then remove the fuel gauge sender unit.
(2) INSTALLATION. Install the fuel tank drain plug.
Position the fuel gauge gasket on the tank. Install the
fuel gauge sending unit. Tighten the screw securely. Connect the fuel gauge wire to the terminal on the fuel
gauge sending unit. Place the fuel tank in position under
the body rear compartment floor pan. Install the fuel
tank support strap assemblies. Connect the fuel line

GROMMET—9080

— 9030
GAUGE— 9 2 7 5

-9076

GROMM ET_9072

PIPE—9034
RETAINER-9008

PIPE—9034
X

CAP—9030
•GROMMET-9080

^.R CLEANER

.GROMMET—9072

8287
9047

GASKET-9276
TANK-9002

STRAP—9056
CUP-14197
1175

Fig 6J-Fue/ Sysitem-7949-7950 (7957 same as 1950)

Chapter III—Power Plant

80

9. FANS AND BELTS
The fans used on Ford passenger cars require no
lubrication. Servicing of fans is limited to replacement
in case of damage. Adjusting and replacing worn or broken belts are the service procedures required to maintain proper operation of the water pumps and generator.

a. Fans.
Different types of fans are used on the 8-cylinder and
6-cylinder engines. "(1) 8-Cylinder Fan" describes the
removal and installation procedure for the B-series
engine. The H-series fan removal and installation can
be found under the heading "(2) 6-Cylinder Fan."
(1) 8-CYLINDER FAN. The fan blades are secured
to the hub with rivets and are not removable as in the
6-cylinder engine. A four blade fan is used on 1949
models and a three blade fan on 1950 and 1951 models.
(a) REMOVAL. Remove the four cap screws and
belts and fan belt. Remove fan and bracket assembly.
(b) INSTALLATION. Position the fan and bracket
assembly on the generator bracket. Install the retaining
screws but do not tighten them. Install the fan belt.
Adjust the belt and tighten the screws.
(2) 6-CYLINDER FAN. A four blade fan is secured
to the hub with cap screws and is detachable from the
hub (three blade fan used on 1951 models).
fa) REMOVAL. Remove the four cap screws and
lockwashers securing the blades to the hub. Remove the
blades.
(b) INSTALLATION. Place the blades in position
against the hub. Install the cap screws (with lockwashers) and tighten them securely.

b. Belts.
Proper adjustment of the fan and generator belts must
be maintained at all times. A loose or broken belt will
cause improper operation of the water pump and gen*
erator. A belt that is too tight places a severe strain on
the water pump and generator bearings.

SECTIONAL VIEW OF
DIE SHOWING
TUBING LOCATED
AGAINST STOP PIN.

FIRST OPERATION
TOOL SHOWN
FORMING OUTSIDE
FLARE.

SECOND OPERATION
TOOL SHOWN
FORMING INSIDE
FLARE AND SEAT.
COMPLETED
DOUBLE-LAP FLARE

SHOWN IN INSERT.
2074

Fig. 62—Line Flaring Tool

(1) "H" SERIES ENGINES. A single fan belt is
adjusted by positioning the generator.
(a) ADJUSTMENT. Loosen the bolt in the slot on
the generator support bracket. Move the generator
either toward or away from the cylinder block until
a XA inch deflection of the belt is obtained between the
generator and water pump (fig. 63). Occasionally it is
necessary to loosen the generator support bolts located
at the right-hand forward side of the generator before
the generator can be moved. After the adjustment is
made, tighten the bolts securely.
(b) REPLACEMENT. Loosen the generator support
bracket bolts. Move the generator toward the cylinder
block. Remove the belt from the generator, crankshaft
damper, and water pump pulley.
To install, position the belt on crankshaft damper and
water pump pulley. Stretch the belt over the generator pulley and adjust. Tighten generator support belts.
(2) "£" SERIES ENGINE. (1949). This engine is
equipped with two fan belts. The longer belt is mounted
on the generator, right and left-hand water pumps, and
inner crankshaft pulley groove. The shorter belt is
mounted on the fan and outer crankshaft pulley groove.
(a) ADJUSTMENT. TO adjust the generator belt,
loosen the hub and adjusting bracket assembly adjusting nut and screws (fig. 64). Raise or lower the generator until a belt deflection of V2 inch is obtained between
the generator and the left-hand water pump, then tighten the adjusting nut. Raise or lower the fan until a
deflection of V2 inch is obtained on the small belt
between the fan and crankshaft pulley, then tighten the
adjusting screws.
To adjust the fan belt loosen the adjusting screws,
and raise or lower the fan until a deflection of V2 inch is
obtained on the belt between the fan and crankshaft
pulley, then tighten the adjusting screws.
(b) REPLACEMENT. TO remove the generator fan

FAN BELT
ADJUSTMENT
SCREW

1692

Fig. 63—Fan Belt Adjustment " H " Series Engines

81

Section 9—Fans and Belts
belt, loosen the adjusting nut, lower the generator and
fan assembly, and remove the belt.
To install, position the belt on the crankshaft, right
and left-hand water pumps, and generator pulleys. Raise
the generator until the belt has the proper deflection.
Adjust small belt and tighten adjusting screws and nut.
To remove the small fan belt, loosen the adjusting
screws, lower the fan, and remove the belt.
To install, position the belt on the crankshaft and fan
pulleys. Raise the fan until the belt has the proper
deflection, then tighten the adjusting screws.
(3) "B" SERIES ENGINE (1950-1951). This engine
is equipped with two belts which are placed to form a triangle drive. One belt (generator and water pump) is
mounted on the generator, left-hand water pump, and
inner crankshaft pulley groove. The other belt (fan and
water pump) is mounted on the fan, right-hand water
pump, and outer crankshaft pulley groove.
(a) ADJUSTMENT. TO adjust the generator and
water pump belt, loosen the hub and bracket assembly
adjusting nut. Raise or lower the generator until a belt
deflection of % inch is obtained between the generator
and water pump (fig. 64). Tighten the adjusting nut.

To adjust the fan and water pump belt, loosen the
adjusting screw, and raise or lower the fan until belt
deflection of lA inch is obtained between the right-hand
water pump and fan. Tighten the adjusting screws.

NOTE: On the heavy duty belt used with the 60
ampere generator, the belt deflection between the
right-hand water pump and the fan is % inch.
(b) REPLACEMENT. TO remove the fan and water
pump belt, loosen the adjusting screw, lower the fan,
and remove the belt.
To install, position the belt on the crankshaft, righthand water pump, and fan pulleys. Raise the fan until
the belt has the proper deflection, then tighten the
adjusting screws.
To remove the generator and water pump belt, first
remove the fan belt. Loosen the adjusting screws and
nut, lower the generator, and remove the belt.
To install, position the belt on the crankshaft, lefthand water pump, and generator pulleys. Raise the generator until the belt has the proper deflection. Adjust
the fan and water pump belt.

10. WATER PUMPS
Three types of water pumps are used on Ford cars.
The "H" series engine is equipped with a single water
pump. This water pump requires no lubrication. Two
water pumps are used on the "B" series engine. Some
water pumps used on early 1949 "B" series engine are
equipped with a bearing that is serviced separately from
the shaft. This bearing is lubricated through an oil cup
located at the top of the water pump housing. Use S.A.E.
20 engine oil at installation and every 1000 miles. The
bearing used on the late 1949, 1950, and 1951 "B" series
engines is integral with the shaft and requires no lubrication.

When water pump difficulty is experienced, it is not
necessary to replace the entire assembly as a water
pump repair kit for each type water pump is available
for service. Whenever a pump is disassembled, the
impeller, slinger, seal, bearing, shaft, or shaft and bearing assembly should always be replaced.
Water pump repair procedures are described according to the various water pump types and appear under
descriptive headings "a. H-Series Engine" and "b. BSeries Engine." The B-series water pump procedures

FAN BELT ADJUSTMENT NUT AND SCREWS

HUB-8567

IMPELLER-8512

GASKET

8507
1950 "B" SERIES

1949 "B" SERIES

1691

Fig. 64—fan Belt Adjustment "B" Series Engines

1693

Fig.65—6-Cylinder

Water Pump Repair Kit

82

Chapter III—Power Plant

21

RETAINER

IMPELLER-8512
IMPELLER-8512

GASKET8"6
8507

PULLEY-8509

SEAL-8564
HOUSING

8505

PULLEY-8509

SHAFT AND
BEARING-8530

20514-S

HUB-856?

BUSHING-8520
RETAINER-8576

1681

Fig. 66—Water Pump Assembly " H " Series Engine

take into account the differences in the two 8-cyUnder
pumps.

a. "H" Series Engine.
When repairing this type water pump, use the 8HA8591 or 8HA-8591-B water pump repair kit (fig. 65).
(1) REMOVAL. Drain the radiator. Remove the
fan belt, fan, and pulley. Remove the lower radiator
hose and heater hose. Remove the four cap screws, water
pump assembly, and gasket from the engine block.
(2) DISASSEMBLY. Remove the bearing retainer
located in the access hole on the housing (fig. 66). Press
the hub off the shaft. Press the impeller and the shaft
and bearing assembly out of the housing.
(3) ASSEMBLY. Install a new slinger on the shaft
with flange end toward bearing. Press seal assembly into
the housing. Press the shaft assembly (fig. 67) into the
housing, pressing on the outer shell of the bearing only.
Install the bearing retainer in the access hole. Press
the hub on the shaft with the flat side of the hub facing
the housing.

SEAL-8564
GASKET-8507
1694

Fig. 68—Early 7949 8-Cylinder Water Pump Repair Kit

(4) INSTALLATION. Position the new gasket and
water pump assembly on the cylinder block and secure
with the four cap screws. Tighten the cap screws to
27-32 foot-pounds torque. Install the lower radiator hose
and heater hose. Install the pulley, fan, and fan belt.
Fill the radiator with coolant,

b. "B" Series Engine.
When repairing the early type "B" series Engine water

NOTE: Support opposite end of shaft when installing hub.
Position the impeller on the shaft with the flat portion out, then press the impeller on the shaft to proper
position. (On 7HA-8501 pump, set impeller 0.020-0.044
inch below body face and on 0HA-8501 pump, set impeller (0.024-0.034 inch below body face.)

WATCH
rtlM
AND
BEARING

H j T | ys ny Jj*T]

SHAFT AND
BEARING-8530

IMPELLER-8512

SHAH
ASSEMBLY

8HA-3S3O-A

SHAFT AND BEARING-«53O
SNAP RING
8630

GASKET-8507
1524

Fig 67—Water Pump Shaft and Bearing

Fig. 69-Late

1695

7949,7950, and 7957 8-Cylinder Water
Pump Repair Kit

83

Section 10—Water Pumps
pump, use the 8BA-8591-A or 8BA-8591-B water pump
repair kit (figs. 68 and 69).
(1) REMOVAL. Drain the radiator. Remove the
fan belts. Remove the water pump to radiator hose.
Place a jack or other support under the engine, then
remove the two cap screws securing the water pump
to the engine front support. Remove the cap screw located
inside the pump hose opening. Remove the remaining
three cap screws, water pump assembly, and gasket from
the cylinder block.
(2) DISASSEMBLY. Because of the differences in
design and disassembly procedures for the early "B"
series and the late "B" series water pumps are described
separately.
(a) EARLY "B" SERIES. Using a suitable puller,
remove the pulley (fig. 70) from the shaft. Remove
the bearing retainer located in the access hole in the
housing. Press the impeller off the shaft by pressing
the shaft and bearing out through the front end of the
housing. Press the bushing, slinger, and seal out through
the impeller end of the housing. Press the bearing off
the shaft and, if necessary, remove the lock ring.
(b) LATE "B" SERIES. Remove the pulley (fig. 71)
from the shaft. Remove the bearing lock ring located
at the pulley end of the housing. Press the impeller off
the shaft by pressing the shaft and bearing assembly out
through the front of the housing. Press the seal out of
the housing and, if necessary, remove the snap ring
located inside the housing.
(3) ASSEMBLY. Before assembling the "B" series
water pumps, make sure the proper repair kit has been
obtained.
(a) EARLY "B" SERIES. Using a 0.5925 inch arbor,
press a new bushing into the housing. Bushing should be
soaked in oil before inserting. If the snap ring was
removed from the shaft, install it on the shaft, then
press the bearing on the shaft. Press on inner race only.

Insert the shaft and bearing assembly into the front
end of the housing, then press the bearing assembly and
shaft into the housing, pressing on outer race only.
Install the bearing retainer in the gfoove located in the
housing. Press slinger to proper position on shaft. Insert
the seal into the. housing with the carbon washer of the
seal toward the impeller end, then press the seal into
position, using proper tool, which presses on flange only.
Press the pulley on the shaft. Support opposite end of
shaft when doing this. Press impeller on shaft to proper
position. Make sure a 0.030 to 0.040 inch clearance is
maintained between the impeller blades and the housing. Press from opposite end of shaft when pressing
impeller on shaft. Thoroughly lubricate the bushing
through oil cup located on the housing.
(b) LATE "B" SERIES. If the snap ring was removed
from inside the housing install a new snap ring. Press
a new seal into the housing with carbon washer of the
seal facing the impeller. Make sure the seal replacer
contacts only the outer metal portion of the seal. Position the slinger on the shaft with the flanged end of the
slinger toward the bearing. Insert the shaft and bearing assembly into the housing at the front end, then
press the shaft and bearing assembly into the housing.
Press on outer shell of bearing only (not on shaft end).
Install the bearing lock ring in the groove located in
the housing, then press the pulley onto the shaft by
pressing on opposite end of shaft. Press impeller on
shaft to proper position. Make sure a clearance of 0.030
to 0.040 inch is maintained between the impeller blades
and the housing. Press from opposite end of shaft.
(4) INSTALLATION. Using a new gasket, position
the water pump assembly on the cylinder block and
secure with the three cap screws. Install the cap screw
located inside the radiator hose opening. Attach the
engine front suoport to the water pump housing with the
two cap screws. Remove the support from under the
engine.

IMPELLER-8512-

10141

SLINGER-8550

SLINGER-8550
LOCK RING— 8630
SHAFT AND BEARING
8530
SEAL

8564

20408-S

SHING

8520

20408-S
PULLEY
R.H.-8509
L.H.-8515

IMPELLER

8512
SEAL-8564
KET-8507

HOUSING
R.H.-8503
LH.-8504
PULLEY-8509

Fig. 70-Water

34807-S
Pump Assembly (Early "B"
Series Engine)

20514-S
1682

1683
Fig. 71-Water

Pump, Disassembled (Late "B"
Series Engine)

84

Chapter III—Power Plant

NOTE: Tighten all water pump cap screws to 25-28
foot-pounds torque.

Install the water pump to radiator hose. Install the
fan belts and fill the radiator with coolant.

11. RADIATOR, HOSE, AND THERMOSTATS
The cooling system used on Ford cars is the pressure
type, having a regulated pressure maintained in the system while in operation. 3V2 to 4V6 pounds pressure is
used on all 6-cyUnder cars and 8-cylinder cars without
automatic transmission. 6V2 to 7Vi pounds pressure is
used in the 8-cylinder cars equipped with the automatic transmission. With this pressure system, the coolant is allowed to reach a higher boiling point. This higher coolant temperature reduces the loss of energy to the
coolant and also assists in decreasing internal friction
by maintaining a higher lubricating oil temperature.
In addition to the water pump, the radiator, hose and
thermostats are also vital parts in the cooling system.
In order to maintain peak efficiency, the cooling system
must be kept air and water tight, the radiator clean, and
the coolant at the proper level at all times. Cooling System Maintenance is described under the heading "a.
Care of Cooling System." "b. Radiator Replacement,"
describes the operations necessary to remove and install
the radiator. Radiator hoses are covered under "c. Radiator Hose." Thermostat removal, testing, and installation appear under the heading "d. Thermostats."

a. Care of Cooling System.
Although the cooling system controls the operating
temperature of the engine, late ignition timing or improper or insufficient lubricating oil in the crankcase
may cause the engine to overheat. Refer to trouble
RADIATOR ASSEMBLY
CENTER AIR DEFLECTOR
/
RADIATOR A N D FRONT
SIDE AIR DEFL

SIDE AIR DEFLECTOR
/
RADIATOR
CENTER AIR DEFLECTOR ASSEMBLY

8 CYLINDER

shooting to determine the various causes of inefficient
cooling.
(1) CLEANING COOLING SYSTEM. To remove
rust, sludge, and other foreign matter from the cooling
system, use 81A-18442, Cooling System Cleaner.
Removal of such matter restores cooling efficiency and
avoids overheating.
In severe cases where cleaning solvents will not properly clean the cooling system for efficient operation
it may be necessary to use the pressure flushing system.
Various types of flushing equipment are available.
If the pressure flushing system is used, make sure the
cylinder head bolts are properly tightened to prevent
possible water leaks into the cylinders.
NOTE: Always remove the thermostats when using
a pressure flushing system.
A pulsating or reversed direction of water flow will
loosen sediment more quickly than a steady flow in the
normal direction of coolant flow.
(2) RUST INHIBITOR. To prevent the accumulation of rust or scale in the cooling system, use 8A-19546C rust inhibitor. It is a good practice to use rust inhibitor
after the cooling system has been cleaned.
It is a safeguard against additional corrosion or rust
which usually occurs where dissimilar metals are used.
Rust inhibitor does not remove rust nor dissolve rust. It is
a preventive only and not a cleaner.

RADIATOR A N D FRONT
FENDER APRON SUPPORT

1506

Fig. 72—Radiator Replacement (6- and 8-Cylinder)

1704

Fig. 73—1951 Radiator and Engine Installation

Section 11 —Radiator, Hose, and Thermostats

b. Radiator Replacement
(6or8-Cylinder).

85

They are mounted inside the water outlet elbow on the
cylinder head.

The radiator replacement procedure is basically the
same for the 6- and 8-cylinder cars.
(1) REMOVAL. Raise the hood and drain the coolant. Disconnect the upper and lower radiator noses at
the radiator. Remove the center air deflector to side air
deflector screws (fig. 72). Remove the cap screws that
secure each side of the radiator to the radiator and
front fender apron support. Using care not to bend the
cooling fins, lift the radiator out of the vehicle.
(2) INSTALLATION. Carefully lower the radiator
in position. Install the cap screws that secure each side
of the radiator to the support. Position the center air
deflector, and install the self-tapping screws (fig. 72).
Connect the upper and lower radiator hoses. Fill the
radiator and check the hose connections for leaks. Fig.
73 shows the radiator and engine installation.

c. Radiator Hose.
Radiator hoses should be replaced whenever they
become cracked or soggy.
(1) REMOVAL. Drain the radiator, then loosen
the clamp bolts at each end of the hose. Slide the hose
off the radiator connection and the cylinder head water
outlet connection (upper hose) or the water pump connection (lower hose).
(2) INSTALLATION. Position the clamps on each
end of the new hose. Slide the hose on the connections
andfirmlytighten the clamp bolts. Fill the radiator with
coolant, run the engine for several minutes and observe
the hose and connections for leaks.

d. Thermostats.
Two thermostats are used in the 8-cylinder engine
and one thermostat is used in the 6-cylinder engine.

NOTE: Do not attempt to repair thermostats. They
should be replaced if they are not operating properly,
(1) REMOVAL. Drain the coolant. Remove the
cap screws, water outlet elbow, and gasket from the cylinder head. Remove the thermostat.
(2) TESTING. Inspect the bellows and valve. The
valve should be closed at room temperature. Immerse
the thermostat in a heated pan of water. Raise the temperature of the water (check with a thermometer) to
the range in which the thermostat operates (Table 4).
If the thermostat does not open within the limits given,
it should be replaced.
(3) INSTALLATION. Insert the thermostat in the
cylinder head with the bellows portion down. Install a
new elbow gasket, the water outlet elbow, and the cap
screws. Torque the screws to 12-15 foot-pounds on the
8-cylinder engine and 13-19 foot-pounds on "the 6-cylinder engine. Fill the radiator and check for leaks.
Table 4—Thermostat Operating Ranges
Engine
"H"
"H"
"H"
"H"
"B"
"B"
"B"
"B"

Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series
Series

Thermostat
Opens At

Part No.

157°-162°
148°-153°
148°-153°
177°-182°
157°-162°
167°-172°
152°-157°
148°-153°

7HA-8575-A3
7HA-8575-B1
7HA-8575-B3
7HA-8575-C*
8BA-8575-B
8BA-8575-C*
8BA-8575-D
8BA-8575-A

*Use with permanent type Anti-freeze.

SERVICE LETTER REFERENCE
Letter No.

Date

Subject

Changes Information
on Page No.

Part TWO

CHASSIS
Chapter

i

Clutch and Transmission
Section

1
2
3

Page

Clutch.
Transmission (Conventional)
Transmission (Fordomatic)

....

A single plate, gyro-grip, semi-centrifugal clutch is
used in conjunction with a three-speed transmission.
The description of the clutch, replacement of the
clutch or disc and the clutch pedal adjustment procedure
is given in Section 1. General information on the con-

..

86
88
93

ventional transmission and gear shift linkage, including
complete overhaul procedures, is given in Section 2. Section 3 contains service information on the Fordomatic
transmission which is available as optional equipment
on the 1951 cars.

1. CLUTCH
The clutifh assembly is the single plate type. Service
information on the clutch assembly is presented in this
section under five major headings as follows: "a. Construction," giving the detailed features of the clutch,
"b. Clutch Pedal Adjustment," which includes clutch
pedal free play adjustment; "c. Clutch and Disc
Removal," includes the removal procedure, "d. Parts
Inspection," describes checking, cleaning, and the necessary replacement of parts, and "e. Clutch and Disc
Installation," contains lubrication and the installation
procedure.
The Ford clutch, located in the flywheel housing, is a
single, dry plate, cushion-disc type (fig. 2). The cushiondisc construction consists of spring steel segments
between the facing, and damper springs between the
clutch disc and hub. The clutch disc is splined to the
transmission main drive gear, and facings are riveted on
each side of the disc. The facings contact the surface of
the flywheel on one side and the pressure plate on the
other side when the clutch is engaged.
The clutch pressure plate and cover assembly consists
of the pressure plate, clutch springs, clutch release
levers and cover, and are serviced as an assembly. The
three forged steel release levers, mounted on needle
roller bearings, have weights at the outer ends. The
faster the clutch revolves the greater the pressure on the
pressure plate due to the centrifugal force of the release
levers.
The clutch release bearing is of the pre-lubricated
sealed type which eliminates the need for periodic
lubrication.
The clutch release bearing hub is attached to the fork
end of the clutch release lever by two spring clips.

When the clutch release lever is actuated by the clutch
pedal release rod,, the release lever pivots on the edge
of a bracket which is attached to the inside of the flywheel housing.
A bronze bushing is used as the clutch pilot shaft
bearing.
The clutch pedal release rod is hooked into a hole in
the clutch release equalizer bar. An arm on the clutch
pedal shaft assembly fits into a slot in the clutch release
equalizer bar and the clutch pedal is clamped to the
outer end of the clutch pedal shaft. A clutch-pedal
retracting spring is connected to the clutch retracting
spring bracket and clutch lever.
The dhly clutch adjustment required is the clutch
pedal free travel adjustment. This adjustment is
required when the lining wears.

a. Clutch Pedal Adjustment.
The need for a clutch pedal adjustment is indicated
when the clutch pedal free play is less than 1,0 inch.
The pedal travel should also be checked and adjusted if
necessary after new clutch parts have been installed.
To check the clutch pedal free travel, depress the
clutch pedal by hand and measure the distance the pedal
travels before the beginning of the clutch disengagement
is felt. The free travel limit is 1.0-1.25 inches. If the free
travel is not within these limits, adjust the travel as
follows:
Loosen the clutch pedal release rod lock nut (fig. 1),
then turn the adjusting nut until the free travel is
within limits. Tighten the release rod nut to secure the
adjustment.

86

Section 1 —Clutch

CLUTCH PEDAL FREE TRAVEL

V-VA1

87

ra

CLUTCH PEDAL ADJUSTMENT

2118

Fig. 1—Clutch Pedal Adjustment

NOTE: If the clutch pedal free travel adjustment
does not eliminate the clutch trouble, remove the
clutch for repairs.

b. Clutch and Disc Removal.

, PILOT BEARING

If the clutch disc facings become worn to the extent
that clutch pedal free travel cannot be adjusted to the
correct limits, the clutch assembly should be removed
and the clutch disc replaced. The clutch or disc may be
removed as follows:
Remove the transmission from the vehicle. Release
the clutch by installing three wedges between the clutch
fingers and the pressure plate housing. Disconnect the
clutch pedal release rod from the clutch-release lever
assembly (fig. 2).
Remove the flywheel housing, then remove the clutchpressure plate, cover assembly and clutch disc. Mark the
clutch assembly and the flywheel so that during installation the parts will be installed in the same relative
position. Remove the clutch release bearing from the hub.

c. Parts Inspection.
Inspect the clutch disc for worn, loose, or oil soaked
facings, for loose rivets at the hub, and for distortion.
Replace the clutch disc if any of these defects are evident.
Inspect the surface of the pressure plate for evidence of
burning, checks, scores, or ridges. Generally the resurDISC ASSEMBLY-7550

2114

Fig. 3—Clutch Pilot Bearing Removal

facing of the clutch pressure plate is not recommended.
However, minor scores, ridges, and marks caused by
excessive heat may be removed provided the "flatness"
of the pressure plate is not destroyed in the process.
Discard the pressure plate and cover assembly if the
pressure plate is deeply scored or badly heat checked.
Inspect the release bearing for signs of the bearing turning on the hub. This is indicated by score marks on the
hub. Replace hub and bearing, if scores are evident.
Check the release bearing for free movement * while
lightly pressing the front face of the bearing toward the
rear and replace if required. When installing a new clutch
release bearing, rotate the bearing while pressing it on
the hub. Do not clean the clutch release bearing with
any solvent as the bearing is pre-lubricated. Check the
fit of the clutch pilot bearing (bushing) in the bore of
the flywheel and the inner diameter of the bearing for
wear or a bellmouth condition. If either of these conditions are evident the bearing must be replaced. Remove
the clutch pilot bearing from the flywheel (fig. 3).

HUB ASSEMBLY-7561
SPRING-7605
ANTI-RATTLE SPRING-7562

PEDAL P A D - 2 4 54

351517-S
RELEASE EQUALIZER BAR-7528
EQUALIZER
CLUTCH
ANCHOR
BOLT-7507
ASPSEEDMABLYS-75T06

CLUTCH

™"-™»

351517-S

SHAFT HOUSING
AND BRACKET-7536

RELEASE R O D - 7 5 2 1

CLUTCH PILOT
BEARING

PLATE-7513

7600

CLUTCH PRESSURE
PLATE ASSEMBLY-7563

353031-S

/
RETRACTING
SPRING-7523

33
*
33800-S
351062-S

BUSHING

7526

PAD-7996

351560-S
SPRING-7997

Fig. 2—Clutch and Linkage Disassembled

34847-S33800-S

2116

88

Chapter I—Clutch and Transmission

d. Clutch and Disc Installation.
Place a small quantity of wheel bearing lubricant in
the pilot bearing bore in the flywheel, then install the
pilot bearing as shown in fig. 4.

CAUTION: Avoid over lubrication of the pilot bearing to eliminate the possibility of lubricant being
thrown onto the clutch disc.
Place the clutch assembly in position on the flywheel
and align the splined hole in the center of the clutch disc
with the pilot bearing in the flywheel with a pilot tool.

Secure the clutch assembly to the fly wheel by drawing
down evenly the six cap screws. Tighten the cap screws
to 17-20 foot-pounds torque. If the original clutch assembly is installed, be sure to place the assembly in position
according to the marks made during disassembly.
Remove the clutch disc pilot tool and three wedges.
Attach the flywheel housing to the cylinder block and
torque the bolts to 37-42 foot-pounds. Install the clutch
release bearing and hub assembly on the clutch release
lever. Connect the linkage as shown in fig. 2. Install
the transmission. Adjust the clutch pedal free travel.

2. TRANSMISSION (CONVENTIONAL)
A three-speed constant mesh transmission is installed
as standard equipment on 1949, 1950, and 1951 cars. The
transmission used on 1950 models is the same assembly
used on 1949 models. The transmission used on the 1951
models is of the same basic construction as the 1949 and
1950 models. However, the gear tooth construction was
altered and parts are not interchangeable with parts
from the transmission used on the 1949 and 1950 models.
The service information presented in this section
applies to both transmission assemblies and is presented
under the following headings: "a. Removal," "b. Disassembly," "c. Disassembly of Subassemblies," "d.
Cleaning, Inspection and Adjustment," "e. Subassembly
build-up," "f. Assembly," "g. Installation," and "H.
Gear Shift Linkage."
The 3-speed transmission illustrated in fig. 5 has three
forward speeds and one reverse speed with second and
third (direct drive) gears in constant mesh. Helical gears
are used with a synchronizer for second and third gears
which reduces the possibility of clashing the gears. The
main shaft is supported by needle bearings at the front
end, a ball bearing assembly at the rear end of the transmission case, and by a bushing in the rear end of the
transmission extension. The countershaft gear is supported by long needle bearings at each end, and the
reverse idler gear is carried by a bronze bushing. The one
piece clutch shaft and transmission main drive gear is
carried in a ball bearing at the front end of the transmission case and in an oil impregnated sintered bronze pilot
bearing in the flywheel at the rear end of the engine
crankshaft. The second-speed gear rotates on a bronze
bushing which is pressed into the gear hub.
The synchronizer assembly consists of the hub sleeve,
the hub, two synchronizer blocking rings, three hub
inserts and the two snap rings which retain the inserts
in the hub slots.
An oil seal is pressed into the drive shaft end of the
transmission extension housing. An oil baffle is used
behind the transmission main drive gear bearing.

a. Removal.
Remove the muffler inlet pipe assembly. Remove the
clevis pin which attaches the parking brake equalizer
rod to the equalizer lever, then disconnect the lever from
the equalizer bracket. Disconnect the clutch pedal and
gearshift linkage at the transmission. Remove the speedometer cable and gear. Remove the drive shaft. Remove
the cap screws which attach the transmission extension
to the No. 2 frame crossmember. Place a support under
the engine, then remove the No. 2 frame crossmember.

NOTE: The bolts which attach the crossmember to
the top of the frame side rails are accessible through
holes in the body floor pan.
Disconnect the transmission from the flywheel housing, install two guide pins and remove the transmission
assembly from the vehicle.

NOTE: When removing transmissions equipped with
Overdrive, be sure to first disconnect the Overdrive
control cable and the lockout switch wire.

b. Disassembly.
The following procedure outlines the disassembly of

Tool—7600-D

PILOT BEARING

2115

Fig. 4—Installing Clutch Pilot Bearing, Using Tool
No. 7600-D

89

Section 2—Transmission (Conventional)
the transmission. See fig. 6 for a view of the transmission
disassembled, and fig. 5 for a sectional view.

Tap the drive gear assembly out through the front of
the transmission case with a soft hammer.

(1) REMOVE GEARSHIFT HOUSING. Remove
the cap screws that secure the gearshift housing to the
transmission case, and remove the gearshift housing and
the two shifter forks. Drive the countershaft retainer
pin <|ut of the transmission case with a drift. This pin
also holds the reverse idler gear shaft.

c. Disassembly of Sub-assemblies.

(2) REMOVE MAIN SHAFT, EXTENSION, AND
REVERSE-IDLER GEAR. Remove the cap screws and
washers that secure the extension (fig. 5) to the transmission case. Turn the extension }/i turn counterclockwise to permit removal of the countershaft (standard
transmission only). Drive the countershaft to the rear
so that it clears the front of the transmission case. Push
the countershaft out the rear of the case, with a cluster
gear roller retainer shaft tool, or a countershaft cut to
the length of the countershaft cluster gear. Leave the
cluster gear and dummy shaft in the case. Remove the
extension and mainshaft assembly from the rear of the
transmission case (fig. 6). Drive the reverse idler gear
shaft out of the case with a brass drift, then remove the
reverse idler gear.
(3) REMOVE DRIVE GEAR ASSEMBLY. Remove
the cap screws that secure the drive gear bearing retainer
to the transmission, and remove the retainer and gasket.

The procedures for disassembling the individual subassemblies are given in the following paragraphs.
(1) MAIN SHAFT ASSEMBLY. Remove the snap
ring that holds the main shaft assembly in the extension.
Tap the main shaft (fig. 6) out of the extension, with a
soft hammer. Remove the transmission mainshaft synchronizer snap ring and pull or press the synchronizer
assembly, intermediate gear, and sliding gear off the
main shaft. Remove the snap ring that secures the
speedometer gear on the main shaft, and remove the
speedometer gear. Remove the speedometer gear key.
Press the main shaft rear bearing off the main shaft.
Remove the oil seal and rear bushing from the transmission extension.
(2) SYNCHRONIZER ASSEMBLY. Push the synchronizer hub out of the sleeve (fig. 6). This releases
the three synchronizer blocks. Remove the synchronizer
block springs from each end of the synchronizer hub.
(3) MAIN DRIVE GEAR ASSEMBLY. Remove the
snap ring that secures the bearing on the shaft, and press
the bearing off the shaft. Remove the oil baffle from the
shaft (fig. 6).

CONTROLS SHOWN IN NEUTRAL POSITION

YNCHRONIZER-i
BLOCKING RING |
INGS (2)I-SYNCHRONIZER ASSEMBLY
3RD GEAR-*
*-2ND GEAR
HIFT PLATEEEVE
1
MAINSHAFT
1ST AND REVERSE SLIDING GEAR
/
BEARING ASSEMBLY
1ST GEAR-*
• REVERSE GEAR /
/

GEAR SHIFT
HOUSING

MAINSHAFT
ROLLERS (15)
MAIN DRIVE GEAR
COUNTERSHAFT GEAR
THRUST WASHERS
ROLLERS (22 EACH END)
BEARING SPACER

EXTENSION TUBE
REAR ENGINE BRACKET
SPEEDOMETER DRIVE GEAR
ULL BEARING
THRUST WASHERS (DUAL)
RlEVERSE IDLER GEAR
TRANSMISSION CASE

YOKE (PART OF PROPELLER
SHAFT-FRONT U.J.)

2122

DRAIN PLUG

Fig. 5—3-Speed Transm'nsion, Sectional View

90

Chapter I—Clutch and Transmission

(4) COUNTERSHAFT GEAR ASSEMBLY. Remove
the countershaft gear, thrust washers, and tool from the
transmission case. Remove the bearing retainers, bearing
rollers, spacers, and dummy shaft from the countershaft
gear.
(5) GEARSHIFT HOUSING ASSEMBLY. It is not
necessary to disassemble the gearshift housing assembly
to determine the condition of the housing parts. Observe
the condition of the shift levers and forks. If there is
evidence of binding or possibility of shifting into two
gears at once when the lever is operated, disassemble
housing as follows: Remove the shift levers from the
camshafts (fig. 7). Remove^the camshaft retaining pins
and pull the shifter fork l i | y ^ a m s out of the gearshift
housing. With the cams removed the interlock balls,
retainer^- and spring will fall out of the gearshift housing.
Pull the shifter forks out of the cams. Remove the oil
seals from the gearshift housing.

d. Cleaning, Inspection and Adjustment.
When transmissions are overhauled, the parts should
be thoroughly cleaned, and inspected for wear.
(1) CLEANING. Wash all the transmission parts with
a suitable cleaning fluid. Remove all old lubricant and
dirt. Wipe or blow air on the parts until they are dry.
T o thoroughly clean the bearings, rotate the bearings in
a cleaning solvent until all lubricant is removed. When
drying bearings with compressed air, do not spin the
bearings. Slowly turn the bearings by hand while directing the air at right angles to the assembly. Lubricate the
clean bearings thoroughly, then cover the bearing with
a clean cloth until ready for use.
(2) INSPECTION.
Inspect all transmission parts
before installation as instructed below.
(a) TRANSMISSION CASE. Check the case for cracks,
worn bearing bores, damaged threads, or other damage.
Replace the case if unfit for further service.
SPRING
SLEEVE
SNAP RING
BEARING ROLLERS
SYNCHRONIZER RING
RETAINER
TRANSMISSION CASE
GASKET
SNAP RING
BEARING

INTERMEDIATE AND
HIGH SHIFTER
FORK-7282

LOW AND
REVERSE SHIFTER
FORK-7231

NUTS
LOCKWASHERS
FLAT WASHERS
SHIFT LEVERS '
RETAINER
OIL SEALS
SPRING
LOCKWASHERS
AND CAP SCREWS
STEEL BALLS

HOUSING
7222
RETAINING PINS
HIGH AND INTERMEDIATE SHIFTER
CAM AND SHAFT-7280
GASKET
LOCKWASHERS
SHIFTER
FORK-7230
7223
AND CAP SCREWS
2125

Fig. 7—Gearshift Housing, Disassembled

(b) GEARS AND SHAFTS. Inspect all gears for excessive
wear and chipped or cracked teeth. Replace any gear
that is worn or damaged. Check the end play between the
cluster gear and the thrust surfaces of the transmission
case. If the end play is not between 0.004-0.018 inch,
replace the cluster gear. Check the intermediate gear end
play. Replace the gear if the end play is not between
0.002-0.011 inch. Check the fit of the low and reverse
sliding gear on the splines of the mainshaft. Replace the
gear or mainshaft if the outside diameter fit of the helical
splines exceeds 0.002 inch. Inspect the idler gear bushing
for wear. Replace the idler gear if the bushing is worn
excessively.
Check the bearing surfaces of all shafts for wear.
Replace any shaft that sliows signs of excessive wear.
(c) BEARINGS. Inspect all bearings for loose races,
discoloration due to overheating, and free rotation on
their mating shafts. Replace any bearing that has loose
races, is discolored, or binds on the mating shaft.

BLOCKS
HUB
ING
SYNCHRONIZER RING
INTERMEDIATE GEAR
' SLIDING GEAR
MAIN SHAFT

SNAP RING
BEARING
SNAP RING

SYNCHRONIZER ASSEMBLY
RETAINER PIN
BEARING RETAINER
COUNTERSHAFT
^"""THRUST WASHERS

OIL SEAL

CAP SCREWS
WASHERS
TER GEAR

CAP
MAIN DRIVE GEAR
,
THRUST WASHER
BEARING RETAINER
BEARING ROLLERS
CLUSTER Gf

REVERSE IDLER SHAFT
REVERSE IDLER GEAR
BEARING ROLLERS
ACER

fig. 6—3-Speed Transmission, Disassembled

2121

91

Section 2—Transmission (Conventional)

(3) CLUTCH AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING
ALIGNMENT. Theflywheelhousing must be accurately
aligned with the crankshaft to ensure satisfactory transmission operation. The face of the housing must be
parallel with the flywheel to within 0.007 inch, and the
bore must be concentric with the centerline of the crankshaft to within 0.010 inch. The procedure for checking
the housing face is given under the heading "(a) Face
Alignment Check." The procedure-for checking the bore
is given under the heading "(b) Bore Alignment Check."
(a) FACE ALIGNMENT CHECK. Remove the spark plugs
to permit easier turning of the crankshaft. Raise the
vehicle on a hoist or place it on stands. Install an engine
support, or place a jack under the rear of the engine at
the oil pan. Remove the transmission, the clutch release
bearing and hub assembly. Clean the face of the flywheel
housing bolt bosses (4) and install the adapter plate on
the housing as shown infig.8.
Install the dial indicator, set it at "0," and take
readings around the 8%" diameter circle on the adapter
plate. If necessary, lower the engine to allow the dial
indicator holder to clear the floor pan. Start near one of
the bolt locations with the indicator set at "0" and record
readings alongside each bolt. A small mirror can be used
to obtain the dial readings at the top bolts. If the highest
point of parallel runout exceeds 0.007 inch, install shims
of required thickness between the housing and the
cylinder block to obtain the correct runout dimension.
Figure 9 shows a type of shim which can be made locally.
Remove the adapter plate, dial indicator, and pilot.
NOTE: / / shims are used, a small quantity of gasketforming cement may be used to eliminate the air
gaps between the shims. This operation is only necessary where the shimming is heavy or operating
conditions are exceptionally dirty. The cement is

applied between the shims without unbolting the
clutch housing from the flywheel housing.
Install the clutch-release bearinf and hub assembly.
Install the transmission, then install the spark plugs.
(b) BORE ALIGNMENT CHECK. Install the dial indicator
pilot tightly in the clutch pilot bearing. Clamp the dial
indicator on pilot and set indicator at "0" (fig. 10).
Make four quarter turns of the crankshaft, and note
the indicator readings at each point. If the highest point
of the runout exceeds 0.010 inch, the flywheel housing
misalignment cannot be corrected by shimming and the
housing should be replaced.

e. Sub-assembly Build-up.
When building up transmission sub-assemblies carefully select splined shafts and their mating parts to obtain
a sliding fit with no backlash. All thrust clearances must
be rigidly controlled to within the recommended clearances. Failure to observe these precautions could result
in the transmission jumping out of one or several gears
either under torque or on coast. The following procedure
applies to the assembly and installation of the transmission sub-assemblies.
(1) COUNTERSHAFT GEAR. Position the countershaft bearing spacer in the countershaft gear (fig. 6).
Insert a countershaft gear roller retainer shaft tool in
the countershaft gear assembly. If the tool is not available
use a countershaft cut to the length of the gear cluster.
Install 22 rollers in each end of the gear cluster. Coat the
bearing retainers and thrust washers with grease to help
keep them in place. Install a bearing retainer at each end
of the countershaft gear. Two thrust washers are used
at the rear. Place the thrust washer with the slotted hole
next to the cluster assembly, with the babbitt side toward
the steel washer and the steel thrust washer next to the
transmission case. Install the front thrust washer between
the transmission case and cluster gear making sure the
tongue on the thrust washer is entered in the groove
provided in the case. Place the cluster gear assembly
with the dummy shaft in place in the transmission case,
allowing it to rest on the bottom of the case.

/

s-—\

J."

\
•••II—

J

l'/a

2236

Fig. 8—Adapter Plate Installation

2997

Fig. 9—Flywheel Housing Shim

92

Chapter I—Clutch and Transmission

(2) MAIN-DRIVE GEAR. Install the oil baffle and
drive gear bearing on the drive gear shaft. Press the
bearing into place, applying pressure to the inner race,
and install the snap ring on the shaft to secure the bearing (fig. 6). Install the snap ring on the drive gear bearing. Assemble the main shaft front bearing rollers in the
main drive gear shaft, using cup grease to aid in holding
them in place.
(3) SYNCHRONIZER.
Install a synchronizer snap
ring at each end of the hub (fig. 6) with the ends of the
springs between the same two inserts. Place the synchronizer inserts on the synchronizer hub. Align the
etched mark on the hub in the etched mark on the sleeve
and push the hub inside the synchronizer sleeve. If a
new hub or sleeve is installed, be sure that the backlash
does not exceed 0.001-inch between the hub and the
sleeve. Place the synchronizer ring on the synchronizer
assembly, making sure the slots are in line with the
synchronizer inserts.
(4) MAIN SHAFT. Install the transmission extension rear bushing with the tool shown in fig. 11. Install
the oil seal in the rear of the transmission extension.
Install the main shaft rear bearing on the shaft, and
press it into place. Install the speedometer gear key in
the shaft. Install the speedometer gear on the shaft and
secure it with the lock ring (fig. 6). Install the sliding
gear, intermediate gear, and the synchronizer assembly
on the main shaft, and secure them with the snap ring.
(5) HOUSING. Place one cam assembly in position
in the gearshift housing and install the retaining pin.
Assemble the interlock spring and balls in the interlock
and install the interlock assembly in the gearshift housing. Place the other cam assembly in position in the gearshift housing and install the retaining pin. Install the

Transmission Extension Bearing Replacer-—7699-N

Fig. 11—Installing Transmission Extension Rear Bushing

oil seals in the gearshift housing (fig. 12). Install the
gearshift levers on the camshafts. Assemble the shifter
forks to the cams.

f. Assembly.
Place the.reverse idler gear in position in the transmission case, and install the reverse idler gear shaft,
making sure to align the retainer pin hole with the hole
in the transmission case (fig. 5). Assemble the main
drive gear in the Tront of the transmission case, making
sure the snap ring on the bearing is firmly seated against
the case (fig. 5). Install the retainer with a new gasket,
at the main drive gear shaft with the drain groove at the
bottom. Install the cap screws and lock washers that
secure the retainer to the transmission case.
Install the main shaft assembly in the transmission
extension, securing it with the snap ring (fig. 5). Using a
new gasket on the front of the transmission extension,
install the main shaft assembly and extension on the
transmission case. Use care not to displace any of the
bearing rollers when entering the front end of the main
shaft in the main drive gear shaft. Turn the extension to
allow installation of the countershaft, then position the
countershaft gear assembly and thrust washers, and
install the countershaft from the rear of the case, pushing the dummy shaft out the front of the case.

Tool— 7688-N

2998

Fig. 10—Installing and Setting Dial indicator

^2124

Fig. 12—Installing Shifter-Fork Cam or Shift-Shaft
Lever Seal

93

Section 2—Transmission (Conventional)

NOTE: Care must be exercised when installing the
countershaft not to deface the thrust washer, bear'
ing spacer, or bearing rollers.

place with the clevis pin and a cotter pin. Install the
equalizer rod on the equalizer lever, then install the
muffler inlet pipe assembly.

Align the retainer pin hole with the hole in the case,
and install the countershaft and reverse idler shaft
retainer pin.
Turn the extension on the transmission case, aligning
the cap screw holes. Install the washers and cap screws,
using the internal tooth lock washers on the two lower
cap screws. .
Install the gearshift housing on the transmission case,
using a new gasket and secure it with lock washers and
cap screws.

h. Gearshift Linkage.

g. Installation.
Position the transmission assembly on the flywheel
housing using two guide pins and secure the assembly in
place with the attaching screws. Install the No. 2 frame
crossmember, then attach the transmission extension to
the crossmember with the lock washers and cap screws.
Install the drive shaft, then install the speedometer
cable. Connect the clutch pedal and gearshift linkage at
the transmission. Position the parking brake equalizer
lever on the equalizer bracket, then secure the lever in

The gearshift lever, used with the remote type shift
control, is spring-loaded downward to be on a plane with
the "second" and "high" gear position. This reduces the
probability of shifting to reverse when shifting from the
"first" speed to the "second" speed. It is necessary to
lift up on the lever before shifting to "first" or "reverse."
Two rods connect the levers on the steering column
to the levers on the gearshift housing and are adjustable
at the steering column end. Figure 13 shows the parts
of the shifting mechanism in the order of assembly.
(1) ADJUSTMENT. To adjust the shifting rods, fig.
14, disconnect the rods from the steering column levers
and loosen the lock nuts.
Turn the clevises either clockwise or counterclockwise,
whichever is required, so that with the gears in neutral,
the two levers on the steering column are in line with
each other. In this position the gearshift lever can be
moved upward or downward in the neutral position
without binding.

3. TRANSMISSION (FORDOMATIC)
A hydraulic torque converter combined with a fully
automatic transmission is available as optional equipment
for the 1951 cars. This section contains information on
driving and servicing vehicles equipped with Fordomatic transmission. The driving instructions are given
under the heading, "a. Driving Instructions." Service
operations are presented in this section under the following self explanatory headings: "b. Engine Idle Adjustment," "c. Transmission Fluid," "d. Throttle Linkage
GEARSHIFT LEVER
ASSEMBLY-7210
PIN-7221
^-SPRING-7208
INSULATOR-7246
SPRING
7227

—351341-S' 7213
—44722-S
LEVER-7303
r-72009-S
351341-S
ROD EN
44722-S
7353
72009-S
337

PIN-7221
PIN-7337
CUP-7314

Adjustment," "e. Manual Linkage Adjustment," "f.
Operating Pressure Check," "g. Band Adjustment,"
"h. Control Valve Body Assembly Cleaning or Replacement," "i. Governor Replacement," " j . Transmission
Extension Rear Seal Replacement," "k. Transmission
and Converter Assembly Replacement," and "1. Outer
Control Lever Replacement."
Additional service information is given in the "Fordomatic Shop Manual," Form No. 7256.
STEERING
COLUMN

SHIFT

GEARSHIFT TUBE
AND SOCKET
ASSEMBLY-7209
RETAINER-7348

ROD

7326

STEERING C O L U M N - 3 5 0 9

24426-S
34846-S
CAP-7318

SLEEVE-7336
LEVER ASSEMBLY-7302
353023-S
GEAR SHIFT LEVERS

351560-S

CAP-7319
2358
Fig. J 3—-Gearshift—Disassembled

2264

Fig. 14—Gearshift Lever Adjustments

94

Chapter I—Clutch and Transmission

a. Driving Instructions*
The instructions for driving a Fordomatic transmission
equipped Ford car are presented under the headings,
"(1) Selector Lever Positions," "(2) Starting the Car,"
and "(3) Driving The Car."
(1) SELECTOR LEVER POSITIONS. The Fordomatic transmission provides five different control ranges
which may be selected manually through use of the
selector lever at the top of the steering column. A pointer
on the selector lever housing and a stationary dial
mounted on the steering column aid in locating the
lever in the desired range (fig. 15). The five different
ranges are each identified by a letter on the dial. Reading
from left to right the letters are, "P"—Parking, "R"—
Reverse, "N"—Neutral, "Dr"—Drive, and "Lo"—Low.
When the headlights are on, the selector lever position
is indicated by a dot of light.
The shift from neutral (N) to drive (Dr) or from drive
(Dr) to neutral (N) is accomplished by moving the lever
backward or forward. To shift into any of the other
ranges, move the selector lever until a stop is felt, lift
the lever slightly, then move lever to position desired.
CAUTION: Do not move the selector lever to the
reverse (R) position while the car is moving forward
at a speed in excess of five (5) miles per hour. Do
not move the lever to the parking (P) position while
the car is moving in either direction.
(2) STARTING THE CAR. As a safety precaution
the starter will operate only when the selector lever is
in the neutral (N) position.
(a) UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS. Place the selector
lever in the neutral (N) position, then start the engine.
When the engine is idling smoothly, move the selector
lever to the drive (Dr) position, then depress the accelerator pedal.
(b) PUSHING OR TOWING TO START. The car may

will remain stationary until the accelerator pedal is
depressed.
(b) Low RANGE (LO). This range is used for ascending
very steep grades or pulling through deep sand, mud or
snow. "Lo" is also used when descending steep grades in
order to take advantage of the additional braking effort
from the engine. When starting from a standstill in "Lo"
range, the transmission will not up-shift into a higher
ratio.
NOTE: Do not accelerate car in excess of 30 M.P.H,
in low.
The selector lever may be moved from "Dr" to "Lo"
at any car speed. The transmission will automatically
shift into INTERMEDIATE if the speed is above 30
M.P.H. Continuing to decelerate, the automatic shift
from INTERMEDIATE to LOW will take place at
approximately 30 M.P.H. Once in LOW the transmission
will remain in this ratio regardless of engine speed. If
the selector lever is moved from "Dr" to "Lo" at speeds
below approximately 30 miles per hour, the transmission
will automatically shift into the LOW ratio instead of
INTERMEDIATE. The selector lever may be moved
from "Lo" to "Dr" at any speed.
(c) REVERSE (R). Bring the car to a full stop, position
the selector lever in the "R" position and upon depressing
the accelerator pedal the car will move in the reverse
direction.
To rock the car back and forth, maintain a steady
pressure on the accelerator pedal and move the selector
lever back and forth between the reverse (R) and the
low (Lo) positions.
(d) PARKING (P). Bring the car to a full stop, turn off
the ignition switch and move the selector to the "P"
position. This movement engages a mechanical pawl
which firmly anchors the car so that it cannot be moved
either forward or backward.

be

started by either pushing or towing if the starter fails
to operate. It is recommended that the car be pushed
rather than towed, because the car will attain considerable speed as soon as the engine starts unless the brakes
are applied immediately.
To start the car by either method, place the selector
lever in the neutral (N) position. When the vehicle speed
is approximately 20 miles per hour, move the lever to
the low (Lo) position and the engine will be driven by
the transmission.
(3) DRIVING THE CAR. The Fordomatic transmission provides a control range to meet any driving condition. Theflexibilityand purpose of each of thefivecontrol
ranges is explained under the following descriptive
headings:
(a) DRIVE RANGE (DR). All normal forward driving
is done with the selector lever in the drive (Dr) position.
In this range, and with the engine at slow idle, the car

I I I P * JgKBK&im* '* ^

Fig. 15—Selector Lever Positions

5119

95

Section 3—-Transmission (Fordomatic)

(e) DOWNSHIFT. When driving at speeds under
approximately 55 M.P.H. and maximum acceleration is
desired in order to pass a slow moving vehicle or to
negotiate a steep grade the transmission may be downshifted from HIGH to INTERMEDIATE by fully
depressing the accelerator pedal. If the pressure is then
released, the transmission will automatically upshift to
HIGH. If the accelerator is held fully depressed the
shift from INTERMEDIATE to HIGH will occur at
approximately 65 M.P.H.

COVER PLATE

b. Adjust Engine Idle Speed.
The engine idle adjustment is very important on cars
equipped with the Fordomatic transmission. If the engine
idling speed is over 425 RPM, the car may "creep" when
idling in drive (Dr) range. Use a tachometer and set the
engine idle speed to 425 RPM with the selector lever in
the neutral (N) position. Adjust the idle adjustment
screw as shown in fig. 16.

c. Transmission Fluid.
The transmission isfilledat the factory with Hydraulic
Transmission Fluid—Type A. Always use this type when
adding or changing fluid since the use of improper or
inferior fluid will impair the operation of the transmission.
The procedure for checking the fluid level is given
under the heading "(l) Checking Fluid Level." Fluid
leakage could occur at several points; these points and
the procedure for checking leakage are given under the'
heading, "(2) Leakage Check Points." The procedure
for changing the transmission fluid is given under the
heading, "(3) Changing Transmission Fluid."
(1) CHECKING FLUID LEVEL. The fluid level
should be checked at least every 1000 miles, using the
following procedure.
ANTI-STALL DASH POT

IDLE ADJUSTMENT SCREW

DASH POT ROD

FLOOR MAT

FLUID LEVEL

INDICATOR

Apply the emergency brake, place the transmission
selector lever in the neutral (N) position, then run the
engine at idle speed for approximately four minutes.
Clean all lint and dirt from the right-hand section of
the floor mat, then roll the mat back to gain access to
the fluid level indicator cover plate.
Clean the area around the cover plate thoroughly, to
prevent dirt from getting into the transmission. Remove
the four screws, then remove the cover plate.
With the emergency brake applied and the engine
running at slow idle, move the selector lever to the Park
(P) position. When the engine and transmission have
reached normal operating temperature, move the selector
lever through all positions to assure fluid distribution
throughout the transmission. Then return the selector
lever to the park (P) position.
Clean all dirt from the fluid level indicator cap (fig.
17). Turn the cap J^ turn counterclockwise with pliers
then remove the indicator.

ADJUSTING SCREW
5134

Fig. 16—Engine Idle Adjustment

5196

Fig. 17—Fluid Level Indicator Location

5197
Fig. 78—Fluid Level Indicator

96

Chapter I—Clutch and Transmission

NOTE: Do not allow fluid to drip on the floor mat.
Wipe the indicator clean and insert in the transmission. Make sure the indicator is seated and locked.
Remove the indicator and read the fluid level.
Add sufficient fluid to raise the fluid level to the full
mark on the indicator (fig. 18).
Replace the indicator, making sure the indicator is
firmly seated and tightened i}/i turn clockwise).
Install the cover plate, tightening the four cap screws
securely. Replace the floor mat, then check the mat for
fluid spots. Clean the mat if necessary.

(2) LEAKAGE CHECK POINTS. Inspect the bottom of the floor pan at the rear of the transmission for
evidences of fluid. If fluid is found here, the rear extension housing seal is leaking between the two sections of
the telescopic shield. Replace the seal.
Check the speedometer cable and replace the rubber
seal if necessary. Check the governor inspection plate
and install a new gasket if needed.
Leakage around the oil pan gasket generally can be
stopped by tightening the attaching bolts to proper
torque (10-13 foot-pounds). If necessary, install a new
gasket. Inspect the drain plug. If tightening does not
stop leakage, replace the plug.

NOTE: The drain plug gasket is not serviced
separately.
If leakage is evident at either the throttle lever shaft
or manual lever shaft, replace either or both seals.
Inspect the two hexhead pipe plugs on each side of the
transmission case at the front. If either plug shows
leakage, tighten or replace the plug.
Inspect the inside of the discharge air duct for
evidence of fluid. If transmission fluid is found, check
the converter cover nuts for proper torque. The nuts
should be tightened to 25-28 foot-pounds torque (cold).

CAUTION: Fluid found in the discharge air duct
may be engine oil that has leaked past the rear main
Z-BAR

CUP

bearing. Be sure to determine which type of leak
exists.
Remove the two converter drain plugs and coat the
threads with number three Permatex. Use a six-point
wrench on the plugs.

(3) CHANGING TRANSMISSION FLUID. The
transmission fluid should be changed at least every
15,000 miles. When changing the fluid, the following
procedure must be used.
Remove the converter housing lower plate. To drain
the converter, remove one drain plug, then rotate the
engine 180° and remove the second drain plug. Remove
the transmission bottom pan drain plug and drain the
fluid from the transmission. Install the converter and
transmission drain plugs.
Add 6 quarts of Fordomatic transmission fluid Type A.
Start the engine and run at idle speed for approximately
two minutes, then add 3 quarts of fluid and bring the
transmission to normal operating temperature. Place the
selector lever in park (P) position and check the fluid
level. Add fluid if the level is not up to the "FULL"
mark on the dip stick. The capacity of the transmission
is approximately nine (9) quarts.

d. Throttle Linkage Adjustment.
With the transmission in neutral and the engine at
normal operating temperature, set the engine idle to 425
R.P.M., then turn off the ignition. Remove the clip from
the carburetor to transmission control shaft (Z-bar) at
the Z-bar end. Reinsert the rod into the Z-bar lever and
place the tool shown in fig. 19 on the end of the rod.
Adjust rod length to hold the carburetor throttle lever
against the idle stop with the tool resting*on the finished
surface of the cylinder block.

CAUTION: Be sure the adjusting tool rests on the
clean finished surface of the block and not on the
manifold gasket.
Z-BAR

CARBURETOR TO Z-BAR ROD

Fig. 19—Throttle Linkage Adjustment

Tool-77230-F

CARBURETOR TO Z-BAR ROD

5198

97

Section 3—Transmission (Fordomatic)

CLEVIS PIN

TRANSMISSION TO Z-BAR ROD

Z-BAR

CLEVIS PIN

Z-BAR
TO Z-BAR ROD

5199

Fig. 20—Throttle Rod Adjustment

Remove the tool and reassemble the rod to the Z-bar
with the clip.
Remove the cotter pin and clevis from the upper end
of the Z-bar to transmission throttle lever rod (fig. 20),
then pull upward gently but firmly on the rod to hold
the transmission throttle lever against the stop in the
transmission-. Adjust the clevis until the clevis pin will
enter the clevis and Z-bar hole freely.
Lengthen the rod by turning the clevis counterclockwise 2 ^ full turns. Assemble the rod to the Z-bar
with the clevis pin and the cotter pin. Lock the clevis
MANUAL LEVER

SLEEVE

LOCK NUT

STEERING COLUMN

on the rod with the lock nut while holding the clevis in
alignment to prevent binding.

e. Manual Linkage Adjustment.
Disconnect the manual control rod assembly from the
selector arm at the upper end (fig. 21).
Position the selector lever so that the indicator at the
steering wheel is down against the stop in the drive (Dr)
position. Position the manual control lever at the transmission in the (Dr) position (second position from bottom
counting the bottom position as No. 1 position) (fig. 22).
Adjust the rod length so that the sleeve trunnion
freely enters the grommet in the selector arm. Lengthen
the rod by turning the sleeve one full turn counterclockwise.
THROTTLE LEVER

GROMMET

SELECTOR ARM

Fig. 21 —Disconnecting Manual Rod from Lever

51

TRANSMISSION OIL PAN

MANUAL LEVER

Fig. 22—Manual Control Lever in the Drive (Dr) Position

98

Chapter 1—Clutch and Transmission

.THROTTLE LINK

Pressure Gauge

Tool—77270

THROTTLE LEVER

•GAUGE HOSE

5192

Pressure Gauge

GAUGE HOSE

5194

Fig. 23—Pressure Gauge Installation

Fig. 25—Pressure Rise Point

Reassemble the rod to the selector arm and lock the
sleeve with the lock nut. Check the alignment of the
pointer for all positions of the selector lever.

Hold the throttle lever against the stop (up) and
insert the gauge pin through the small elongated hole in
the gauge and the-hole in the throttle lever (fig. 24). If
the gauge pin enters these two holes freely the throttle
lever has not been distorted and need not be replaced.
Replace the throttle control mechanism if it is distorted.
With the throttle lever still held against the stop (up),
lock the throttle lever to the gauge by tightening the
thumb screw on the gauge. Remove the gauge pin, then
loosen the knurled screw and advance the lever fully
(down). The lever should travel 28o-33°.
Use an engine tachometer and set the engine idle
speed to 600 R.P.M. by adjusting the idle adjusting
screw. With the engine idling, move the selector to the
reverse (R) position. Observe the pressure at 0° throttle
lever position (fig. 23). The pressure should be 60-3P
p.s.i.
From underneath the car advance the throttle lever

f. Operating Pressure Check.
Set the parking brake firmly and hoist the car until
the rear wheels clear the floor. Remove the converter air
intake duct. Disconnect the throttle linkage at the outer
throttle lever. Remove the J^ inch pipe plug, located
near the throttle levers, then connect the pressure gauge
so that it can be read under the car (fig. 23).
Position the throttle lever protractor gauge over the
throttle lever shaft. Locate the large elongated hole
over the large shaft to the rear of the throttle lever,
and the throttle lever within the thumb screw anchor,
(fig. 24).
Set the indicator on the gauge to "0" and lock in
place with the knurled thumb screw.
Gouge Pin Tool—7000-B

THROTTLE LEVER

Tool—77270

THROTTLE LEVER

5193

Fig. 24—Throttle Lever Protractor Gauge Installation

Pressure Gauge

Tool—77270

GAUGE HOSE

Fig. 26—Maximum Pressure Point

5195

99

Section 3—Transmission (Fordomatic)

slowly and observe the angular reading at the point the
pressure begins to rise. The pressure rise should begin
between 4-6 degrees throttle lever advance (fig. 25).
Continue to advance the throttle lever slowly (fig. 26)
until maximum pressure is indicated (140-160 p.s.i.).
Observe the angular reading. The reading should be
between 14 and 16 degrees.
Move the selector lever to the drive (Dr) position and
repeat the procedures given previously under reverse
(R). The maximum pressure in drive (Dr) range should
be (120-135 p.s.i.).
NOTE: // the pressure regulation is not to specifications, leave the gauges attached for recheck after
repairs are made.
Remove the throttle lever protractor gauge, then
remove the pressure gauge and install the J4 inch pipe
plug. Connect the rod assembly to the throttle lever
using a new cotter pin. Install the converter air intake
duct. Reset the engine idle speed at normal operating
temperature to 425 r.p.m. with the selector lever in
neutral (N). Turn off the ignition, then adjust the
throttle linkage at the upper end of the throttle lever
link and "Z" bar. (2}4 complete turns off "stop.")

g. Band Adjustments.
The front band and rear band adjustment procedures
are covered below under ."(1) Front Band" and "(2)
Rear Band."
(1) FRONT BAND. Drain the transmission fluid
from the pan, then remove the pan. Use a drain can
with a fine mesh screen. Remove the fluid screen from
the transmission.
Loosen the front servo adjusting screw lock nut 2 full
turns with an %•" wrench. With the front band adjusting tool shown in fig. 27, insert the gauge block between
the servo piston stem and the adjusting screw and

REAR SERVO

LOCK NUT

Fig. 27—-Adjusting Front Band

5189

tighten the adjusting screw until the wrench overruns.
Back off the adjusting screw exactly one complete
turn and remove the gauge block. Hold the adjusting
screw stationary and tighten the lock nut to 20-25
foot-pounds torque.
Install the fluid screen and pan using a new gasket.
Install the drain plug and tighten to 20-25 foot-pounds
torque. Refill the transmission to the "FULL" mark on
the fluid level indicator. Use the fluid drained from the
transmission and add new fluid if necessary.
(2) REAR BAND. Fold back the floor mat to expose
the right side of the transmission floor pan. Remove the
access hole cover on the right side of the floor pan. Use
the rear band adjusting tool shown in fig. 28 to loosen
the fear band adjusting screw lock nut.
Using the T-handle of the tool, tighten the adjusting
screw untrl the wrench overruns (fig. 28).
NOTE: If the screw is tighter than wrench capacity
(10 foot-pounds), loosen the screw several turns and
retighten until the wrench overruns.
Back off the adjusting screw 1}^ turns. Hold the
adjusting screw stationary and tighten the adjusting
screw lock nut to 35-40 foot-pounds torque.
Road test the car for performance and check the shift
points by referring to the Shift Point Check Chart.

h. Control Valve Body Replacement.
Drain the fluid from the transmission, then remove
the pan and gasket. Remove the fluid screen by first
pulling the screen off the front pump inlet tube then the
rear pump inlet tube. Loosen the valve body attaching
bolts three turns. Remove the two steel tubes from the
pressure regulator and the control valve body. Loosen
the front servo attaching bolt 3 turns. Remove the valve
body attaching bolts. Lower the valve body in the direc-

COVER PLATE

Too/—7795

Fig. 28—Tightening the Adjusting Screw

5202

100

Chapter I—Clutch and Transmission

tion indicated by the arrow (fig. 29), then pull the body
off the servo tubes.
To install the control valve body, align the servo
tubes with the holes in the control valve body. Position
the inner throttle lever between the throttle lever stop
and downshift valve, and at the same time push the
throttle valve in to clear the transmission case. Make
sure the manual valve is aligned with the actuating pin
in the manual detent lever. Install but do not tighten
the control valve body attaching bolts. Tighten the
front servo attaching bolt to 30-35 foot-pounds torque.
Install the two steel tubes in the pressure regulator
and control valve body. Tighten the control valve body
attaching bolts to 8-10 foot-pounds torque. Adjust the
band. Position the fluid screen over the rear pump inlet
tube, and then over the front pump inlet tube. Position
a new gasket on the transmission case, then install the
pan. Tighten the capscrews to 10-13 foot-pounds torque.
Fill the transmission case with the recommended fluid.

CAUTION: Whenever the valve body is moved, be
sure to adjust the throttle valve linkage.
1.

EXTENSION HOUSING

5188

Fig. 30—Removing Rear Oil Seal

Remove the drive shaft from the transmission by pulling
the shaft to the rear. Remove the rear seal from the
extension housing with the puller shown in fig. 30.
To install the seal, position the seal in the bore of the
extension housing with the felt side of the seal to the
rear. Drive the seal into the housing with the tool shown
in fig. 31 until firmly seated in the bore. Install the
drive shaft by sliding the universal joint knuckle over
the transmission output shaft. Connect the drive shaft
to the rear axle companion flange.

k. Transmission and Converter Assembly
Replacement.

Governor Replacement (Less
Counterweight).

Remove the governor inspection cover from the extension housing. Rotate the drive shaft to bring the governor body in line with the inspection hole. Remove the
two screws that secure the governor body to the
counterweight.

CAUTION: Be careful not to drop the screws and the
governor valve into the housing.
When installing the governor, first lubricate the governor valve and install the valve in the governor body.
Position the governor body on the counterweight and
install the attaching bolts. Install the inspection cover
using a new gasket.

j . Transmission Extension Rear Seal
Replacement.
Disconnect the drive shaft at the rear axle end.
2. REMOVE (3)
VALVE BODY BOLTS

Too/—1175-AE

The procedures for the removal from the car and
installation of the transmission and converter as a unit
are covered under "(1) Removal" and "(2) Installation."
(1) REMOVAL. Place the car on a hoist. Fold the
front floor mat from each side to the center of the car,
then remove the rubber plugs over the top cross member
to frame bolt on each side and remove the bolts. Remove
the rubber plug and four top converter housing to
engine bolts.
Raise the car on the hoist. Drain the fluid from the
transmission and converter. Remove the starter motor,
then remove the two front plates from the converter
housing. Remove the six converter to flex plate bolts,
then position the flex plate horizontally, and replace
the lower converter housing front plate.
Position the engine support bar so that the engine
can be lowered %" below normal position. Disconnect

1. LOOSEN FRONT
SERVO ATTACHING BOLT

CONTROL VALVE BODY
3. ROTATE DOWNWARD AND OUTWARD

Fig. 29—Removing Valve Body

5050

Tool—7657

Fig. 31—Installing Rear Oil Seal

5155

Section 3—Transmission (Fordomatic)
DRAIN
PLUG

101

PARKING PAWL TORSION ROD

•CONVERTER'
COVER

DRAIN PLUG

5052

Fig. 32—Flex Plate Positions

the manual linkage at the transmission manual lever.
Disconnect the throttle lever at the transmission throttle
lever. Remove the drive shaft (remove the four cap screws
at the rear end of the shaft). Remove the speedometer
cable, then disconnect the parking brake assembly at
the cross member and move the cable and equalizer to
one side.
Remove the two rear engine supports to transmission
bolts. Position the transmission jack and raise the transmission slightly to take the weight off the rear cross
member. Remove the remaining cross member bolts and
remove tfre cross member.
Lower the transmission until the engine is carried by
the engine support bar. With the weight of the transmission firmly on the stand remove the remaining two
converter housing bolts. Move the transmission and jack
to the rear enough to clear the converter pilot. Lower the
assembly.
(2) INSTALLATION.
If the converter has been
removed from the converter housing and then replaced
in the housing, first assemble the converter housing
lower front plate to the housing. (This prevents the
converter from slipping out.)

MANUAL LEVER

Fig. 33—Removing Inner Throttle Lever

5118

5120

Fig. 34—Removing Parking Pawl Torsion Rod

Raise the assembly with a jack making sure the converter pilot, housing dowel holes, and flex plate holes
are in proper alignment. Move the assembly forward into
position. Install the lower two converter housing bolts
(40-45 foot-pounds) and lift the transmission to take the
weight off the engine support bar. Remove the engine
support bar.
Raise the engine and replace the cross member, then
install all but the top cross member bolts. Install the rear
engine support. Install the drive shaft, parking brake
assembly, and speedometer cable.
Connect the manual linkage at the transmission
manual lever. Connect the throttle linkage at the transmission throttle lever.
Remove the converter housing lower front plate. Place
the flex plate in either of the positions shown in fig. 32,
then install the six converter to flex plate bolts. Install
the center bolt on each side first. Tighten all bolts to
25-28 foot-pounds torque. Install both front plates on

MANUAL LEVER

DETENT LEVER

Fig. 35—Removing Manual Lever Detent

5121

102

Chapter I—Clutch and Transmission

the converter housing. Install the starter motor, then
lower the car from the hoist.
Install the two top frame cross member bolts and
replace the plugs. Install the four converter housing to
engine bolts (40-45 foot-pounds) and replace the rubber
plug.
Fill the transmission with Fordomatic transmission
fluid type A following the recommended procedure.
Adjust the linkage.

1. Outer Control Lever Replacement.
Remove the control valve body. Remove the inner
throttle lever shaft nut and lockwasher and remove the
lever (fig. 33).
Remove the outer throttle lever and shaft (fig. 33).
Remove the throttle shaft seal from the counterbore in
the manual lever shaft. Remove the cotter pin from each
end of the actuating rod, then remove the parking pawl
torsion rod (fig. 34). Rotate the manual lever shaft until

DETENT BALL

VA" TUBING

the ratchet on the Inner end clears the detent ball, then
remove the detent ball and spring.

CAUTION: Do not lose the detent ball.
Remove the manual lever shaft nut and lockwasher,
then remove the detent lever (fig. 35). The outer manual
lever and shaft assembly may now be removed from the
case. Replace the manual lever shaft oil seal if necessary.
To install the outer control levers, first insert the
manual lever and shaft in the case then place the detent
lever on the inner end of the shaft as shown in fig. 35.
Install and tighten the detent lever attaching nut.
Place the detent spring in the hole in the transmission
case, then place the detent ball on the spring. Use a
piece of thin wall tubing to depress the ball and spring,
then rotate the detent lever until the detent ball is held
in place by the detent lever (fig. 36).
Position the parking mechanism actuating rod as
shown in fig. 34 and secure in place with new cotter pins.
Install a new seal on the throttle lever shaft and install
the outer throttle lever and shaft in the case (fig. 37).
Place the inner throttle lever on the inner end of the
manual lever and secure the lever in place with the
lockwasher and nut:. Install the control valve body.

5135

5136

Fig. 36—Installing Detent Spring and Ball

Fig. 37—Installing Outer Throttle Lever

SERVICE LETTER REFERENCE
Letter No.

Date

Subject

Changes Information
on Page No.

Part TWO

CHASSIS
Chapter

Rear Axle and Drive Lines
Section

1
2
3

Page

Passenger Car Rear Axle
Station Wagon Rear Axle.
Drive Lines

103
Ill
115

This chapter is divided into three sections containing
service information on rear axles and drive lines. "1.
Passenger Car Rear Axle" covers the banjo housing
hypoid type rear axle used on all passenger cars except
the station wagon. The integral housing hypoid rear axle
used on the station wagon is discussed in "2. Station
Wagon Rear Axle." "3. Drive Lines" contains information on the drive lines used on these vehicles.
Certain service procedures are applicable to both types
of axles. To avoid repetition, these procedures "(1)
Cleaning" and "(2) Inspection" are given below.
(1) CLEANING. All of the differential parts, except
the bearings, should be soaked in a cleaning solvent to
loosen the solidified lubricant. All dirt, old lubricant, and
gasket material should be removed from the axle parts
with a stiff brush.
Bearings should be soaked in clean kerosene or any
other bearing cleaning fluid, except gasoline, since parts
cleaned in gasoline have a tendency to rust. Hold the
bearings to prevent rotation, then slush the bearings in
the cleaning fluid to remove as much grit as possible.
Brush the bearings with a soft-bristled brush until all
particles of grit have been removed. Rinse the bearings
in clean fluid, then dry the bearings with compressed
air. Do not spin the bearings while drying.

(2) INSPECTION. The inspection of rear axle parts
consists of a visual examination for excessive wear or
damage. Replace all damaged or worn parts.
Bearings and cups should be examined for cracks,
chips, discoloring due to overheating, and excessive wear
or damage. Lubricate the bearings and check for roughness by turning the outer race by hand. Replace all
damaged or worn bearings and cups. After the bearings
have been inspected, coat the bearings with rear axle
lubricant, then wrap each bearing in a cloth until ready
to use.
The axle housing should be inspected for broken welds,
missing or loose studs, damaged threads, and bent or
cracked housing. To replace damaged studs, drive out
the defective stud, then install the new stud with the
tool shown in fig. 1. The spring seat welds should be
inspected to be sure they are not broken. Repair or
replace as required.
Check all of the rear axle gears for chipped, cracked,
or worn teeth. Check the clearances between mating
parts and the thrust washer thickness.
Inspect the axle shaft splines for evidences of twisting
or cracking. The axle shaft should be inspected for torsional damage. Replace any axle shaft that has damaged
splines or shows signs of torsional damage.

1. PASSENGER CAR REAR AXLE
Passenger cars are equipped with a semi-floating type
hypoid rear axle (fig. 2). "a. Axle Shaft Replacement"
contains removal and installation procedures for the axle
shaft including wheel bearing inspection and replacement. Differential carrier repair is given in "b. Differential Carrier Repair" covering removal from the axle,
disassembly, adjustment, assembly, and installation procedures, "c. Rear Axle Overhaul" covers axle overhaul
and gives the axle housing inspection procedure.
The rear axle housing is the banjo type with spring
seats welded to the housing. The housing rear cover is
welded to the housing. The housing bowl is equipped
with a filler plug and a vent assembly. The outer ends of
the housing tubes are formed into flanges for attaching

103

the brake backing plates and rear wheel bearing outer
retainer.
The differential carrier is attached to the axle housing
with studs and nuts, and a gasket is installed between
the carrier and the housing. The differential assembly
and the drive pinion assembly are installed in the carrier, and are removed as part of the carrier, whenever the
carrier assembly is removed from the axle housing.
The differential assembly is the two-pinion type, and
is mounted in a one-piece differential case (fig. 3). The
ring gear is attached to the differential case with cap
screws. Thrust washers are used between the differential pinions and the case, and between the differential
gears and the case. Tapered roller bearings are installed

Chapter II—Rear Axl e and Drive Lines

104

RING GEAR
BEARING CAP

CASE

DIFFERENTIAL CARRIER
ING CAP

Axle housing bolt

rep/ocer— 4798-N

ADJUSTING
NUT LOCK
ADJUSTING NUT LOCK
2388

Fig. 1—Replacing Damaged Axle Housing Studs

on the differential case hubs. The differential bearings
and bearing cups are held in place by the adjusting nuts.
The differential case is attached to the differential carrier with bearing caps which are bolted to the carrier.
The drive pinion assembly is the overhung type,
mounted in two opposed tapered roller bearings (fig. 2).
The pinion bearing cups are pressed into machined
counterbores in the differential carrier. A lip type
spring-loaded oil seal is installed over the outer end of
the drive pinion.
On 1949 and early 1950 models, a tapered bearing
spacer is installed between the inner and outer pinion
bearings. The sleeve is not tapered on late 1950 and
1951 models.
Semi-floating axle shafts are mounted in heavy duty
sealed ball bearings pressed on the axle shaft (fig. 4).
The bearings are held in position by a retainer ring which
is also pressed on the shaft. The axle retainer plate is

DIFFERENTIAL BEARING
ADJUSTING NUT
2157

Fig. 3—Rear Axle Differential Assembly

bolted to the flange of the axle housing. The brake drums
and wheels are mounted on the axle shaft flanges.

a. Axle Shaft Replacement.
The removal and replacement procedures also include
the inspection and replacement of rear wheel bearings.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the Tinnerman nuts that
secure the brake drum to the axle flange, and remove
the brake drum. Working through the hole provided in
the axle shaft flange, remove the bolts that secure the
brake plate to the axle housing. Pull the axle shaft
assembly out of the housing as shown in fig. 5. Be careful
not to dislodge the brake plate or damage the oil seal
in the housing. Install one nut to hold the brake plate
in place.
(2) WHEEL BEARINGS. The rear wheel bearings
are single-row prelubricated sealed ball bearings which
are pressed onto the axle shaft/They do not require
periodic adjustment. The inspection and replacement
procedures are given below.
(a) INSPECTION. Remove the axle shaft. Grasp the
bearing outer race and "rock" it on the axle shaft, checking for looseness at the oil seal. Visually inspect the
bearing for lubricant leakage. If it is loose or if lubricant
appears on the bearing, replace the bearing.
AXLE

RETAINER PLATE

AXLE SHAFT

SPLINE
AXLE SHAFT FLANGl

Fig. 2—Rear Axle Assembly

Fig. 4—Rear Axle Shaft Assembly

2156

Section 1 —Passenger Car Rear Axle
(b) REPLACEMENT. Remove bearings only when necessary to install new bearings, since removal of the bearing
renders it unfit for further use. To remove a rear wheel
bearing, loosen the rear wheel bearing retainer ring.
Remove the rear wheel bearing with a puller which will
remove the bearing without damaging the axle shaft.
To install a rear wheel bearing, seat the bearing against
the shoulder on the axle shaft. Press the rear wheel
bearing retainer ring firmly against the bearing.
(3) REPLACEMENT. Before replacing the axle shaft,
examine the oil seal. If the oil seal is damaged in any
way or if the feather edge does not form a tight seal,
replace the seal.
NOTE: Always soak a new oil seal in oil for at least
one-half hour before installation.
When installing a new oil seal, use an oil seal replacer
that will drive the seal into the axle housing true with
the axis of the shaft and tight against the shoulder.
After the seal is installed, check the outer diameter for
tightness in the housing to avoid possible leaks. Remove
the temporary nut holding the brake plate to the housing.
Lubricate the bearing bore in the axle housing, clean the
brake plate surface, then install new gaskets between
the retainer plate and brake plate.
Slide the axle shaft assembly in place in the axle housing (be careful not to damage the oil seal) at the same
time entering the splines of the shaft in the splines of
the differential gears. Push the axle shaft assembly in
until the axle bearing is tight against the shoulder in
the axle housing. Position the axle shaft retainer plate on
the rear axle bolts and secure the shaft on the axle housing with the lock nuts. Tighten the nuts to 30-35 footpounds torque. Install the brake drum on the axle flange
securing the drum with the Tinnerman nuts.

b. Differential Carrier Repair.
The removal, disassembly, adjustment, and installation
procedures on the differential carrier, differential, and
drive pinion are included below.

Axle Shaft Puller
Tool-4235-N

(1) DRIVE PINION OIL SEAL REPLACEMENT.
The pinion oil seal may be removed without removing
the carrier from the car. Disconnect the drive shaft at
the rear universal joint. Mark the position of the universal joint flange, nut, and pinion shaft with a punch
to aid in obtaining the same pre-load when assembling
the unit. Remove the universal joint flange, nut, and
washer. Remove the flange from the pinion shaft by
using a puller. Install an oil seal puller and pull the
pinion front oil seal out of the housing (fig. 6).
Prior to installing the pinion oil seal, check the lubricant drain-back passage in the housing for obstructions
and also the axle housing vent. Clean these parts if
required. Inspect the carrier bore chamber and the
universal joint flange for nicks and if any are present,
remove with a file or stone. Place a coating of Permatex,
tite-seal, or their equivalent, on the inside of the seal
bore in the carrier casting to prevent leakage.
Position the new pinion front seal in the housing.
Install the oil seal as shown in fig. 16. Place the universal
joint flange on the pinion shaft with the punch marks
in line. Install the flange (fig. 13). Install the washer and
nut on the pinion shaft, then tighten the nut until it is
tight on the pinion shaft with the punch marks in line
with the punch marks on the flange and pinion shaft.
Connect the drive shaft at the rear universal joint.
(2) REMOVAL FROM AXLE. Drain the lubricant
from the rear axle housing. Remove the carrier to housing
nuts (fig. 7) Then remove the carrier assembly from
the housing.
(3) DIFFERENTIAL REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY. Mark the differential bearing caps and carrier
supports with matching numbers to ensure proper
assembly. Remove the adjusting nut locks, bearing caps,
and adjusting nuts. Lift the differential assembly out of
the carrier. Remove the differential bearings with the
bearing puller shown in fig. 8.
Remove the cap screws which attach the ring gear to
the differential case, then tap the ring gear with a soft
hammer until freed from the case. With a drift, and
working from the ring gear side of the case, drive the
pinion shaft locking pin out of the case. Remove the
pinion shaft from the case, then remove all of the gears
and thrust washers.
(4) DRIVE PINION REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY Remove the universal joint flange nut and washer,
then pull the flange off the drive pinion. Lift the drive

2158
Fig. 5—Removing Axle Shaft

105

2169
Fig. 6—Pinion Shaft Oil Seal Removal

Chapter II—Rear Axle and Drive Lines

106

pinion rear bearing and bearing spacer out of the carrier.
Remove the oil seal using the tool shown in fig. 6. Lift
the front bearing out of the carrier. Use the bearing
remover tool to press the rear bearing off the drive pihion
(fig. 9). Remove the pinion bearing cups from the carrier,
using the puller shown in fig. 10.
NOTE: Late production vehicles have shims installed
between the drive pinion rear bearing and the pinion
gear. Early and late type drive pinions are interchangeable, provided necessary shims are installed
on the new pinion shaft.
(5) DRIVE PINION INSTALLATION AND DEPTH
ADJUSTMENT. In the early 1949 models, shims are
used between the rear bearing cup and the housing to
control pinion depth. In the late 1949, 1950, and 1951
models, the shims are used between the inner pinion bearing and the pinion head. Both types of adjustment are
covered below.
(a) EARLY TYPE. Install the drive pinion bearing

cups in the carrier with the replacer shown in fig. 11.
Press the rear bearing on the drive pinion until seated
against the pinion shoulder (fig. 12). Position the drive
pinion assembly in the carrier, then install the front
bearing on the pinion shaft. Install the universal joint
flange, washer, and nut with the tool shown in fig. 13.

Tighten the nut until the bearing pre-load is 15-20 inchpounds. The pre-load may be checked with the scale
shown in fig. 14.
NOTE: Alternately turn the drive pinion while
tightening the nut to properly seat the bearing.
Use either of the pinion depth gauges shown in fig. 15
to check the drive pinion depth.
NOTE: When using the tool shown in "A" fig. 15,
subtract 0.5 inch from the micrometer reading.
If the pinion depth exceeds 2.0 inches plus or minus
0.002 inch, shims equal to the exceeded amount must be
installed in back of the pinion rear bearing cup. Shims
of 0.003, 0.005, 0.010, and 0.020 inch are available for
servicing the old style carrier.
EXAMPLE: The pinion depth reading is 2.007
inches, therefore, because of the plus or minus 0.002
inch tolerance, a 0.005 inch shim is required.
Remove the universal joint nut, washer, flange, and
pinion assembly from the carrier. Install the required
amount of shims in back of the pinion rear bearing cup.
Position the drive pinion assembly in the carrier, then
install the spacer and the front bearing. Place the cil
seal on the pinion shaft, then drive the seal into place
using the tool shown in fig. 16. Install the universal joint
flange, using the tool shown in fig. 13, then install the

REAR AXLE HOUSING

DIFFERENTIAL CARRIER GASKET
BEARING CAP
ADJUSTING NUT LOCK
CAP SCREWS
DIFFERENTIAL CASE
ADJUSTING NUT

DIFFERENTIAL
BEARING

•BEARING CUP

NUT LOCK
CAP SCREWS
BEARING CU
ADJUSTING NUT

.RING GEAR CAP SCREWS
THRUST WASHER
DIFFERENTIAL PINION
THRUST WASHER
DRIVE PINION
PINION BEARING
PINION BEARING CUP
DIFFERENTIAL CARRIER

THRUST WASH
DIFFERENTIAL PINIO
PINIQN SHAFT
THRUST WASHER
DIFFERENTIAL GEARS

BEARI
SPACER
PINION BEARING-

OIL SEAL

PINION BEARING C
PINION BEARING

DRIVE PINION—LATE TYPE

UNIVERSAL JOINT FLANGE
WASHER
DRIVE PINION SHAFT NUT

f i g . 7—Rear Axle, Disassembled

2159

107

Section 1—Passenger Car Rear Axle

DIFFERENTIAL
CARRIER

REMOVING FRONT
BEARING CUP

REMOVING REAR
BEARING CUP

2162

Fig. 10—Drive Pinion Bearing Cup Removal

2160

Fig. 8—Differential Bearing Removal

washer and nut. Alternately turn the pinion assembly and
tighten the nut until the bearing pre-load is 22-28 inchpounds with new bearings, or 13-18 inch-pounds with
used bearings.
NOTE: A new spacer must be installed each time
the pinion shaft front bearing is removed.
(b) LATE TYPE. Install the drive pinion bearing cups
in the carrier, using the replacer shown in fig. 11. Slide
the drive pinion rear bearing on tool shown in fig. 17,
then position the tool in the carrier. Install the front
bearing on the tool, then install the universal joint
flange, washer, and nut. Tighten the nut until the bearing pre-load is 15-20 inch-pounds.
NOTE: Alternately turn the drive pinion while
tigthening the nut to properly seat the bearings.
Install either pinion depth gauge (fig. 15). When using
tool "B" fig. 15, subtract 2.0 inches from the micrometer
reading. When using tool "A" fig. 15, subtract 2.!Nnche&
from the micrometer reading. The decimal remainder
will be 0.030 inch, or more as the master pinion tool is
designed to allow a nominal addition of 0.030 inch for
shims. Remove the pinion depth gauge and the master
pinion tool from the carrier.

Observe the number etched on the face of the pinion.
If the number is 15, the 0.030 inch or more decimal
remainder is the thickness of shim needed. If the number
is over 15, subtract 15 from the number, then subtract
that amount from the decimal remainder. If the number
is under 15, subtract that number from 15, then add
that amount to the decimal remainder.
EXAMPLE: Pinion depth gauge reading is 2.033
inches ("B" fig. 15) or 2.533 inches ("A" fig. 15).
2.033 —2.0 = .033 or 2.533 —2.5 = .033
The number etched on the pinion gear face is 20
(.020).
20 —15 = 5 (.005).
,033 —.005 = .028
The shim thickness required is 0.028 inch.
Shims from 0.02 to 0.038 inch thick, in steps of 0.002
inch, are available for service. If the shim thickness
required is not available, use the next size smaller.
Install the proper shim on the pinion shaft with the ears
on the shim facing the pinion gear shoulder, then press
the rear bearing on* the pinion until seated against the
shim.
NOTE: Always use the same bearings that were used
on the master pinion tool.
Install the pinion assembly in the carrier, then install
the spacer, front bearing, oil seal (fig. 16), universal

Pinion Rearing Cup
Replacer-4628-N

DIFFERENTIAL
HOUSING

Pinion bearing remover—4221-N
PINION GEAR

.Us >< *

PiNiON REAR BEARING * W

Fig. 9—Drive Pinion Rear Bearing Removal

2161

\

2164
Fig. 11—Drive Pinion Bearing Cup Installation

108

Chapter II—Rear Axle and Drive Lines

joint flange (fig. 13), washer, and nut. Alternately turn
the pinion while tightening the nut until the bearing
pre-load is 22-28 inch-pounds (new bearings) or 13-18
inch-pounds (used bearings).
(6) ASSEMBLE DIFFERENTIAL. Install the differential side gears, pinions, and thrust washers in the
differential case. Install the pinion shaft and the pinion
shaft pin (fig. 7), then stake the edge of the pin hole
securely. Position the ring gear on the case, install the
ring gear cap screws, then tighten the screws to 35-40
foot-pounds torque.
Use the replacer tool shown in fig. 18 to drive the
differential bearings on the case hubs until flush with
the shoulder of the case.
(7) DIFFERENTIAL INSTALLATION AND ADJUSTMENT. The Installation and adjustment procedures include checking the ring gear backlash, runout,
and gear tooth contact. These adjustments must be carefully done for dependable and quiet rear axle performance. When replacing ring gears or pinions, be sure to
replace both parts as they are sold only in matched sets.
The pinion and ring gear tooth combination figures are
stamped on the under side of the differential carrier
casting.
Place the differential bearing cups on the bearings,
then position the differential case assembly in the carrier. Thread the adjusting nuts into place, meshing the
threads on the nuts with the threads in the carrier. Turn
the nuts hand-tight against the bearing cups. Install the
bearing cap screws. Tighten the screws snugly, then back
off slightly until the adjusting nuts can be turned with
the adjusting nut wrench shown in fig. 19.
(a) RING GEAR BACKLASH. Use a dial indicator to
check the ring gear backlash (fig. 19), and tighten the
left-hand adjusting nut .until*the backlash is zero.
Tighten the right-hand adjusting nut until snug, then
tighten the nut an additional 1}^ to 2}/£ notches to

TOOL—4858-P
1 JOINT FLANGE
DIFFERENTIAL CARRIER

2171

Fig. 73—Universal Joint Flange Installation

impose the proper pre-load on the bearings. Check ring
gear backlash. Correct backlash is 0.003 to 0.008 inch.
(b) RING GEAR RUNOUT. After correct backlash has
been established check ring gear runout. Mount a dial
indicator on smooth surface on the back side of the ring
gear. Ring gear runout should not exceed 0.003 inch.
(c) GEAR TOOTH CONTACT. Paint the ring gear teeth
with red lead, then turn the gear under pressure in both
directions until tooth contact impressions are obtained.
Compare the tooth contact impressions with the various
types of contacts shown in fig. 20. If the tooth contact
is incorrect, readjust the ring gear or pinion as indicated.
When the adjustment is correct, tighten the bearing cap
screws to 70-80 foot-pounds torque. Install the adjusting nut locks, then tighten the adjusting nut lock screws
to 15-20 foot-pounds torque.
(8) INSTALLATION IN AXLE. Place a new gasket
on the axle housing studs, then position the carrier
assembly on the housing. Install the carrier to housing
stud nuts, then tighten the nuts to 30-35 foot-pounds

Arbor Press Ram
Pinion tension scale—4610-N

Pinion Bearing Replacer—4221 -N-2

Fig. 72—Pinion Bearing Replacer

2386

2387

Fig. 74—Checking Pinion Bearing Pre-load

109

Section 1 —Passenger Car Rear Axle

PINION DEPTH GAUGE—4610-A

PINION DEPTH GAUGE—4610-P

2163

Fig. 15—Checking Pinion Depth Adjustment

torque. Fill the axle housing to the level of the filler plug
hole with the recommended lubricant. If a new ring gear
and pinion set is installed, use lubricant M-4642-A. If
the ring gear and pinion set is reinstalled, use inactive
type or multi-purpose hypoid lubricant

c. Rear Axle Overhaul.
Axle overhaul includes the removal of the axle from
the car and complete disassembly, assembly, and installation procedures. Refer to fig. 7 for a disassembled view
of the rear axle. The checking procedure for axle housing
distortion is also covered in this section.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the hub caps and loosen the
wheel stud nuts. Raise the rear of the car and install
stands under the frame cross members. Remove the
wheels, then disconnect the drive shaft at the rear axle
universal joint flange. Disconnect the parking brake cable
from the equalizer rod and the rear brake hose from the

CARRIER

2165
2170

Fig. 16—Oil Seal Installation

axle. Remove the nuts securing the rear shock absorbers
to the axle. Remove the spring clip (U-bolt) nuts and
the spring clips, then remove the rear axle assembly.
* (a) HOUSING INSPECTION. Install the rear wheels, then
install a Duby Toe Gauge between the rear wheels.
Hold the wheels stationary, rotate the axle housing
through 360°, and note the scale readings on the gauge.
No variation in the readings while the housing is turning
indicates a straight housing. Variable readings in excess
of plus or minus % degree show that the axle housing is
bent and should be replaced.
(2) DISASSEMBLY. Remove the wheels. Remove
the axle shaft and the differential carrier. Remove the
differential from the carrier and disassemble. Remove the
drive pinion.
(3) ASSEMBLY. Install the drive pinion with the
correct depth adjustment. Assemble the differential and

Fig. 17—Drive Pinion Adjustment Tool with Rear
Bearing Installed

110

Chapter II—Rear A x l e and Drive Lines

"\

RING GEAR
Dial Indicator
Tool—4076-N

Differential Bearing
Replacer tool-4222-N

\

BEARING

DIFFERENTIAL

2166

Fig. 18—Installing Differential Bearing

2167
Fig. 19—Checking and Adjusting Backlash

BACKLASH
OUTWARD
MOVEMENT
OF PINION

OUTWARD
MOVEMENT
OF GEAR

INWARD
MOVEMENT
OF GEAR

GEAR NOMENCLATURE

HEAVY FLANK CONTACT
CORRECTION: MOVE PINION AWAY
FROM RING GEAR, THEN ESTABLISH
CORRECT BACKLASH.

PROPER TOOTH CONTACT

CONTACT O N HEEL
CORRECTION: DECREASE BACKLASH.
MOVE RING GEAR TOWARD PINION.

Fig. 20—Gear Tooth Contact Chart

HEAVY FACE CONTACT
CORRECTION: MOVE PINION " I N "
TOWARD RING GEAR, THEN ESTABLISH
CORRECT BACKLASH.

CONTACT O N TOE
CORRECTION: INCREASE BACKLASH.
MOVE RING GEAR AWAY FROM PINION.
2168

Section 2—Station Wagon Rear Axle

install in the differential carrier. Install the differential
carrier and the axle shaft.
(4) INSTALLATION.
Position the axle assembly
under the vehicle. Secure the rear springs to the axle
housing with the spring clips (U-bolts) and nuts. Tighten
the spring clip nuts to 45-50 foot-pounds torque. Connect

111

the shock absorbers to the axle. Connect the rear brake
hose to the axle, then connect the parking brake cable to
the equalizer bar. Connect the drive shaft to the differential-companion flange. Install the rear wheels and
hub caps. Lower the vehicle to the floor, then bleed the
brakes.

2. STATION WAGON REAR AXLE
Station Wagons are equipped with an integral housing
hypoid rear axle. "a. Axle Shaft Replacement" covers
axle shaft removal and installation procedures and wheel
bearing inspection and replacement, "b. Differential
Repair" contains differential repair information including
removal from the axle, disassembly, adjustment, assembly, and installation procedures. Axle overhaul is covered
in "c. Rear Axle Overhaul" including the axle housing
inspection procedure.
The integral housing hypoid rear axle is equipped with
semi-floating type axle shafts (fig. 21). The centerline
of the pinion is offset below the center of the ring gear.
The drive pinion is overhung on two high-capacity
tapered roller bearings with shim adjustment for correct
mesh and bearing position. A reinforced housing around
the pinion and a one-piece differential case to which the
ring gear is bolted assure accurate gear alignment and
eliminate the need for a ring gear thrust block.
The differential is the two-pinion type and has lubrized
steel thrust washers installed behind the pinions and
side gears.
>
A removable cover plate on the housing permits the
removal or installation of the differential assembly and
drive pinion through the rear of the housing.
The axle housing has steel axle tubes pressed into the
sides of the carrier casting and welded into a one-piece
unit. A breather is installed in the housing.
The outer ends of the axle tubes4 are upset to provide
an integral flange for mounting the brakes and axle shaft
bearing assembly. Spring pads are welded to the axle
tubes at the top and the seat caps incorporate arms for
the shock absorber attachment.
The axle shafts are steel forgings designed to support
the vehicle weight as well as to transmit driving torque
to the wheels. The axle shaft inner ends are supported by,
and splined to, the differential side gears.

a. Axle Shaft Replacement.
The axle shaft removal and replacement procedures
also include the inspection and replacement for rear
wheel bearings.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the Tinnerman nuts that
secure the brake drum to the axle flange, and remove the
brake drum. Working through the hole provided in the
axle shaft flange, remove the bolts that secure the brake
plate to the axle housing. Use the tool shown in fig. 5
to pull the axle shaft assembly out of the housing. Be

careful not to dislodge the brake plate or damage the oil
seal in the housing. Install one nut to hold the brake
plate in place.
(2) WHEEL BEARINGS. The wheel bearings are of
the pre-lubricated single-row ball type and are pressed
onto the axle shaft and held in place by a safety-locking
ring. They do not require periodic lubrication. The brake
backing plate and dust seal are bolted in place and secure
the wheel bearing in the housing. The inspection and
replacement procedures are given below.
(a) INSPECTION. Remove the axle shaft. Grasp the
bearing outer race and "rock" it on the axle shaft,
checking for looseness at the oil seal. Visually inspect
the bearing for lubricant leakage. If excessive looseness
is evident or lubricant appears on the bearing, replace
the bearing.
(b) REPLACEMENT. Remove bearings only when necessary to install new bearings, since removal of the bearing renders it unfit for further use. To remove a rear
wheel bearing, loosen the rear wheel bearing retainer
ring. Remove the rear wheel bearing with a puller which
will remove the bearing without damaging the axle shaft.
To install a rear wheel bearing, seat the bearing
against the shoulder on the axle shaft. Press the rear
wheel bearing retainer ring firmly against the bearing.
(3) REPLACEMENT.
Before replacing the axle
shaft, examine the oil seal. If the oil seal is damaged in
any way or if the feather edge does not form a tight seal,
replace the seal.
NOTE: Always soak a new oil seal in oil for at least
one-half hour before installation.
When installing a new oil seal, use an oil seal replacer
that will drive the seal into the axle housing and keep
it true with the axis of the shaft and tight against the
shoulder. After the seal is installed, check the outer
diameter for tightness in the housing to avoid possible
leaks. Remove the temporary nut holding the brake
plate to the housing. Lubricate the bearing bore in the
axle housing. Clean the brake plate surface, then install
new gaskets between the retainer plate and brake plate.
Slide the axle shaft assembly in place in the axle housing (be careful not to damage the oil seal) at the same
time entering the splines of the shaft in the splines of the
differential gears. Push the axle shaft assembly in until
the axle bearing is tight against the shoulder in the axle
housing. Position the axle shaft retainer plate on the

112

Chapter II—Rear Axle and Drive Lines

DIFFERENTIAL BEARING

DIFFERENTIAL CASE

2175

Fig. 23—Differential Side Bearings Removal
2172

Fig. 2? — Integral Housing Hypoid Rear Axle

rear axle bolts and secure the shaft on the axle housing
with the lock nuts. Tighten the nuts to 30-35 foot-pounds
torque. Install the brake drum on the axle flange securing the drum with the Tinnerman nuts.

b. Differential Repair.
The removal, disassembly, adjustment, and installation
procedures on the differential and drive pinion are given
below.
(1) DRIVE PINION OIL SEAL REPLACEMENT.
Disconnect the drive shaft at the rear universal joint.
Mark the position of the universal joint flange, nut, and
pinion shaft with a punch to aid in obtaining the same
pre-load when assembling the unit. Remove the universal

Differential Housing
Spreader Tool - 4000-A

joint flange, nut, and washer. Remove the flange from
the pinion shaft using a puller. Install an oil seal puller
and pull the pinion oil seal out of the housing (fig. 6).
Prior to installing the pinion oil seal, check the
lubricant drain-back passage in the housing for obstructions and also the axle housing vent. Clean these parts
if required. Inspect the carrier bore chamber and the
universal joint flange for nicks and if any are present,
remove with a file or stone. Place a coating of Permatex,
Tite-seal, or their equivalent, on the inside of the seal
bore in the carrier casting to prevent leakage.
Position the new pinion front seal in the housing. Install the oil seal as shown in fig. 16. Place the universal
joint flange on the pinion shaft with the punch marks in
line. Install the flange (fig. 13). Install the washer and
nut on the pinion shaft, then tighten the nut until it is
tight on the pinion shaft with the punch marks in line
with the punch marks on the flange and pinion shaft.
Connect the drive shaft at the rear universal joint.
(2) REMOVAL FROM AXLE. Drain the lubricant
from the rear axle carrier and remove the rear cover.
Make sure the differential side bearing caps and the axle
housing are clearly marked, then remove the differential
side bearing caps.

Companion Flange Puller
Tool—4858-D

2174

Fig. 22—Spreading Housing

2176

Fig. 24—Companion Flange Removal

113

Section 2—Station Wagon Rear Axle

• Companion Flange Press

Tool-4858-E

Pinion depth gauge tool—4020-A

2179

Fig. 25—Checking Pinion Depth

Install the spreader tool as shown infig.22. Make sure
the tool hold-down clamp screws are tight. Spread the
housing until the differential assembly can be forced
out with a small pry-bar or a heavy screw driver.
CAUTION: Do not spread the housing more than
necessary to remove the differential assembly. Remove the spreader immediately after lifting out the
differential assembly to prevent springing the housing.
(3) DISASSEMBLY. Remove the cups from the
differential side bearings. Remove the differential side
bearings using the tool shown in fig. 23. Remove the
differential adjustment shims. Pry the ring gear bolt
locking plate tabs away from the ring gear bolt heads
with a screwdriver. Remove the bolts (cap screws) and
the ring gear.
Drive out the pin securing the differential pinion shaft
in the case. Remove the differential pinion shaft, differential pinions, and thrust washers. Remove the differential side gears and thrust washers.
(4) DRIVE PINION REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY. Remove the nut and washer from the pinion
shaft while holding the companion flange.
Remove the yoke, using the tool shown infig.24.
Drive the pinion out the rear of the axle housing with
a soft drift.
Remove the pinion shaft oil seal, gasket, felt wick, felt
retainer, pinion front bearing, and shim pack.
Remove the pinion front bearing cup, pinion rear bear-

Fig. 26^Companion

Flange Installation

ing cup, and shim pack from the housing with the tools
shown infig.10.
Press the rear bearing from the pinion shaft and note
the marking on the face of the pinion. The pinion face
may be marked from—05 to + 10, including zero. This
mark is used to properly position the pinion assembly
in the axle housing.
(5) DRIVE PINION INSTALLATION AND
DEPTH ADJUSTMENT. If the replacement of the
ring gear and pinion is necessary, try to select a ring
gear and pinion set with the same pinion mark as the
one removed, then no additions or deductions from the
shim packs will be necessary. If a "plus"-marked pinion
replaces a ' 'minus" -marked pinion, the pinion rear bearing cup must be removed, and shims equal to the difference of the markings deducted from the shim pack, and
a like amount of shims must be deducted from the shim
park between the front bearing and spacer. If a "minus"marked pinion is used to replace a "plus"-marked pinion, add shims equal to the difference of the markings,
and also add an equal amount of shims to the pack between the front bearing and spacer. When a "plus"marked pinion replaces another "plus"-marked pinion,
shims must be deducted if the new pinion mark is higher,
and added if it is lower, while the opposite applies if both
pinions are "minus". When replacing ring gears or pinions, be sure to replace both parts as they are sold only
in matched sets. The pinion and ring gear tooth combi-

Table 7 — Pinion Depth Measurement Calibration
Pinion
Marking

+ 10 +9

+8

+7

+6

+5

+4

+3

+2

+1

0

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

STATION
WAGON
4.27:1

1.740 1.741 1.742 1.743 1.744 1.745 1.746 1.747 1.748 1.749 1.750 1.751 1.752 1.753 1.754 1.755

STATION
WAGON
3.91:1

1.647 1.648 1.649 1.650 1.651 1.652 1.653 1.654 1.655 1.656 1.657 1.658 1.659 1.660 1.661 1.662

Micrometer
Reading
Tool No. 4020-A

114

Chapter II—Rear Axle and Drive Lines

nation figures are stamped on a metal tag fastened
underneath one of the rear cover screws.
Press the pinion rear bearing cup in the housing without shims. Press the pinion rear bearing on the pinion
shaft, then install the pinion assembly in the housing.
Install the pinion depth gauge as shown in fig. 25, then
measure the pinion depth. The difference between the
pinion depth measurement and the figure corresponding
to the pinion marking in Table 1 determines the amount
(in thousandths) of shims to be installed under the pinion rear bearing cup.
Install the pinion bearing spacer, the front bearing
cup, pinion bearing shims in the amount of 0.065 inch,
and the pinion front bearing. Install the companion
flange using the tool in the manner shown in fig. 26.
Install the washer and the nut on the pinion shaft, then
tighten the nut to 140-180 foot-pounds torque. Check
the pinion bearing pre-load. The pre-load should be from
8 to 12 inch-pounds. Add or remove shims to the shim
pack behind the pinion front bearing, .until the proper
pre-load is obtained. Install the oil baffle, gasket, and oil
seal. Install the companion flange and nut. Tighten the
nut to 140-180 foot-pounds and install the cotter pin.
(6) ASSEMBLY. Lubricate all parts with differential
lubricant. Install the differential side gears and thrust
washers, the differential pinions and thrust washer, and
the differential pinion shaft in the case. Secure the pinion shaft in the case with the lock pin. Position the ring
gear on the case and secure in place with the cap screws
and lock plates.
(7) SIDE BEARING ADJUSTMENT. Press new
bearings on the differential assembly without shims, and
install the bearing cups. Spread the axle housing (fig. 22),
set the differential in the housing, then install the bearing
caps. Tighten cap screws just enough to keep the bearing caps in place.
Install the dial indicator on the'housing as shown in
fig. 27. Pry the differential assembly away from the dial
indicator, using a screw driver behind the bearing cap,
then set the indicator to zero. Pry the differential assembly toward the indicator, and note the indicator reading.
This reading, plus 0.008 inch for pre-load, indicates the
total amount of shims needed behind the. differential
side bearings. Remove the bearing caps and lift the
differential assembly from the housing.
NOTE:' Do not install shims behind the bearings at
this time.
(8) BACKLASH ADJUSTMENT. Install the ring
gear and differential assembly in the housing, and tighten
the bearing caps lightly. Install the dial indicator with
the button against the back face of the ring gear. Move
the differential and ring gear assembly tight against the
pinion gear, and set the dial indicator to zero. Move the
differential and ring gear assembly toward the indicator
and note the reading. This measurement, less 0.005 inch

backlash allowance, indicates the amount of shims to be
placed behind the differential bearing on the ring gear
side of the differential assembly. The balance of shims
(the difference between the total amount of shims to be
installed behind the differential side bearings and the
amount to be installed behind the differential bearing
on the ring gear side) are installed under the bearing on
the differential end of the assembly.
EXAMPLE:
Reading recorded in (7)
0.070 inch
Plus 0.007 to 0.009 inch pre-load. . . 0.008 inch
Total Reading . .
0.078 inch
Reading recorded in (8)
0.043 inch
0.003 to 0.008 backlash

0.005 inch

Amount of shims under bearing at ring
gear end of the differential assembly
0.043-0.005
. . 0.038 inch
Amount of shims under bearing at
differential end 0.078-0.038
0.040 inch
Remove the bearing caps and lift the differential
assembly from the housing. Remove the differential side
bearings, then install the proper amount of shims on
each side of the differential case. Press the side bearings
on the case until firmly seated against the shims.
(9) INSTALLATION IN AXLE. Install housing
spreader, and spread the housing until the differential
assembly can be installed in the housing. Remove the
spreader tool. Install the bearing caps, and tighten the
cap screws to 60-70 foot-pounds. Check the gear tooth
contact to make sure the proper amount of shims is inRING GEAR

Dial indicator

2178
Fig. 27—Measuring Differential Assembly End Play

115

Section 2—Station Wagon Rear Axle

stalled. Install the rear cover plate, then install the
axle shafts.
Fill the axle housing to the level of the filler plug hole
with the recommended lubricant. If a new ring gear and
pinion set is installed, use lubricant M-4642-A. If the
ring gear and pinion set is reinstalled, use hypoid or
multi-purpose lubricant.

c. Rear Axle Overhaul.
Axle overhaul includes the removal of the axle and
complete disassembly, assembly, and installation procedures. Refer to fig. 28 for a disassembled view of the
rear axle. The checking procedure for axle housing distortion is also covered in this section.
(1) REMOVAL. Raise the rear of the vehicle, then
disconnect the hydraulic brake hose from the hydraulic
brake line at the rear axle. Disconnect the parking brake
cable from the equalizer rod, then remove the screws
which attach the brake cable brackets to the frame crossmember. Disconnect the drive shaft at the rear axle universal joint flange. Remove the nuts from the rear spring
clips (U-bolts), then remove the spring clips. Roll the
axle assembly away from the vehicle.
(a) HOUSING INSPECTION. Install a Duby Toe Gauge

between the rear wheels. Hold the wheels stationary,
rotate the axle housing through 360°, and note the readings on the gauge. No variation in the readings while the
housing is turning indicates a straight housing. Variable
readings in excess of plus or minus 3^ degree show that
the axle housing is bent and should be replaced.
(2) DISASSEMBLY. Remove the wheels. Remove
the axle shaft. Remove and disassemble the differential.
Remove the drive pinion.
(3) ASSEMBLY. Install the drive pinion with the
correct depth adjustment. Assemble and adjust the differential and install in the axle housing. Install the
axle shaft.

d. Axle Installation.
Install the rear wheels, then roll the axle assembly into
position under the vehicle. Install the spring clips (Ubolts), washers, and nutsl Tighten the nuts to 55-60
foot-pounds torque. Connect the drive shaft to the rear
axle universal joint flange. Connect the parking brake
cable to the equalizer rod, then install the brake cable
brackets to the frame crossmember. Connect the hydraulic brake hose to the rear axle hydraulic brake line, then
lower the vehicle to the floor. ,

3. DRIVE LINES
Power is transmitted from the transmission to the rear
axle by means of a Hotchkiss straight line drive type
drive line (propeller shaft).
The drive line is composed of the universal joints, the
connecting shaft, and the attaching flanges. The drive
shaft is attached to the transmission and rear axle through
universal joints and is equipped with a slip joint at the
transmission to compensate for the oscillatory motion of
the rear axle.

Drive shafts are balanced, therefore, if the vehicle is
to be undercoated, cover the drive shaft to prevent getting any undercoating material on the shaft.

a. Universal Joint Replacement.
The universal joints are of the needle bearing type.
The universal joint bearings are retained on the universal joint spiders by snap rings (fig. 29).
To replace a universal joint, remove the snap ring
COMPANION FLANGE—4851
AXLE HOUSING-4010
OIL SEAL—4676
OIL SLINGER-4670
BEARING CUP-4616

WASHER
356504-S

RING GEAR AND PINION SET—4209
DIFFERENTIAL BEARING C U P - 4 2 22
COVER GASKET— 4035
COVER

4033

NUT
351145-S
BEARING
BEARING
PINION BEARING SHIM-4672
WNG-4221
DIFFERENTIAL CASE—4205

p^ggp v
\
LOCK WASHERS-34807-S
CAP SCREWS-20328-S

>^

BEARING CAPS

\
LOCK WASHERS—34922-S
CAP SCREWS-355765-S
2173

Fig. 28—Integral Housing Hypoid Rear Axle, Disassembled View

Chapter II—Rear Axle and Drive Lines

116

(fig. 29) from under the yoke and around the needle
bearing races. With a drift approximately the same size
as the needle bearing race, press one bearing race through
the yoke. With a pair of pliers, remove the opposite bearing which is partially forced out of the yoke. Remove the
spider from the yoke, then repeat the same procedure
for the other pair of bearings.

NOTE: When removing needle bearing assembly
from yoke use care not to damage bearings.
To install, pack the needle bearings and the holes in
the end of the spider with universal joint grease. Place
the spider in the yoke, and press the bearings into place.
Install the snap ring.

of the vehicle until the universal joint knuckle clears the
transmission mainshaft spline.
To install the drive shaft, slide the universal joint
knuckle into position on the transmission mainshaft.
Remove the tape from the bearings, then position the
rear universal joint on the universal joint flange. Install
the lock plates and cap screws which attach the universal
joint to the flange.
U-JOINT SNAP R I N G - 7 0 9 6
KNUCKLE
• BEARING-7074
,. A C K I N G - 7 0 7 8

^SPIDER ASSY-7084

b. Drive Shaft Replacement,
Remove the cap screws and lock plates securing the
rear universal joint to the universal joint flange. Tape
the universal joint bearings to the spider to prevent bearing loss or damage. Pull the drive shaft toward the rear

U-JOINT FLANGE351588-S
356112-S

707J
70747096'

7074

7096

FLANGE BEARING-467J
LOCK PLATE-4693'

355208-

2253

Fig. 29—-Drive Line (Passenger Car)

SERVICE LETTER REFERENCE
Letter No.

Date

Subject

Changes Information
on Page No.

Part TWO

CHASSIS
Chapter

Running Gear
Section

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Page

Frames
Front Suspension
Rear Springs
Shock Absorbers
Steering Gear
Steering Linkage
Wheels and Tires
Hubs and Bearings

.

118
120
126
126
128
132
133
135

The running gear includes all of the units Which
support the weight of the vehicle as well as the units
which are used for directional control. These units are
listed in the above index. Section 1 contains service
information on checking and correcting frame alignment.
The description and repair of the front suspension is
given in section 2. Section 3 contains replacement information on the rear springs. Section 4 includes service

information on shock absorbers. Section 5 covers the
removal, adjustment, and installation of the steering
gear. Descriptions, replacement procedures, and adjustments of the steering linkage are given in section 6.
Wheel replacement and tire maintenance and replacement procedures are given in section 7. Section 8 contains
the replacement and adjustment procedures for front
and rear hubs and bearings and service information on
oil seals.

7 V 4 " HOLES MUST BE PARALLEL WITH NORMAL TOP OF FRAME WITHIN ,075" m 8
-!

3>/fe"|

ra

i
I
•4-W
1

C

* - 6"

n ^
'^i

Fig. 1 ^-Passenger Car Frame

117

j J^.

2%"
*— A"
\
M

I

TOP OF FRAME

M

1
2395

Chapter III—Running Gear

118

1. FRAMES
The frame of a vehicle serves two purposes. First, it
provides support for the body, engine, power train, and
the other chassis units. Secondly, the frame maintains
the chassis units in the correct relationship necessary
to permit their normal operation.
The frame used on passenger cars and station wagons
is the box type. The convertible chassis employs the
"X" type cross member in the box frame.
Four cross members are riveted to the frame. The fifth,
the engine rear support cross member, is bolted. The
convertible frame has three cross members in addition
to the "X" cross member. All are riveted to the frame
with the exception of the engine rear support cross
member. Six body to frame brackets are riveted to the
box frame side rails.

a. Checking Frame Alignment.
If the frame becomes misaligned due to a collision,
stresses result which can affect the normal operation of
the various chassis units and can cause body and door
opening misalignment. When a misaligned condition is
suspected, refer to figs. 1, 2, and 3, which show various
true dimensions that may be used to check frame alignment on 194-9 and 1950 cars. Figures 4, 5, and 6 show
corresponding dimensions for 1951 cars.
If the vehicle body is not removed from the vehicle

3'/32"

H

frame, some of the dimensions shown in these illustrations may be difficult to measure. In this case, the
diagonal or "X" checking method may be used. In this
method, points are selected along one side of the whole
frame for which there are corresponding points on the
opposite side of the frame. To ensure accuracy when
using this method, the vehicle should be placed on a
level floor and the points of measurement should be
transferred carefully from the frame to the floor.

b. Correcting Frame Alignment.
The frame side rails and cross members are formed
from low carbon steel. Strength is imparted to frame
members during the rolling and forming processes, but
this hardness is sacrificed if heat is used during the frame
straightening process. However, any attempt to coldstraighten a severely bent frame may cause ruptures of
the welds (if any) and may also cause cracks in the bent
part. If heat is needed to straighten a frame member,
the member should never be heated to more than a dull
red.

c. Frame Reinforcing.
After a bent frame member has been straightened it
should be closely inspected. If cracks or strains show, the
frame member should either be reinforced or replaced.
Reinforcements can be made from channel, angle, or

HOLES MUST BE PARALLEL WITH NORMAL TOP OF FRAME WITHIN . 0 7 5 " in 8 1 /*

)

2%"

Fig. 2—Station Wagon Frame

Section 1—Frames

119

HOLES MUST BE PARALLEL WITH NORMAL TOP OF FRAME WITHIN .075" in 8 W
-7VA'

Fig. 3—Convertible Frame

flat stock, the kind and length of the reinforcement used
being dependent upon the nature of the crack. The
reinforcement stock should be of the same material and

approximately of the same thickness as the frame member being reinforced,
Before the reinforcement is welded to a cracked frame

HOLES MUST BE PARALLEL WITH NORMAL TOP OF FRAME WITHIN .075 IN 8V2

Fig. 4—Convertible Frame—195?

TOP OF FRAME

Chapter III—Running Gear

120

member, it is necessary to prepare the crack to ensure
the soundness of the repair. To prevent the crack from
spreading, a Y% inch hole should be drilled at the root of
the crack. The crack should be ground out to form a
slot which will allow the weld to penetrate the surface
of the reinforcement.

heads, and drive the old rivets out of the parts to be
replaced. Install the new part and secure in place using
hot rivets.
The instructions on welding given under Frame
Welding, should be followed when replacing welded
frame members.

d. Replacement.

•e. Frame Welding.

If it is necessary to replace a damaged frame member,
the same method of attachment used originally should
be employed. If bolts were used originally, the replacement bolts should be of the same specification as the
original bolts.
To replace parts attached with rivets, drill off the rivet

In frame welding it is necessary to localize the heat if
the steel hardness is to be retained. Therefore all Welding
must be done with arc welding equipment using mild
steel coated electrodes. When welding a reinforcement
to the frame side rail, the welds must be run longitudinally along the side of the reinforcement.

2. FRONT SUSPENSION
Passenger cars are equipped with independent front
suspensions of the type shown in fig. 7. Coil springs are
mounted between the lower suspension arms and the
frame, and are controlled by telescopic direct action
shock absorbers. The supports, which carry the spindles
and wheels, are clamped to adjustable bushings in the
suspension arms. The upper bushing is eccentric and
controls the camber angle. The lower bushing controls
the caster angle. The suspension arms are pivoted on
bushings threaded onto the ends of the inner shafts which
are bolted to the frame.

In the independent front suspension the upper and
lower control arms are designed to give rigid control of
the movement of the wheel during any type of operation.
The arms are approximately parallel to the ground when
the car is under normal load, as shown in fig. 8. As the
wheel passes over an obstruction on the road, the lower
arm rises, and the outer end of the arm, swinging in an
arc around the inner shaft as a center, comes in toward
the center of the car. The upper arm is shorter than the
lower arm, and swings in a sharper arc. The outer end
of the upper arm also comes in toward the center of the

HOLES MUST BE PARALLEL WITH NORMAL TOP O F FRAME WITHIN . 0 7 5 IN 8V2"
*•

7VA"

Fig, 5—Station Wagon Frame—195?

Section 2—Font Suspension

7VA"

121

HOLES MUST BE PARALLEL WITH NORMAL TOP OF FRAME WITHIN .075 IN 8 W

1VV

2407

Fig. 6—Passenger Car Frame—1951

car, but the sharper arc causes the arm to come in faster
and farther than the lower arm.
The difference in the arc of travel between the upper
and lower arms means that when the spring deflects, the
support, the spindle bolt, and the wheel all lean in at the
top. The hub of the wheel moves in toward the car, but
this movement is compensated for by the leaning action
of the wheel, and the tire remains in the same track on the
PIVOT SHAFT
BUSHING

PIVOT SHAFT
UPPER ARM

SPRING
SUPPORT

road as illustrated in fig. 8. These conditions come into
effect both on spring compression and spring rebound.
On a severe turn where the car "heels" or tips, the
greatest weight or thrust is borne by the outside wheel.
The front spring on the outside of the turn compresses
and the wheel banks against the turn, while the inside
wheel leans away from the turn. Both wheels still track,
regardless of how severe the "heeling."
The front suspension was modified for 1950 and 1951
as follows: The front suspension lower arm and lower
arm bumper were redesigned for the 1950 and 1951
assembly as shown in fig. 9. The top of the 1950 and 1951
bumper plate rises approximately one inch above the
arm, or % inch higher than the 1949 car bumper.
The location and mounting of the stabilizer assembly

KING PIN

BUMPER

7
STABILIZER

LOWER ARM
SHOCK ABSORBER

2301

Fig. 7—Independent Suspension, Coil Spring, and
Shock Absorber

Fig. 8—Independent Wheel Action

2305

Chapter III—Running Gear

122

was revised. The details of this revision are explained
in " b Stabilizers."

NOTE: A newly-installed front coil spring must be
matched with the opposite front spring.

a. Replacement.

Position the inner arm and seals in the lower arm, then
install the lower arm inner bushings. Tighten the bushings to at least 50 foot-pounds torqtie. Position the lower
arm on the front crossmember then install the arm to
spindle support bolt. Tighten the bolt to 70-80 footpounds torque, then install the nut. Tighten the nut to
70-80 foot-pounds torque and install the cotter pin.
Place the spring in the spring seat with the flat end of
the spring upward, then position the spring insulator on
the spring. Position a jack under the inner shaft, and
raise the lower arm to the frame. Align the bolt holes in
the inner shaft and cross member with a drift, then install the bolts. Tighten the bolts to 45-55 foot-pounds
torque. Install the shock absorber, install the stabilizer
encj. clip (or clips) on the lower arm, then remove the jack.
(2) FRONT SUSPENSION UPPER ARM. Place a
jack under the lower arm spring seat, and raise the car.
Remove the front wheel. Wire the spindle support to the
frame to avoid damage to the brake hose from undue
tension. Remove the two cap screws which attach the
upper arm inner shaft to the frame. Remove the spindle
support bolt nut, thread the upper arm to spindle support
bolt out of the arm, then remove the upper arm and the
upper arm outer seals. Remove the upper arm inner
bushings from the arm, then remove the inner shaft and
seals. Inspect the upper arm seals and discard if deteri-

The working parts of the independent suspension are
assembled directly to the vehicle frame and cannot be
removed as an assembly. However, individual suspension
parts may be replaced as outlined under the headings
given below. Figure 10 shows the front suspension disassembled and should be referred to when using these
procedures.
NOTE: After replacing any part of the front suspension, be sure to cheek and adjust the camber
and caster.
(1) COIL SPRING AND LOWER SUSPENSION
ARM. Jack up the car until the wheels clear the ground,
then place a support under the frame. Remove the shock
absorber, then remove the stabilizer and clip (or clips).
Place a jack under the lower arm inner shaft and exert
enough pressure on the jack to keep the shaft tight to
the frame. Remove the four bolts from the shaft and
lower the jack until the spring is fully extended. Lift the
spring out of the spring seat in the lower arm. Remove
the nut from the lower arm to spindle support bolt,
thread the bolt out of the arm, remove the seals, then
remove the lower arm. Remove the lower arm inner
bushings, then remove the inner shaft and seals.
Inspect the lower arm for cracks or distortion. Replace
the arm if it is cracked or bent. Inspect the coil spring
rubber insulator and seals for deterioration and replace
if needed. Check the spring free height with specifications. Replace the spring if the free height is riot within
specifications.

UPPER ARM ASSEMBLY
3082
353031-S

TNNERSHAFT SEAL
V'lKlK
3056

BOLT—3072
353043-S
BUSHING—3046

SPINDLE SUPPORT

FRONT CROSSMEMBER

SEAL—3075

34449-S
353031-S
BUSHING
ASSEMBLY
3062^

3075
BUMPER
3025
3067
353092-S
34847-S
BUSHING—3110

SPRING—5310
SPINDLE
SUPPORT ASSEMBLY

SPINDLE BOLT
3115
351129-S
355758-S ^

BEARING
ASSEMBLY—3123
353031
BUSHING ASSEMBLY
35081 1 - S N _
INNER S H A F T \
V
3057

SPINDLE
ASSEMBLY
3105
355635-S
N>>352655-S
Y

, Q N O34032-S
* * ^ x 72035-S
353043-S
•SEAL—3088

LOWER A R M
STABILIZER BAR

2302

Fig. 9—Revised Front Suspension Lower Arm and
Bumper Assemblies

•BUSHING—3089
353031-S

/

7 2 0

^ ® C ® ^ ^

LOWER ARM ASSEMBLY—3078

3^14g.S

~~"3088
"

2 385

Fig. 10—Independent Front Suspension—Disassembled

123

Section 2—Front Suspension
orated or damaged. Inspect the arm for cracks or distortion. Replace the arm if it is cracked or bent. Position
the inner shaft and seals in the upper arm, then install
the upper arm inner bushings. Tighten the bushings to
at least 50 foot-pounds torque. Position the upper arm
on the frame crossmember, then install the upper arm to
spindle support bolt and outer seals. Tighten the support
bolt nut to 70-80 foot-pounds torque. Install the upper
arm inner shaft to frame bolts and locknuts. Tighten
the bolts to 60-70 foot-pounds torque. Remove the
supporting wire from the spindle support, install the
front wheel, then remove the jack.
(3) SPINDLE SUPPORT. Place a jack under the
lower arm spring seat, and raise the car. Remove the
wheel and drum assembly. Remove the brake backing
plate and wire the plate to the frame. Drive the spindle
bolt locking pin-from the spindle. Remove the upper
spindle support expansion plug from the support. Drive
the spindle bolt down through the support and spindle
forcing out the lower expansion plug at the same time.
Remove the spindle assembly and thrust bearing
assembly. Remove the upper and lower arm to spindle
support bolts and seals, then remove the spindle support.
Remove the upper and lower spindle support bushing
clamp bolts, then remove the bushings.
Check the spindle support assembly for cracks or
distortion. Replace the support if damaged or bent.
Inspect the seals for damage or deterioration. Replace
the seals if cracked or damaged.
NOTE: On late 1949, 1950, and 1951 models the
spindle-support expansion plugs are spun into place.
Before new expansion plugs are installed the burrs
should be removed from the spindle support bores,
with the tool shown in fig. 11.

Position the upper and lower spindle support bushings
in the support, align the grooves in the bushings with
the clamp bolt holes, then install the clamp bolts. Place
the support in the yokes of the upper and lower arms and
install the spindle support bolts and seals. Tighten the
bolts into the arm to 70-80 foot-pounds torque, then
install the nuts. Tighten the nuts to 70-80 foot-pounds
torque. Position the spindle assembly and thrust bearing
in the support yoke. Drive the spindle bolt into the
support until the groove in the bolt is aligned with the
locking pin hole in the spindle. Install the locking pin.
Tap new upper and lower expansion plugs into the
support bores until squarely seated, then stake the plugs
in at least six places.
(4) SPINDLE BOLT BUSHINGS. Place a jack
under the lower arm spring seat, and raise the car.
Remove the wheel and dram assembly. Remove the
brake backing plate, then wire the plate to the frame.
Remove the spindle bolt and spindle assembly. Remove
the spindle bushings with the remover shown in fig. 12.
Kits are available which contain all of the parts
necessary to re-bush the front suspension (fig. 13).
Installation of the contents of the kit will ensure a
satisfactory overhaul job. Position the new bushings in
the spindle support with the hole in each bushing aligned
with the lubrication fitting holes in the support. Drive the
bushings into the support with the tool shown in fig. 14,
Install the burnishing tool as shown in fig. 15, then
expand the bushings into place with the tool.
After the bushings are properly seated, ream the bushings to size with the reamer shown in fig. 16. Clean all
of the cuttings and burrs out of the bushings.

Spindle Bushing
Remover and Replacer
3110-N

2391

2308

Fig. 11—Counter Bore—Spindle Bolt Extension Plug

Fig. 12—Spindle Bushing Removal

124

Chapter III—Running Gear

3123

353092-S
Fig. 13-Spindle

2403
Bolt and Bushing Kit (8A-3111-B)

Place the spindle assembly and the thrust bearing
assembly in the yoke of the support. Check the clearance
between the upper surface of the thrust bearing and the
support.
If this clearance exceeds 0.018 inch, install shims on
top of the thrust bearing to reduce the clearance. A
minimum clearance of 0.004 inch must be maintained to
insure easy steering. Shims may be made from steel-or
brass shim stock to the dimensions shown in fig. 17.
Install the spindle bolt and spindle assembly. Place
the brake backing plate on the spindle, then install the
wheel and drum assembly. Lower the car to the floor
and remove the jack.
(5) INNER SHAFT BUSHINGS. Remove the front
suspension upper arm. Thread the old bushings out of
the arm. Insert a hardwood block between the ends of
the arm near the inner shaft to keep the ends in the
proper position. Thread the new bushings into the arm.

ra:

Spindle Bolt Remover
and Replacer—3110-N

2392
F/g. 14—Spindle Bushing Installation

Fig. 75—Expanding Spindle Bushings

2393

Tighten the bushings to at least 50 foot-pounds torque.
Install the upper arm on the vehicle.
To replace the front suspension lower arm bushings,
it is not necessary to remove the arm from the vehicle.
Thread the old bushings out of the arm. Insert a hardwood block between the ends of the arm near the inner
shaft to keep the ends in the proper position. Thread
the new bushings into the arm. Tighten the bushings to
70-80 foot-pounds torque.
(6> SUSPENSION ARM TO SPINDLE SUPPORT
BOLTS OR BUSHINGS. Either the upper or lower arm
to spindle support bolt or bushing may be replaced as
follows:
Place a jack under the spring seat in the lower arm,
and remove the hub and drum assembly. Remove the
spindle support bolt nut. Thread the bolt out of the arm
and support. Remove the spindle support bushing clamp
bolt and remove the bushings. Inspect the bushing and
the bolt for wear or damage. Replace parts if defective.

Spindle Bushing Reamer—3110-Q

2394
Fig. J6—Reaming Spindle Bushings

125

Section 2—Front Suspension

,.84 DIA.

.010
.012
INSULATOR RETAINERS

1.25DIA.

STABILIZER INSULATORS

2304

Fig. 19—Stabilizer Installation, 1950-51 Cars

2309

fig. 17—Shim Spindle Bolt Bearing

Position the spindle support bushing in the support,
align the groove in the bushing with the clamp bolt hole.
Install the clamp bolt. Install the spindle support bolt
in the arm and support. Tighten the bolt into the arm
to 70-80 foot pounds torque. Install the spindle support
bolt nut. Tighten the nut to 70-80 foot-pounds torque.

b. Stabilizers.
The 1950 and 1951 stabilizer assembly differs from the
1949 stabilizer in location and method of mounting.
Service information on the stabilizer assembly used on
the 1949 cars and station wagons is given in (1). Service
information on the stabilizer assembly used on the 1950
and 1951 cars and station wagons is given in (2).
(1) 1949 CARS. The 1949 stabilizer bar is mounted
in two rubber insulators which are encircled by the stabilizer brackets bolted to the frame side rails (fig. 18).
A rubber insulator is installed by press fit on either end
of the stabilizer ban The insulators are held in place by
the insulator retainers which are bolted to the front suspension lower arm assemblies.
(a) REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY. Remove stabilizer
retainer to lower suspension arm bolts, then remove the
retainer (fig. 9). Remove stabilizer to frame bolts, then
remove stabilizer assembly from the vehicle. Remove
stabilizer insulators from the stabilizer bar.
(b) ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION. Coat stabilizer insulators with hydraulic brake fluid, then slide insulators
into place on stabilizer bar (fig. 18). Position stabilizer
assembly on vehicle frame, and secure in place with
attaching bolts, then install stabilizer insulator retainers.

(2) 1950 AND 1951 CARS. The 1950 and 1951 stabilizer assembly, fig. 19, is mounted on the front suspension lower arm assemblies. Two rubber insulators are
installed on each end of the stabilizer bar. The insulators
are held in place by the insulator retainers which are
clamped to the front suspension lower arm assemblies
at the inner and outer ends.
(a) REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY. Remove stabilizer
retainer to lower suspension arm bolts, remove retainers,
then remove stabilizer assembly from the vehicle (fig. 19).
Slide the stabilizer insulators off the stabilizer bar.
(b) ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION. Coat stabilizer insulators with hydraulic brake fluid, then slide insulators
into position on stabilizer bar (fig. 19). Position the bar
on the lower suspension arms, then install the retainers.

c. Installation of 1950 and 1951
Stabilizer on 1949 Car and Station
Wagon.
Since the 1950 and 1951 stabilizer is not attached to
the vehicle frame* it is necessary to rework the front suspension lower arm assemblies when installing this stabilizer on a 1949 car or station wagon. The installation
may be accomplished as follows:
Drill a 0.32 inch hole (No. 11 drill) in the web of each
front suspension lower arm assembly in the location
shown in fig. 20.
Position the stabilizer assembly on the lower suspenSPRING SEAT PLATE

STABILIZER BRACKET
LOWER SUSPENSION ARM (FORWARD CHANNEL)

STABILIZER RETAINER

Fig. 18-Stabilizer

STABILIZER INSULATOR

Installation, 1949 Cars

2303

XI

.32 "DIA. DRILL

2310

Fig. 20—Locating Dimension for 0.32 Inch Hole

126

Chapter III—Running Geai

sion arms with the offset in the upward position (fig. 21).

NOTE: The purpose of the offset is to provide
ample ground clearance and clearance between the
stabilizer bar and the front cross member.
Install the insulator clamps and the inner retainers.
Make sure the projections on the clamps engage the 0.32
inch holes in the arms and that the clamp bolts are at
the top (fig. 21).
Install the outer retainers with the bolt hole on the

STUD AND
WASHER ASSEMBLY

\
^SHACKLE
NUT BUSHING (2)
SHACKLE STUDS

Fig. 22—Rear Spring and Shackles—1949 and 7950
bottom.* Insert each retainer bolt through the retainer
and the spring seat, then install the nut.

3. REAR SPRINGS
The rear springs are of the semi-elliptic leaf type. The
front end of each rear spring is mounted in a stationary
hanger which is attached to the frame side rail. The rear
end of each rear spring on the 1949 and 1950 vehicles is
shackled to the side rail to allow for the variations in the
length of the spring during spring compression and rebound. The rear ends of the springs on 1951 vehicles are
shackled to the shackle tension bars which are bolted to
the frame side rails (fig. 23).
Each rear spring is attached to the rear, axle housing
with two "U"-shaped spring clips. Then spring leaves are
held together and in alignment by means of the spring
center bolt. Three rubber insulated spring clamps are
installed on each rear spring to maintain the alignment
of the leaves. Wax impregnated fabric inserts are installed between the outer ends of the first four leaves of
each spring to eliminate spring squeak and to control
interleaf friction. The rubber bushings installed at the
spring hangers and shackles eliminate the need for lubrication at these points.

a. Removal.
Raise the rear of the vehicle and place stationary jacks
under the frame and rear axle. Disconnect the shock
absorber at the rear spring clip plate. Remove the spring

clip nuts and the spring clips. Remove the stud and
washer assembly from the front hangar. Remove the
nuts from the shackle bar studs and remove the outer
shackle bar (figs. 22 and 23). Pull the rear spring off the
lower shackle stud, then remove spring from vehicle.

b. Inspection and Repair.
Inspect the rubber bushings, the hanger stud, and the
shackle studs for wear or damage. Replace parts where
necessary. Pry the spring leaves apart and inspect the
wax impregnated inserts. Replace all worn inserts, making sure the spring leaves are dry and free of oil before
installing the new inserts.
Check the distances between each spring eye and the
center tie bolt. Position the spring under the axle housing with the shorter end toward the front of the vehicle.
Place the rear spring eye on the lower shackle bar stud,
then install the seals, the outer shackle bar and the locknuts. Tighten the nuts securely. Position the spring clip
plate under the spring, then install the spring clips and
nuts. Tighten the nuts to 45-50 foot-pounds torque (cars)
or 55-60 foot-pounds torque (station wagons). Install the
front hanger stud and seals, tightening the stud nut
securely. Jack up the rear of the vehicle, remove the
stationary jacks, then lower the vehicle to the floor.

4. SHOCK ABSORBERS
Passenger cars and station wagons are equipped with
hydraulic shock absorbers of the direct-acting type. The
front shock absorbers are mounted through the center of
the coil springs and are fastened at the top to the dome
in the frame, and at the bottom, to the lower suspension

FRAME SIDE RAIL
ATTACHING BOLTS

SHACKLE ASSEMBLY-

RETAINER
RETAINER-INNER
OUTER-R.H.

CLAMP-INSULATOR

Fig. 21—Stabilizer Installation

RETAINER
OUTER-L.H.
2311

Front
>
Fig, 23—Rear Spring Installation—1951

2404

127

Section 4—Shock Absorbers
arm. The rear shock absorbers are installed between the
spring and the frame side rail. The lower end of the unit
is attached to the spring plate stud, and the upper end
to the frame side rail stud. The shock absorbers are
permanently sealed and cannot be refilled or repaired.

RUBBER BUSHINGS

a. Removal.
Before replacing a shock absorber, check the action
of the shock absorbers by grasping the bumper and
jouncing the car up and down. If the shock absorbers are
in good condition the car will immediately settle to a
normal position after the bumper is released. If the car
continues to jounce, or remains displaced, remove the
shock aosorbers for further checking as follows:
To remove a front shock absorber, fig. 24, remove the
lock nut, washer, and rubber bushing from the upper
stud at the top of the dome on the frame. Remove the
two cap screws from the plate in the lower suspension
arm and remove the shock absorber.
Remove the lock nut and stud nut from the lower end
of the absorber, then remove the bushings, retainers,
and the mounting plate. To remove a rear shock absorber, fig. 25, remove the nuts from the studs in the
spring plate and in the frame side rail. Remove the shock
absorber and rubber bushings from the studs.

b. Testing.
To check a shock absorber removed from a car, clamp
the lower end (small diameter) in a vise in a near vertical
position and pump it a few times to expel any air. A
good shock absorber will have a steady drag in both
LOCK NUT

-»»O

o
BUSHING R E T A I N E R S ^ - - ^ © ^ > R U B B E R

BUSHINGS

REAR SHOCK
ABSORBER

RUBBER BUSHINGS

2318

Fig. 25—Rear Shock Absorber

directions when operated by hand. If it operates without
any drag, or is very hard to operate, it should be replaced.

NOTE: Front and rear shock absorber replacement
kits are available from your local Ford dealer. Each
kit contains one shock absorber and four shock
absorber bushings.

c. Installation.
To install a front shock absorber, proceed as follows:
Place the bushing retainers, bushings, and mounting
plate on the lower end of the shock absorber (fig. 24),
then install the stud nut. Tighten the nut to 42-54 inchpounds torque, then install the lock nut. Tighten the
lock nut to 30-40 inch-pounds torque. Place one retainer
and bushing on the upper end of the unit, then position
the shock absorber in the coil spring. Install the lower
mounting plate to frame bolts. Place the remaining bushing retainers and bushing on the upper stud. Install the
upper stud nut. Tighten the nut to 42-54 inch-pounds

FRONT SHOCK ABSORBER

STEERING GEAR
RUBBER BUSHING
BUSHING RETAINERS
LOCK WASH..X
MOUNTING SCREW-HS
BUSHING RETAINER

STEERING ARM

LOWER
M O U N T I N G PLATE

STEERING IDLER ARM

— LOCK WASHER
M O U N T I N G SCREW
RUBBER BUSHING
NUT

LOCK NUT

Fig. 24—Front Shock Absorber

2317

SPINDLE
ARM (L.H.)

/9
SPINDLE
CONNECTING ROD
ASSEMBLY (L.H.)

SPINDLE
CONNECTING ROD
ASSEMBLY (R.H.)

CONNECTING ROD
ASSEMBLY

Fig. 26—Steering Gear and Linkage

SPINDLE
ARM (R.H.)

2259

128

Chapter III—Running Gear

torque. Install the lock nut, then tighten the lock nut
to 30-40 inch-pounds torque.
To install a rear shock absorber, proceed as follows:
Place one rubber bushing on each rear shock absorber

stud (fig. 25). Position the shock absorber on the studs
with the stone shield towards the front of the vehicle.
Install the remaining bushings and the stud washers,
then install and tighten the stud. nuts.

5. STEERING GEAR
The steering gear assembly is of the worm and roller
type. Complete steering gear adjustment procedures are
given in "a. Adjustments." Repair information, given in
"b. Steering Gear Repair" includes complete removal,
disassembly, assembly and installation procedures for
the steering gear.
The steering gear assembly is mounted on the lefthand frame side rail (fig. 26). The steering column is
attached to the lower side of the instrument panel with
a "U" bolt.
The steering gear worm is integral with the steering
shaft and is supported at each end by opposed tapered
roller bearings (fig. 27). The triple-tooth roller is attached
to the sector shaft by means of a steel shaft. Two sets of
needle bearings are installed between the shaft and the
roller.
The sector shaft is mounted in the sector shaft housing cover. Two sets of needle bearings are pressed into
this cover. The cover is attached to the steering gear
housing with four cap screws.
The steering wheel and steering arm are splined to the
steering shaft and sector shaft respectively. Both the
steering arm and the steering wheel have master splines
to insure correct installation. The steering gear is designed so that when the steering wheel spoke is horizontal and at the mid-point of the steering wheel travel,
STEERING SHAFT

BEARING PRELOAD ADJUSTMENT
GASKETS (SHIMS)
ORM TAPERED
OLLER BEARINGS

HOUSING CAP
SECTOR SHAFT END-PLAY
ADJUSTING SCREW

WORM

the sector and worm will be at the high-point position.

DEFINITION: The high point is the point of least
clearance between the worm and roller and is at the
mid-point of the worm and roller travel.

a. Adjustments.
Proper steering gear adjustment is essential in obtaining easy steering and handling of the car. Four adjustments are required on the worm and roller type steering
gear. They are (1) Sector Shaft End Play, (2) Worm Bearing Pre-Load, (3) Worm and Roller Pre-Load (mesh),
and (4) Steering Wheel Spoke Position. The first three
adjustments are accomplished within the gear; the fourth
adjustment is made independently of the gear. Before
proceeding with the steering gear adjustments, eliminate
any mis-alignment of the steering column as follows:
Loosen the three cap screws that fasten the steering
gear housing to frame side member, to relieve any possible vertical strain, Loosen the steering-column-jacket
clamp at the bottom of the instrument panel to relieve
any possible horizontal strain. Tighten the steering gear
mounting bolts, then tighten the clamp nuts at the instrument panel to 5-7 foot pounds torque. This relieves
any misalignment in the mounting of the steering gear
assembly to the frame and the body.
These adjustments must be made carefully and in the
order given to insure satisfactory results.
(1) SECTOR SHAFT END PLAY. The sector shaft
end play is controlled by a set screw installed in the
steering gear housing. Sector shaft end play may be adjusted as follows:
Disconnect the steering arm from the steering arm to
idler arm rod. Loosen the sector shaft end play adjust-

LOCK NUT
STEERING
HOUSING
ROTATE HOUSING TO
ADJUST WQRM
AND ROLLER MESH
PRE-LOAD BY MEANS
OF ECCENTRIC BORE

OR SHAFT

SECTOR SHAFT
ADJUSTING SCREW

THRUST WASHERS

ADJUSTING SCREW
LOCK NUT

BEARINGS
FILLER PLUG

STEERING ARM

SHIMS-ADD OR REMOVE
AS REQUIRED

OIL SEAL

SECTOR SHAFT HOUSING

2262

Fig. 27—Steering Gear Assembly

2801

Fig. 28—Adjusting Sector Shaft End Play

129

Section 5—Steering Gear
merit screw lock nut. Tighten the adjustment screw
enough to remove all the sector shaft end play without
causing a bind between the screw and the shaft. Hold
the adjustment screw in this position and tighten the
lock nut (fig. 28).

CAUTION: Failure to tighten the lock nut securely
may result in accidental loosening of the sector shaft
end play adjustment screw during vehicle operation.
This will increase the steering wheel free play to
more than the specified amount.
NOTE: Early 1949 steering gears were equipped
with a steel adjustment screw. When making the
sector shaft end play adjustment it may be advisable
to replace the steel screw with the brass screw used
on late production steering gears.
(2) STEERING GEAR WORM BEARING PRELOAD. The worm bearing pre-load is controlled by the
shim pack (gaskets) installed between the steering gear
housing and the housing upper cap.
The shim pack contains shims of the following sizes:
0.002 inch, 0.005 inch, 0.010 inch, and 0.020 inch. The
thinner shims are installed on the top of the pack. Adjust
the pre-load as follows:
Disconnect the steering arm from the steering arm to
idler arm rod, then check the worm bearing pre-load.
First, turn the steering wheel two complete turns from
the straight ahead position (spokes in a horizontal position with the steering gear arm pointing directly backward). Hook a spring scale to the steering wheel at the
point where the spoke joins the steering wheel rim
(fig. 29).
Rotate the wheel at least one turn with the aid of the
scale. Note the pull required to keep the wheel moving.
This reading is the worm bearing pre-load and should
be between % and V/i pounds. If the reading is too
high, excessive bearing pre-load is indicated and a shim
or shims must be added.

If the reading is too low, the bearing pre-load is insufficient and a shim or shims must be removed.
If it is necessary to add or remove shims, remove the
screws that secure the steering gear housing upper cap
to the housing. Work the cap and column jacket upward
to allow clearance for removing or adding shims. (For
additional working clearance, it may be necessary to
remove the steering wheel.)
To add a shim, split the shim at one point then install
the shim with the split in the upward position. Make
sure the split ends of the shim do not overlap as this
could lead to a false pre-load reading.
To remove a shim, separate the first shim from the
shim pack with a knife blade. Pass the knife blade all
around the shim being careful not to damage the remaining shims.
Remove or add one shim at a time; check the worm
bearing pre-load after each variation in the shim pack.
NOTE: The steering column and the housing upper
cap must be assembled on the steering gear housing
each time the pre-load is checked.
(3) STEERING
GEAR WORM AND ROLLER
MESH (PRE-LOAD). The steering sector shaft housing is constructed with an eccentric boss which seats in
the steering gear housing (fig. 27). This feature provides
a means of varying the worm and roller mesh adjustment
by rotating the sector shaft housing. The worm and roller
mesh may be adjusted as follows:
Use a spring scale (fig. 29) and turn the wheel past the
high spot position. The scale reading should be at least
Y2 pound above that of the worm bearing pre-load previously determined, but the total reading must not
exceed 2 pounds. If the reading (roller mesh pre-load)
does not exceed the worm bearing pre-load by at least
SLOTTED HOLES
(SCREWS REMOVED!

ROTATE H O U S I N G T O ADJUST
W O R M A N D ROLLER MESH

Spring Scale

2261

Fig. 29—Checking Worm Bearing Pre-load

2275

Fig. 30--Steering Gear Worm and Roller Adjustment

130

Chapter III—Running Geai

]/2 pound, there is insufficient roller mesh pre-load and
the worm and roller should be adjusted.
Place the steering wheel in the straight ahead position
and loosen the four cap screws which hold the steering
sector shaft housing to the steering gear, housing just
enough to maintain a little pressure on the lock washers.
Rotate the cover clockwise by tapping with a mallet
until all backlash is removed (fig. 30). Check the backlash by moving the steering gear arm back and forth.
Tighten the cap screws, then check the pre-load with the
spring scale as described previously. The reading should
be between l j ^ and 2 pounds. This is the sum of the
worm bearing pre-load and the gear mesh load. If the
reading is too high, move the cover slightly counterclockwise, and if the reading is too low, move the cover in the
clockwise direction. After the foregoing adjustments have
been completed, install the steering gear arm on the
steering arm to idler arm rod. Tighten the nut to 50-60
foot-pounds torque.
(4) CHECK AND ADJUST STEERING
WHEEL
SPOKE POSITION. When the steering gear is on the
high point, the front wheels should be in a straight-ahead
position, the spokes of the steering wheel in a horizontal
position and the steering gear arm pointing directly backwards. Check the steering wheel spoke position when the
vehicle is driven straight ahead. If the spokes are not in
a horizontal position, adjust as follows:
Set the steering wheel spoke in the horizontal position.
Scratch a mark on each steering arm connecting rod
sleeve and the spindle connecting rod tube, then loosen
the sleeve clamp bolts.
If the left-hand steering wheel spoke was below the
horizontal position when checked, turn both connecting
rod sleeves downward the same amount as shown in
fig. 31. One complete turn of the sleeve equals approximately one inch of steering wheel rim travel. Turn the
connecting rod sleeves upward if the left-hand wheel

spoke is above the horizontal position. Tighten the sleeve
clamp bolt nuts to 12 to 15 foot-pounds torque. Road
test the vehicle and check the operation of the steering
gear under all driving conditions.

b. Steering Gear Repair.
If the steering gear parts are worn to the extent that
the gear cannot be properly adjusted, the gear must be
removed from the vehicle, completely disassembled, and
the worn parts replaced. The procedures necessary to accomplish this operation are given below in (1) thru (6).
(1) STEERING WHEEL REPLACEMENT. Disconnect the horn from the connector at the bottom of
the steering gear housing. Remove the horn button or
ring by pressing down and turning the button or ring
counterclockwise. Lift the spring from the steering wheel
hub. Remove the steering wheel nut and then remove
the steering wheel as shown in fig. 32.
To install the steering wheel, position the wheel on
the shaft with the master splines in alignment, then install the steering wheel nut. Install the horn wire in the
steering shaft. Place the horn button on the steering
wheel hub and turn the button clockwise to secure it to
the steering wheel. Connect the horn wire to the connector at the bottom of the steering gear housing.
(2) STEERING GEAR REMOVAL. Remove the
steering wheel, then disconnect the steering column from
the instrument panel. Disconnect the lower gearshift
levers from the gearshift rod adjustment nuts. Remove
the cap screw from the bracket that secures the gearshift
tube to the steering column tube and remove the bracket.
Remove the gearshift tube pin and the gearshift levers.
Loosen the steering column clamp, and pull the steering
column tube assembly off the steering gear shaft. Remove
the steering gear arm as shown in fig. 33. Remove the

V"

Fig. 3?—Sfeering Wheel Spoke Adjust merit

2384

Fig. 32—Steering Wheel Removal

131

Section 5—Steering Gear
three bolts that secure the steering gear housing to the
frame side rail. Remove the steering gear from the underside of the car.
NOTE: It may be necessary to raise the car to remove the steering gear.
(3) STEERING GEAR DISASSEMBLY. Drain the
lubricant from the steering gear housing. Scribe an alignment mark on the sector housing and steering gear
housing. Remove the sector shaft housing screws, then
remove the sector shaft and the housing (fig. 34). Remove
the two spacers from the sector shaft, then remove the
gasket from the housing. Remove the steering gear housing cap screws and slide the cap off the steering gear
shaft. Pull the steering gear shaft and worm assembly
out of the steering gear housing. Slide the steering gear
housing upper cap gaskets (shim pack), bearing cup, and
worn upper bearing off the shaft. Tie the gaskets together
for use when assembling the gear. Lift the lower worm
bearing and cup form the housing.
Press the sector shaft needle bearings, spacer and oil
seal out thru the steering arm end of the sector shaft
housing.
(4) STEERING GEAR INSPECTION, Clean all
parts thoroughly, then inspect the worm and the roller
for scores, cracks, or for signs of chipping. Inspect the
steering shaft bearing cups and bearings for wear, cracks,
or damage. Check the sector shaft for wear at the needle
bearing locations. Replace all parts that are damaged
sufficiently to impair steering gear operation.
(5) STEERING GEAR ASSEMBLY. Press the bearings, with the spacer installed between the bearings, into
the sector shaft housing (fig. 34). Press the oil seal into
the steering arm end of the sector shaft.
Position the upper worm bearing, the bearing cup, and
the steering gear housing upper cap gaskets on the worm
and shaft assembly. Slide the steering gear housing upper
cap on the steering shaft. Install the lower worm bearing
cup and bearing in the steering gear housing. Position
SECTOR SHAFT HOUSING

the steering gear shaft and worm assembly in the steering gear housing and install the cap screws.
Place the two thrust washers on the sector shaft, then
slide the steering sector shaft and worm assembly into
the steering sector shaft housing cover. Position the
steering sector shaft housing cover gasket on the steering gear housing, then install the steering sector shaft
housing cover on the steering gear housing with the previously scribed marks on the housings in alignment.
(6) STEERING GEAR INSTALLATION. Working
from underneath the car, position the steering gear assembly on the frame. Install but do not tighten the mounting bolts and nuts. Install the steering column tube
assembly on the steering shaft. Secure the steering column tube bracket to the instrument panel with the two
nuts and lock washers. Tighten the steering column
clamp, and then tighten the steering gear housing to
frame bolts to 30-35 foot-pounds torque. Install the pin
and the lower gearshift levers. Place the gearshift tube
bracket in position and secure the tube in place with a
cap screw. Connect the gearshift levers to the rod adjustment nut, install the steering wheel. Position the steering
gear arm on the steering gear sector shaft.
NOTE: The arm should he installed pointing straight
back when the wheel spokes are in the horizontal
position and the worm is at mid-point of travel.
HORN BUTTON
PLATE—3645
SPRING-3626
STEERING WHEEL
36(

" U 36
ADJUSTING
SCREW-3577

/

CAP

HORN BUTTON
3627

HORN PAD

3672
NUT
350983-S

3589
& BEARING
ASSY.-3509
BRACKET—3678
yP-3507
•GASKETS-3593
BEARING C U P - 3 5 5 3
BEARING—3571
BEARING CUP—3552
HOUSING—3548
HOUSING END PLATE & TUBE ASSY.—3597
•SECTOR SHAFT & WORM ASSY.-3575

2268

Fig. 33—Steering Gear Arm Removal

WASHER—3579
BEARING—3576
GASKET—3581
COVER-3583
356393-S
4847-S
20368-S
RING—3576
IL SEAL-3591
STEERING ARM—3590
34814-S
351153-S

Fig. 34—Steering Gear, Disassembled

2265

132

Chapter III—Running Gear

Install the lock washer and nut, tighten the nut to
110-130 foot-pounds torque. Fill the steering gear hous-

ing to the filler plug level with the proper lubricant.
Adjust the steering gear.

6. STEERING LINKAGE
The steering linkage consists of all the parts necessary
to transmit the steering effort from the steering gear
sector shaft to the front wheels. The steering linkage
includes the steering gear arm (Pitman), the steering
arm to idler arm rod, the right and left-hand spindle
connecting rods (tie rods), the spindle arms, and the
steering idler arm and bracket (fig. 35).
The spindle connecting rod ends and the steering arm
to idler arm rod end have spring loaded ball studs to
compensate for wear. When the limit of this automatic
wear adjustment has been reached, the rod ends must be
replaced. The replacement procedure is given in a.
The steering arm to idler arm rod end is forged integral
with the rod. If replacement of the rod end is necessary,
the entire rod assembly must be replaced. Since the inner
spindle connecting rod ends are also forged integral with
the right and left-hand spindle connecting rods, the rods
must be replaced when the rod ends become worn. The
rod replacement procedures are given in b.
Service information on idler arm is given in c.

a. Rod End Replacement.
Remove the cotter pins and nuts which attach the
spindle connecting rod ends to the spindle arms (fig. 35).
Support the spindle arms near the spindle connecting
34847-S
33799

rod end studs, then drive the studs out of the arms using
a soft metal hammer. Loosen the clamp bolts, then remove the rod ends from the spindle connecting rod tube.
Thread each new end an equal distance into (or on to)
the spindle connecting rod tube. Position the end studs
in the spindle arm holes, then install the attaching nuts.
Tighten the nuts securely, then install new cotter pins.
Adjust the toe.

b. Rod Replacement.
The spindle connecting rod replacement procedure is
given in (1). The replacement procedure for the steering
arm to idler arm rod is given in (2).
(1) SPINDLE CONNECTING ROD REPLACEMENT. Remove the cotter pin and nut which attach
the spindle connecting rod end to the steering arm to
idler arm rod (fig. 35). Support the idler arm rod near
the ball stud, then tap the stud out of the arm. Loosen
the spindle connecting rod sleeve clamp bolts, then remove the rod from the sleeve.
Thread the new spindle connecting rod into the sleeve.
Connect the rod end ball stud to the steering arm to
idler arm rod. Adjust the toe.
(2) STEERING ARM TO IDLER ARM ROD REPLACEMENT. Remove the cotter pin and nut which
attach the idler arm rod end to the steering arm (fig. 35).

STEERING IDLER ARM BUSHING—3356

356682-S
34847-S

IDLER ARM BRACKET—3351

q

31 30

i

351059-S

IDLER ARM
SEAL—3359

SPINDLE ARM

72026-S

20389-S
STEERING GEAR ARM—3590

351059-S

355758-S

34814-S

IDLER ARM—3355

IDLER ARM

72026-S
STEERING ARM TO
\
IDLER ARM ROD—3304

351153-S
72026-S

351059-$
SPINDLE ARM—3131

'STEERING IDLER
ARM BUSHING

3356

SEAL—3332

34443-S
353023-S

CLAMP—3287
CONNECTING ROD
SLEEVE—3310

SPINDLE
CONNECTING
ROD—3280

353043-S

SPINDLE CONNECTING
ROD—3281
CONNECTING ROD
SLEEVE—3310
CONNECTING ROD
END—3290
2085

Fig. 35—Steering Linkage

Section 6—Steering Linkage
Support the steering arm near the ball stud, then tap the
stud out of the arm. Remove the cotter pins and nuts
which attach the spindle connecting rod ends to the idler
arm rod. Support the idler arm rod near the ball studs,
then tap the connecting rod ends out of the idler arm
rod. Remove the idler arm rod from the idler arm.
Install the new steering arm to idler arm rod on the
idler arm. Insert the spindle connecting rod ends in the
holes in the idler arm rod, then install the attaching nuts
and cotter pins. Position the idler arm rod end in the
steering arm hole, then install the attaching nut and
cotter pin. Adjust toe.

c. Steering Idler Arm.
The steering idler arm is designed to operate with J^
inch vertical free play when assembled to the steering
linkage. If the vertical free play exceeds this limit, the
free play may be reduced by using the following procedure. This procedure should also be followed when
replacing the idler arm or the idler arm bushings.
Remove the idler arm bracket from the frame side rail.
Check the face of the side rail for squareness as follows:
Place the car on a level floor, then measure the distance
from each side rail to the floor. If the distances are unequal, jack up the lowest side rail until it is even with
the other rail. Place a spirit level against the inside surface of the right hand side rail, adjacent to the idler arm
bracket position, then establish the true perpendicular.
Measure the distance between the edge of the level and
the side rail. This distance represents the amount of
spacing washers .which must be installed between the
bracket and the side rail to correctly position the idler
arm bracket.
Check the idler arm bracket for the 92° included angle
and correct the angle if necessary.
Replace the idler arm bushings if either the internal

133

or external threads show excessive wear or damage, the
idler arm if the threads are worn, and the bracket if
badly damaged.
Install the idler arm bushings in the idler arm bracket
and in the steering arm to idler arm rod. Tighten the
bushings to 85-100 foot-pounds torque. Install the grease
fitting in each bushing, positioning each fitting so it is
accessible for greasing.
The idler arm bushing used on late 1950 and all 1951
cars (fig 36) differs from that used on the 1949 and early
1950 cars (fig. 35). This difference in the construction of
the two types of bushings necessitates the use of separate
idler arm installation procedures. The procedure to be
used when installing the idler arm on the 1949, and early
1950 cars is included in (1). The procedure to be used
when installing the idler arm on late 1950 and all 1951
cars is included in (2).
(1) 1949 AND EARLY 1950 CARS. Thread the idler
arm into the idler arm rod bushing until tight, then back
off 34 to V/i turns until the arm is in a straight ahead
position.
Thread the idler arm bracket and bushing assembly
on the idler arm until tight, then back the bracket off
the arm \i to \% turns to place the bracket in the
assembled position. Mount the idler arm bracket on the
frame side rail installing the necessary spacing washers
between the bracket and the frame.
(2) LATE 1950 AND ALL 1951 CARS. Thread the
idler arm into the idler arm rod bushing until the shoulder
on the arm is % m c h (plus or minus ^4 inch) from the
top face of the rod when the arm is in the straight ahead
position (fig. 36).
Thread the bracket and bushing assembly onto the
idler arm until the shoulder on the arm is % m c n (plus
or minus % inch) below the bottom side of the bracket
when the bracket is parallel to the frame side rail (fig. 36).

7. WHEELS AND TIRES
The wheels used on all models of cars are formed steel
disc stampings which are riveted to the rim. Wheel replacement information is given under "a. Wheel Replacement. " Tire maintenance data is given under "b. Tire
Maintenance.'* Tire replacement procedures are given
under "c. Tire Replacement."

grease or dirt. With the axle jacked up, install the wheels
and stud nuts. Tighten the nuts sufficiently to hold the
wheel firmly in position. Always tighten opposite nuts to
assure drawing the wheel evenly against the hub.
Lower the vehicle to the ground and tighten the nuts
to 65-75 foot-pounds torque.

a. Wheel Replacement.

b. Tire Maintenance.

Wheel stud nuts must be inspected and tightened regularly to avoid accidental loosening of the wheels. Any
failure to keep the wheel stud nuts tight might result in
elongation of the stud holes in the wheels or other damage.
On new vehicles or after each wheel removal, check
and tighten the wheel stud nuts after the first 100 miles
of service. After each wheel removal, remove dirt, grease,
or other foreign material from mating surfaces of the
wheel and hub. Be sure the wheel stud nuts are free from

Maintenance of the correct inflation pressure is one of
the most important elements of tire care. The inflation
pressure recommendations for any model vehicle must
be followed to obtain the best vehicle performance and
tire life. Under-inflation causes excessive wear on the
shoulders of the tire tread and over heating. Overinflation weakens the tire cords, makes the tire more susceptible to bruising, and is the cause of many blow outs.
Equal air pressure should be maintained in all tires on

134

Chapter III—Running Gear

the same axle. Unequal pressure in front tires may cause
hard steering. Unequal pressure in rear tires may result
in loss of braking efficiency and weaving of the vehicle.
Tire inflation pressures by tire size andf vehicle model,
are given in Specifications.
Tires on passenger cars should be cross-switched twice
a year or every 5000 miles as shown in fig. 37. This permits the use of the spare tire on the road and prevents
deterioration of the spare, tire caused by long standing.
In the event of spotty wear on the front tires, crossswitching puts the front tires on the rear wheels where
they again become round and true.

c. Tire Replacement,
Certain general precautions should be observed when
removing or installing tires. These are as follows:
(1) Always be sure the tire is completely deflated before
attempting to remove the tire from the rim.
(2) Place the inner tube in the tire with the valve stem
at the balance mark on the tire.
(3) Be careful not to damage the tire bead when using
tire irons to pry the tire bead over the edge of the
rim during^tire installation or removal.
(4) After the tire and tube have been mounted on the
rim, inflate the tube to the recommended air pressure,
then deflate the tube and again inflate to the recommended air pressure. This procedure will eliminate the
possibility of the tube being folded in the tire casing.
(5) When mounting a tire, coat the tire beads with vegetable soap. This makes it easier to force the beads
over the edge of the wheel, both when the tire is
mounted and when it is demounted again. It also
protects the beads from damage.
The drop center rim, shown sectionally in fig. 38, is

2112

Fig. 37—Method of Cross-Switching Tires

used with both standard and super balloon tires. A
16-inch diameter wheel having a 4 j ^ inch rim base is
used as standard equipment on all cars except station
wagons. A 15-inch wheel having a 5-inch rim base is
available as standard equipment on the station wagon
and is optional on passenger cars. This type rim has a
well in the center which provides the space for the tire
beads during tire removal.
A 5-degree tapered bead seat on this type rim allows
the tire bead to fit tighter, prevents rust and corrosion
of the rim, and allows the beads to loosen easily during
tire removal.
To remove the tire from a drop center rim, remove
the valve core and deflate the inner tube completely.
Loosen both tire beads from the wheel rim ledges. With
the wheel lying flat on the floor, stand on the tire with
feet about 15 inches apart opposite the valve, and force
the tire bead off the rim ledge and into the drop center
well part of the wheel rim.

CAUTION: Do not damage the soft rubber tip on
the inner edge of the tire bead with the tire iron as
such damage may chafe the inner tube.
Insert two tire irons about eight inches apart between
the tire bead and the wheel rim near the valve, and pry a
short length of the bead over the wheel rim. Leaving one
tire iron in position, pry the rest of the tire bead over the
wheel rim with the other tire iron. Remove the tube.

BRACKET-STEERING
IDLER ARM MOUNTING-

RIM
STEERING IDLER ARM
BUSHING O M - 3 3 5 6

HUB CAP
1130
TIGHTEN
BUSHING IN
BRACKET
85-100
FT. LBS.

ROD-STEERING
ARM TO
IDLER ARM

^TIGHTEN BUSHINGS IN
ROD 85-100 FT. LBS.

2270

Fig. 36—Idler Arm Bushing, Late 1950 and 7957 Cars

DROP CENTER RIM

Fig. 38—Drop Center Rim

2003

Section 7—Wheels and Tires
Stand the wheel upright with the bead in the drop center
part of the rim at the bottom. Insert the tire iron between the bead and the wheel rim at the top side of the
wheel, and pry the wheel out of the tire.
To install the drop center wheel, install the valve core
in the inner tube valve stem. Inflate the tube until it is
barely rounded out, then insert the tube in the tire casing. Place the balancing mark on the casing opposite the
valve stem, then coat the tire beads with soft soap.
Place the tire on the wheel rim guiding the valve
through the valve hole. Push the bottom bead down into

135

the drop center part of the rim at the valve and force the
remaining portion of the bead over the rim. A tire iron
may be needed to pry the last portion of the bead over
the rim. Insert a tire iron between the top bead and the
wheel rim at a point opposite the valve, then the bead
over the rim. Holding this iron in position, continue prying with the other iron, working around the rim until the
bead is in place. Inflate the tube slowly to about 15
pounds pressure. Center the tire on the rim by bouncing
the tire on the floor. Inflate the inner tube to the recommended pressure.

8. HUBS AND BEARINGS
The description and adjustment of front hubs and
bearings and the replacement of front hub oil seals is
given in "a." Similar service information on rear hubs,
bearings, and oil seals is contained in "b."

a. Front Hubs and Bearings.
The front hubs are built integral with the front brake
drums. The hubs are mounted on tapered roller wheel
bearings installed at the inner and outer ends of each
hub (fig. 39). The wheel bearings are adjusted aind held
in place by a castellated adjusting nut. The wheel bearing adjustment procedure is given in (1). Oil seals are
installed at the inner end of each front hub. Service
information on oil seals is given in (2).
Front wheej bearing cups and oil seals should be removed with a tool that pulls the cup or seal straight out
to prevent damage to the cup or hub.
When installing wheel bearing cups or seals, make sure
the parts are squarely seated in the front hub.
(1) ADJUSTMENT. To check the wheel bearing adjustment, jack up the front of the vehicle, grasp the tire
at the sides, then alternately push inward and p>ull outward on the tire. If any looseness is felt, adjust the front
wheel bearings as follows:
Remove the hub cap, the front hub grease cap, and
the cotter pin. Tighten the wheel bearing adjusting nut

while rotating the wheel back and forth, until a slight
drag is felt. This will assure the proper seating of the
wheel bearing cones and rollers. Back off the adjusting
nut until the nearest slot in the nut is aligned with a hole
in the spindle (about 1/6 to H turns). Lock the adjusting nut in this position with a new cotter pin. When the
wheel bearings are properly adjusted, the wheel will
rotate freely with no perceptible end play.
(2) OIL SEALS. Oil seals are installed at the inner
end of the hubs to prevent the possibility of lubricant
leaking into the brake drums. The condition of the oil
seals should be checked each time the wheel bearings
are serviced. Always replace any seals that are damaged
or in doubtful condition. Extreme care should be exercised when installing the hubs on the wheel spindles to
prevent damaging the oil seals. Apply grease to the
seal leather before installation.

b. Rear Hubs and Bearings.
The passenger car (fig. 40) and the station wagon (fig.
41) rear wheel bearings are single-row prelubricated
sealed ball bearings which are pressed onto the axle
shafts. An axle shaft bearing retainer ring is pressed
BEARING ASSEMBLY-1225

GASKET-2245
HUB AND DRUM ASSEMBLY-1105
INNER BEARING CUP-1202
OUTER BEARING CUP

12

ADJUSTING
NUT-351129-S
OUTER
,
BEARING
CAP-1139 /
1216

GREASE BAFFLE
2240

GASKET-2256
OIL SEAL-1177
BEARING RETAINER-1180
WASHER
1195
NUT-1012
COTTER PIN-72054-S

^ | = ^

JUT

WHEEL ASSEMBLY-1015

BOLT-1107

Fig. 39—Front Hub and Bearings

2006

•BOLT

F',g, 40—Rear Wheel Bearings—Passenger Car

2011

136

Chapter III—Running Gear

onto the shaft to hold the bearing in position. To remove
the bearing, loosen the axle shaft bearing retainer ring
as shown in fig. 42. If this tool is not available, the
retainer ring can be loosened by using a chisel, but be
sure not to damage the shaft during this operation.
Remove the axle shaft bearing, using a puller which
will remove the bearing without damaging the axle shaft.
Remove bearings only when necessary to install a
new bearing since removal of the bearing renders it
unfit for further use.
When installing a new bearing and retainer, be sure
the bearing is seated against the shoulder on the axle
shaft and the retainer is firmly pressed against the
bearing.
(1) ADJUSTMENT.
Rear wheel bearings used on
GASKET-2245

passenger cars and station wagons do not require adjustment.
(2) OIL SEALS. Oil seals are used at each end of
axle housing to prevent lubricant leakage into the brake
drums.
The oil seals are installed into the bore of the axle
housing. The condition of the oil seals should be checked
each time the axle shafts are removed. Always replace
any seals that are damaged or in doubtful condition.
Before installing a new leather oil seal, soak the seal in
light engine oil for at least 30 minutes. Examine the surface of the axle housing tube contacted by the lip of the
oil seal for roughness or irregularities which would impair
the sealing action of the oil seal. All irregularities must
be removed before the seal is installed.
Extreme care should be exercised, when installing the
axle shafts, to prevent damaging the inner oil seals.

BEARING AS
GREASE BAFFLE-2240
RETAINER
RING
11

BOLT-2248

OIL SEAL-1177
BEARING RETAINER-1180
NUT-34374-S
BOLT-1107

IIML—,

2013

Fig. 41 — Rear Hub and Bearings-—Station Wagon

*.*

^ _
%£" BEARING-1225

2012

Fig. 42—Loosening Rear Wheel Bearing Retainer Ring

SERVICE LETTER REFERENCE
Letter No.

Date

Subject

Changes Information
on Page No.

Part TWO

CHASSIS
Chapter

IV

Brakes

Section

1
2
3
4
5

Page

Adjustments
Hydraulic System. . .
Brake Assemblies
Brake Drums
Parking Brake

•....:
i

The brake system used on both cars and station wagons
incorporates single anchor full floating hydraulically
actuated service brakes combined with a manually
operated parking brake that actuates the rear brake
through a mechanical linkage.
The system (fig. 1) consists of the master cylinder
which stores the hydraulic fluid, the wheel cylinders
which transmit the actuating pressure to the brake shoes,
the brake shoe assemblies, the brake drums, the tubing

,.-.. . 137
139
142
143
143

and flexible hoses which connect the master cylinder to
the wheel cylinders, and the parking brake linkage.
The service information needed to test the brake
system, adjust the brakes, and repair the service and
parking brakes is given in this chapter.
This information is divided into the five sections listed
in the foregoing index. The type of information contained
in any particular section is indicated by the section title.

1. ADJUSTMENTS
Brake adjustments are divided into three classifications, minor adjustment, major adjustment, and brake
pedal adjustment. The minor brake adjustment merely
reestablishes the brake lining to drum clearance and
compensates for normal brake lining wear. The minor
brake adjustment procedure is given in "a. Minor
Adjustment." A major brake adjustment is recommended
when new shoes are installed, when brakes are relined,
or, when the minor adjustment does not give satisfactory
brake operation. This adjustment procedure is outlined
in "b. Major Adjustment." A brake pedal adjustment is
necessary if the pedal free travel is less than x/i inch or
more than }/2 inch. To correct pedal free travel, follow
| h e procedure given in "c. Brake Pedal Adjustment."

a. Minor Adjustment.
The brakes should be adjusted when the linings have
been worn so that the pedal reserve is less than one-half
the total travel to the floor board.
The brake drums should be at normal room temperature when making adjustments. If the brakes are adjusted
when the drums are hot and expanded, the shoes may
drag when the drums cool and contract. Before making
a minor brake adjustment remove one front wheel and
check for the following conditions:
(1) Brake drum scored, out-of-round, or bell-mouthed.
(2) Brake lining coated with brake fluid or grease.

(3) Brake lining worn to less than \fa inch from the top
of the rivet heads.
(4) Brake lining not making full contact with the drum.
If any of these conditions exist a minor brake adjustment will not give satisfactory braking performance, and
the need for a major brake adjustment is indicated.

NOTE: It may be assumed that the condition of the
linings and drums at the other three wheels is approximately the same as found at the wheel removed.
A minor brake adjustment may be accomplished as
follows:
Add sufficient brake fluid to the master cylinder to
bring the level within }/% inch of the top of the filler neck.
Jack up all four wheels. Be sure the parking brake
lever is in the fully released position. Check the cables
to the rear brakes to make certain the cables have not
been adjusted so that the shoes have been moved off
their anchor pin seat (partially applied).
Check the anchor pin nut with a 16-inch wrench. If the
anchor pin nut is found to be loose, a major adjustment
is necessary.
Remove the adjusting hole cover. Expand the brake
shoes by turning the adjusting screw, with a screw driver
or adjusting tool, toward the axle until the brake drum
can just be turned by hand. Then back off the adjusting
screw (moving the handle of the tool or screw driver
away from the axle) until the wheel turns freely without

137

Chapter IV—Brakes

138

FRONT BRAKE ASSEMBLY

REAR BRAKE ASSEMBLY

FRONT BRAKE HOSE ASSEMBLY-2079
CONTROL HANDLE ASSEMBLY-2780
PARKING BRAKE CABLE-2853

REAR BRAKE HOSE
ASSEMBLY-2078

MASTER CYLINDER-214©

BRAKE PIPE-2269
BRAKE PEDAL
ASSEMBLY-2455

2019

Fig. 1—Hydraulic Brake System

drag. Make this adjustment at all four wheels (fig. 2).
If a drag is still noticed on the drum, reset the anchor
pin.
Apply the brakes and measure the distance from the
pedal pad to the floor board. If this distance is less than
one-half the total travel, too much clearance exists
between the shoes and the drums. Readjust the shoes
more carefully. Road test the car and if the pedal travel
is still too great, make a major adjustment.

b. Major Adjustment.
Before making a major brake adjustment, the following operations must be performed:
(1) Remove all four brake drums and clean the brake
assemblies.
(2) Perform all of the inspections included under "a.
Minor Adjustment."
(3) Inspect all brake pipes and hoses for leakage, kinks,
or deterioration.
(4) Lubricate the surfaces of the backing plate contacted
by the shoes and the adjusting screw with Lubriplate.
A major brake adjustment includes the adjustment of
the brake shoes and the anchor pins, and is performed
as follows:
If the lining is still serviceable, reinstall the brake
drums. Adjust the brake pedal free play. Add sufficient
brake fluid to the master cylinder to bring the level
within J4 m c n of the top of the filler neck. Insert a 0.010ihch feeler gauge through the adjusting slot in the drum
while the slot is opposite the lower end of the secondary
or rear shoe. Move the feeler gauge upward along the
secondary shoe, until the shoe assembly is wedged
forward as far as possible. Expand the shoes by turning

the adjusting screw until the primary shoe contacts the
drum securely and the secondary shoe is snug against
the feeler. Back off the adjusting screw enough to establish a clearance of 0.010 inch, one and one-half inches
from each end of the secondary shoes. This adjustment
provides correct operating clearance for both the primary
and secondary shoes.
If the 0.010 inch clearance cannot be obtained at both
ends of the secondary shoe by rotating the adjusting
screw, the anchor pin must be adjusted. Loosen the
anchor pin nut just enough to allow the pin to move up
or down, then tap the nut with a soft hammer until the
pin is properly positioned. Do not back the nut off too
much or the shoes may move out of position when the
nut is tightened. To reduce the clearance between the
lining and the drum at the anchor end of the secondary
shoe, move the anchor pin away from the center of the
axle or spindle. To reduce the clearance at the adjusting
screw end, move the anchor pin toward the center of the
ANCHOR P f N - 2 0 2 7
PARKING BRAKE LINK

WHEEL CYLINDER-2162
RETRACTING SPRING

2108

2035

PRIMARY SHOE

SECONDARY
SHOE-2219

2218

HOLD DOWN CUP
2066

PARKING BRAKE
LEVER-2104

SPRING-2049
ADJUSTING SCREW-2041
PARKING BRAKE CABLE-2275

Fig. 2—Single Anchor Self-Energizing Brake

2022

139

Section 1—Adjustments
axle or spindle. Be sure to tighten the anchor pin nut
securely with a 16-inch wrench. Recheck the shoe clearance after tightening the nut.
After the brake shoes and anchor pins have been adjusted, adjust the parking brake cable slack at the
equalizer lever.
Check the brake pedal free play and adjust it if
necessary.
Bleed the hydraulic system if existing conditions warrant the performance of this operation.

c. Brake Pedal Adjustment.
When the brake pedal free play is less than }/i * ncri

or

more than }/2 inch (fig. 3) the need for brake pedal adjustment is indicated. The pedal free play may be checked
by hand pressure on the brake pedal and is considered to
be the movement of the pedal before the push rod touches
the master cylinder piston.
Brake pedal free play adjustment is accomplished by
rotating the eccentric bolt which attaches the brake
pedal assembly to the master cylinder push rod assembly
(fig. 4). Rotate the eccentric bolt until the pedal free
play is between J4 and % inch. Be sure the nut is
securely tightened.

2. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
The hydraulic brake system uses hydraulic fluid pressure to actuate the brake shoe assemblies. The hydraulic
system consists of the master cylinder, the wheel cylinders, and the connecting brake pipes and hoses.
Complete service information on the hydraulic system
is given in this section under the following headings:
"a. Serviceability Tests"—which help you to determine
the condition of the overall system, "b. Bleeding Brake
System"—which contains the procedure for bleeding the
brake system.- "c. Wheel Cylinder" — which covers
disassembly, assembly and repair of wheel cylinders.
"d. Master Cylinder" — covering description and repair
of the master cylinder assembly, "e. Hydraulic Pipe
Replacement"—including information on when to replace pipes, as well as procedures for replacement.

a. Serviceability Tests.
Depress the brake pedal and observe the brake pedal
travel. If the travel is greater than one-half the distance
between the pedal pad and the toe board, a minor brake
adjustment or a major brake adjustment is necessary.
If the travel is less than }/i inch or more than Y% inch,
adjust the brake pedal free play. Hold the brake pedal
in the fully depressed position. If the pedal moves slowly
toward the toe board, check for faulty master cylinder
piston cups and for leaks in the hydraulic system. If the
brake pedal has a spongy feel, bleed the system.

Road test the vehicle and apply the brakes at a car
speed of about 20 m.p.h. to determine if the vehicle
stops evenly and quickly.

b. Bleeding Brake System.
If air is allowed to get into the hydraulic system, the
brake pedal will have a spongy action and it will be
necessary to bleed the brakes to correct this condition.
When any part of the hydraulic system is disconnected,
bleed the brakes one wheel cylinder at a time, to be sure
all air is expelled from the system.
A hydraulic brake system may be bled manually or
with pressure bleeding equipment.
(1) MANUAL BLEEDING. Fill the master cylinder
with brake fluid before beginning this operation. Keep
the reservoir at least one-half full of fluid at all times
during the operation. Attach a rubber drain tube to the
bleeder screw at the wheel cylinder. Submerge the free
end of the tube in a container partially filled with clean
fluid. Loosen the bleeder screw and depress the foot
pedal slowly by hand. Allow the return spring to return
the pedal slowly to the released position. This produces
a pumping action which forces the fluid through the
tubing and into the wheel cylinder carrying with it any
air that may be present.
Observe the flow of fluid from the hose. When air
bubbles cease to appear in the fluid stream, close the
SPRING^2456N*/

PISTON PUSH R O D - 2 1 4 3

CLUTCH RELEASE
EQUALIZER BAR-7528

ECCENTRIC BOLT—2462

CUP-2180

BOLTS
3505076-S7 or S8

BOOT STRAP

2186

msm

20!

Fig. 3—Brake Pedal Free Play

BRAKE MASTER CYLINDER-2140

Fig. 4—Brake Pedal Adjustment

2055

Chapter IV—Brakes

140

bleeder connection. Repeat this operation at each wheel
until all wheel cylinders have been bled. Add new fluid
to the master cylinder after each wheel cylinder is bled.
When the bleeding operation is complete, refill the
master cylinder with new fluid. Never use fluid which
has been withdrawn from the system.
(2) PRESSURE BLEEDING. Make certain there is
sufficient brake fluid in the bleeder tank, and that the
tank is charged with 10 to 30 pounds air pressure. Fill
the master cylinder with brake fluid and attach the
hose from the bleeder tank to the master cylinder.
Attach a rubber drain tube to the bleeder screw at one
of the wheel cylinders. Submerge the end of the tube in
a container partially filled with clean fluid. Loosen the
bleeder screw and then open the valve on the bleeder
tank to admit the pressure to the master cylinder.
Observe the flow of fluid from the drain tube. When air
bubbles cease to appear in the fluid stream, close the
bleeder screw. Repeat the operation at each wheel. When
the bleeding operation is completed, refill the master
cylinder.

c. Wheel Cylinders.
The wheel cylinders are mounted on the brake carrier
plates. Each wheel cylinder contains two pistons, two
rubber brake cylinder cups, and a piston return spring
which is installed between the cups. Each end of each
wheel cylinder is sealed by a rubber brake cylinder boot.
Hydraulic fluid pressure, acting against the inner end of
each wheel cylinder piston, forces the pistons outward
to actuate the brake shoes.
The front wheel cylinders have a larger diameter
{\Y% inches) than the rear wheel cylinders (7A inch) to
provide a higher braking ratio on the front wheels than
on the rear. Therefore, the front and rear wheel cylinders
are not interchangeable.
Each wheel cylinder is equipped with a bleeder screw
to facilitate the brake bleeding operation. The construction of the bleeder screw is shown infig.5.
(1) DISASSEMBLY. Before a wheel cylinder can be
removed for disassembly, it is necessary to disconnect
the hydraulic line at the wheel cylinder.
After the wheel and brake drum have been removed,
the wheel cylinder may be removed from the brake
carrier plate. Disassemble the wheel cylinder as follows:
Remove the rubber brake cylinder boots from the
wheel cylinder housing, then remove the pistons, cups
and piston return spring from the housing. A disassembled view of the wheel cylinder is shown infig.6.

CUP—2202

2058

PISTON—2198

PBIJ-JUB

™SPRING-2205

Fig. 6—Front and Rear Wheel Cylinder

Clean all parts of the wheel cylinder in pure alcohol.
Do not use kerosene or gasoline as a cleaner.
Inspect the cylinder bore for rust, scores, or other
damage and replace the cylinder if necessary. Inspect
the rubber cups and boot for deterioration, incorrect
size (growth), rough edges, and damage. Replace all
parts that are not: in good condition. Wheel cylinder
repair kits are available (seefig.7).
(2) ASSEMBLY. Coat all wheel cylinder parts with
brake fluid before installation in the cylinder. Place
the pistons, cups, and return spring in the cylinder bore,
then install the boots.
For the correct position of the parts in the wheel
cylinder, refer tofig.6.
After the wheel cylinder has been installed on the
brake carrier plate, bleed the hydraulic system.

d. Master Cylinder.
The master cylinder is mounted on the frame side rail
behind the brake pedal. The function of the master
cylinder is to maintain a constant volume of brake fluid
in the system at all times, and to convert physical
pressure on the brake pedal to hydraulic pressure on the
wheel-cylinder pistons.
The master cylinder contains the brake fluid reservoir
and the master cylinder operating mechanism in an
integral housing. The detailed construction features
of the master cylinder are shown infig.8.
The piston is equipped with a rubber cup at the push
rod end. The brake master cylinder primary cup is held
against the piston by the piston return spring and
retainer. A check valve is used at the output end of the

2201

^

Fig. 5—Sectional View of Bleeder Screw

BLEEDER SCREW—2208

BOOT—2206

^

2206

^

^

2401
Fig. 7—Wheel Cylinder Repair Kit (Rear Shown)

141

Section 2—Hydraulic System

PEDAL BUSHING—2470
FILLER C A P - 2 1 6 2
GASKET—2167
STOP PLATE
ECCENTRIC BOLT-2462
2188
SNAP RING

2174

STOP LIGHT
SWITCH—15480

PISTON RETURN
SPRING—2145

PUSH ROD-2143
BOOT—2180

ADAPTER-2161
OUTLET FITTING—2076

2070

Fig, 8—Brake Master Cylinder

master cylinder to control the return flow of the hydraulic fluid from the wheel cylinders.
The master cylinder push rod seats in a depression in
the piston, thus transferring movement of the brake
pedal to the piston. The piston end of the master cylinder
is sealed with a flexible rubber boot.
(1) REMOVAL. Disconnect the brake lines from the
master cylinder and depress the brake pedal a few times
to force all the fluid from the master cylinder. Remove
the stop light switch. Remove the brake pedal pad.
Disconnect the clutch pedal from the clutch shaft.
Remove the clutch linkage holding screw at the transmission. Disconnect the brake pedal return spring.
Remove the master cylinder and brake pedal from the
car. Remove the brake pedal from the master cylinder.
(2) DISASSEMBLY. Clean all dirt from the outside
2180

2169
MASTER CYUNDCR i

•o

of the cylinder assembly, then remove the filler cap and
gasket. Remove the rubber boot and the adapter from
the master cylinder, then remove the snap ring from the
cylinder bore. Push the stop plate, piston assembly, primary cup, piston return spring, check valve, and washer
out of the cylinder bore (fig. 8).
Clean all parts in alcohol. Make sure the by-pass port,
intake port, and the air vent in the filler cap are open.
Inspect the cylinder walls for scores or rust and recondition if required. Do not hone beyond allowable limits or
any more than necessary to remove scores or rust and
obtain a smooth cylinder wall, since oversize pistons and
cups are not available. Be sure to remove any burrs
caused by honing from the by-pass port and intake ports.
Master cylinder repair kits are available which contain
the parts shown infig.9.
(3) ASSEMBLY. Dip all internal parts of the master
cylinder in hydraulic brake fluid. Install the adapter in
the rear end of the master cylinder. Position the washer,
check valve, piston return spring, primary cup, piston,

2167

2173

jg^^S^

2178

SECTIONAL VIEW OF
DIE SHOWING
TUBING LOCATED
AGAINST STOP PIN.

FIRST OPERATION
TOOL SHOWN
FORMING OUTSIDE
FLARE.

SECOND OPERATION
TOOL SHOWN
FORMING INSIDE
FLARE AND SEAT.
COMPLETED
DOUBLE-UP FLARE
SHOWN IN INSERT.

2074

Fig. 9—Master Cylinder Repair Kit

Fig. 10—Use of Brake Pipe Flaring Tool

142

Chapter IV-Brakes

and stop plate in the cylinder bore (fig. 8). Secure the
parts in the bore with the snap ring. Position the piston
push rod in the cylinder, after installing the rubber boot.
(4) INSTALLATION. Install the brake^ pedal on the
master cylinder, then slide the assembly over the clutch
pedal shaft assembly. Position the master cylinder on
the frame side rail, then install the cylinder to frame
bolts. Connect the clutch linkage, then secure the linkage to the transmission. Install the clutch pedal. Connect
the brake pedal return spring, then install the stop light
switch. Connect the brake lines to the master cylinder,
fill the cylinder with fluid, then bleed all four brakes.

e. Hydraulic Pipe Replacement.
Hydrogen welded steel pipe is used between the master

cylinder and the frame connections, and between the
rear axle tee fitting and the rear wheel cylinders. Flexible
hose connects the brake pipe to the front wheel cylinders
and to the rear axle fitting.
If a section of the brake pipe becomes damaged, the
pipe should be replaced with pipe of the same quality.
Copper tubing is not satisfactory for use as brake pipe
in a hydraulic system. Brake pipe is available in 25-foot
rolls from Ford dealers. The replacement pipe should be
the same length and shape as the damaged pipe.
AH brake pipe should be flared properly to ensure leakproof connections. The two-stage flaring method, shown
in fig. 10, must be used.
When replacing hydraulic pipe or hoses, use new gaskets, and tighten all connections securely.

3. BRAKE ASSEMBLIES
Service information on the single-anchor self-energizing
brake assembly (fig. 12) is presented here. The material
is arranged under the following headings:
"a. Removal and Disassembly," "b. Cleaning and
Inspection," and "c. Assembly and Installation."
"d. Brake Shoe Relining," describes the procedure for
relining brake shoes.
The brake assembly contains two shoes mounted on
the brake carrier plate assembly. The forward shoe is the
primary shoe and the rear shoe is the secondary shoe.
The upper ends of the shoes are held against the anchor
by two return springs. Each shoe is held against the
brake carrier plate by a hold-down spring pin, a spring
and two cups. A brake adjusting screw assembly and a
spring are used to hold the shoes in the correct position
in relation to each other.

a. Removal and Disassembly.
Remove the wheel and drum then disconnect the retracting springs (fig. 11). Remove the brake shoe holddown cups, springs, and pins. Disconnect the parking
brake cable at the rear brakes. Remove the brake shoes.
Move the anchor pin ends of the shoes together then

remove the adjusting screw and spring. A disassembled
view of a brake assembly is shown in fig. 12*

CAUTION: Do not depress the brake pedal while
the brake drum is removed,

b. Cleaning and Inspection.
Clean all parts except the lining and shoe assemblies
by washing in cleaning fluid. Clean the dirt and corrosion
from the brake carrier plate.
Inspect all parts for distortion and excessive wear.
Replace worn or distorted parts. Check the condition of
the lining. If it is worn to within % * nc h of the rivet
heads, reline the shoes. Tighten any loose rivets.

c. Assembly and Installation.
Lubricate all points of contact between the brake shoe
and the other brake parts with Lubriplate.
Connect the two shoes by installing the adjusting screw
ANCHOR PIN WASHER—2029

CAP J!C A ? H E V

ANCHOR PIN-2027

WHEEL

ARKING BRAKE
LEVER—2104

> ANCHOR PIN

TOOL
2035-N

RETAINER

2106

BOLT-356694-S
Fig. II—Removing Brake Shoe Retracting

2087
Spring

SECONDARY
SHOE—2219
RETAINER—2240
NUT—2047
GASKET—2245
JUSTING SCREW
SOCKET-2048 2041
BRAKE CARRIER
PLATE-2260

2086
Fig. 12—Single Anchor Self-Energizing Brake Assembly

143

Section 3—Brake Assemblies
and spring. Install the pins and place the brake shoe
assembly on the backing plate. Be sure to place the secondary shoe to the rear, and the primary shoe to the
front. Hold the brake shoe on the backing plate with the
hold-down cups and springs (fig. 12). Install the return
springs as shown in fig. 13. Install drum and adjust brakes.

d. Brake Shoe Relining.
If the distance from the surface of the lining to the
rivet head is less than \fa inch, the shoes should be relined. Failure to replace lining when this condition exists
may cause irreparable damage to the brake drums. Brake
shoes should be inspected for distortion and for looseness
between the rim and web. If any of these conditions exist,
discard the shoe. If shoes are serviceable, reline the shoes
as follows:
Remove the old rivets, then remove old lining. Thoroughly clean the surface of the shoe rim and remove any
burrs or high spots. Ford lining kits are available for
front and rear brakes. Each kit contains primary linings,
secondary linings, and the necessary rivets. These linings
are ground in production and do not require grinding
after installation.
Position the new lining on the shoe, then install the
two center rivets. Install the remaining rivets, working

EQUALIZER LEVER-2121
EQUALIZER ROD—2628
BRACKET
2637

ADJUSTING NUT

EQUALIZER LEVER
NUT—2091
PARKING BRAKE
CABLE-2853

BRAKE CABLE
BRACKET
2530—R.H.

CABLE
ASSEMBLY—2275
BRAKE CABLE BRACKET-2153

2098

F/g. 14—Internal Expanding Shoe Type Parking Brake

from the center to the ends of the shoe.
After all rivets are installed, check the lining to shoe
clearance. The lining must seat snugly against shoe
with no more than 0.005 inch separation midway between rivets.

NOTE: Do not permit oil or grease to come in contact with the lining.

4. BRAKE DRUMS
Front brake drums are riveted to the front hubs and
are serviced as an assembly. The rear drums are of the
demountable type. The rear brake drums are secured
with spring nuts which are installed on the hub bolts.
Brake drums are slotted so that the brake lining to drum
clearance can be checked.

a. Brake Drum Mounting.
Brake drums that are rough, scored, or out-of-round

should be rebored to provide a smooth drum surface. If
oversize linings are used, the drums must be rebored in
an amount equal to the increased thickness of the linings.
Otherwise, it is impossible to obtain the specified lining
to drum clearance.

NOTE: Do not remove more than 0.030 inch of
material when reboring brake drums (0.060 inch on
the diameter).

5. PARKING BRAKES
The parking brake is a rear wheel, cable controlled,
internal expanding type brake (same shoes are used for
)R PIN

RETRACTING SPRING
TOOt—2035-N

RETRACTING SPRING
2088

Fig, ?3—Installing Brake Shoe Return Spring

the service brakes). The parking brake is actuated by
a T-handle mounted below the instrument panel on the
left side of the steering column. A ratchet device on the
T-handle holds the parking brake handle in the desired
position. The T-handle is connected to the equalizing
yoke through a lever and flexible cable. The brake secondary shoe parking brake lever, shown in figs. 2 and 12,

TINNERMAN NUT
2099

Fig. 15—Holding Cable in Position

144

Chapter IV—Brakes

is connected to the end of a single flexible cable which
passes through the equalizer yoke and connects to the
parking brake lever at the opposite rear brake assembly
as shown in fig. 14. The cable is held in position in the
brake support plate by a circular spring clip (fig. 15).

CAUTION: The concave surface of the nut must be
toward the cable end.
Use a piece of %-inch pipe or open pliers to force the
clip into position against the brake support plate.

a. Adjustment.
The service brakes should be adjusted before adjust-

ing the parking brake cables. Make sure the service
brakes are fully released, then place the parking brake
control lever (T-handle) in the released position. Check
the position of the parking brake equalizer lever pin
with respect to the frame crossmember. If the pin is not
aligned horizontally with the crossmember, adjust the
equalizer lever nut until the correct position is obtained.
Remove the slack from the rear brake cables by turning
the adjusting nuts on the equalizer rod (fig. 14).

CAUTION: Do not make the cables too tight or the
rear brake shoes will be pulled off their anchors.

SERVICE LETTER REFERENCE
Letter No.

Date

Subject

Changes Information
on Page No.

Part THREE

ELECTRICAL AND ACCESSORIES
Chapter

I

Electrical Systems
Section

1
2
3
4
5

Page

Generating System and Battery. . .
Starting System
Lighting System
Horns
Instruments

145
. 159
166
174
175

.

Information on tests, adjustments, and repair of units
in the electrical system are contained in this Chapter.
The Chapter is divided into five sections arranged as
shown above, covering the "sub-systems," to help you
in locating the information you want.

Specifications on electrical units will be presented
throughout the write-up in this Chapter to give you the
information as it is required. They will also be found in
Part FIVE of the manual for ready reference when you
are only in need of specifications on electrical units.

1. GENERATING SYSTEM AND BATTERY
A schematic wiring diagram (fig. 1) of the generating
circuit shows the internal connections and windings of
the various units. Color codes are shown to aid in tracing
the circuit. Wire sizes are given as a guide for replacing
any of the wires in the circuit. Fig. 2 presents a pictorial
diagram of the generating circuit showing the physical
location of the generating system units and connecting
wires in the vehicle. The passenger car generating system
is shown and is typical of other installations.
The generator and generator regulator are precision
built units and the equipment to make tests in the generating system must be accurate. Voltmeters must be
accurate within 0.05 {}/i of one tenth) volt within the
range of 6 to 7 volts and ammeters within one ampere at
30 to 35 amperes to permit correct settings of the regulator. The meters on Ford approved equipment should
be calibrated once a year and the date of calibration
stamped on the meter face. It is recommended that this
practice be followed by operators with other than approved equipment to maintain their meters at acceptable
accuracy.
Certain tests outlined in this section are illustrated in
schematic and in pictorial form. The schematic illustrates
the internal connections of the Ford Diagnosis Test Set
so these connections can be duplicated when this equipment is not available (compare figs. 21 and 22, for
example). The Ford Diagnosis Test Set is a combination
of accepted instruments incorporated into a single machine. The various circuits involved in the tests can be
selected by means of switches without the necessity of

changing connections. As a result, the time required to
test units and circuits on the vehicle is reduced in many
cases by as much as 50 %.
Where applicable, the tests are divided into "on the
vehicle" and "on the test bench" procedures. Either procedure can be followed depending on the equipment
available for the tests.

a. Generator.
Ford generators are shunt (parallel) wound, two brush,
high output generators. The generating system is a positive ( + ) ground system. Generator output is controlled
by means of a regulator connected between the armature
and field and the field is grounded internally (fig. 1).
The generator mounted on both the 6-cylinder engine
and on the 8-cylinder engine is shown in fig. 3.
(1) GENERATOR TESTS. Four generator test procedures are outlined here: "(a) Generator Output Test"
G
"="

A

#76 Block-Red Tracer—.

G

#10 Yellow-Black Tracer

#16 Black-White Tracer
#70 Yellow
GENERATOR

Fig.

145

1—Generating System Circuit (Schematic)

146

Chapter I—Electrical Systems
GE

GROUND RETURN THROUGH ENGINE FRAME

BATTERY

GENERATOR REGULATOR

3002

Fig. 2—Generating System Circuit (Pictorial)

illustrated in figs. 4, 5, and 6, "(b) Armature and Field
Open Circuit Test" illustrated in figs 7 and 8, "(c) Armature and Field Grounded Circuit Test" (figs. 9 and 10)
and "(d) Armature Short Circuit Test" (fig. 11).
The equipment involved in these tests is listed below:

0-5 1
0-50

i ammeter

0-100 J
0-9 voltmeter
"Growler" tester
Storage Battery and Assorted connecting wires and
jumper wires equipped with suitable connectors.
The voltmeter and ammeter are included as part of
the Diagnosis Test Set. The meter range of voltage or
current can be changed by means of selector switches.
If the Ford Generator and Regulator Test Bench is
available, the generator tests can be made with this
equipment. The generator is mounted on a bench and

3003

Fig. 3—Generator Mounted on 6- and 8-Cylinder
Engines

driven by a constant speed motor. The test connections
and meters are located convenient to the operator.
(a) GENERATOR OUTPUT TEST. The procedure for
testing generator output on the engine is slightly different than the procedure used when the test is made on
the test bench. If a generator and regulator test bench,
fig. 6, is available, test the generator output as outlined
in (2) "Test Bench." To test the output of the generator on the vehicle proceed as follows (see figs. 4 or 5).
(1) ON THE ENGINE. Disconnect the regulator
"ARM" and "FIELD" wires. Connect a jumper wire
from the generator "ARM" terminal to the generator
"FIELD" terminal and the negative lead of a 0-50
ammeter to the generator "ARM" terminal. Start the
engine and immediately connect the AMMETER positive lead to the battery. Run the engine at 1500 r.p.m.
and read the current output on the ammeter. The generator output should reach or exceed 35 amperes (60
amperes on 8BA-10002-C generator).

CIRCUITS

3004

Fig. 4—Generator Output Test (Schematic Circuit)

Section 1—Generating System and Battery

SET TO POS.
GROUND POLARITY

147

READ O N 50-AMP SCALE

^

-sgaori

CONNECT NEG.
AMP. LEAD
TO GEN.
.TERM.

CONNECT POS.
AMP. LEAD TO
BAT. NEG.
TERMINAL

GENERATOR

" BATTERY

3016

TO BAT.

3005

Fig. 5—Generator Output Test (Ford Diagnosis Test Set)

NOTE: Stop the engine and disconnect test leads as
soon as the test is completed to prevent overheating
the generator.
(2) TEST BENCH.When the generator output test is
performed on the test bench, a resistance built into the
machine, is inserted in the field circuit to change output
while the generator r.p.m. remains constant.
(b)

ARMATURE AND FIELD OPEN CIRCUIT TEST.

An

open circuit in the armature can sometimes be detected
by examining the commutator for evidence of burning.
The spot burned on the commutator is caused by an arc
formed every time the commutator segment connected
to the open circuit passes under a brush.
An open circuit in the armature may be checked by
means of a test light, one lead of which is held on one
commutator segment while each of the other segments
are touched with the other lead. If the test light fails to
light, an open circuit exists.
An open circuit test of the field can be made on the
FIELD CONTROLS

SELECTOR* ^REGULATOR MOUNT

REGULATOR
TO OTHER
CIRCUITS

Fig. 7—Open Circuit Test of Field

vehicle as described below in "(1) Open Circuit Test of
Field (On Vehicle)" or on the test bench as described in
"(2) Open Circuit Test of Field (On Test Bench)."
(1)

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST OF FIELD (ON VEHICLE). D i s -

connect the "FIELD" lead from the generator terminal.
Connect a 0-5 ammeter from the battery to the "FIELD"
terminal as shown in fig. 7. The normal current draw,
as indicated by the ammeter, should be l j ^ to 2}^
amperes. If there is little or no current flow the field is
high resistant or open.
(2)

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST OF FIELD (ON TEST BENCH).

The field circuit can be tested on the bench in the same
manner as described in the "on vehicle" test above with
the exception that a return lead must be used to connect
the generator frame to the battery (fig. 8).
(c)

ARMATURE AND FIELD GROUNDED CIRCUIT TEST

test the field windings for a
grounded circuit, remove the "GRD" terminal stud
from the generator frame. Make the voltmeter and battery connections as shown in fig. 9. If the voltmeter indicates any voltage, the field coils are grounded.
(TEST BENCH ONLY). TO

NOTE: Be sure the "GRD" terminal stud is not
touching the housing.
To determine if the armature windings are grounded,

LOAD RHEOSTAT
3 SCALE METER
JUMPER LEAD
CONSTANT SPEED
MOTOR

^ - L

GENERATOR

V Jj

MOUNT

""*"

GENERATOR

BELT
ADJUSTMENT

3015

Fig. 6—Generator and Regulator Test Bench

'AMMETER NEGATIVE LEAD

f

Fig. 8—Open Circuit Test of Field (on Bench)

3006

148

Chapter I—Electrical Systems

make the connections as shown in fig. 10. If the voltmeter indicates any voltage the armature windings are
grounded to the frame.
(d) ARMATURE SHORT CIRCUIT TEST. TO test the
armature for a short circuit in the windings, a "growler"
must be used as shown in fig. 11. Rotate the armature
slowly. When the shofted winding is under the steel
strip, it will cause the strip to vibrate.
(2) GENERATOR REPAIR. Generator Repair procedures outlined in this paragraph and illustrated in figs.
12 through 18, are removal and installation, disassembly, commutator turning and undercutting, armature
replacement, and brush replacement.
In many cases it will not be necessary to completely
disassemble the generator to accomplish repair or replacement of certain parts, "(c) Armature Replacement,"
"(d) Commutator Turning and Undercutting" and "(e)
Brush Replacement" are procedures which eliminate the
steps in disassembly that do not apply to these particular
operations.
(a) REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION. Disconnect the
armature, field, and ground wires at the generator terminals. Remove the generator belt and the support band
bolt and lockwasher. Remove the generator.

NOTE: While removing generator, observe which
of the two locating holes in the generator frame is
used to keep the generator pulley in alignment with
the belt and other pulleys.
To install the generator, first clean the mating surfaces of the mounting cradle, generator frame, and support band. Install the generator in the cradle. Be sure
the correct locating hole is over the pin in the cradle so
the generator pulley is aligned with the belt and other
pulleys. Install the support band bolt with a lockwasher
and tighten the bolt securely. Install the armature,
field, and ground leads on the generator terminals.

JUMPER WIRE

DO NOT TOUCH TEST LEADS
TO BEARING SURFACES

CONNECT TO
ARMATURE CORE

•VOLTMETER NEGATIVE LEAD
VOLTMETER POSITIVE LEAD

3008

Fig. 10—Grounded Circuit Armature Test

Install the generator belt and adjust the belt tension.
(b) COMPLETE DISASSEMBLY. Use the procedure outlined below when it is necessary to completely disassemble a generator for such purposes as drive end
bearing replacement and field coil replacement.
Fig. 12 illustrates the generator completely disassembled. Part names and numbers are included to aid
you if it is necessary to make replacements. Only the
basic part number is used; when ordering parts refer to
your parts book for the necessary prefix and suffix.
(1) DISASSEMBLY. Remove the two generator
through bolts and. the brush end plate. Slide the armature assembly out the other end of the frame. Do not
lose the locating dowels if they drop out of the end plates.
Clamp the armature in a vise equipped with soft jaws
and remove the retaining nut, lockwasher, pulley, and
woodruff key from the armature shaft. Slide the front
end plate off the armature shaft.
STRIP WILL VIBRATE
W H E N SHORTED COIL
IS DIRECTLY UNDER IT

JUMPER LEAD

\
DO NOT LET
SCREW OR LEAD
TOUCH FRAME

REMOVE GROUND
TERMINAL SCREW

'GROWLER"

VOLTMETER
POSITIVE LEADVOLTMETER NEGATIVE LEAD

Fig. 9—Grounded Circuit Test of Field

3007

l

' "'
••••^•jl
3009
Fig. 11—Growler Test for Shorted Armature

Section 1 —Generating System and Battery

149

BRUSH END PLATE GROUP—10050
MOUNTING-BAND BOLT
34805

ARM" TERMINAL SCREW—10211
BRUSH SPRING—10057
BRUSH—10069
FIELD-POLE-SHOE DOWEL-10088
SCREW-10044

FRONT END
PLATE—10139

,34079-S
34803-S"FIELD" TERMINAL "GRD" TERMINAL NUT
AND WASHERS
INSULATOR,
WASHERS AND NUT

Fig. 12-Generator

NOTE: Be sure to remove any burrs from the feeyway before removing the front end plate.
Pry out the bearing stop ring (snap ring) and push
the bearing out of the front end plate.
Remove the "ARM" terminal screw and negative
brush from the brush end plate. Remove the ground
brush screw and the ground brush.
Remove the "FIELD" and "GRD" terminal screws
from the generator frame and unscrew the field pole shoe
screws as shown in fig. 13. The arbor press prevents the
tool from slipping out of the screw socket. Slide the
pole shoes and field windings out of the frame and separate the windings and shoes.
(2) CLEANING AND INSPECTION. Wash all parts
except the armature, field coils, and front bearing in
solvent and dry the parts thoroughly. Wipe off the
armature and field windings, the commutator, and the
armature shaft.
Hold Tool in Slot
with Arbor Press

10120_J

I P L U G - 1 0 1 4 6 ^ / SPRING
BRUSH 10057

MOUNTING
BRACKET-10151

NUT-351124-S

CUP-10141
34940-S
THROUGH
NOT PART
BOLT
| OF 10050

69

10069

"10202
fT<

"ARM"-^
-SVW4
3 34081
4
TERMINAL 134805-S'
INSULATOR, 134081-SWASHER AND NUT
3010

Disassembled

Check the condition of the bearings. If the front end
bearing is worn or has lost its lubricant it must be
replaced. If the brush end plate bushing is worn or
scored, replace the brush end plate assembly.
Check the armature winding for worn insulation, overheating, and unsoldered connections. Check the field
windings for worn insulation and unsoldered connections
at the terminal screws. Resolder any connections as
required. Replace the armature or the field coils if the
insulation is worn.
Check the commutator for runout and uneven or
scored surfaces. Turn down the commutator and undercut the mica if necessary.
Inspect the brush end plate for cracks, poor insulation, or loose rivets. Replace the end plate if it is
cracked or if the negative brush insulation is broken or
cracked. Tighten any loose brush holder rivets.
Check the brush spring tension. If the tension is not
within the limits of 26 to 34 oz., replace the springs.
(3) ASSEMBLY. Install the field coils on the pole

GENERATOR
FRAME
ROTATE ARMATURE SHAFTS
ON BEARING SURFAC
" V " Block
BE SURE TO SEAT DRIVE
HEAD IN SCREW RECESS

Fig. 13—Removing Pole Shoe Screws

3017

Fig. 14—Checking Commutator Runout

3031

150

Chapter I—Electrical Systems
ADJUST CLAMP SCREW FOR
SNUG FIT WHILE TURNING
TIGHTEN COLLET
ON ARMATURE SHAFT

CUT ONLY ENOUGH STOCK
TO CLEAN UP COMMUTATOR

COMMUTATOR

GOOD UNDERCUTTING
POOR UNDERCUTTING

TIGHTEN SCREWS

3013

Fig. 17—Examples of Proper and Improper Undercutting

NOTE: As the screws are tightened, strike the frame
several sharp blows with a soft faced hammer to seat
and align the pole shoes.

retaining nut. Install the armature and front end plate
assembly in the frame, locating the dowel in the frame
groove. Install the brush end plate (aligning the dowel
and frame groove) and install the through bolts with
lockwashers. Use a piece of stiff wire with a hooked end
to reach through the ventilating slots and position the
brush springs on top of the brushes. Lubricate the brush
end plate bearing with a few drops of engine oil.

Install the "GRD" terminal screw, washer, and hut
in the frame. Install the "FIELD" terminal screw, insulators, washer, and nut in the frame.
Insert the brushes in the brush holders, install the
"ARM" terminal screw and insulators, and install the
ground brush screw. Move the brushes back in the
holders until the brush springs ride against the side of
the brushes to retain them in the retracted position.
Install the bearing in the front end plate and insert
the bearing stop ring. Slide the plate on the armature
shaft (with the snap ring toward the armature windings)
and install the woodruff key, pulley, lockwasher, and

through bolts and the brush end plate. Slide the armature
and front end plate assembly out of the frame. Clamp
the armature in a vise equipped with soft jaws and
remove the retaining nut, lockwasher, pulley, and woodruff key. Remove any burrs or scratches from the keyway or shaft and slide the drive end plate off the shaft.
Install the front end plate on the new armature. Install
the woodruff key, pulley, lockwasher, and retaining nut.
Slide the armature and front end plate assembly into the
frame, aligning the dowel with the frame slot. Retract
the brushes until the brush springs ride against the side

3011

Fig.* 15—Turning Generator Commutator

shoes and mount the shoe and coil assemblies in the
frame/Tighten the field pole shoe screws (fig. 13).

(c) ARMATURE REPLACEMENT. Remove the two

Use Sandpaper Only
Cut Strip Slightly
Wider Than Brush
TIGHTEN THESE SCREWS

„•££,#,
*£&&+*

J ^
^HOLD END PLATE
B k ^ <
FROM TURNING

Soft Jaws in Vise

LINE UP TOOL
EXACTLY WITH SLOT
PULL IN
DIRECTION
OF ARMATUR
ROTATION

ADJUST CLAMP SCREW
FOR SNUG TURNING FIT

Fig. 16—Undercutting Generator Commutator

3012

Fig. IS—Seating Generator Brush

151

Section 1—Generating System and Battery
of the brushes and install the brush end plate (aligning
the dowel and the frame slot). Install the through bolts
with lockwashers.
Use a piece of stiff wire with a hooked end to reach
through the ventilating slots and position the brush
springs on top of the brushes. Lubricate the brush end
plate bearing with a few drops of engine oil.
(d)

COMMUTATOR T U R N I N G AND

UNDERCUTTING.

Check commutator runout as shown in fig. 14. If the surface of the commutator is rough or more than 0.001 inch
out of round, turn it down in a lathe or with a turning
and undercutting tool, see fig. 15. Remove no more
copper than necessary to clean up the commutator.
After the commutator is turned down, undercut the
mica between the bars \ii i n c r i below the copper using
the undercutting tool as shown in fig. 16. Figure 17
illustrates samples of proper and improper undercutting.
Polish the commutator with 00 to 000 sandpaper to
remove all burrs.
NOTE: Brush out all particles of copper from the
mica insulation between the commutator
segments.
(e) BRUSH REPLACEMENT. Replace generator brushes
when they are worn to Y^ inch. Always change both
brushes when replacement is required.
Remove the two through bolts from the generator
frame. Remove the brush end plate and the armature
and front end plate assembly from the generator frame.
Disconnect the brush terminals and remove brushes.
Clean the carbon and dirt from the brush end plate.
Repair or replace the insulation between the brush
holders and end plate and the "ARM" terminal and end
plate if it is worn or cracked. Make sure the new brushes
VOLTAGE LIMITER

slide freely in the brush holders. Seat the new brushes
by sanding them in as shown in fig. 18.
Retract the brushes until the brush springs ride against
the side of the brushes to retain them in the retracted
position. Install the armature and front end plate assembly and the brush end plate (aligning the dowels and
the frame slots). Install the through bolts with lockwashers. Use a piece of stiff wire with a hooked end to
reach through the ventilating slots and position the
brush springs on top of the brushes. Lubricate the brush
end plate bearing cup with a few drops of engine oil.

b. Generator Regulator and Circuit.
The increased electrical load placed on the generator
by the heater, radio, and accessories calls for increased
capacity in the generating system. High output generators require a means of control to keep the system
within safe operating limits. Lights and radio tubes burn
out prematurely, ignition contacts are burned, and the
battery uses excessive water if generator voltage is excessive. If the voltage is too low the battery will not receive
a charge to replace that used in starting. Further, this
control must be automatic, to make the vehicle safer and
easier to operate. The present day Ford regulator has
not only been designed to exercise automatic control
over the generating system, but it also will compensate
for seasonal temperature changes.

CAUTION: The temperature compensation built
into the regulator causes the regulator voltage to
change with changes in temperature. Therefore, it
is necessary to establish a standard for regulator
operating temperature and ambient (surrounding
VOLTAGE LIMITER

CURRENT LIMITER

CURRENT LIMITER

CUTOUT RELAY
/

CUTOUT RELAY

FORD BUILT REGULATOR

BOSCH BUILT REGULATOR

Fig. 19—Generator Regulator (1949 Model)

3018

Chapter I—Electrical Systems

152
CONTACTS MOUNTED
ON SPRING
ARMATURE SECTION

RIVETED CONSTRUCTION

RIVETED ASSEMBLY
NEW CUTOUT UNIT

CHANGED
CUTOUT UNIT

CUTOUT CONNECTION
AT LOWER END OF COIL

BOSCH BUILT (8M 1O5O5 A2)

DRAWN
ONE-PIECE BASE

RIGID
ARMATURE SECTION

FORD BUILT (8M 1O5O5 A l )

3019

Fig. 20—Generator Regulator (1950 and 7957 Models)
air) temperature when the voltage limits are specified. The limits on voltage regulation and cut-in voltage are given for an ambient of 70°-80°F. and the
regulator at "Normal" operating temperature, "Normal" temperature is defined as the temperature of
the regulator after 14 hour of operation in the vehicle or after the regulator has been heated until it
becomes stabilized.
The generator regulator is composed of three control
units mounted as an assembly (figs. 19 and 20). Each
of the units has a separate function to perform to maintain control of the generator output.
The cut-out relay is an automatic switch which connects the generator to the external load when generator
voltage is approximately equal to battery voltage and
disconnects the generator when its voltage drops far
enough below battery voltage to cause the current to
flow from the battery to the generator.
POS. LEAD / ^
G

"^~

READ O N
50-AMP. SCALE
SET TO NO. 9

READ O N 9-VOLT SCALE
•-SET TO N O . 8
TURN ALL THE
WAY TO LEFT
TO START TEST

NEG. LEAD

VOLTMETER

G

CONNECT POS. VOLTAGE
LEAD TO BATTERY
GROUND STRAP

SET TO POS.
GROUND
POLARITY
TURN ALL THE WAY
TO LEFT TO START

FIELD RHEOSTAT A
% -n- RESISTOR

The voltage limiter holds generator voltage to a predetermined setting as long as the voltage of the generator
is high enough to operate the voltage limiter.
The current limiter protects the generator windings
by limiting to a maximum the amount of current supplied by the generator.
The procedures presented here will appear under the
following headings:
"a. Regulator and Circuit Tests," outlining methods
of testing certain voltage, voltage limit, current limit,
and circuit resistance.
"b. Regulator Electrical Adjustment," describing
operations for adjusting the regulator units.
(1) REGULATOR AND CIRCUIT TEST. Regulator tests are outlined below in "(a) Cut-out, Voltage

^CONNECT NEG. VOLTAGE
•LEAD TO ARM TERMINAL
O N REGULATOR

AMMETER

tTOR
CONNECT POS.
BATTERY-SI
LEAD TO POS.
BATTERY TERMINAL
CONNECT NEG. AMPERAGE
LEAD TO BAT. TERMINAL
O N REGULATOR

GENERATOR
CARBON PILE
RHEOSTAT
- BATTERY
3020

Fig. 21—Regulator Tests (Schematic Test Circuit)

TO BATTERY-

-REMOVE LEAD FROM
FIELD TERMINAL O N
REGULATOR AND
CONNECT FIELD
RHEOSTAT CLIPS TO
LEAD AND TERMINAL
BAT. LEAD
FROM REGULATOR

Fig. 22—Regulator Tests (Diagnosis Test Set)

153

Section 1—Generating System and Battery

Limit, and Current Limit Tests." Test procedures for
the circuit are outlined in "(b) Circuit Resistance Test."
The instruments and equipment for making the tests
are incorporated in the Diagnosis Test Set. For operators
having other than Ford approved equipment, the particular meters and test equipment needed are listed below:
0-50 \

o-ioo/

ammeter

0-0.9 voltmeter
0-9
voltmeter
50
ohm field rheostat (2 amp. rating)
%
ohm resistor (15 amp. rating)
Carbon pile rheostat (heavy duty)
Assorted connecting wires equipped with suitable
connectors.
Regulator tests can be made on the vehicle as outlined below or on a Ford Generator and Regulator Test
Bench, if it is available. The advantage of using the test
bench is the reduction of time required to heat the regulator to normal operating temperature. The test bench
is equipped with a radiant heating unit which can bring
the regulator up to normal temperature in a few minutes. When the test bench is used to make the regulator
test be sure the regulator is mounted in the same position as it is in the vehicle and that the regulator is
checked against the same type generator used on the
vehicle.
(a) CUT-OUT, VOLTAGE LIMIT, AND CURRENT LIMIT
TESTS. (ON VEHICLE). Be sure the regulator is at

"normal" operating temperature (equivalent to the temperature after 30 minutes of operation on the vehicle).
Connect the test equipment as shown in figs. 21 and 22.
Start the engine and run it at approximately 1500 r.p.m.
Decrease the resistance in the field circuit and the voltage output of the generator indicated by the voltmeter
will increase until the cut-out closes. The cut-out closing
will be indicated by a rise of the ammeter needle and a
"dip" of the voltmeter needle. The maximum voltage at
the time the voltmeter needle dips or drops back will be
the closing voltage of the cut-out relay. This operation
should be repeated to accurately determine the closing
voltage of the cut-out.

Reduce the resistance in the field circuit to zero (turn
FIELD RHEOSTAT KNOB (C) all the way to the
right on the Diagnosis Test Set). The ammeter should
show an approximate 10 ampere load. Read the voltage
regulation on the voltmeter scale. Speed the engine
momentarily to see if the voltage remains regulated.
With engine speed at 1500 r.p.m. press the push button
to connect the carbon pile rheostat and slowly decrease
the resistance until the voltmeter reading drops to 6.5
volts. The ammeter will indicate the setting of the current limit er.
Remove all test leads except the voltmeter leads.
Install the "BAT" and "FIELD" leads on the regulator
terminals. Run the engine at 1500 r.p.m. and read the
voltage regulation (under battery load) on the voltmeter.
NOTE: The voltage reading will usually be low
when the engine is first started because the batteryis partially discharged. After a few moments of operation the voltage will rise to the original value.
(b) CIRCUIT RESISTANCE TEST. For the purpose of
this test, the resistance values of the circuit have been
converted to voltage drop readings. Connect the test
equipment as shown in figs. 23 and 24 to measure voltage drop around the circuit.
Crank the engine for 15 seconds with the ignition
switch OFF to partially discharge the battery. Then
start the engine and run it at approximately 1500 r.p.m.
Touch the voltmeter positive lead to the center of the
negative battery post (fig. 23 or 24, connections marked
©) to check the generator to battery circuit. The voltage
drop should be less than 0.6 volt.
If the voltage drop in the generator to battery circuit
exceeds 0.6 volt, locate the exact part of the circuit wiring causing the trouble by contacting the positive lead
to other points in the circuit. Connect the lead to the
"ARM" terminal of the regulator (connections marked
©); the voltage drop should be less than 0.1 volt. Connect the lead to the "BAT" terminal of the regulator
(connections marked (D); the voltage reading should be
READ ON 9-VOLT SCALE
AND DIVIDE BY 10

POS.
LEAD
DEPRESS BUTTON
WHILE READING
VOLTMETER
VOLTMETER POS. LEAD
REGULATOR

TO BATTERY
- BATTERY

REGULATOR
OTHER
CIRCUITS
3022

ho

Fig. 23—External Circuit Test (Schematic Test Circuit)

3O23

Fig. 24—External Circuit Test (Diagnosis Test Set)

Chapter I—Electrical Systems

154

BEND BI-METAL "IN" TO RAISE CUT-IN VOLTAGE.
BEND "OUT" TO LOWER VOLTAGE

3025

Fig. 27—Adjusting Cut-in Voltage (7949 Regulators)
3032

Fig. 25—Removing Regulator Cover (One Piece
Regulator Base)

less than 0.35 volt. If both these readings are within
limits, the excessive resistance is in the regulator to
battery wires.
Check the battery to generator ground circuit by connecting the voltmeter as shown in fig. 23 or fig. 24 (connections marked 0 ) ; the voltage reading should be less
than 0.1 volt.

(2) REGULATOR ELECTRICAL ADJUSTMENT.
Final adjustment of the regulator must be checked with
the regulator at normal operating temperature. The
regulator can be brought to normal operating temperature very rapidly if a Ford Generator and Regulator Test
Bench is available. The Test Bench is equipped with a
radiant heating unit to raise the temperature of the
regulator in a short period of time. The voltage and current limiter units in the model 8M and 8A regulators

(1950 and 1951 models) are adjusted in the same manner
as in previous models. However, a different cutout relay
is used and the adjusting procedure is given below in
"(a)'Adjust Cut-in Voltage." For any of the adjustments given below, remove the cover as shown in fig. 25.
NOTE: After adjustments are made recheck the settings with the cover in place.
(a) ADJUST CUT-IN VOLTAGE. If the regulator is one
of the 1950-1951 models (the cutout unit is similar in
appearance to the other two units), the cut-in voltage
is increased by bending the adjusting arm upward, or
decreased by bending it downward (fig. 26).
The 1949 model regulator cut-out (with the bimetal
bracket retaining the armature spring) is adjusted by
bending the bimetal inward to increase cut-in voltage,
or outward to decrease the voltage (fig. 27).
(b) ADJUST VOLTAGE LIMIT. If the voltage limit is
less than specified, increase the spring tension by bending the adjusting arm upward, fig. 28. To decrease the
ADJUSTING ARM
TO INCREASE
VOLTAGE

TO
DECREASE
VOLTAGE

Adjusting Tool

CUTOUT ARMATURE
Adjusting Too/

3024
Ffg.-26—Adjusting Cut-in Voltage (7950 Models 8M
and 8A)

3026
Fig. 28—Adjusting Voltage Limit

Section 1 — Generating System and Battery

voltage, bend the adjusting arm downward.
(c) ADJUST CURRENT LIMIT. If the current limit is
less than specified, increase the spring tension by bending the adjusting arm upward, seefig.29. To decrease
current limit, bend the adjusting arm downward.
(3) REGULATOR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION. Disconnect the "ARM," "FIELD," and "BAT"
leads at the regulator terminals. On 1949 model regulators, also disconnect the "GRD" lead. Remove the
three mounting screws and the regulator.
NOTE: It is advisable to disconnect a battery cable
when working on the regulator to prevent an accidental short circuit of the "BAT" lead to ground.
To install the regulator, place it in position and install
the mounting screws. Be sure to mount the ground wire
terminal under the mounting screw that contacts the
ground strap on the regulator base (1950-1951 model
regulators). Connect the "ARM," " F I E L D , " and
"BAT" leads to the regulator terminals. On 1949 regulators, connect the lead to the "GRD" terminal of the
regulator. Reconnect the battery cable.

c. Battery.
The primary function of the storage battery in the
generating system is, as its name implies, to store energy
for starting the engine and to operate electrical units
when the generator is not delivering sufficient output.
A cutaway view of the battery (fig. 30) illustrates the
internal construction.
(1) BATTERY EQUIPMENT. Ford approved battery equipment includes (a) Fast Charger, (b) battery
Charge Tester (open circuit voltage tester), and (c)
Diagnosis Test Set. A hydrometer is also very useful in
battery testing.
(a) FAST CHARGER. The Fast Charger places a full
charge in a battery in a short period of time and automatically shuts off the charge by means of a thermostat
control when the battery temperature reaches 125° F.

155

The 125° maximum limit on temperature is recommended
by the battery manufacturer. No battery undergoing fast
charge will reach a "full charge" condition until its temperature rises to 125° F. The Fast Charger is equipped
with battery test equipment to permit testing batteries
before and after full charge.
(b) BATTERY CHARGE TESTER. The Battery Charge
Tester provides a clean, convenient, and rapid means of
testing battery state of charge. A sensitive voltmeter
measures the open circuit voltage of each cell and indicates the charge in the battery on the voltmeter scales.
It eliminates the removal of battery electrolyte from
the battery (as compared to the hydrometer check) preventing acid burns on the operator, clothes, and car
finish. In many cases it is impossible to test the battery
with the hydrometer because the electrolyte is below
the plates and cannot be drawn out of the cell.
(c) DIAGNOSIS TEST SET. The Diagnosis Test Set
includes a battery tester in one of the test circuits. The
battery is tested by causing current to flow from the
battery at a rate according to the battery size and
measuring the terminal voltage of the battery under
load. The voltmeter scale is calibrated to read state of
charge or condition.
(d) HYDROMETER. The Hydrometer shows state of
charge in a battery by measuring electrolyte specific
gravity. A temperature correction -scale is included in
the hydrometer barrel to obtain a true specific gravity
reading.
(2) BATTERY TESTS AND CONCLUSIONS. Tests
POST STRAP
CELL CONNECTOR
SEALING
COMPOUND

VENT PLUG

TERMINAL POSTS
COVERS

ADJUSTING ARM
T O INCREASE
CURRENT

CONTAINER

Adjusting Tool

NEGATIVE PLATE
SEPARATORS

ELEMENT RESTS

3027

Fig. 29—Adjusting Current Limit

POSITIVE PLATE

SEDIMENT SPACE

Fig. 30—Battery Construction Details

3033

156

Chapter I—Electrical Systems

are made on a battery to determine the state of charge
and also the condition. In Service, the ultimate result of
these tests is to show the customer that his battery is
good, it needs recharging, or it must be replaced. Therefore, most of the battery test equipment used in Service
has been developed to present the test information in
graphic form. The meter scales on Ford Battery Test
Equipment use green to represent "battery OK," yellow
to represent "battery condition uncertain," and red to
represent "recharge" or "replace."
As far as the customer is concerned, he actually is not
interested in the condition of his battery. His interest
lies in the end result of battery condition—whether or
not the engine will start. Therefore, the results of the
following tests for state of charge and capacity or condition should be interpreted by the serviceman so the
customer can understand what they mean in terms of
starting power or capacity.
If a battery in a vehicle is low in charge, good service
demands that you look for a reason for this condition.
It may be necessary to follow trouble shooting procedures to locate the cause of trouble.
Tests of the battery are divided into two general classifications: (a) "Before Charge" tests, which can only
determine the state of charge of a battery, and (b)
"After Charge" tests which determine the condition of
a battery. A "high rate discharge" test performed on a
battery having less than a full charge will give a combined reading of charge and condition.
WARNING: Hydrogen and oxygen gases are produced in the course of the battery's normal operation in the vehicle. Flames or sparks can cause this
gas mixture to explode if they are brought near the
vent openings of the battery.
The sulphuric acid in the battery electrolyte can
cause a serious burn if spilled on the skin or spattered in the eyes. It should be flushed away immediately with large quantities of clear water.
(a) BEFORE CHARGE TESTS. Before charge tests
include testing with the Ford Battery Charge Tester,
with a hydrometer, and with the Ford Diagnosis Test
Set or Ford Fast Charger.
(1) FORD BATTERY CHARGE TESTER. The Ford Battery Charge Tester (open circuit voltage tester) tests the
state of charge of a battery by measuring the voltage of
the battery cells on open circuit (no current flow). It
consists of an accurate expanded scale voltmeter equipped
with test prods which are contacted to the terminals of
each cell. The scale of the meter shows cell voltage from
1.9 volts to 2.3 volts in 1/100 volt divisions.
To make the battery test, contact the meter prods to
the proper cell terminals (red to positive, black to negative) as shown in fig. 31 and observe the reading on the
meter scales. If the reading is in the red portion of the
scale, the battery is less than 60% charged and will not
supply enough current to start an engine in extremely

cold weather. If the reading is near the red scale, the
battery is approximately 65 % charged and its starting
power is questionable.
NOTE: When testing a battery which has been
charged just previous to the test, "surface charge"
in the battery will give a false reading. To remove
^surface charge./9 turn on the headlights of the vehicle for the length of time indicated by the top scale
of the meter, then turn off the headlights and read
the state of charge of the battery.
When testing batteries in stock (not on trickle
charger) use the bottom scale of the meter as a
guide for state of charge.
(2) HYDROMETER. The hydrometer can only be used
when there is sufficient electrolyte above the battery
plates to fill the hydrometer tube.
NOTE: Do not take hydrometer readings immediately after refilling a battery with distilled water.
Remove the battery filler plugs, draw electrolyte in
and force it out of the hydrometer barrel several times
to bring the temperature of the hydrometer float to that
of the electrolyte and then draw in just enough electrolyte to lift the float. Read the specific gravity on the
float scale. Specific gravity of 1.275-1.285 indicates a
fully charged battery. 1.230-1.240 indicates approximately 60% charge.
(3) DISCHARGE TEST. The high rate discharge test
can be performed with either the Ford Diagnosis Test
Set or with the Ford Fast Charger. When this test is
performed on a battery which is not fully charged, the
reading obtained is an indication of both state of charge
and condition.
(a) Ford Diagnosis Test Set. Connect the batRED PROD ON POSITIVE
TERMINAL OF CELL
BLACK PROD ON NEGATIVE
TERMINAL OF CELL

3034

Fig. 31—Ford Battery Charge Tester

157

Section 1—Generating System and Battery
tery clips to the battery terminals and set selector
switches as shown infig.32. Turn the Resistance Load
Knob (J) slowly clockwise until the ammeter needle
points to the capacity of the battery under test. Read
the state of charge of the battery on the voltmeter scale.
If the pointer is in the red range (less than 60 % charged),
the battery will not supply enough current to start in
extremely cold weather. When the pointer is in the
yellow range (approximately 65 % charged), the starting
power is questionable.
(b) Ford Fast Charger. Connect the battery clips
to the battery terminals. Set the meter selector switch
on the Ford Fast Charger to position 2, and the battery
capacity scale to the ampere hour rating of the battery,
fig. 33. Depress the test button halfway for 15 seconds,
then depress it fully and read the battery condition on
scale 2. If the pointer is in the red portion of the scale
(less than 60% charged), the battery will not supply
enough current to start in extremely cold weather.
(b) AFTER CHARGE TESTS. The after charge tests are
used to determine the condition of a battery. The battery must be fully charged or the results of the test will
be inaccurate. The test is the same as that used in the
before charge test with the exception that a different
scale is used on the Ford Fast Charger.
If the meter reading obtained in the tests described
below will not hold steady in the green range of the scale
and falls back rapidly or if the reading is in the red
range of the scale, the battery is worn out and battery
failure can be predicted for the immediate future (the
first cold morning). If the meter reads in the yellow
range of the scale, the battery may hold up for a short

while, but eventually will fail. The yellow range indicates that a battery has lost approximately 40 % of its
capacity. The loss is caused by wear, internal damage,
or shedding of the active plate material from the plates.
(1) FORD DIAGNOSIS TEST SET. Connect the battery
test leads to the battery terminals and set selector
switches as shown infig.32. Turn the Resistance Load
Knob slowly clockwise until the ammeter needle points
to the capacity (ampere hours) of the battery under test.
The voltmeter will indicate the condition (remaining
capacity) of the battery.
(2) FORD FAST CHARGER. Connect the battery leads
to the battery terminals. Set the meter selector switch
to position 5 and the battery capacity scale to the ampere
hour rating of the battery (fig. 34). Depress the test
button halfway, for 15 seconds, then depress it fully and
read the battery condition (remaining capacity) on
scale 5.
(3) CARE OF BATTERIES IN STOCK. The oldest
batteries should be sold first. A slow discharge occurs
during storage and the number of "boost" charges
required by a battery before it is finally sold will be
reduced by rotating stocks properly.
NOTE: The date of manufacture of the battery is
stamped on one of the center cell connector buttons.
The letter represents the month (A—January, B—
February, C—March, etc.) and the numeral represents the year (8—1948, 9—1949, 0—1950, etc.).
Thus, the code L-9 would signify a battery was
manufactured in December, 1949. Beginning the
latter part of 1950 a three character code was insti|1*TT£RY SIZE O SELECTOR |

BATTERY
TEST BUTTON
SET ON AMP. HOURS SCALE

DEPRESS HALF-WAY FOR 15 SECONDS,
THEN DEPRESS FULLY FOR TEST.

BEFORE CHARGE TEST

Ox

GROUND POLARITY

TURN ALL THE
WAY TO LEFT
TO START TEST

CONNECT POS. BAT.-STARTER LEAD TO
BAT. POS. TERMINAL
CONNECT N E C BAT.-STARTER LEAD TO
BAT. N E C TERMINAL

3035

Fig. 32—Diagnosis Test Set Connections

3036

Fig. 33—Ford Fast Charger Test Connections

Chapter I—Electrical Systems

158

tuted. The first character represents the month and
appears as 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-0-A-B. The second character designates the week of the month and is shown
as 1-2-3-4-5. The third character which denotes the
year is shown as 0-1-2, etc. Thus the code B-3-0, indicates a battery was manufactured during the third
week of December, 1950.
To assure trouble-free operation on a new battery
installation, the battery should be fully charged at the
time it is installed. The state of charge should also be
recorded on the battery certificate.
(4) BATTERY CHARGING. As previously stated,
the Fast Charger can be used to charge a battery rapidly
and safely. It places the charge in the battery at the 100
ampere rate recommended for fast charging and carries
on the charge until battery temperature reaches 125° F.
The procedure for fast charging is outlined below in
"(a) Fast Charge."
In addition, the Fast Charger can be used for slow
charging on new or stocked batteries to bring them to
a full charge. The slow charge procedure is described
below "(b) Slow Charge."
Wash all dirt from the battery and clean the battery
terminals before placing it on charge.
NOTE: Do not allow any dirt to enter the cells.
Bring the electrolyte to the correct level in the cells.
If the battery is extremely cold, allow it to warm up
before adding water as the level will rise due to expansion in the cell chamber.
(a) FAST CHARGE. Make the connections as infig.35.

11
v—•*77

CHARGING VOLTS

READ
CHARGING
CURRENT
CHARGING AMPS.
READ CHARGING VOLTS

TURN CHARGING CONTROL
CLOCKWISE UNTIL CHARGING
CURRENT IS JUST UNDER 100 AMPS.

W CHARGE

FAST CHARGE

3038

Fig. 35—Fast Charge Procedure

You will note that the thermostat control is placed in
the center cell filler opening. If the battery has a "level
fill" type of vent plug, be sure the center cell vent is
held open to prevent electrolyte from overflowing while
on charge. Set the charging control selector up until the
charging rate is 100 amps, (or slightly under).
NOTE: Do not exceed 100 amps charging rate, also
do not exceed S,,5 volts charging voltage on the bat-

|BATT£RY SIZE O SELECTOR \

BATTERY
TEST BUTTON

I BATTERY S I Z E O SELECTOR |

AFTER FAST
CHARGE TEST
TaATTERY SIZE O SELECTOR |
VOLTS

J

CHARGING
CURRENT SCALE
CHARGING
VOLT SCALE

DEPRESS HALF-WAY FOR 15 SECONDS,
THEN DEPRESS FULLY FOR TEST.

RECOMMENDED THAT
AT LEAST 4 BATTERIES
BE CHARGED

BATTERIES
CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL
DO NOT CONNECT
BATTERIES IN SERIES

3037

Fig. 34—Ford Fast Charger (After Charge Test)

3039

Fig. 36—Slow Charge Procedure

159

Section 1 — Generating System and Battery
TO OTHER CIRCUITS

.TO OTHER CIRCUITS

CIRCUIT BREAKER

STARTER BUTTON

STARTING
MOTORS"

N

3O4O

Fig, 37—Starter Circuit (Schematic 1949 and 1950)

tery. If necessary, reduce the charging current to
keep the voltage below 8.5 volts.
(b) SLOW CHARGE. When the fast charger is used for
slow charging, connect the batteries in parallel (fig. 36).
NOTE: Never connect batteries in series for slow
charging on the fast charger, it will damage the rectifier unit.

STARTER IGNITION
SWITCH

TO CHARGE
INDICATOR
3115

Fig. 38—Starter Circuit (Schematic 1951)

The charging control selector is set to "slow charge"
for this operation. It is recommended that four or more
batteries be connected in parallel for slow charge.

2. STARTING SYSTEM
The function of the starting system in the vehicle is
to crank the engine at a high enough speed to permit it
to start. The system includes the starter motor and
drive, the battery, a remote control push button type
starter switch, and heavy circuit wiring.
A schematic diagram of the starter circuit, shown in
fig. 37 or 38, illustrates the internal connections of the
starting system units. Figure 39 is a pictorial view of the
starting system of the 1949 and 1950 passenger car showing the wiring and location of the various units. The 1951
starting system is the same as the others with the exception that the starter control switch is part of the ignition
switch, and the starter relay is grounded at the relay.
1951 cars equipped with automatic transmission have
a lock-out switch in the starter control circuit (fig. 40)
BATTERY-TO-RELAY CABLE

kTTERY

which prevents operating of the starter if the selector
lever is not in the "N"—(neutral) position.
Heavy cables, connectors, and switches are used in the
starting system because of the large current required by
the starter motor while it is cranking the engine. The
amount of resistance in the starting circuit must be kept
to an absolute minimum to provide maximum current
for the starter motor operation. Loose connections, corroded relay contacts, and partially broken cables will
result in slower than normal cranking speed, and may
even prevent the starter motor from cranking the engine.

a. Starter Motor and Circuit.
The starter motor used in Ford cars is a four-brush
series wound unit. The circuit to the starter motor is

RELAY-TO-MOTOR

CABLE

^STARTER MOTOR

STARTER RELAY

F/g. 39—Starter Circuit (Pictorial)

STARTER-

_

STARTER BUI

160

Chapter I—Electrical Systems
EXPANDED SCALE VOLTMETER

N - T O OTHER CIRCUITS

I - l\A
S

BATTERY

STARTER

RELAYR STARTER SWITCH
(ON IGNIT- | O N SWITCH)

.4,

S ^

NEUTRAL SWITCH '
CLOSED ONLY WHEN
SELECTOR IS IN " N " POSITION

OQQJMSL

X

STARTING
MOTOR
TO CHARGE INDICATOR
CONTACT OF CIRCUIT BREAKER 3108

NEGATIVE LEAD
TO OTHER CIRCUITS

Fig. 40—Starter Circuit (Automatic Transmission)

completed by means of a relay controlled by a pushbutton switch mounted on the instrument panel. The
return circuit is through the starter motor housing,
engine block, and battery ground strap to the battery.
Figure 41 illustrates the starter mounted on the
8-cylinder engine. The mounting is the same on the
6-cylinder with the exceptions as noted.

(1) STARTER MOTOR AND CIRCUIT TESTS.
Five different tests of the starter motor and its circuit
are described here under headings that indicate the
nature of the test. The arrangement of these tests is not
intended to indicate an order of procedure. The selection
of which test is to be made is controlled by the circumstances encountered, usually as a result of analyzing
troubles as covered in trouble shooting, or as a part of a
preventive maintenance plan. The separate tests are:
"(a) Starter Load Test." When this test is performed
in conjunction with the "Starter No-Load Test," it will
determine if the starter motor is faulty or if the engine
has excessive friction.
"(b) Starter No-Load Test." This is a quickly performed test that will uncover such faults as open or
shorted windings, rubbing armature, and bent armature
shaft.
"(c) Armature and Field Open Circuit Test." As the
name implies, this test will determine if the starter motor
windings have an open circuit.
"(d) Armature and Field Grounded Circuit Test."
This test will determine if winding insulation has failed,

0001001)

STARTER
RELAY

f

Fig. 42-Starter

STARTING
MOTOR

STARTER BUTTON
3043
Load Test (Schematic 1949 and 1950)

permitting a conductor to touch the frame or armature
core.
"(e) Starter Circuit Test." Excessive resistance in the
starter circuit can be determined from the results of this
test.
The test procedures outlined can be made with the
"Ford Diagnosis Test Set." If the test set is not available, the following equipment will be needed.
0-0.9 Voltmeter
4-6 Expanded scale voltmeter
0-50 %
Ammeter
0-300/
Carbon Pile Rheostat (Heavy Duty)
Assorted connecting wires and jumper wires
equipped with suitable connectors.
(a) STARTER LOAD TEST. Connect the test equipment as shown in figs. 42, 43 or 44. Be sure that no
current is flowing through the ammeter and carbon pile
EXPANDED SCALE
VOLTMETER

MAY USE DIFFERENT BRACKET

NEGATIVE LEAD
TO OTHER CIRCUITS

V.
STARTER
RELAY STARTER SWITCH
(ON IGNITION SWITCH

ooolooo

STARTING
MOTOR
STARTER MOTOR

Fig. 41—Starting Motor Mounting

3042

TO CHARGE INDICATOR
CONTACT OF CIRCUIT BREAKER

Fig. 43—Starter Load Test (Schematic 1951)

~
3116

Section 2—Starting System
READ STARTER
VOLTS O N
THIS SCALE

READ STARTER
AMPS. O N
THIS SCALE

NEGATIVE
LEAD

161
A
AMM
TO OTHER
CIRCUITS

POSITIVE
LEAD

V
STARTER
RELAY STARTER SWITCH
(ON IGNITION SWITCH)

TO CHARGE INDICATOR
CONTACT OF CIRCUIT BREAKER
TURN TO
LEFT BEFORE
CONNECTING
CUPS TO
BATTERY TO
AVOID
SPARKING

BAT. STARTER
POS. LEAD

STARTER
RELAY

3044

Fig. 44—Starter Load Test (Diagnosis Test Set)

rheostat portion of the circuit (rheostat at maximum
resistance). Crank the engine with the ignition OFF and
determine the exact reading on the voltmeter.

NOTE: On 1951 cars this test is accomplished by
connecting a jumper from the battery negative terminal to the switch terminal of the starter relay.
Stop cranking the engine and reduce the resistance of
the carbon pile until the voltmeter indicates the same
reading as that obtained while the starter cranked the
engine. The ammeter will indicate the starter current
draw under load. This reading should be a maximum of
190 amperes with the engine at normal operating
temperature.
(b) STARTER NO-LOAD TEST. The starter motor can
be tested at no load either on the engine or test bench.
(1) ON ENGINE. To test the starter at no load while
it is mounted on the engine, the engine must be running
at idle speed to prevent the starter drive from engaging
the flywheel. With the engine idling, make the ammeter
connections as shown in figs. 45, 46 or 47. The no-load
NEGATIVE LEAD

©

3117

Fig. 46—Starter No-Load Test (Schematic 1951)

current Rraw on the ammeter should be 45-60 amperes.
(2) ON TEST BENCH. If the starting motor is removed
from the engine, the no-load test can be performed on
the test bench. Connect the starter motor to a battery
with an ammeter in the circuit as shown in fig. 48. The
starter motor will run at no load and the current draw
indicated on the ammeter should be 45-60 amperes.
(c) ARMATURE AND FIELD OPEN CIRCUIT TEST (TEST
BENCH ONLY). An open circuit armature can be detected

by examining the commutator for evidence of burning.
The spot burned on the commutator is caused by an arc
formed every time the commutator segment connected
to the open-circuit winding passes under a brush.
An open circuit test of the field can be made on the
test bench by connecting a voltmeter and battery as
shown in fig. 49. Since the starter field is divided, it will
be necessary to check each half of the field separately.
If no voltmeter reading is obtained, the coil is open.
(d) ARMATURE AND FIELD GROUNDED CIRCUIT TEST

READ ON 100
AMP. SCALE

SET TO POS.
POLARITY

POSITIVE LEAD

AMMETER
TO OTHER CIRCUITS
POS. LEAD

0001000

TO STARTER SWITCH

STARTING
MOTOR

STARTER BUTTON

3045

Fig. 45-Starter No-Load Test (Schematic 1949, 1950)

3046

Fig. 47—Starter No-Load Test (Diagnosis Test Set)

162

Chapter I—Electrical Systems

Jz
-

NEGATIVE
LEAD

AMMETER

JUMPER LEAD

POSITIVE
LEAD

BATTERY

STARTING
MOTOR

3047
fig, 48—Starter No-Load Test (On Test Bench)

determine if armature windings
are grounded, make the connections as shown infig.50.
If the voltmeter indicates any voltage, the windings are
grounded.
Grounded field windings can be detected by making
the connections as shown in fig. 51. If the voltmeter
indicates any voltage, the field windings are grounded.
(e) STARTER CIRCUIT TEST. Make the test connections as shown in figs. 52, 53 or 54. Crank the engine
with the ignition OFF.

DO NOT CONNECT LEAD
TO BEARING SURFACE

(TEST BENCH ONLY). TO

NOTE: On 1951 cars this test is accomplished by
connecting a jumper from the battery negative terminal to the switch terminal of the starter relay.
The voltage drop in the circuit will be indicated by the
voltmeter. Maximum allowable voltage drop should be:
Connections marked © . .
.0.5 volt
Connections marked 0
0.1 volt
Connections marked 0
.0.3 volt
Connections marked 0 . .
0.1 volt
(2) STARTER MOTOR REPAIR. Starter motor repair
procedures covered in this paragraph and illustrated in
figs. 55 through 58 are removal and installation, complete disassembly, armature replacement, commutator
turning and brush replacement.
In many cases it will not be necessary to completely
disassemble the starter to accomplish repair or replacement of certain parts, "(c) Armature Replacement,"
"(d) Commutator Turning," and "(e) Brush Replace-

\

VOLTMETER POSITIVE LEAD
TOUCH TO COMMUTATOR

NEGATIVE LEAD
VOLTMETER

3049

Fig. 50— Grounded Circuit Armature Test
ment" are procedures which eliminate the steps in disassembly that do not apply to these particular operations.
(a) REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION. In removing the
starter motor first disconnect the starter cable at the
starter terminal, then remove the bolt that holds the
starter to oil pan attaching bracket to the oil pan. If the
two through bolts are now loosened the entire starter
motor may be removed.

NOTE: It may be necessary to tilt the starter motor
slightly to clear the starter drive around the flywheel.
When installing the starter motor, assemble the motor
to the engine keeping the terminal screw vertical and on
top of the starter. Tighten the outer through bolt enough
to hold the starter in position. Install the oil pan bolt
that holds the starter to oil pan attaching bracket, leavJUMPER LEAD

CONNECT
TO FRAME
CONNECT T O O N E
FIELD BRUSH
AT A TIME

KEEP BOTH FIELD
BRUSHES FROM
FRAME

VOLTMETER NEGATIVE LEAD
VOLTMETER POSITIVE LEAD"

Fig. 49-Open Circuit Test of Field

3048

VOLTMETER POSITIVE

Fig. 51— Grounded Circuit Test of Field

3050

163

Section 2—Starting System
ing it finger tight. Tighten both through bolts and then
tighten the oil pan bolt.
NOTE: In 1951 cars with Fordomatic transmission
there is no starter to oil pan attaching bracket and
the starter is mounted with the terminal screw horizontal and toward the outside. There is a third
mounting bolt through the converter housing into
the starter frame from the rear.

NEGATIVE LEAD

posmvE

NEGATIVE LEAD

CD®®//:

BATTERY

(b) COMPLETE DISASSEMBLY. Use the following procedure when it becomes necessary to completely overhaul the starter.
Figure 55 illustrates the starter motor completely disassembled. Part names and numbers are included to aid
you if it is necessary to make replacements. Only the
basic part number is used; when ordering parts refer to
your parts book for the necessary prefix and suffix.
(1) DISASSEMBLY. Remove the starter drive, through
bolts and rear end plate, fig. 55. Be sure to remove all
burrs from the shaft to prevent scoring the rear end plate
bushing. Remove the armature. Remove the cover band.
Remove the brushes from their holders and remove
the brush end plate. Unscrew the ground brush screws
and remove the ground brushes. Remove the nut and
washers from the terminal. Unscrew the two field-poleshoe screws as shown in fig. 56. The arbor press prevents
the wrench from slipping out of the screw.
Remove the pole shoes and field coils from the frame.
It will be necessary to collapse the field coils to remove
the starter terminal screw. Unsolder the terminal screw
from the field coils.
(2) CLEANING AND INSPECTION. Wipe the field coils,
armature, commutator and armature shaft with a clean
cloth. Wash all other parts in solvent and dry the parts.
Inspect the armature windings for broken or burned
insulation and unsoldered connections. Check the commutator for runout (fig. 14). Inspect the armature shaft
and the two bearings for scoring and excess wear. Check
the brush holders for broken springs and the insulated
brush holders for shorts to ground. Check the brush
spring tension. It should be 48-56 oz. Replace the springs
if the tension is not within limits. Inspect the field coils

V

STARTER
RELAY STARTER SWITCH
(ON IGNITION SWITCH)
STARTING
MOTOR

*

TO CHARGE INDICATOR
CONTACT OF CIRCUIT BREAKER

3118

Fig. 53—Starter Circuit Test (Schematic 1951)

for burned or broken insulation. Check the field brush
solder connections, and lead insulation.
(3) ASSEMBLY. Solder the leads of both field coils
to the terminal screw. Install the coils with the terminal
screw entered through the housing and install the field
pole shoes and screws.
NOTE: As the screws are tightened, strike the frame
several sharp blows with a soft-faced hammer to seat
and align the pole shoes.
Install the insulator washers and terminal nut. Install
the screws that connect the ground brushes to the starter
frame. Install the brush end plate making sure the
brush-plate dowel is located in the slot in the starter
frame.
CAUTION: Do not pinch the brush leads between
the end plate and the frame.
READ O N 9 VOLT
SCALE AND
DIVIDE BY 10

PRESS 0.9 VOLT
BUTTON WHILE
CRANKING
ENGINE

SET TO NO. 2

NEGATIVE LEAD
POSITIVE LEAD

POSITIVE LEAD i

NEGATIVE L
^r

STARTING
MOTOR

STARTER BUTTON

3052

Fig. 52—Starter Circuit Test (Schematic 1949 and 1950)

RELAY

STARTER

3053

Fig. 54—Starter Circuit Test (Diagnosis Test Set)

164

Chapter I—Electrical Systems

34906-S

BRUSH SPRING-11059

THROUGH BOLT
11091

BRACKET
11140

ARMATURE—11005

FIELD COIL—
R.H.—11085

THRUST WASHER-. 11036

KEY—74175-S

BRUSH
END PLATE

FIELD C O I L - L.H.—11083

DOWEL—10088

, t , n o i TERMINAL SCREW
11102
'
POLE SHOE
SCREWS-10044

TERMINAL
SCREW I 11094

GROUND BRUSH
SCREW-25231-S

REAR END PLATE—11130

COVER BAND—10142

3054

Fig. 55—Starter Motor—Order of Assembly or Disassembly

Place the thrust washer on the commutator end of the
shaft, slide the armature in place and install the rear
end plate with the end plate dowel located in the starter
frame slot. The through bolts along with the starter to
oil pan attaching bracket may now be installed. Install
the brushes in their holders being sure to center the
brush springs on the brushes. Place the cover band on
the starter and tighten the clamp screw. Install the
starter drive.
(c) ARMATURE REPLACEMENT. Remove the starter
Use Arbor Press
to Hold Tool in Screw Socket

drive, through bolts, rear end plate, and cover band. Be
sure to remove all burrs from the shaft to prevent scoring
the rear end plate bushing. Remove the armature.
Before installing the new armature, pull the brushes
from their holders. Slide in the armature, and install the
rear end plate and through bolts.

NOTE: The end plate dowel must be aligned with
the slot in the starter frame.
Replace the bnishes in their holders and center the
brush springs on the brushes. Install the starter drive,
(d) COMMUTATOR TURNING. Check the commutator
ADJUST CLAMP SCREW
FOR SNUG FIT WHILE TURNING
TIGHTEN COLLET
ON ARMATURE SHAFT

CUT ONLY ENOUGH STOCK
TO CLEAN UP COMMUTATOR

Wrench
TIGHTEN
SCREWS
"V" Block
SURE TO SEAT DRIVE
HEAD IN SCREW SOCKET

Fig. 56—Removing Pole Shoe Screws

3055

oft Jaws in Vise to Hold Armature

Fig. 57—Turning Starter Motor Commutator

3056

Section 2—Starting System
runout as shown in fig. 14. If the surface of the commutator is rough or more than 0.002 inch out-of-round, turn
it down in a lathe or with a turning tool, seefig.57.
Polish the commutator with 00 or 000 sandpaper to
remove all burrs left by the turning operation. Be sure
no copper particles remain on the insulation between
the segments.
NOTE: It is not necessary to undercut the mica on
the starter motor
commutator.
(e) BRUSH REPLACEMENT. Replace the starter brushes

when they are worn to 0.33 inch in length. Always change
the complete set of brushes when any replacement is
required.
Loosen and remove the cover band. Remove the two
through bolts from the starter frame. Remove the
brushes from their holders. Remove the brush-end plate
and the armature rear end plate assembly. Unsolder the
brush leads from the field coils. Unscrew the ground
brush terminal screws and remove the ground brushes.
Clean the carbon and dirt from the brush end plate.
Replace the brush end plate if the insulation between
the field brush holder and the end plate is cracked or
broken. Make sure the new brushes slide freely in the
holders. Seat the new brushes by sanding (fig. 58).
Solder the new field brushes to the field coils. Connect
the new ground brushes to the starter frame with the
terminal screws. Install the brush end plate. Slide the
armature rear end plate assembly in place.
NOTE: Make sure the locating dowels in both the
brush-end plate and rear-end plate are located in the
slots in the starter frame.
Replace the two through bolts in the starter end
plates. Place the brushes in their holders. Be sure to
center the brush springs on the brushes. Install the cover
band and tighten the clamp screw.

b. Starter Drive.
A spring type starter drive, fig. 59, is used on all cars
Use Sandpaper Only.
Cut Slightly Wider Than Brush.

HOLD END PLATE
FROM TURNING

Soft Jaws

165

except cars equipped with the Fordomatic Transmission
which use the starter drive shown in fig. 60.
Procedures covered in this section are: "(1) Removal
and Installation," "(2) Cleaning and Inspection," and
"(3) Repair."
(1) REMOVAL and INSTALLATION.
The spring
type starter drive is removed from the starter shaft by
removing the two spring screws, the starter drive head,
and the drive spring. Remove the woodruff key, and the
shaft and pinion assembly can be taken from the starter
shaft.
The barrel type drive (used on cars with the Fordomatic transmission) is removed by taking out the drive
pin located in the end of the starter drive. Remove the
lock ring, anchor plate, and spring. Remove the drive
pin. Slide the drive assembly off the shaft.
To install the drive assembly, line up the pin hole with
the hole in the shaft. Insert the pin. Install the spring,
anchor plate and lock ring.
When installing the spring type starter drive, be sure
the tip of the drive head set screw enters the set screw
seat in the starter shaft. Bend the tabs of the lock plates
plates against the spring screws.
(2) CLEANING AND INSPECTION.
A sticking
starter drive can be cleaned in kerosene. Use a brush to
remove grease and dirt from the worm threads and run
the pinion back and forth on the threads until all grit
is removed.
NOTE: Do not oil the starter drive. It should work
freely after cleaning in kerosene.
Inspect the pinion for burrs and broken or badly worn
teeth. Check the action of the pinion on the worm threads.
It should slide freely on the threads. Check the drive
spring to see if it is cracked or broken, or the end loops
or tangs are bent.
If any of the pinion teeth are badly worn, burred, or
broken, it will be necessary to replace the pinion. Replace
the drive spring if it is cracked, bent or broken.
(3) REPAIR. Smooth down any small burrs on the
pinion teeth. If the pinion teeth are burred, be sure to
check the teeth in the flywheel gear for burrs. If any of
the parts are worn or broken and need replacing see
"(a) Disassembly and Assembly (Spring Type)" or "(b)
Disassembly and Assembly (Barrel Type)" below.
(a) DlSSASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (SPRING TYPE.)

PULL IN
DIRECTION OF ~v
ARMATURE ROTATION

Fig. 58—Seating Starter Motor Brush

3057

3058
Fig. 59—Spring Type Starter Drive

166

Chapter I—Electrical Systems

Remove the drive from the shaft. Any of the parts may
then be replaced since the drive is disassembled when
removed.
To assembly the drive, replace the shaft and pinion
assembly, install the woodruff key, starter drive head,
spring, lockwashers, and screws. A disassembled view of
the drive is shown in fig. 6-1.
A drive spring can be replaced on the spring type
drive without removing the drive from the starter shaft.
Remove the two screws from the drive head and the
shaft and pinion assembly. Slip the spring off the head.
After replacing the spring and screws, be sure to bend
the lock washer tangs against the screw heads.
(b)

DISASSEMBLY

and

ASSEMBLY

(BARREL

TYPE).

Remove the drive from the shaft. Pry the retainer ring
from the barrel and remove the drive shaft assembly.
The meshing spring may then be removed from the barrel.
To assemble the barrel type drive, place the meshing
spring and drive shaft assembly in the barrel. Install

SHAFT AND PINION ASSEMBLY
11354

STARTER DRIVE .HEAD— 11381

SPRING—11375
LOCKWASHER— 11379
>^
^
LOCKWASHER— 1 1 3 7 9 ^ /
<^
SCREW—11377-*\_/

3O6O

Fig. 61—Spring Type Starter Drive (Disassembly)

the retainer ring holding the drive shaft assembly to the
barrel. Install the pin fastening the drive shaft assembly
to the starter shaft. Place the spring in position with the
tang in the slot of the drive shaft assembly anchor plate.
Install the outer anchor plate and snap the lock ring on
to the drive shaft assembly. A disassembled" view of the
barrel type drive is shown in fig. 62.

3. LIGHTING SYSTEM
An effective and efficient automotive lighting system
is necessary for safe driving. The owner is required by
law to keep the lighting system on his vehicle in good
operating condition. Usually, the owner relies on his
dealer for this service. Certain adjustments can be made
periodically, to keep the lighting system operating at
maximum efficiency.
Wiring diagrams are presented in figs. 63 and 64.
Assembly and disassembly operations are illustrated
when it is necessary to show details or changes in
procedure.

a. Headlight Alignment.
Two methods of headlight alignment are presented:

"(1) Ford Headlight Tester," for dealers equipped with
the approved Ford Tester, and "(2) Wall Screen," for
those who do not have the Ford Tester.
Either test should be performed with the vehicle
located on a reasonably level floor. The vehicle should
be empty, the tires inflated to the recommended pressure, and the headlights on "high beam."

(1) FORD HEADLIGHT TESTER. The Ford headlight tester provides a rapid accurate means of testing
and aligning headlights. Floor space requirements are
reduced to an area only two feet longer than the vehicle
being tested.
The tester is equipped with an optical system to project the headlight "hot spot" image on a screen inside
the tester. It also has a set of bubble levels to correct
for floor slope and to align the headlights, a lightintensity meter to check beam candle power, and a protractor to measure lateral beam variation from the
centerline of the vehicle.
PINION AND BARREL
11367
DRIVE SHAFT ASSEMBLY
ANCHOR PLATE—11372
11366
ANCHOR PLATE—11372

MESHING SPRING
11368
RETAINER RING

11370

PIN—11365
LOCK RING—11373*
SPRING—11375

3109

Fig. 60—$tarter Drive (For For do mafic Transmission)

Fig. 62—Starter Drive Disassembled (Fordomatic
Transmission)

3110

Section 3—Lighting System
The headlight tester must first be corrected to the
floor slope in the portion of the shop in which it is to be
used. If the position of the tester can be fixed, only one
check of floor slope is required. The procedure for the
floor slope correction is outlined below in "(a) Correct
Tester for Floor Slope." "(b) Test Headlight Alignment"
describes the procedure to use in checking headlights.
Where it is necessary to adjust the headlights, follow
the procedure in "(c) Adjust Headlight Alignment."
(a) CORRECT TESTER FOR FLOOR SLOPE. The procedure for correcting the tester to the floor slope is illustrated in fig. 65. Note that the trouble light on the Ford
Diagnosis Test Set is used as a convenient reference
level in the procedure. If the test set is not available,
use a floor stand trouble light about 24" to 30" high for
this purpose. The dial used to set the tester for headlight
beam deflection must be set and kept at zero for this
procedure.
The order in which the various steps of the procedure
are to be made is given by the letters "A," "B," "C,"
etc., in the illustration.
(b) TEST HEADLIGHT ALIGNMENT. TO test the alignment of the headlights, locate the car approximately at
right angles to the tester floor rail with the car centerline
near the center of the rail. Align the tester with the hood
ornament and windshield center bar, as shown in fig. 66.
Be sure the horizontal protractor is at zero.
Set the headlight-beam scale to three inches down
(black scale) at 25 feet and the horizontal protractor to
zero. Place the rubber pad of the tester against the center
of the headlight lens (fig. 67) and observe the projection
1951 CIRCUIT BREAKER
TO STOPLIGHT CIRCUIT


r
TO PARKING AND < * ^ L F=ff
TAIL-LIGHT C I R C U I T ^ j ; p f l t f - * T O
r ^
TO HEADLIGHT SWITCH"*
TO INTERIOR LIGHT SWITCH "*
T ^ ^ "M\

CHARGE INDICATOR

Tj
_ _ J

#74 Y
Red Tracer
HIGH BEAM-v
INDICATOR \
#74
Green-C^
Black Tracers^

TO OTHER CIRCUITS

T O

STARTER

#74 Black
Orange
- * Tracer

#76 Green
Black Tracer

167

of the headlight "hot spot" on the screen inside the
tester. The ideal setting of the headlights would center
the "hot spot" on the zero cross hairs inside the tester.
The allowable variation from the ideal setting is =*= 1 J/£
inches vertical and ±3 inches horizontal. If the headlights are beyond these limits, they should be adjusted.
To determine the exact amount of variation, tilt the
headlight tester with the vertical-adjustment knob until
the "hot spot" is centered on the horizontal cross hair
inside the tester. Adjust the headlight-beam scale until
the bubble is in the center of the glass. The beam deflection can be read from the dial directly, as "inches deflection at 25 feet." The red scale shows positive or upward
deflection. The black scale shows negative or downward
deflection.
Now adjust the horizontal protractor until the beam
"hot spot" centers on the vertical cross hair. The protractor will read lateral deflection from the car's centerline directly in degrees of angle, or as inches at 25 feet.
(c) ADJUST HEADLIGHT ALIGNMENT. Headlight alignment is adjusted by means of two screws located under
the headlight trim ring. The adjustment is made as
shown in fig. 68.
(2) WALL SCREEN. To align the headlights by
means of a wall screen, a level portion of the shop floor
is required. Lay out the floor and wall as shown in fig. 69.
Next, establish the headlight centerline by subtracting
30 inches from the actual height of the headlight lens
center from the floor (32 J^ inches), and adding this
dimension (2 % inches) to the 30-inch reference line
obtained by sighting over the uprights (dimension "B",
fig. 70). Draw a horizontal line 3 inches below, and
parallel to, the headlight centerline. Then draw the
headlight centerlines on the screen (dimension "A," fig.
70, SSlA inches).
Position the vehicle as described in fig. 69. The center
of intensity of the upper beam should fall on the screen
as shown in fig. 70.
~~~

1 9 5 1 CIRCUIT BREAKER

TO STOPLIGHT CIRCUIT
TO PARKING AND
TAIL-LIGHT C I R C U I T ^ !
TO HEADLIGHT SWIT<
TO INTERIOR LIGHT SWITC

CIRCUIT
BREAKER
IGNITION LIGHT

£-#74 Red

TO CHARGE INDICATOR

.HEADLIGHT
SWITCH

Green Tracer

#76 Green—/ - * # 7 6
Red Tracer

/r$

rf

#74

GROUND > ^
TO MOTOR \
#74 Black
Green-Black
#74 Red—Black Trace'r

•_]_•

PARKING
LIGHTS

Blue
Yellow
Tracer

* # 7 0 Yellow'
#76 BlackBlue Tracer

#76 Black

CHARGE INDICATOR

LICENSE
LIGHTS
OT DIMMER SWITCH

COURTESY-4SWITCHES
L,.

TO INSTRUMENT LIGHTS

1951 HEADLIGHT SWITCH
Fig. 63—Headlight Circuit Diagram

Dl

.

Bl

T

(1950 rncrnJ#T6 Black-Blue Tracer-^-.
3529

DELUXE ONLY)

STOPLIGHT
SWITCH

Fig. 64—Dome-Light and Stop-Light Diagram-

3530

168

Chapter I—Electrical Systems
"E"
BRING IMAGE BACK TO CENTER OF CROSSHAIRS WITH DEFLECTION
NOB AND ADJUST FLOOR SLOPE DIAL UNTIL BUBBLE IS AGAIN IN

FLOOR
SLOPE DIAL
D" ROLL TEST SET
25 FEET AWAY FROM
HEADLIGHT TESTER

A " SET
BOTH DIALS
TO ZERO
HEADLIGHT
DEFLECTION
DIAL

TROUBLE
LIGHT
IMAGE
"C"
WITH TEST SET CLOSE TO HEADLIGHT
ADJUST TESTER TO SAME HEIGHT AS TROUBLE
LIGHT IN DIAGNOSIS TEST SET (THE TROUBLE
LAMP IMAGE WILL BE EXACTLY IN THE CENTER
OF THE CROSSHAIRS)

B" CENTER BUBBLE IN GLASS
BY-ADJUSTING DEFLECTION KNOB

Fig. 65—Correcting Tester for Floor Slope

b. Bulb Replacement.
Replacement of bulbs in the lighting system is illustrated in figs. 71 through 83. These illustrations cover
headlights, road lights, spotlights, parking lights, tail,
stop, and license plate lights, back-up lights, domelights,
and instrument lights.
(1) HEADLIGHTS. The headlight is shown disassembled in fig. 71. Remove the retaining screw and headlight trim ring. Loosen the retaining ring screws and
rotate the retaining ring counter clockwise and remove it.
The headlight bulb may now be pulled forward far
enough to disconnect the wiring assembly plug.
Plug in the new bulb and place in position, making
sure the locating tabs are placed in the positioning slots.
Install the retaining ring, rotating it clockwise under the
screws and tighten the screws. Hook the trim ring at the
top, pull it down into position and replace the screw.
(2) ROADLIGHTS.
The roadlight is shown disassembled in fig. 72. Remove the retaining screw and trim

ring. The bulb may then be removed and the two terminal wires disconnected.
Attach the terminal wires to the new bulb, place the
bulb in the retaining ring, and install the trim ring and
retaining screw.
(3) SPOTLIGHT. The spotlight is shown disassembled in fig. 73. Remove the clamping screw and retaining
ring, this allows the removal of the spotlight bulb. The
two connecting wires may then be removed and a new
bulb installed and the retaining ring fastened in place.
(4) PARKING LIGHT. To replace the bulb in the
parking light remove the retaining screws, retaining ring,
lens, and gasket as shown in fig. 74 or 75. The bulb is the
single contact bayonet type. After the bulb is replaced,
the gasket, lens and retaining ring are then replaced.

NOTE: The standard parking light bulbs in 1951
cars are double contact, two filament type, for use
with the turn indicator,
(5) TAIL, STOP AND LICENSE PLATE LIGHTS.

169

Section 3—Lighting System
PROTRACTOR SET AT " 0 "

,LOOSEN SCREW TO LOWER BEAM.
TIGHTEN SCREW TO RAISE BEAM.

LOOSEN SCREW TO SWING BEAM LEFT.
TIGHTEN SCREW TO SWING BEAM RIGHT.

3504

Fig. 68—Headlight Adjustment
EN KNOB. ALIGN TESTER. AND CLAMP TIGHTLY

3502

Fig. 66—Align Tester with Vehicle

The car tail and stop light is shown disassembled in fig.
76. Pull the rubber cover back on the connecting wire,
push the lamp receptacle in slightly and twist counter
clockwise, and remove the lamp receptacle. The tail and
stop light is accessible for replacement.
NOTE: Late model cars do not have the rubber cover.
On 1951 models the tail light is made accessible by
removing four screws, the rim, lens and gasket (fig. 77).
The tail and stop light for the station wagon is shown
infig.78. To replace the bulb remove the retaining ring,

RUBBER PAD TOUCHING
CENTER OF HEADLIGHT LENS

lens and gaskets. The bulb is the bayonet type, removed
by pushing in, twisting, and pulling out the bulb.
The license plate light is illustrated infig.79. Remove
the retaining ring screws, the retaining ring, lens and
lens gasket. This gives access to the bulb which is the
bayonet type.
(6) BACK-UP-LIGHT. The back-up light (fig. 80)
receptacle is the button plug in type. Removal of the
receptacle gives immediate access to the bulb for
replacement.
(7) INTERIOR LIGHTS. A passenger car pillar
light is shown disassembled infig.81. The dome-light
cover on the Station Wagon can be removed by prying
it from retainers in the dome-light housing. The bulb is
accessible when the cover is removed.
CAUTION: Do not use larger than 3 Candle Power
bulb in dome lights equipped with a plastic lens.
(8) INSTRUMENT LIGHTS. The instrument panel
light bulbs can be replaced by pulling out the individual
light sockets from the rear of the panel (figs. 82 and 83).

c. Switches,

Fig. 67—Test Headlight Alignment

Illustrated procedures for the replacement of the headlight switch, beam-control switch, stop-light switch,
dome-light switch and ignition switch are given here.
(1) HEADLIGHT SWITCH. Remove the control
knob and shaft from 1950 and 1951 models by pressing
the spring-release button on the switch housing with the
knob in the OFF position. Turn the shaft slightly and
pull it out of the switch. On 1949 models, the shaft is
released by inserting a small screw driver in a slot provided in the switch housing and compressing the retainer
inside the housing. Turn the shaft slightly and pull it out
of the switch.
Unscrew the mounting nut as shown infig.84. Remove
the switch and disconnect the wires.
To install the switch, connect the wires to their ter-

Chapter I—Electrical Systems

170

ESTABLISH VERTICAL CENTERLINE O N WALL
/\
POINTS ARRIVED AT BY SIGHTING OVER THE 3 0 " UPRIGHTS REPRESENTS
THE 3 0 " HEIGHT REGARDLESS OF ACTUAL DISTANCE FROM THE FLdOR

ESTABLISH 3 0 "
HORIZONTAL LINE
O N WALL

3 0 " HIGH A N D BOTH EXACTLY THE SAME

PLACE WHERE CENTERLINE OF FRONT AXLE WOULD BE WITH CAR OR
TRUCK IN POSITION
PLACE WHERE CENTERLINE OF REAR AXLE WOULD BE WITH CAR OR
TRUCK IN POSITION

Fig. 69—Floor and Wall Layout

minals, insert the switch in the instrument panel, and
install the mounting nut. Install the knob and shaft
assembly by inserting it all the way into the switch until
a distinct click is heard. In some instances it may be

3505

necessary to rotate the shaft slightly until it engages the
switch-contact carrier.
(2) HEADLIGHT BEAM CONTROL SWITCH.
Lay the floor mat back from the area of the switch, and
SPRINGS

"30"LINE
LINE OF ADJUSTMENT

0FLEFT
HEADLIGHT
HEADLIGHT 25 FEET FROM WALL
(HIGH BEAM DIAGRAM)

TRIM RING

3508

Fig. 70-Wall Screen

RETAINING RING

ADJUSTING
SCREW-13032

BULB

HOUSING

3506

Fig. 72—Roadlight Disassembled
BULB

HOUI

TRIM RING— l i

WIRING
GROMMET-13091

WIRING
ASSEMBLY-13076
BULB-13007'
RETAINING RING
SCREW

BULB RETAINING R I N G - 1 3 0 1 8
SCREW

3507

Fig. 71—Headlight Disassembled

SCREW

GROUND LEAD

Fig. 73—Spotlight Disassembled

3531

Section 3—Lighting System

171
GASKET

BULB

LENS

RETAINING
RING

GASKET

Fig. 74—Parking Light Disassembled (1950)

3509

remove the mounting screws (fig. 85). Remove the
switch and disconnect the three wires at the switch.
Install the switch by connecting the wires to the
switch terminals, inserting the switch through the toe
board, and securing it with the screws. Replace floor mat.
(3) STOP-LIGHT SWITCH. Disconnect the wires

LENS

RETAINING RING

SCREW

3535

Fig. 77—Tail and Stop Light Disassembled (1951)

at the bullet connectors and unscrew the switch from
the master cylinder (fig. 86).
After installing stop light switch bleed the brakes.
(4) INTERIOR LIGHT SWITCHES. On 1950 and
1951 cars, the pillar light (dome light on the station
wagon) is controlled by a switch mounted on the instrument panel. Some models are also equipped with doorpillar switches. 1949 model cars have the pillar light
switch mounted on the pillar light housing.
(a) INTERIOR LIGHT SWITCHES (1950 AND 1951). The
instrument-panel switch is removed by unscrewing the
control knob and removing the mounting nut (fig. 87).
LENS
GASKET
SCREW

GASKET

BULB

LENS

RETAINING RING

SCREW

3534

Fig. 75-Parking Light Disassembled (1951)
GASKET
3511

Fig. 78—Tail and Stop Light—Disassembled
(Station Wagon)
RETAINING RING
SCREW

3510

Fig. 76—Tail and Stop Light Disassembled (7949
and 1950)

3513

Fig. 79—License Plate Light—Disassembled

172

Chapter I—Electrical Systems
ASH TRAY LIGHT

. CLOCK LIGHT

BACK-UP LENS
AND RETAINING

HIGH BEAM INDICATOR

INSTRUMENT PANEL LIGHTS

3536

Fig. 83—1951 Instrument Panel Lights

SOCKET AND CLAMP

3512

Fig. 80—Back-Up Light Disassembled
BULB

RETAINING RING

HEADLIGHT SWITCH

Tool—17470-N

3517

Fig. 84—Removing Headlight-Switch Mounting Nut
MOUNTING HOLES

BEAM CONTROL SWITCH

SCREW

3514

Fig. 81—Pillar Light—Disassembled (Cars)
INDICATOR

FLOOR MAT

INSTRUMENT LIGHTS

3518

Fig. 85—Headlight Beam Control Switch
STOPLIGHT SWITCH

IGNITION LIGHT
/
REAR OF INSTRUMENT CLUSTER HOUSING

Fig. 82-lnstrument

TURN SIGNAL PILOT
LIGHT OPENINGS

3519

3516

Panel Lights 11949 and 1950)

Fig. 86—Stop-Light Switch

173

Section 3—Lighting System
Tool—17470-N

INTERIOR LIGHT SWITCH 3 5 2 0

Fig, 87—Removing Interior Light Switch 11950 and 1951)

Door-pillar switches are removed by compressing the
retaining-spring tabs and pulling the switch out: of the
door panel.

NOTE: Be sure to remove the dome light fuse before removing the door-pillar switches,
(b) DOME-LIGHT SWITCH (1949). On 1949 models, the

dome light switch is part of the dome light assembly. It
is made accessible by removing the cover and lens.
(5) IGNITION SWITCH. The ignition switch is
removed and installed from 1949 and 1950 cars at the
rear of the instrument panel. The bezel must first be
removed by prying it away from the panel. Be careful
not to scratch the finish on the panel. The ignition switch
can now be removed by turning it }/% turn clockwise
(viewed from the driver's position) until the lugs line up
with slots in the panel and then pulling it out from the
rear of the panel (fig. 88). Disconnect the wires from the
switch terminals.
The 1951 model ignition switch is removed by unscrewing the mounting nut (fig. 89), then removing the switch
at the rear of the panel.
LOCATING SLOT

3537

MOUNTING NUT

Fig. 89-Removing

Ignition Switch (1951)

When installing the switch on 1949 and 1950 models,
be sure to align the small projection behind the top lug
with its slot in the panel, to keep the switch from
rotating.

d. Circuit Breaker and Fuses.
1949 and 1950 cars use a combination circuit breaker
and fuse assembly (fig. 90). The circuit breaker prevents
overload of the headlight circuit and the fuses prevent
overload of the balance of the lighting circuits.
1951 cars use a second circuit breaker in place of the
tail light and parking light fuse. The interior lights are
fused. The breaker is shown infig.91.
The action of the breaker is thermostatic in nature.
If the current becomes excessive, the bi-metal breaker
FUSES

AMMETER
POST

CIRCUIT BREAKER

WIDE SLOT

CONTACT

BI-METAL

3522

Fig. 90—Passenger Car Circuit Breaker Assembly
(1949 and 1950)
CIRCUIT BREAKERS

IGNITION SWITCH

FUSE

M O U N T I N G BRACKET

3538

3521

Fig. 88—Removing Ignition Switch (1949 and 1950)

Fig. 91—1957 Circuit Breaker Assembly

174

Chapter I—Electrical Systems

arm heats, pulls away from the contact point, and breaks
the circuit. When the breaker cools, contact is again
made and the circuit is restored. The breaking action is
positive with no "fluttering" of the contacts.
Breaker assemblies are mounted on the rear of the
instrument panel, as shown in fig. 92. They can be

removed by disconnecting the wires at the breaker and
fuse terminals and removing the mounting screws. Individual breaker units are not serviced separately, they
can be replaced only as an assembly.
1951 double circuit breakers are mounted in a similar
way to the previous models.

4. HORNS
Passenger cars are equipped with a pair of tuned horns
controlled by means of a relay. The horn button closes
the relay contacts completing the circuit to the horns.
One of the horns has a high pitched tone; the other has
a low pitched tone.

a. Tests and Adjustment.
The horn test procedure describes the current and
voltage test under "(1) Current Draw Test". "(2) Adjustment" describes the air gap and tone adjustment on,
the horn.
(1) CURRENT DRAW TEST. Connect a voltmeter
and ammeter to the horn and a voltage supply as shown
in fig. 93. The normal current draw for the horns at 6.2
to 7.2 volts is 12 to 14 amperes.
(2) ADJUSTMENT. The two factors involved in the
adjustment of horns are the air gap and the tone.
Air gap can be adjusted by loosening the armaturelock nut and turning the armature (clockwise decreases
gap; counterclockwise increases gap) (fig. 94). Tighten
STOPLIGHT-G

PARKING A N D TAILLAMPS— YR

DOMELIGHT— B-BL

CIGAR LIGHTER—BL-W

IGNITION— Y
OIL PRESSURE

CIRCUIT BREAKER

FUEL

the lock nut securely before checking the air gap.
The air gap specifications are as follows:
Part number 51A 13832-A high pitch horn 0.027-0.029
inches. Part number 51A 13833-A low pitch horn 0.0320.034 inches. Part number 51A 13832-B high pitch horn
0.040 inches/Part number 51A 13833-B low pitch horn
0.050 inches.
Tone is adjusted by changing the contact gap. Connect the horn as described in "(1) Current Draw Test"
above. Back off the lock nut and adjust the toneadjusting nut until the current is within the limits for
the horn being adjusted. Then tighten the lock nut and
recheck the current draw.

b. Replacement.
On 1949 and 1950 models, due to the variation in the
distance from the radiator to the grille between the
6-cylinder and the 8-cylinder passenger cars, different
procedures are necessary for removing the horn assemblies. After the mounting screws and the connections
have been removed, the horns on the 8-cylinder models
can be removed by lifting them out between the radiator
and hood latch support plate (fig. 95). 6-cylinder horns
must be removed through the grille louvers (fig. 95).
Install the horns through the same openings used for
removal.
1951 horns are mounted on the hood brace (fig. 96).

c. Horn Ring Removal.
The horn button and ring assembly (fig. 97) can be
POSITIVE LEAD

S**\-

.*—NEGATIVE LEAD

AMMETER—Y
R E G U L A T O R - YIGHTS—B- O

AMMETER

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS
Y-R—Yellow with red tracer
BL-Y—Blue with white tracer
G — Green
B-BL —Black with blue tracer

Y— Yellow
B-O—Black with orange tracer
BL-B — Blue with black tracer

3523

Fig. 92—Circuit Breaker Location (7949 and 1950)

3525

Fig. 93—Horn Current Draw Test

175

Section 4—Horns
RESISTOR ASSEMBLY-13878

HOOD BRACE

TONE ADJUSTING LOCK NUT

\

MOUNTING SCREW

HORN TERMINALS

TONE ADJUSTING NUT
ARMATURE LOCK NUT

AIR-GAPS

3526

Fig. 94—Horn Adjustments

removed from 1949 and 1950 models by pressing down
evenly on the button and turning it counter-clockwise
until it lifts out. It is advisable to disconnect the bullet
connector at the lower end of the steering column to
prevent the horn from sounding during this operation.
The 1951 horn ring is removed by removing two screws
from the underside of the steering wheel spoke. A disassembled view of the 1951 horn ring is shown infig.98.

MOUNTING BRACKET

3539

Fig. 96—195? Horn Installation

5* INSTRUMENTS
The instrument cluster on Ford cars includes an
ammeter, fuel gauge, oil gauge, temperature gauge, and
a speedometer. All the instruments are electrically operated except the speedometer. Illumination of the 1949
and 1950 instruments is provided by four lights enclosed
in special "black light" filters which cause the numerals
on the face to glow when the lights are turned on. 1951
instruments are illuminated by direct light.
This section contains information on operating principles and tests of the various units in the instrument
HORN RELAY

DISCONNECT HORN WIRE HERE
LOW NOTE HORN

cluster assembly. A circuit diagram showing the connections of the gauges and lights in the 1949 and 1950
assembly is shown infig.99. The 1951 instrument cluster
circuit is shown in fig. 100. A disassembled view of the
1949 and 1950 cluster assembly is shown infig.101.
The instrument cluster assembly can be removed by
first disconnecting the instrument wires, then removing
the light sockets, the speedometer cable, and the two
mounting screws. The cluster can be lifted out at the
rear of the instrument panel. When installing the cluster,
be sure to move all wiring and control cables away from
the opening in the instrument panel.
In removing the 1951 instrument cluster, first disconnect the instrument wires, remove the light sockets, the
speedometer cable and the instrument cluster clamp (at
the top of the cluster, seefig.102). On early models it
will be necessary to remove the black scotch tape which
WASHERS-356343-S
WASHERS-356342-S
SCREWS
BUTTON AND RING
ASSEMBLY—3627

HIGH NOTE HORN
REMOVE HORNS O N 8 CYLINDER "ENGINE HERE
REMOVE HORNS ON 6 CYLINDER ENGINE HERE

Fig. 95-Horn Installation (1949 and 1950)

41567

PAD-3672
WHEEL ASSEMBLY-3600
3527

3528

Fig. 97—1949 and 1950 Horn Ring—Disassembled

176

Chapter I—Electrical Systems

prevents light leakage. If the four retaining screws are
now removed the cluster instruments and mounting
plate may be removed from the housing. Be careful not
to damage the instruments when removing them from
the housing.
If it becomes necessary to remove the speedometer
the charge indicator must first be removed from the
cluster mounting plate. It is not possible to remove the
speedometer without removing the instrument cluster
on 1951 cars.
Individual instruments (with the exception of the 1951
speedometer) can be removed without removing the
assembly. Disconnect the instrument wires, remove the
slotted mounting screws which retain the instrument in
the cluster assembly, and remove the instrument.

a. Charge Indicator.
The charge indicator used on 1949 and 1950 cars is a
magnetic loop type ammeter. It has a magnetic loop
which encircles the battery to circuit breaker wire. The
two ends of the element are mounted inside the instrument near an armature which moves the pointer across
the scale as the armature is rotated. A large horseshoe
magnet is mounted to return the armature and pointer
to zero-center reading on the scale.
(1) OPERATING PRINCIPLES. The charge indicator is operated by a magnetic field around the wire
created by the action of a current flow through the wire.
When the current flow is such that the battery is receiving a charge from the generator, the magnetic field,
applied to the armature by the loop, rotates the armature
and causes the pointer to move clockwise into the charge
or "C" scale. When the flow of current through the wire
is in the opposite direction (battery discharging), the
armature and pointer are rotated counterclockwise into
the discharge or "D" scale.

NOTE: 1951 cars utilize a two terminal type charge
indicator whose operating principles are the same
as the magnetic loop type.
(2) CHARGE-INDICATOR TEST. A simple test of
SPOKE MOULDING—3602
SHOCK PAD—3672

BL-R

B-BL

HEAD LIGHT
AND
PARKING — T O
SWITCH
HEAD
LIGHT
SWITCH

CLOCK

CIRCUIT
BREAKER

H

TO OIL
PRESSURE
SENDER

TO FUEL LEVEL SENDER
TO ENGINE TEMPERATURE S E N D E R S ^
KEY
BL-B—Blue with Black Tracer
Y-Yellow
W-R—White with Red Tracer
R- W— Red with White Tracer
B-G—Black with Green Tracer
Y-R—Yellow with Red Tracer
G-B—Green with Black Tracer
BBL- Black with Blue Tracer
BL-R —Blue with Red Tracer

RELAY

INSTRUMENT
PANEL
LIGHTING
SWITCH

D

BATTERY

3200

Fig. 99-/nsfrumenf Cluster Circuits (1949 and 1950)

the charge indicator is made by turning the headlights
ON with the engine, not running. The meter pointer
should move toward the "D" or discharge scale. If no
movement of the needle is observed, check the loop on
the rear of the meter housing to see if the battery to
circuit breaker wire passes inside the loop. If the wire is
in the loop and the meter does not indicate a discharge,
the meter is inoperative. For this test on 1951 cars,
check the terminal connections of the charge indicator.

NOTE: If the meter pointer moves toward the "C"
or charge scale when the headlights are turned ON9
the wire passes through the loop in the wrong direction. Feed the wire through in the opposite direction
to correct this condition. (Reverse the connections
on the 1951 meter).

b. Fuel Gauge.
The fuel gauge consists of a sending unit located on

RING ASSEMBLY RETAINING
SCREWS—31660-S8

G-B
TO BEAM
CONTROL
SWITCH
FUEL
LEVEL SENDER
ELECTRIC WOUND
CLOCK ONLY

TO ENGINE TEMPERATURE SENDER
TO DIMMER
CONTROL

KEY

Y-Yetfow

HORN RING—3624

SCREW (8)—357879-S8

Fig, 98-1951 Horn Ring-Disassembled

3540

R-W—Red with White Tracer
W-R—White with Red Tracer
BL-R-Blue with Red Tracer
B-G—Black with Green Tracer
G-B—Green with Black Tracer
G-R—-Green with Red Tracer

BATTERY

Fig. 700—Instrument Cluster Circuit (1951)

3541

177

Section 5—Instruments

OIL PRESSURE GAUGE-8A-927 3

CASE-8A-10846
GLASS-8A-10880
BEZEL-8A-10876

GASKET-8A-10875

AMMETER-8A-10850-B
DIAL-8A-10887.B
FUEL GAUGE-8A-9280
TEMPERATURE GAUGE-8A-10883
SPEED0METER-8A-

RETAINER-8A-1359.8
SCREWS-37611-S8
GASKET-8A-135*
GASKET-8A-10856
FILTER-8A-13593 CASE-8A-10842
SOCKET-48-13710
3201
Fig. 101 — Instrument Cluster—Disassembled 11949 and 1950)

the gas tank and a remote register unit (fuel gauge)
mounted in the instrument cluster. The sending unit
makes use of a bimetal element and heating coil to control the average current flowing through the gauge circuit. The position of the gauge pointer is controlled by
another bimetal and heating coil. The fuel gauge circuit
is shown infig.103.
(1) OPERATING PRINCIPLES. When the fuel tank
is empty, the contacts in the tank unit are just touching
(see fig. 103). With the ignition switch ON, current
flows through the circuit and warms the tank unit
bimetal by means of the heating coil, causing the bimetal
to bend and the contacts to open. The current is interrupted, allowing the bimetal to cool and close the contacts. The cycle then repeats. Since the current to the
heating coil in the tank unit must also flow through the
SPEEDOMETER
MOUNTING SCREWS

INSTRUMENT CLUSTER
MOUNTING BRACKET

heating coil in the gauge unit, the amount of heat supplied to the gauge unit is the same as that in the tank
unit and is controlled by the average current flowing
through the circuit due to the repeated opening and
closing of the contacts in the tank unit. With the tank
empty, the gauge bimetal therefore assumes the same
relative position as the tank unit bimetal and the
pointer is at the "E" position on the gauge.
When the tank is filled, the float rises with the fuel
level in the tank and the cam moves the grounded contact toward the bimetal arm, increasing the tension
holding the contacts closed. A greater amount of current
is required to heat the tank unit bimetal arm enough to
cause it to open the contacts. A similar greater bending
of the bimetal arm in the gauge unit results in a movement of the needle toward the " F " (full position point)
of the scale.
Because the bimetal changes temperature rather
slowly, the effects of sudden changes in fuel level are
reduced and a steady reading of the average level in the
tank is indicated by the gauge.
(2) FUEL GAUGE SYSTEM TEST. Tests of the
fuel gauge system are divided into "(a) Gauge Unit
Test" and "(b) Sending Unit Test." The method preINSULATED CONTACT
TANK UNIT

GAUGE UNIT

• CALIBRATING SHUNT
"BI-METAL ARM
•HEATING COIL

BATTERY
INSTRUMENT CLUSTER
RETAINING SCREWS

Fig. 102—Instrument Cluster (1951)

3209

GROUNDED CONTACT

Fig. 103—Fuel Gauge Circuit

3202

178

Chapter I—Electrical Systems

sented for testing the fuel gauge unit can also be used
to check the temperature gauge unit and the oil pressure gauge unit.
(a) GAUGE UNIT TEST. Connect a voltmeter and variable resistor to the gauge terminals as shown infig.104.
Disconnect the sending unit to gauge wire at the tank
unit and turn the ignition switch ON. Adjust the resistance until a voltmeter reading of 1.5 volts is obtained.
The gauge pointer should read approximately Yl scale.
CAUTION: Be sure the full resistance is in the circuit before connecting the leads to the gauge unit
to prevent any possibility of applying too much voltage to the gauge.
(b) SENDING UNIT TEST. The sending unit can be
tested by substituting a new gauge for the existing gauge
unit. Determine the approximate fuel level in the tank.
Remove the wires from the old gauge unit and connect
in the new gauge unit. If the new gauge registers correctly, the sending unit is good. If the pointer of the
new gauge does not indicate or moves all the way to
the opposite stop, the sending unit is faulty.

c. Oil Pressure Gauge.
The oil pressure gauge consists of a sending unit on
the engine and a remote register unit in the instrument
cluster. It operates on the same principle as the fuel
gauge with the exception that the tension on the sending
unit bimetal is varied by variation in the oil pressure
against a diaphragm on which the grounded contact is
mounted. The oil-gauge circuit is shown infig.105.
(1) OPERATING PRINCIPLES. When there is no
oil pressure, the contacts in the sending unit are just
touching, and the gauge pointer registers at the "0"
position. Any increase in oil pressure bends the diaphragm, which in turn increases the tension on the
bimetal arm. More heat must be supplied to cause the
contacts to open and a resulting increase in average current flow to supply this heat, also heats the bimetal arm
in the gauge unit. The gauge bimetal deflects the pointer
to show the oil pressure reading on the gauge face.
(2) OIL PRESSURE GAUGE SYSTEM TEST.
Tests of the oil pressure gauge system are described
below in "(a) Gauge Unit Test" and "(b) Sending-Unit
Test."

•*>

r
SWITCH V - ^ /

BI-METAL ARM

IGNITION SWITCH

3204

Fig. 105—Oil Gauge Circuit
(a) GAUGE U N I T T E S T . Perform the same test
described for the fuel gauge and illustrated infig.104.
The oil gauge pointer should read approximately J/£ scale.
(b) SENDING UNIT TEST. The sending unit can be
tested by substituting a new gauge for the existing gauge
unit. Start the engine to determine if the new gauge
registers oil pressure. If no reading is obtained, check
the sending unit to gauge wire. If the wire is not broken
and all connections are tight, replace the sending unit.
(3) SENDING UNIT REPLACEMENT. Sending
units are removed and installed on the 8-cylinder engine
by using a special tool as shown infig.106. On the
6-cylinder engine, and the 1951 cars with automatic
transmission, the sending unit is accessible and a standard wrench can be used for removing or installing it.

d. Temperature Gauge.
The temperature gauge consists of a sending unit
mounted in the cylinder head and a remote register
unit mounted on the instrument panel. On 8-cylinder
models, a thermal switch is also included in the circuit
(fig. 107) to register boiling temperature in the second
cylinder bank. The principle of operation is similar to
the fuel gauge except the tension on the sending-unit
bimetal is varied by engine temperature. In the 6Tool—9278-N

"^X 50 n VARIABLE RES.

^TO

\ .

SENDING UNIT

BULLET
CONNECTOR
^ ^
1

TO OIL PRESSURE.
SENDER . ^

\

DIAPHRAGM

S

V

\^

X NTO

REAR OF INSTRUMENT C L U 5 T E R \ T ^ Ck

WAA

1

FUEL LEVEL — L SENDER

TEMPERATURE SENDERS

104—Gauge Unit Tesf

3203
y

OIL PRESSURE GAUGE SENDING UNIT

Fig. 106—Removing Oil Pressure Sending Unit
(8-Cylinder)

3205

Section 5—Instruments
cylinder circuit, the temperature switch is not included.
(1) OPERATING PRINCIPLES. When the engine
is cold, the bimetal arm in the sending unit has maximum
tension holding the contacts closed. Maximum average
current is necessary to cause the contacts to open. The
heating effect of the current causes the gauge unit
bimetal arm and pointer to deflect toward the "C"
position of the scale. As the engine temperature increases,
less current is required to keep the contacts at the break
point since the increase in engine temperature causes the
sending-unit bimetal to bend away from the grounded
contact. The gauge-unit pointer then registers toward the
"H" position of the scale.
The center mark on the gauge face is considered
"Normal" operating temperature and the "H" mark is
the boiling temperature.
On 8-cylinder engines, the thermal switch can be
identified by the two terminal connectors (the sending
unit has only one connector). The switch is set to open
at 200-212°F. With a sending unit in one cylinder bank
and the switch in the other cylinder bank, the gauge
unit will indicate a boiling condition in either bank.
This arrangement is necessary because of the possibility
of one bank operating hotter than normal due to restricted coolant flow.
(2) TEMPERATURE
GAUGE SYSTEM
TEST.
Three tests of the temperature gauge system are outlined below under the following headings "(a) Gauge
Unit Test," "(b) Sending Unit Test," "(c) Thermal
Switch Test."
(a) GAUGE UNIT TEST. Perform the same test described for the fuel gauge and illustrated in fig. 104. The
temperature-gauge pointer should read approximately
}/2 scale.
(b) SENDING UNIT TESTS. The sending unit can be
tested by substituting a new gauge unit for the existing
one. Start the engine and allow it to warm up to normal
temperature. If no reading is indicated on the new gauge,
check the sending unit to gauge wire. If the wire is not
broken and all connections are clean and tight, the sending unit is faulty.
NOTE: On 8-Cylinder engines, remove a wire from
one terminal of the thermal switch and connect it
to the other terminal during this test.
(c) THERMAL SWITCH TEST. The thermal switch should
be closed at all temperatures below boiling. The switch
can be tested with a test light and battery;. an ohmmeter,
or a dwell meter. It should show continuity (i.e. the
test light should be "on," the ohmmeter should read
"0" ohms, or the dwell meter should read 100% dwell)
when the test leads are connected to the switch terminals.
The switch can also be tested to determine if it will
open at boiling temperatures by placing the bulb in
boiling water and testing it with a test light and battery,
an ohmmeter, or a dwell meter. After a short time of
immersion the switch should open.

179

(3) SENDING UNIT OR THERMAL SWITCH REPLACEMENT. The sending unit or the thermal switch can be

removed by disconnecting the wire (s) at the unit terminals and unscrewing the unit from the cylinder head.

e. Speedometer.
The speedometer is connected to the output shaft of
the transmission by means of a flexible shaft and a gear
drive located inside the transmission. The flexible shaft
drives the speedometer which registers speed in miles
per hour and also drives an odometer which records
distance traveled in miles and tenths of a mile.
(1) SPEEDOMETER TESTS. The procedure recommended for testing odometer accuracy is to drive the
vehicle over a "measured mile" and determine the
readings increase on the odometer by subtracting starting mileage from finishing mileage. Speedometer accuracy can be checked by comparing the speedometer in
question against one known to be accurate while the
two vehicles are moving at the same speed.
Most cases of speedometer inaccuracy are due to a
change to non-standard tire sizes without changing the
speedometer drive gear ratio. Table 1 shows the correct
speedometer drive gear ratio to use for various tire sizes.
(2) SPEEDOMETER CABLE REPLACEMENT. To
replace the speedometer drive cable, disconnect the cable
housing at the speedometer and pull the cable out of the
Table I— Tire Size and Speedometer Gear Ratio
Axle
Ratio

Driving
Gear Teeth

Driven
Gear Teeth

6:00 x 16

3.31
3.54
3.727
4.10

7
7
7
7

17
18
19
21

6:00x15

3.31
3.54
3.727
4.10

7
7
7
7

!7
18
19
21

6:50x16

3.31
3.54
3.727
4.10

7
7
7
7

17
18
19
21

6:70x15

3.31
3.54
3.727
4.10

7
7
7
7

17
18
19
21

7:10x15

3.54
3.92
4.27

7
7
7

18
20
22

Tire Size

180

Chapter I—Electrical Systems

housing. Insert a new cable all the way into the housing
and twist it slightly to make sure the squared drive
engages in the transmission drive bushing.
NOTE: / / a speedometer cable is broken, it will be
necessary to disconnect both ends of the cable housing in order to remove the broke sections.
The housing is fastened to the transmission by means
of a clip and screw as shown in fig. 108.

IGNITION SWITCH

SENDING UNIT

ONLY USED ON 8-CYUNDER

Fig. 707—Temperature-Gauge Circuit

3206

SPEEDOMETER CABLE:
BOLT
3208
Fig, 108-Speedc meter Cable Housing—Transmission
Mounting

SERVICE LETTER REFERENCE
Letter No.

Date

*

Subject

Changes Information
on Page No.

Part THREE

ELECTRICAL AND ACCESSORIES
Chapter

II

Accessories
Section

1
2
3
4
5

P a g e

Radio.
...
Heater
Overdrive
Windshield Wiper
.
Miscellaneous Accessories

181
190
194
. . 201
202

Accessories used on Ford cars are designed to add to
the owner's pleasure, comfort, and safety. Occasionally
certain operations are necessary to return the accessory
units to normal operating condition. Test, adjustment,
and repair procedures are given in this chapter to aid

you in performing these operations.
The material in this chapter has been divided as
shown above in the table of contents,
Circuit diagrams will be included with each of the
electrical accessories.

1. RADIO
Radio receivers used in Ford cars are factorjr tuned
and adjusted and under normal operating conditions
will give trouble-free service over long periods. However, occasional difficulties may arise, and the material
in this section is presented to guide you in making tests,
minor repairs, and minor adjustments of the radio receiver. A pictorial diagram showing the radio connections
is given infig.1.
The material has been divided under headings as
follows:
"a. General Information," for model identification,
accessibility, controls, etc.
"b. Tests and Adjustments," covering current draw
tests, antenna tests, push-button adjustment, antenna
trimmer adjustments, etc.
"c. Minor Repairs," outlining mechanical repair to
the tuning mechanism, pilot light replacement, etc.

Connectors," "(4) Chassis Mountings," "(5) Accessibility," and "(6) Removal and Installation."
(1) MODEL IDENTIFICATION.
Four models of
radio receivers were supplied for the 1949 Ford cars. A
fifth model was supplied for export use.
Four receiver models are supplied for 1950 cars and
three models for 1951 cars. Table 1 gives information on
model identification.
The model number identifies the manufacturer and is
the prefix to the serial number stamped on the left side
of the receiver (fig. 2).
(2) CONTROLS. Tuning is controlled by five push
buttons or by the tuning knob on the right side of the
receiver face. Volume and tone are controlled by the
dual knob on the left side of the receiver face. Models
9BF, 9DF, 9MF, OBF, OMF, 1BF and IMF, are turned
FUSE CONNECTOR

a. General Information.
The material covered has been arranged as follows:
"(1) Model Identification," "(2) Controls," "(3) Chassis
PILOT LIGHT CONNECTION TO INSTRUMENT _
LIGHT CIRCUIT (1951 MODEL O N L Y ) ^
IGNITION SWITCH
*4 r*
O,

TO ANTENNA

TO SPEAKER

BULLET CONNECTOR TO
WIRING HARNESS0951) CARS'

3845

SERIAL NUMBER LOCATION

Fig. 1—Radio Wiring Connections

3803

Fig. 2—Serial Number and Fuse Connector Location

181

182

Chapter II—-Accessories

"A" LEAD

TUNING KNOB
TUNING PUSH BUTTON
"OFF" PUSH BUTTON
TONE CONTROL KNOB
ANTENNA
VOLUME CONTROL KNOB
TRIMMER

3801

F/<j. 5—Speaker Connector

Fig. 3—Car Radio Installation

on or off by means of the volume control. Model 9ZF,
8ZT, OZF, OCF and 1CF are turned on by pressing any
of the tuning push buttons and off by pressing the OFF
push button located to the left of the five tuning push
buttons (fig. 3).
(3) CHASSIS CONNECTORS. The antenna connector and trimmer condenser are located on the right
side of the receiver as shown in fig. 4. The fuse and "A"
lead connector are located on the left side of the receiver
as shown in fig. 2. A permanent magnet speaker is connected to the receiver chassis with a three-prong polarized
connector (see fig. 5).
(4) CHASSIS MOUNTINGS.
1949 and 1950 receivers are attached to the instrument panel with two
hex nuts and lock washers and a third nut and lock washer
at the dash mounting bracket. 1951 receivers are attached to the instrument panel in the same way, but use
a mounting bracket on each side of the set at the rear.
The speaker unit is attached to the instrument panel
by four nuts. It is mounted above the receiver chassis in

1949 and 1950 cars, and at the right of the chassis in
1951 cars.
(5) ACCESSIBILITY.
All receiver models can be
tested (minor repair tests) and tubes or vibrator changed
while the receiver is mounted in the vehicle. The bottom
cover can be removed by unscrewing the retaining nut
or screw on models 9BF, OBF, OMF, OZF, OCF, IMF
and 1CF, the four studs on 9DF and 9MF, the eight
small screws on model 9ZF, or by unfastening the clamp
on the 1BF. Removal of the bottom cover permits access
to all tubes and vibrator as shown in figs. 6, 9 and 10.
Table 1—Model Identification

1949 Models
Part
Number

Model
No.

Manufacturer

No.
Tubes

8A-18805-A1
8A-18805-A2
8A-18805-A3
8A-18805-B1
8A-18805-D

9BF
9DF
9MF
9ZF
9ZF

Bendix
Detrola
Motorola
Zenith
Zenith

6
6
6
8
8

All Cars
All Cars
All Cars
All Cars
Export Cars

Bendix
Motorola
Colonial
Zenith
Colonial
Zenith

6
6

All Cars
All Cars

8

All Cars

0A-18805-C

OBF
OMF
OCF
OZF
OCF
OZF

8

Export Cars

1951 Models
1A-18805-A1
1A-18805-A2
1A-18805-B
1A-18805-D

1BF
IMF
1CF
1CF

Bendix
Motorola
Colonial
Colonial

6
6
8
8

All Cars
All Cars
All Cars
Station Wagon

Application

ANTENNA TRIMMER

1950 Models
0A-18805-A1
0A-18805-A2
0 A-18805-B

ZENITH

ANTENNA CONNECTOR
BENDIX
DETROLA, MOTOROLA

Fig. 4—Antenna Connector and Trimmer

3804

Section 1—Radio

183

(6) REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION. The most
advantageous work position to assume while removing
or installing the receiver is in the center of the front seat,
directly in front of the receiver dial. Be sure the ignition
switch is off.
To remove the chassis, perform the following operations
in the order stated:
(a) Disconnect antenna lead and speaker connector with
the right hand.
(b) Disconnect "A" lead with the left hand, and lift out
the fuse.
(c) Remove the control knobs and unscrew the panel
mounting nuts.
(d) Remove the nut and lockwasher from the stud (two
studs on '51 models) on the rear of the chassis, and press
the bracket away from the stud.
(e) Grasp the chassis with both hands, push it forward,
and tilt it toward the toeboard until the unit clears the
instrument panel as shown in fig. 7.
To install the chassis, perform the following steps in
order:
(a) Lift the receiver into position in the instrument
panel with both hands (fig. 8). Be sure the control shafts
and dial housing slide through the panel openings.
(b) Steady the chassis with one hand, and install the
panel mounting nuts finger-tight.
(c) Slide the stud (two studs on '51 models) on the rear
of the receiver chassis through the mounting bracket,
and install the nut and lock washer. Be sure all control
cables and wiring are clear of the receiver chassis.
(d) Tighten the panel mounting nuts, and install the
control knobs.

iff

Fig. 7—Removing Receiver Chassis

3806

b. Tests and Adjustments.
Three tests of the radio are outlined below under
paragraph headings which indicate the nature of each
test. The order in which the tests appear is not intended
to indicate a step-by-step procedure in testing the radio.
Circumstances encountered as a result of trouble shooting
will control which tests are to be made.
Minor adjustments on the radio receiver are given
below in "(4) Adjustments."
(1) RECEIVER VOLT-AMPERE TEST. Connect
an ammeter and voltmeter to the receiver as shown in
fig. 11. Note that substitute "A" lead and plug is used
to eliminate the necessity of disconnecting the receiver
"A" lead at the ignition switch. With the receiver turned
on and warmed up, the normal current draw at 7.2
volts should be 5.5 to 6.5 amperes for the 6^tube receiver
and 7.0 to 8.5 amperes for the 8-tube receiver.
(2) ANTENNA OPEN CIRCUIT TEST. The an-

(e) Connect the speaker plug, "A" lead and fuse, and
push antenna lead firmly into connector.
OUTPUT
6V6-GT

R.F.

6SK7-GT

VIBRATOR

RECTIFIER—6X5-GT

DETECTOR—6SQ7-GT

Fig. 6—Tube Arrangement Model 1BF

Fig. 8—Installing Receiver Chassis

3807

CONVERTER.-6SA7-G.T.
R.F.-6SK7-G.T.

/

OUTPUT-6V6-G.T.
RECTIFIER
6X5-G.T.

CONVERTER-6SA7-G.T.

R.F..7A7
6SK7-G.T,

I.F.-6SK7-G.T.

DRIVER
6SN7-G.T.

VIBRATOR

Models-9DF-9MF

CONVERTER
6SA7-G.T.

DETECTOR-6SQ7-G.T.

7AF7

Model-9BF

Fig. 9—Tube Arrangement (1949 Models)

7

f
\

DETECTOR
6SR7-G.T.

I.F.-6BA6 7f
6SK7,-G.T. »

^OUTPUT
6V6-.G.T.

RECTIFIER
6X5-G.T.
7 Y 4

OUTPUT-6V6-G.T.

Models-8ZT-9ZF

3830

6SK7-G.T.
R.

OSCILLATOR
6SA7-G.T.

CONVERTER

OUTPUT

RECTIFIER

6SA7-G.T.

6V6-G.T

F.
6SK7-G.T.
A7-G.T.
CONVERTER

. F.
6SK7-G.T.

VIBRATOR

INVERTOR
6J5-G.T.
OUTPUT

6V6-G.T.

F.
6SK7-G.T.

DETECTOR
6SQ7-G.T.

UT
6V6-G.T.

FOR
6SQ7-G.T.

VIBRATOR

-6SK7-G.T.

t

RECTIFIER
6X5-GT
VIBRATOR

MODELS OZF, OCF, ICF

MODELS OMF, IMF

Fig. 10-Tube

Arrangement (1950 and 1951 Models)

5"

I

OUTPUT
6V6-G.T.
DETECTOR

6SQ7-G.T.
MODEL OBF

3847

CO

Chapter II—Accessories

186

READ ON
9 VOLT SCALE

READ ON
50 AMP.. SCALEREGULATOR
SET TO
TEST
POS.
NEC

METER

100% ON IGNITION
DWELL SCALE

SELECTORS

ADJUST
DWELL
READING
100% WITH
THIS KNOB

SET TO # 2
(9 VOLT)
GROUND
POLARITY

3810

NEG.

Fig. 13—Antenna Short Circuit Test
AMPERAGE LEADS
RED— POS.
BLACK—NEG.-»|
TO GROUND

Fig. 11—Receiver

Volt Ampere

Test

tenna can be tested for an open circuit by connecting a
dwell test meter to the antenna and lead-in as shown in
fig. 12. The dwell reading should be 100% for a good
antenna. Be sure to calibrate the dwell meter to 100%
before making the test.
(3) ANTENNA SHORT CIRCUIT TEST. Connect
the dwell test meter as shown in fig. 13, to check the
antenna for a grounded circuit. The dwell reading should
be 0% for a good antenna.
(4) ADJUSTMENTS. The procedures given are for
adjusting the receiver while it is mounted in the vehicle.
Be sure to warm up the receiver for several minutes
before attempting the ajustment.
(a) ANTENNA TRIMMER. Extend the antenna to maxi-

mum length. Tune in the weakest station between 12
and 16 on the dial and reduce volume until the station
is barely audible. Turn the antenna trimmer knob, fig. 4,
slowly in either direction until a peak of volume is reached.
(b) PUSH BUTTON. Adjustment of the push buttons
must be made during daylight hours due to the high
sensitivity of the receiver.
Tune in the desired local station with the manual
tuning knob. The station is correctly tuned when the
deepest bass tone is heard with the tone control in any
position. Reduce volume to a low value, and loosen the
desired push button by turning the button counterclockwise ONE turn.
Push the button in until it bottoms and release the
button carefully. Tighten the button securely by turning it clockwise.
TUNING PLATE

100% ON IGNITION
DWELL SCALE

METER SELECTOR

FIRST CONNECT
TEST LEADS
TOGETHER AND
ADJUST DWELL
READING. TO
100% WITH
THIS KNOB

^

ADJUST ID CAlltBATC

g

o

POS.

THEN CONNECT VOLTAGE TEST LEADS1
TO ANTENNA AND CONNECTOR.

Fig. 12—-Antenna Open Circuit Test

ANTENNA

3809

TRIMMER CONDENSER

Fig, 14—Antenna Trimmer (Model 9BF and OBF)

3811

Section 1—Radio
MOUNTING PLATE

187

TANG

3814
Check for rattles

TUNING PLATE

3812

Fig. 15-Antenna Trimmer (Models 9DF, 9MF and OMF)
Adjust the remaining buttons and check all positions
for "repeat" accuracy. Repeat the procedure for any
buttons that shift from the correct tuning point.

c. Minor Repairs.
Procedures that can be used by a repair mechanic to
do minor repair on the radio receiver are outlined here.
Minor repair involves mechanical adjustments and corrections of the tuning mechanism and antenna trimmer
and replacement of pilot lights, vibrators, and antenna.
The procedures are written assuming the receiver is
removed from the vehicle.
(1) ANTENNA TRIMMER. If the antenna trimmer
unit will not "peak" the volume when the trimmer
knob is rotated in either direction, remove the receiver
cover (top cover on 8-tube models, bottom cover on
6-tube models) and examine the condenser tuning plate
(see figs. 14 through 16) for movement while the trimmer
knob is rotated. If there is no movement of the tuning
plate, the knob screw is disengaged from the adjusting
nut or the threads are stripped. If the knob screw is
disengaged, it can be engaged by pressing the tuning
plate toward the condenser body and turning the knob
until the screw moves into the nut. If threads are stripped,

Fig. 17—Pilot Light Location (Models 9ZF and OIF)
the condenser must be replaced (Major Repair).
NOTE: On 1951 receivers, the antenna trimmer is
similar to the previous models.
(2) PILOT LIGHT REPLACEMENT. Remove the
front housing assembly on models 9ZF, OZF, and OCF
(fig. 17), on models 9BF and OBF (fig. 18) and on
models IMF and 1CF (fig. 19). On the 1949 and 1950
models lift the socket assembly from the mounting
strip, and replace the lights. On 1951 models 1CF and
IMF the socket assembly cannot be removed from the
mounting strip but the pilot lights can be easily removed
from the sockets.
Remove the top cover on models 9DF, 9MF, and OMF
(fig. 20) and on model 1BF (fig. 21). On the 1949 and
1950 models the lights are accessible for replacement.
On the 1BF model it will be necessary to remove the
pilot light assembly in order to remove the lights.
(3) TUNING MECHANISM. Minor repairs that can
be performed on the tuning mechanism are: "(a) Clutch
Release Adjustment" (for inoperative push buttons),
"(b) Push Button Replacement," "(c) Sticking Push
Button Repair," and "(d) Tuning Mechanism Rattle
Elimination."
(a) CLUTCH RELEASE ADJUSTMENT. TO repair inoperative or hard operating push buttons, check the clutch

TUNING
PLATE

3813

Fig. 16—Antenna Trimmer (Models 9ZF, OCF and OZF)

PILOT LIGHTS

—•*/

w

3815

Fig. ?8-Pi7of Light Location (Models 9BF and OBF)

188

Chapter II—Accessories

Fig. 21-Pilot

3852

Fig. 19-Pi/o/ Light Location (Model ICF)

release clearance. The clutch should release when any
tuning push button is depressed about J4 inch.
On models 9ZF, OZF, OCF and ICF, the clutch is
adjusted by repositioning,the clutch plate (clutch plate
with set screws) or by bending the clutch release arm
fork at point "A" shown in fig. 22 (pinned clutch plate).
On models 9BF and OBF, the clutch plate is adjusted
by backing off a set screw (fig. 23) and repositioning the
clutch plate.
On models 9DF, 9MF, and OMF, the clutch release
mechanism is adjusted by bending the individual tangs
on the clutch-release bar with needle nose pliers as
shown in fig. 24. The front section of the tuning unit
must be removed and tilted, as shown in fig. 24. Bend
the tang toward the release bar for increased clutch
clearance; away from release bar for decreased clearance.
The clutch on the IMF and 1BF is adjusted by bending the adjusting arm (fig. 25).
(b) PUSH BUTTON REPLACEMENT. Turn the push button counterclockwise to unscrew it from the cam lock.
When the push button is installed, be sure to engage the
push button screw in the threaded portion of the cam
lock before attempting to tighten the screw (figs. 22, and
26 through 28).
(c) STICKING PUSH BUTTON REPAIR. When the push
PILOT LIGHT LEADS

3853

buttons will not release, on models 9ZF, OZF, and OCF
check the manual tuning shaft spring for excessive tension (fig. 22) by depressing the spring. If the button now
releases, the tension is excessive. Bend the spring to
relieve excess tension. Do not bend the spring too much
or the clutch will slip.
On the other models, check the push button mechanism for binding by visually inspecting the moving parts.
If any of the parts are bent, straighten them carefully.
If any part of the tuning mechanism is broken, a major
repair is necessary.
(d)

TUNING MECHANISM RATTLE ELIMINATION.

Tun-

ing mechanism rattles can be caused by tuning knobs,
metal push buttons, or dial and pointer linkage.
Tuning knob rattles are eliminated by spreading the
retaining spring inside the knob until the knob is tight
on the shaft.
Push button rattle in models OZF and OCF (with
metal push buttons) can be eliminated by cementing a
strip of % * n c n felt to the inner surface of the front
CLUTCH PLATE

"A"

CLUTCH RELEASE LEVER

PILOT LIGHTS

3816

Fig. 20-Pilot

Light Location (Model 1BF)

Light Location (Models 9DF, 9MF
and OMF)

MANUAL TUNING SHAFT

SPRING

CAM LOCK

3817

Fig. 22—-Clutch and Push Button Mechanism (Models
9ZF, OCF and OIF)

Section 1 — Radio

189

CLUTCH ADJUSTING SET SCREW
PUSH BUTTON ASSEMBLY

TUNING CAM

CAM LOCK

3820

Fig. 26—Push Button Assembly

(fig. 30). The tang should clear the mounting plate only
enough to permit free movement.

(4) VIBRATOR REPLACEMENT. Remove the vi-

3818

Fig. 23-Clutch

Mechanism (Models 9BF and OBF)

brator by prying under the vibrator case with a small
screw driver through the ventilating holes in the receiver
case. When the new vibrator is installed, be sure it is
CAM LOCK

housing as shown infig.29.
Dial and pointer linkage rattles in models 9DF, 9MF,
and OMF can be eliminated by bending fiie tang ("A"
fig. 15) to eliminate excessive clearance in the linkage

21
3819

Fig. 24—Clutch Release Mechanism (Models 9DF,
9MF and OMF)

Fig. 27—Push Button Mechanism (Models 9BF and OBF)
CAM LOCKS

3822
ADJUSTING ARM

CLUTCH

3855

Fig 25-Clutch Adjustment (Models IMF and IBFJ

Fig. 28—Push Button Mechanism (Models 9DF, 9MF
and OMF)

190

Chapter II—Accessories

replaced without removing the mounting base assembly,
firmly seated in the vibrator socket. The vibrator can
fig. 31, by removing the small hex nut from the mast
be plugged in only when the prongs are correctly oriented
base. When the mast is replaced, torque the mast base
with the socket.
(5) ANTENNA. A broken antenna mast may be nut to 15 inch-pounds.

2. HEATER
Heaters used on 1950 and 1951 Ford vehicles are
basically the same as those used in 1949. The major
difference is in the heater control unit and the plenum
chamber as shown in figs. 32 and 33.
A circuit diagram for 1949 and 1950 cars is shown ip.
fig. 34 to aid in tracing the heater electrical circuit. A
circuit diagram for 1951 cars is shown infig.35.
The material presented here has been divided under
the headings shown below:
"a. General Information," outlining operating principles, accessibility, controls, etc.
"b. Tests and Adjustments," describing a current
draw test and control adjustments.

a. General Information.
The information given here appears under the headings
"(1) Operating Principles" and "(2) Accessibility."

(1) OPERATING PRINCIPLES. The heater is designed to function in conjunction with the right-hand
duct of the fresh air ventilating system. The heater
blower couples to an outlet provided in the right-hand
fresh air valve assembly. A valve in the duct is operated
by a control located on the dash panel, allowing the selection of outside air for ventilation or heating, or for recirculating the air within the car.
The temperature of the heated air is controlled by a
thermostat valve that automatically regulates the flow

3823

Fig. 29—Felt Antirattle Strip
'Check for rattles

of water from the cylinder block to the heater. This
valve is operated and adjusted for temperature by the
temperature control knob on the heater control panel.
When no heat is desired, the temperature control knob
is pushed in all the way. This closes the heat control
valve, allowing no water to circulate through the heater
core.
The defroster control operates three valves in the
heater housing, one in each of the defroster outlets and
the third in the air distributor outlet. When the defroster
valves open, the distributor valve closes, causing maximum flow of air to defrosters or air distributor as desired.
Two speed ranges are provided for the blower fan by
means of a switch and a resistance unit mounted on the
switch. Blower speed is reduced by the introduction of
the resistance in series with the blower motor. 1951 cars
have a two-speed three-wire motor in place of the resistance, to change speed.
An air distributor (plenum chamber) contains numerous outlets that serve as nozzles to direct the air downward to the floor. The #ir then flows under the front seat
and circulates through the entire passenger compartment.
(2) ACCESSIBILITY.
The fresh air heater consists
of a heater unit, motor and blower assembly, heat control unit, air distributor, defroster tubes, nozzles, and
controls located on the heater control panel. Individual
units of the heating system can be removed with ease if
service is required. The heater installation is illustrated
infig.36.
The dash panel is provided with pierced holes for the
heater blower installation (fig. 37). The large hole is
covered with a metal plate pressed on from the engine
side of the dash. The smaller holes for water connections
are provided with knockout plugs. The dash insulator
pad has the mounting holes partially pierced, making
it necessary to cut only a small portion of the pad to
remove the hole-opening plugs.
The installation of blower and water connections is
shown infig.38. If the hoses are connected in the manner
shown, the heater performance should be satisfactory.
INSULATOR

WASHER
3824

Fig. 30-Tuning

Dial and Pointer Linkage

Fig. 31—Antenna Disassembled

ANTENNA
MAST NUT

LOCKWASHER
3825

191

Section 2— Heater

NOZZLE-18491

^fe
-18556
NOZZLE—18491

LOCKWASHER-34846-S
NUT
33797-S

WASHER-34746-S
SCREW-33183-S

CONNECTOR
18584

.Y—18548
BEZEL-18598
18567
SWITCH
ASSEMBLY
18578

FAN—18504
355312-S
NUT

34079-S^
LOCKWASHER
351253-S-

CONTROL ASEMBLY
18518

GASKET—18583
MOTOR—18527
CLIP—14586
CLAMP-18572-

ff—- ELBOW _ 8 A - 1 8 5 99

NIPPLE—8M-18599-

3062

Fig. 32—7949 Fresh Air Heater
The 1949 heater control unit is shown disassembled in
fig. 39. The 1950 heater control unit is of riveted construction and cannot be disassembled. Only the control

knobs can be removed. The heater-blower switch and the
air-control knob have been interchanged on 1950 models,
The difference in location can be noted infig.36.

NOZZLE-R.H.-1849

SCREW-33183-S
CONTROL ASSEMBLY
18548
CONTROL ASSEMBLY

18518
7001890 '

NOZZLE (LH.) —18491

-34079-S

LOCKWASHER
34846-

LOCKWASHER-3 4803-S

NUT-33797KNOB-7001892

CONNECTOR—18584

KNOB

17513

BULB
13466
SWITCH
ASSEMBLY
18578

SEAL-18594
CORE ASSEMBLY
18476
GASKET—18596
CLAMP—18572
SCREW-32909-S

FAN—18504
HOSE-18472
NUT—34079
CLAMP-1857

NUT
11662

SWITCH ASSEMBLY
18623
Y-18471

NIPPLE—8M-18599
LOCKWASHER
351253-S
SET
355312-S

MOTOR ASSEMBLY
18527

Fig. 33-1950 Fresh Air Heater

3063

192

Chapter II—Accessories

HEATER MOTOR

KNOCK OUT PLUGS O N DASH HERE

DASH PANEL GROUND

COVER-PLATE LOCATION

HEATER
SWITCH

f

O X*—IGNITION SWITCH

"RA-GA" \ ° v > /
<ZLy
Fig. 34-Heater
HEATER MOTOR

B^H
:
*-FUSE
Circuit 7949 and 7950

DASH PANEL GROUND

3064

HEATER SWITCH

DASH INSULATOR OPENINGS

3066

Fig. 37—Heater Mounting Hoies (Dash Panel)

installing the blower and fan, be sure the ground connection is clean and tight.

BULLET CONNECTOR TO WIRING HARNESS
CONTROL
PILOT LAMP

3120

Fig. 35-Heater

Circuit 7951 Cars

The 1951 heater control is mounted in the instrument
panel on two studs behind the panel (fig. 40). Remove the
two nuts and washers, push the control head back and
down. Disconnect the cables and the pilot light socket.
The blower switch is attached with a special nut and
can be removed by using a special wrench after unscrewing the switch knob (fig. 41).
Removal and installation of the heater blower motor
and fan is accomplished as shown in fig. 42. After

b. Tests and Adjustments.
A procedure for checking the current draw of the
blower motor is given in "(1) Current Draw Test" and
"(2) 1950 and 1951 Heater Control Adjustment," outlines the adjustment of 1950 and 1951 control units.
(1) CURRENT DRAW TEST. Connect a 0.50 ammeter as shown in fig. 43. The blower motor will operate
independently of the control switch, and the current
draw of the motor will be indicated on the ammeter.
Normal current draw should be 8 to 10 amperes.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL
BLOWER CONTROL
DEFROSTER CONTROL

HEATER

FRESH AIR CONTROLS
PLENUM CHAMBER

Fig. 36—Heater Installation

3O65

Section 2—Heater
AIR INLET VALVE

BLOWER ASSEMBLY

VALVE CONNECTIONS

HEATER CONNECTIONS

3067

Fig. 38—Heater Blower and Water Connections
NOTE: The current draw of the three wire motor
for 1951 is the same for the high speed position
(orange wire) 8 to 10 amperes. The slow speed current draw (red wire) is 4 to 6 amperes.
SWITCH-8A-18578-A1
NUT-351056-S8
LOCK WASHER-34909.S8
BEZEL-8A-18598-A
NUT-8A-11662 I
—*»*
'*
BEZEL-8A-18598-C
KNOB-8A-18567

193
Tool—17470-N

HEATER BLOWER SWITCH

(2) 1950 AND 1951 HEATER CONTROL ADJUSTMENT. The upper lever of the control assembly is connected to the temperature regulator valve on the heater.
The lever must be adjusted so that it closes the valve
when lever is ^6 to }/g inch from left-hand end of slot
(fig. 44).

W"

BEZEL-8A-18598-B
CONTROL PANEL-8A-18597-A
/
LOCK WASHER-34*
DEFROSTER CONTROL-8A.18548-A
NUT-351056-S8
TEMPERATURE CONTROL-8A-18518
3068

Fig. 39-Heater

3070

Fig. 41—Removing Heater Blower Switch

FLAT PORTION
FACES TOWARD
FLANGE

Control Unit (1949 Disassembled)

BLOWER MOTOR

3071

Fig. 42—Heater-Blower Motor Removal or Installation
TO HEATER SWITCH

"^T"

"^

TO OTHER
CIRCUITS

Fig. 40—Removing 7957 Heater Control

311.1

3O72

Fig. 43—Heater Motor Current Draw Test

194

Chapter II—Accessories
WTO-tt
DAMPER

MEDIUM

HIGH

•—

RECIRCULATE
VENTILATE

DEFROST

HEAT

3073

PASSENGER
COMPARTMENT

3074

Fig. 44—Control Lever Adjustment

Fig. 45—Damper Positions Controlling Air Flow

The lever is adjusted by positioning the control cable
in the clamp located on the control housing. Loosen the
cable clamp on the control housing, and set the regulator valve in the closed position (all the way over to
the right). Position the cable so the "temperature" lever
is Hi> to H inch from the left end of the slot, and
tighten the clamp.
The lower lever controls the damper in the right-hand
air duct. It should close the damper when the lever is
Hi> to y% inch from the left end of the slot (seefig.44).
The damper now permits the heater blower to recircuthe air inside the passenger compartment (see fig.

45). With the lever in the "ventilate" position, the
damper permits outside air to enter the compartment.
When the lever is moved to the "heat" position, the outside air is forced through the heater and into the compartment. When the lever is moved to the "defrost"
position, the heater air is allowed to flow through the
defroster tubes and nozzles to the windshield.

NOTE: When the damper is in the "ventilate" or
"heat" position, it may be necessary to open a ventilator or window to allow complete circulation of
outside air through the passenger compartment.

3. OVERDRIVE
The function of the overdrive unit !n the power train
is to reduce the engine to rear axle ratio by approximately 30%, resulting in lower engine speeds for the
same vehicle speed under normal driving conditions.
Reduced engine speed increases operating economy, passenger comfort, and cuts down on engine maintenance.
How the reduction of engine to rear axle ratio is
accomplished by the overdrive unit is described in "a.
Operating Principles." "b. Tests" illustrates methods of
testing overdrive units to determine if they are in working order, "c. Repair" outlines procedures for repair and
replacement of overdrive units.

A diagram of the overdrive electrical circuit is shown
in fig. 46 to aid in tracing the circuit and connections.

a. Operating Principles.
In order to service the overdrive, it is important to
first understand how it operates. The description of operation has been divided into two parts: "(1) Overdrive
Mechanical," describing the power train part of the unit,
and "(2) Overdrive Electrical," outlining the function
of control circuit which controls automatic action of
overdrive.

(1) OVERDRIVE MECHANICAL.

POSITION OF KICKDOWN,
SWITCH TO
ONTACTS OPEN DISENGAGE OVERDRIVE(OVERDRIVE
DISENGAGED)
BLUE-ORANGE TR.

CONTACTS
OPEN AT
21 M.P.H.
LOCKOUT SWITCH
(NOT ON 1951 CARS)

ONTACTS
CLOSED
(OVERDRIVE
ENGAGED)

GOVERNOR
(CONTACTS
CLOSE AT
27 M.P.H.)

"="

CONTACTS OPEN
(OVERDRIVE ENGAGED)

Fig. 46-Overdrive

CONTACTS OPEN
OVERDRIVE DISENGAGED)

ONTACTS CLOSED
(OVERDRIVE
ENGAGED)

CHARGE
INDICATOR

BREAKER
CONTACTS

SOLENOID COIL

CONTACTS Ct
(OVERDRIVE
DISENGAGED)

The working

3075

Electrical Circuit

195

Section 3—Overdrive

OVERDRIVE SHAFT OIL SEALOVERDRIVE SHAFT REAR
BEARING (BUSHING TYPE)

SPLINED UNIVERSAL YOKE
(PART OF PROPELLER
SHAFT ASSY.)

TRANSMISSION SHAFT
BALK RING

ru

SUN GEAR SHIFTING COLLAR
STATIONARY GEAR PLATE
(SLIDING SPLINE ON SUN
GEAR)

SOLENOID
OVERDRIVE GEAR PAWL
ADAPTER PLATE

CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR
(HELICAL GEAR DRIVE
FROM OVERDRIVE SHAFT)
SPEEDOMETER DRIVE
OVERDRIVE SHAFT
OVERDRIVE SHAFT FRONT
BEARING

OVER-RUNNING CLUTCH
(SPLINED TO TRANSMISSION SHAFT)
INTERNAL RING GEAR
(SPLINED TO OVERDRIVE SHAFT)
SUN GEAR (SLIDE FIT OVER
TRANSMISSION SHAFT)
PLANETARY GEARS-(3) (HELICAL
TYPE, NEEDLE BEARING MOUNTED)
PLANET CARRIER (SPLINED TO TRANSMISSION SHAFT)
OVERDRIVE HOUSING

Fig. 47-Overdrive

3076

Assembly (Cutaway View)

parts of the overdrive are identified in the cutaway
assembly shown in fig. 47. The power flow through the
overdrive unit is described for the three drive conditions
under which the unit is operated: "(a) Direct Drive and
Free-Wheeling," "(b) Overdrive," and "(c) Locked Out
Drive."
(a) DIRECT DRIVE AND "FREE-WHEELING." When the
overdrive dash control is IN, the shift rail is moved
to its forward position holding the sun gear lock up
teeth out of engagement with the pinion cage internal
teeth. The sun gear and its control plate are now free
to rotate as long as the pawl remains out of engagement
with the control plate.
The direct drive power flow is indicated in the diagram
shown in fig. 48. The transmission main shaft transmits
power to the freewheel clutch cam through a spline drive.
When the driving torque is applied to the clutch cam,
the clutch rollers are forced outward to wedge against
the outer race, transmitting the torque to the outer race
and overdrive main shaft. All the overdrive gears and
associated parts turn as a unit under direct drive
conditions.
If the driving torque is removed (throttle closed), the
output shaft now attempts to drive the transmission
main shaft; however, the clutch rollers release their
wedging action by rolling to the low portion of the cam
and the outer race of the clutch "overruns" the transmission main shaft. Effectively, the output shaft is disconnected from the main shaft and the vehicle "free

wheels" as long as the mainshaft rotation, is slower
output shaft rotation.
(b) OVERDRIVE. If the sun gear is held against rotation by the pawl (fig. 49), the power flow is that shown
in fig. 50. The transmission main shaft drives the pinion
cage forcing the pinions to rotate or "walk around" the
sun gear. The pinions are meshed in the internal gear on
the output shaft and force it to rotate at a higher rate
than the transmission main shaft. For each full revolution of the output shaft, the transmission main shaft
turns 0,7 of a revolution. Since the output shaft is turning more rapidly than the main shaft, the overdrive
clutch remains in the "free wheel" position.
When the vehicle is permitted to "coast," power can
be transmitted to the engine by the rear wheels as long
as the sun gear is held against rotation.
(c) LOCKED OUT DRIVE. When the overdrive dash
control is pulled out, the shift rail is moved to the rear
position. The shifter fork moves the sun gear to the rear
position and this motion engages the sun gear lock up
SOLENOID STEM

SUN GEAR .CONTROL PLATE

CLUTCH. ROLLER

TRANSMISSION
MAINSHAFT

CLUTCH
OUTER RACE

OVERDRIVE
MAINSHAFT

Fig. 48—Direct Drive Power Flow

3077

PAWL

BALK RING

Fig. 49—Action of Pawl Mechanism

3069

196

Chapter II—Accessories

PLANETARY
CAGE
SUN GEAR
\
PLANETARY
(HELD STATIONARY)

TO SOLENOID
OVERDRIVE RELAY

INTERNAL RING GEAR

0-50 AMMETER

GROUNDED
JUMPER
WIRE
TRANSMISSION
MAINSHAFT

OVERDRIVE MAINSHAFT

3078

Fig. 50—Overdrive Power Flow

teeth with the teeth in the pinion cage. The sun gear and
the pinions are locked together and, since the pinions
cannot rotate if locked to the sun gear, the output shaft
internal gear is forced to rotate with the transmission
main shaft (fig. 51).
When the transmission is shifted into reverse (overdrive control knob IN), the shift rail must be moved to
the rear position to lock the sun gear and pinion carrier,
since the overdrive clutch will not transmit a reverse
drive. The shift rail is moved to the rear position by a
cam on the reverse gear shifter fork inside the transmission housing. The cam automatically moves the shift
rail to the rear, locking the overdrive when the transmission is shifted into reverse.

(2) OVERDRIVE ELECTRICAL. While the mechanical portion of the overdrive just described may be
considered the "working" part, the drive conditions are
controlled automatically by the electrical circuit. The
circuit consists of a solenoid, governor, lockout switch
(1951 cars equipped with overdrive do not have a lockout
switch), kickdown switch, relay, and connecting wires.
These elements of the control circuit are wired as shown
in the diagram illustrated infig.46. The power circuit
(6r solenoid circuit) is represented by the heavy lines
shown in fig. 46. This portion of the circuit supplies
current to energize the solenoid. The control circuit is
represented by light lines in the same illustration. It
controls the flow of current to the solenoid by closing
or opening the relay contacts in the power circuit. The
electrical circuit operation can be best described by
separating its functions into the thr£e operating conditions: "(a) Speed Controlled," "(b) Driver Controlled
(Kickdown)," and "(c) Locked Out."
(a) SPEED CONTROLLED. When the overdrive dash
control is IN, the lockout switch is closed and the closing

TO IGNITION SWITCH

TO KICKDOWN SWITCH

of the control circuit is dependent on the governor contacts. As long as the vehicle speed remains below the
cut-in speed of the governor (approximately 27 m.p.h.),
the overdrive unit will remain in direct drive. Whenever
the vehicle speed reaches the cut-in point of the governor,
the governor contacts close, completing the control
circuit to ground. A current flows through the relay coil,
causing the relay contacts to close. The power circuit
to the solenoid is now completed and current flows
through the solenoid windings, causing the solenoid
armature to energize (move to the "in" position). When
the armature is fully energized, it disconnects the traction
coil by opening a set of contacts inside the solenoid
housing, leaving the holding coil connected in the circuit.
The motion of the solenoid armature is applied to the
stem and pawl through an inner spring so that the pawl
is "urged" to engage the sun gear control plate bjr the
action of the spring instead of being forced to engage
the plate by direct action of the solenoid armature. As
soon as driving torque is released from the overdrive,
the pawl engages control plate and overdrive is in action.
The overdrive shifts down automatically when the
vehicle speed drops to the cut-out speed of the governor
(approximately 21 m.p.h.). At cut-out, the governor
contacts open, interrupting the control circuit, thus causing the relay contacts to open. The power circuit is now
open and the solenoid returns to the "out" position,

SUN GEAR AND PLANETARY CAGE LOCKED TOGETHER
(COMPLETE OVERDRIVE MECHANISM TURNS AS A UNIT)

BL.
CARBON PILE
RHEOSTAT
OVERDRIVE MAINSHAFT

Fig. 51—Locked Out Drive Power Flow

3079

3080

Fig. 52—Solenoid Current Draw Test (on Vehicle)

Fig. 53—Solenoid Energizing Voltage Test
(on Test Bench)

197

Section 3—Overdrive
LOCKOUT. SWITCH MOUNTING PAD

Work Stand'

3O82
SHIFT RAIL PIN

Fig. 54—Removing Lockout Switch and Steel Balls

withdrawing the pawl from the control plate. The overdrive now returns to direct drive.
(b) DRIVER CONTROLLED (KICKDOWN). AS stated pre-

viously, when the overdrive is engaged, the engine turns
only 0.7 as fast as when the overdrive is in direct drive.
The power available for acceleration is reduced at this
reduced engine speed, and at certain times it is desirable
to shift the overdrive into direct drive to permit greater
acceleration without reducing car speed to the cut-out
point. The down-shift from overdrive to direct drive is
accomplished by the pressure of the foot throttle on the
kickdown switch. The switch has two functions in the
circuit:
First, it opens the control circuit, causing the solenoid
to de-energize. However, the pawl is held in engagement
with the control plate due to the torque reaction and
cannot release until the driving torque is removed.
The kickdown switch also completes the ignition
grounding circuit through a second set of contacts by -

3084

Pig, 56—Removing Mounting Bolts, Shift Rail Pin,
and Cover Plate

passing the ignition breaker contacts, and interrupting
the ignition. The driving torque is released, the pawl
moves out of engagement, and the solenoid armature
now returns to the "out" position, opening a set, of
contacts in the ignition grounding circuit. The ignition
circuit is restored to normal and the power is applied
through direct drive to the rear wheels as long as the
engine is kept under a pulling load. The "shorting out"
of the ignition breaker contacts occurs for approximately
two revolutions of the engine crankshaft.
(c) LOCKED OUT. When the overdrive is operated in
the "locked out" position (either by having the overdrive
dash control OUT or by shifting the transmission into
reverse), the lockout switch is opened by a cam on the
shift rail. Since the control circuit is open when the lockout switch is open, the solenoid cannot be energized. The
pawl cannot be engaged when the unit is "locked out."

DISCONNECT LEAD AT
LOCKOUT SWITCH

Snap Ring Pjier

SHIFT RAIL
SHAFT PULLED
OUT

Fig. 55—Removing Governor

Fig. 57—Remove Overdrive Housing

3O8S

198

Chapter II—Accessories
SUN GEAR

OVERDRIVE MAINSHAFT

3086

Fig. 58—Removing Overdrive Mainshalt

b. Tests.

CLUTCH CAM ASSEMBLY

3088

Fig. 60-— Removing Clutch and Planetary Gear
Assemblies, Sun Gear and Shift Rail

ture as it reaches the IN position.

Two test procedures are given under the following
headings which describe the nature of the test: (1) Solenoid Current Draw (On Vehicle Test)/' and "(2) Solenoid Energizing Voltage (On Test Bench)." Certain
trouble-shooting tests of the overdrive control circuit are
not presented here, but will appear in part FIVE of
this manual.

(1) SOLENOID CURRENT DRAW (ON VEHICLE
TEST). Remove the fuse from the clips on the overdrive
relay. Connect an ammeter in place of the fuse as shown
in fig. 52. With the ignition switch ON, ground "TH"
terminal of the relay. The relay will close and actuate
the solenoid and a reading of 2.0-2.5 amperes should be
indicated on the ammeter. The ammeter needle will
momentarily swing past the 2.5 ampere reading until
the traction coil circuit is opened by the solenoid armaCLUTCH-TO-PLANETARY-CAGE RETAINER

(2) SOLENOID ENERGIZING VOLTAGE (ON
TEST BENCH). Remove the solenoid and connect
it to a battery with an ammeter, resistor, and voltmeter
in the circuit as shown infig.53. Slowly decrease the
resistance in the test circuit until the solenoid energizes,
observing the voltmeter reading at the time the solenoid
energizes. It should take no more than 4.5 volts to
energize the solenoid.

c. Repair.
The information presented here is divided into three
parts: "(1) Disassembly," "(2) Inspection," and "(3)
Assembly." The procedures are written assuming the
overdrive and transmission are removed from the vehicle
and mounted on a work stand or clamped in a vise.
It is advisable to drain the transmission and overdrive
before removal from the vehicle.

SNAP RING

CLUTCH-TO-TRANSMISSION-MAINSHAFT RETAINER

3087

Fig. 59—Removing Clutch Assembly Retainers

.3089

Fig. 61--Removing Gear to Adapter Snap Ring

199

Section 3—Overdrive

ADAPTER PLATE-7660
TRANSMISSION MAINSHAFT—7061

SNAP RING
7109

SYNCHRONIZER
BLOCKING RING

OW AND REVERSE
GEAR-7100

7107

SNAP RING
7059
RMEDIATE
GEAR-7102
SNAP RING-7109
INTERMEDIATE AND HIGH
CLUTCH HUB-7105

TRANSMISSION
MAINSHAFT

SLEEVE-7106

3090

•SNYCHRONIZER BLOCKING RING-7107

Fig. 62—Transmission Mainshatt Gears, Disassembled

(1) DISASSEMBLY.
Remove the lockout switch,
and turn the assembly over to permit the two steel balls
under the switch to drop out (fig. 54). Remove the
governor assembly with a special tool (fig. 55). Remove
the four overdrive housing bolts, the shift rail pin, and
the cover located on top of the overdrive housing (fig. 56).

NOTE: Do not remove the adapter to transmission
case bolt at this time.
Pull out the shift rail lever and shaft as far as it will
go. Spread the snap ring by using a snap ring tool, and
remove the overdrive housing by tapping the overdrive
mainshaft with a soft-faced hammer (fig. 57).
ADAPTER PLATE

SNAP RING

BEARING

3092

fig. 64—Mainshaft and Adapter Pfafe, Disassembled

Remove the overdrive mainshaft from the assembly.
Catch any of the clutch rollers which drop out (fig. 58).
Remove the rest of the rollers. Remove the clutch
assembly retainers (fig. 59), the clutcl*. and planetary
gear assemblies, and the sun gear and shift rail (fig. 60).
The plate and trough assembly, sun gear control plate,
and pawl can now be removed by taking out the snap
ring (fig. 61).
Normally, no further disassembly of the overdrive
will be required. However, if the transmission mainshaft
or the adapter plate bearing must be replaced, remove
the adapter plate and mainshaft from the transmission.
Next, remove the snap ring and gears attached to the
transmission mainshaft (fig. 62).
The large snap ring may now be removed from the
transmission side of the adapter plate (fig. 63), and the
mainshaft and bearing taken out of the adapter plate
(fig. 64). Be very careful not to mar the oil baffle. If
RING SHOULD SLIP FREELY
WHEN THIS END IS MOVED
AS SHOWN

TRANSMISSION MAINSHAFT

RING SHOULD DRAG
WHEN THIS END
IS MOVED AS SHOWN

3091

Fig. 63—Removing Snap Ring (Transmission Mainshaft
Bearing)

CONTROL PLATE

BALK RING

Fig. 65—Test Balk Ring Tension

3093

200

Chapter II—Accessories

PAWL

CONTROL PLATE

PLATE AND TROUGH ASSEMBLY

INSTALL WITH MACHINED RECESS IN THIS POSITION

3094

CAM-TOE CAGE RETAINER

CLUTCH C A M /

PLANETARY CAGE

CAM-TO-MAINSHAFT RETAINER

3O96

Fig. 66—Install Control Plate, Pawl, and Plate
and Trough Assenibly

Fig. 68—Installing Planetary Cage, Clutch Cam and
Retainers

the bearing must be replaced, it can be taken off the
mainshaft with an arbor press.
(2) INSPECTION. Check the balk ring tension as
shown in fig. 65. When one end of the ring is moved
away from the other, the ring should slip freely. When
one end is moved toward the other, there should be a
noticeable drag. If the ring slips freely, when one end is
moved toward the other, the assembly should be replaced.
Check the free wheel clutch outer race for a worn or
"chattered" inner surface. If the surface is worn, the
overdrive mainshaft must be replaced. Check the clutch
rollers for cracks and wear. Replace the complete set of
rollers (12) if any are cracked or worn.
Clean all the overdrive parts before reassembling the
unit. Apply transmission oil to all parts as they are installed.
(3) ASSEMBLY. If the adapter plate has been removed and disassembled, reassemble the mainshaft, oil

baffle, and snap ring. Install the transmission main shaft
gears, synchronizer clutch, and snap ring. Install the
adapter plate and transmission mainshaft assembly in
the transmission and secure the adapter plate to the
transmission with the short Cap screw.
The sun gear control plate should be installed with the
balk ring side out. Replace the pawl with the machined
arc in line with the shift rail hole, and install the plate and
trough assembly (fig. 66).
Install the snap ring to secure the plate and trough
assembly to the adapter. The shift rail and sun gear
should now be installed simultaneously (fig. 67).
The planetary cage and the free wheeling clutch cam
should now be installed. Secure the clutch cam to the
OVERDRIVE
HOUSING

KEEP SHIFT FORK
IN GROOVE
SUN GEAR

SHIFT RAIL

Fig. 67—Install Sun Gear and Shift Rail

3095

CENTER SPRING O N SHIFT RAIL GUIDES

3097

Fig. 69—Proper Alignment of Shift Rail Spring

Section 3—Overdrive
LOCKOUT
SWITCH
MOUNTING
PAD

201

MOUNT ARM AND PIVOT SHAFT ASSEMBLY-8A-17566-A—i
BLADE-8A.17528-A
y ARM-8A-17526-R.H.
8A-17527—L.H.

[-356094-813' /
WASHER-8A-17541-A
SPACER-8A-17515-A
3100
3098

SHIFT RAIL COVER PLUG

Fig. 70—Shift Rail Cover Plug

cage with the large retainer clip and to the mainshaft
with the small clip (fig. 68).
Rotate the unit to a vertical position. Dip the rollers
in grease, and install them in the clutch cam slots. The
overdrive mainshaft can be installed by sliding it carefully over the free wheel clutch. Be sure that no rollers
drop out while the shaft is being installed. A twist of
the shaft will set the rollers and permit the shaft to seat
easily.
Make sure the shift rail spring is in proper alignment
with the hole in the overdrive housing (fig. 69). Knock
out the plug which covers the shift rail where it rides in
the housing (fig. 70).
Slide the housing over the overdrive mainshaft, using
the shift rail hole as a sight to line up the shift rail,

Fig. 72—Windshield Wiper Installation—Cars

spreading the snap ring in the housing as it slides over
the shaft. If the snap ring will not go into its slot in the
shaft, it may be necessary to pry up the shaft through
the governor hole in the housing (fig. 71).

CAUTION: Be careful not to damage the governor
mounting threads while prying up the mainshaft.
Engage the shift-rail lever by pushing it inward. The
lever is correctly engaged when a spring load is apparent
as the lever is turned. Install the pin to retain the shaft.
Secure the overdrive housing to the transmission with
the mounting bolts and tighten them to 37 to 42 ft-lbs.
torque. Install the governor with special tool (fig. 55). Drop
the two steel balls in the lockout switch hole and install
the lockout switch. Secure the snap ring cover plate with
the two screws. Install the shift rail cover plug.

4, WINDSHIELD WIPER
The windshield wiper used on 1949, 1950 and 1951
Ford cars is shown infig.72. The wiper motor is mounted
on a bracket in the car installation. The bracket is
mounted by means of the wiper pivot arm bushings.

a. Disassembly.
If service is required on the motor assembly, linkage,

or the mounting bracket, the bracket and motor assembly should be removed, as a unit from the car before
further disassembly is attempted. To remove the bracket
and motor assembly, disconnect the vacuum line, remove
the control assembly from the instrument panel with a
special wrench (fig. 73). Lift off the wiper arms and blades.
Remove the pivot attaching nuts, spacers, and washers.

Tool—17470-N
GOVERNOR MOUNTING THREADS

Fig. 71 — Prying Overdrive Main Shaft

3099

3113

Fig. 73—Removing Windshield Wiper Control Assembly

202

Chapter 11—Accessories
CLOCK
2 AMP. FUSE
MOUNT ARM AND
PIVOT SHAFT ASSEMBLY

8A-17566-A

Qfi+

CLIP-06H-17531
TO LIGHTING SWITCH

CIRCUIT BREAKER

3103
Fig. 75—Electric Clock Circuit

b. Assembly.
MOTOR ASSEMBLY
8A-17508
3102
Fig. 74—Mounting Bracket and Motor—Disassembled

The motor and bracket assembly can now be pulled out
without disturbing the radio.
The motor can be taken off the mounting bracket by
removal of the two mounting screws (fig. 74).
Since the wiper motor is serviced as an assembly, it is
recommended that no further disassembly of the motor
be attempted.

Assemble the motor and mounting bracket (fig. 74).
Connect the links and secure them with the retainer clips.
Apply sealing compound to the pivot shafts, slide the
bracket and motor assembly over the radio, and insert
the pivot shafts through the mounting holes. Install the
washers, spacers, and nuts. Install the instrument panel
control with a special wrench. Screw the control knob on
the shaft (fig. 73).
Run the engine momentarily with the wiper control
OFF to bring the pivot shafts to their rest position.
Install the blades so they are flat against the lower edge
of the windshield.

5. MISCELLANEOUS ACCESSORIES
given here for certain of the
a. Clocks.

^ Service procedures are
Inore complicated accessories. The section content is as
follows:
"a. Clocks," "b. Turn Indicator," and "c. Windshield
Washer." Service procedures for some of the other accessories are covered in Chapter III of this Part of the
under "Bulb" Replacement.
FLASHER

Two different clock assemblies are used on 1949, 1950
and 1951 vehicles. One is manually wound by means
of a stem; the other electrically wound. The circuit for
the electrically wound clock appears in fig. 75.
Adjustment of the clock can be made by moving the
SWITCH

EXISTING HARNESS
TO REAR LIGHTS

JUNCTION BLOCKS (1950 ONLY)

Fig. 76—Turn Indicator Wiring Installation

3105

203

Section 5—Miscellaneous Accessories
tr.
Orange—Blue tr.

Sf^Green—Orange tr.

TO LH. TAIL
LAMP

/

White— Blue tr.

IGNITION SWITCH
TERMINAL MARKED
"RAD. GA."

Black-Yellow tr.
LH. PARKING LAMP

Green- White tr/
TO CONTROL SWITCH-*

Green— White tr.

JUNCTION BLOCKS (1950 ONLY)
/'"?p,\ Black—Yellow tr.
R.H. PARKING LAMP
GREEN WIRE
TAPED TO HARNESS

White-Blue tr.

T""

Green—Orange tr.

3106

Fig. 77—Connections of Turn Indicator to Existing Wiring

lever on the rear of the clock housing. The control is on
the front in 1951 cars. If the clock runs slow, move the
lever toward the " F " mark; if it runs fast, move the
lever toward "S."
In order to replace the clock, the radio must first be
removed. Pull out the lamp socket(s) and disconnect
the clock wire at the fuse. The clock housing can now
be removed by taking out the two attaching screws.
When re-installing the clock, be sure these mounting
screws are tightened securely, or the clock will cause
annoying rattles.

b. Turn Indicator.
This material on the turn indicator is given to aid in
the service of existing installations and as a supplement
to the instruction sheet which accompanies each indicator unit parts kit.
A length of stiff baling wire will aid in pulling the new
parking lamp leads through the rubber grommet in the
fender. Push the wire through from the top and pull the
lead in from below. The use of friction tape to streamline
the attachment of the lead to the baling wire will also
help.
Difficulty may be encountered in certain models in
routing the lead to the left-hand tail lamp, due to the
curvature of the fender well. (See point "A," fig. 76).
This situation will be helped by pushing a stiff wire
through the opening at the base of the door pillar as
far as it will go and drawing it into the luggage compartment with another hooked wire. Turn indicator

wiring is incorporated in the standard wiring on 1951 cars.
NOTE: The opening at the base of the door pillar
may be seen by pulling away the trim panel.
The flasher assembly, shown in fig. 77, can be mounted
more easily if the existing screw which is used to mount
it is replaced by one a quarter of an inch longer.

c. Windshield Washer.
There are two winjdshield washers available, one is
vacuum operated and the other is foot operated. The
storage bottle of both models is mounted on the engine
side of the dash panel (fig. 78).
After installation, test the washer to make sure there
are no leaks in the system. If the installation is made
during cold weather fill the storage bottle with all
weather windshield washer solution.
WASHER OUTLET

WIPER
VACUUM
LINE

ST AGE
BOTTLE

VACUUM OPERATED

FOOT OPERATED

3107
fig. 78-Windshield

Washer Installation

Part FOUR

BODIES
Chapter
.

••

i

Body Construction and Maintenance
Section

1
2
3
4

Page

Construction Details
Alignment .
Quarter Panel Repair
General Body .Maintenance

..

,

This Chapter as indicated above presents procedures
of a general nature for servicing bodies. These procedures are designed to assist in the elimination of body
difficulties. This Chapter likewise presents body maintenance instructions.
This type of automotive repairing should be done

204
.210
. 216
218

.

by persons specially trained in this type of work. A
thorough understanding of the operation of the tools and
equipment required and a knowledge of the internal
construction of the various types of Ford bodies in essential. With this knowledge, the best method of approach
to properly do the job can readily be determined.

1. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
Body construction details are clearly presented here
by sectional views of all major parts of the body (figs.
1 through 22). In cases of complete panel replacement
or where only -a portion of a particular panel requires

cutting-out, it is very helpful to know where and how
that particular panel is fastened. In some cases, the sectional views apply to more than one body.

—MOULDING

LUGGAGE COMPARTMENT
OUTSIDE PANEL

*SPOT WELDED

QUARTER WHEEL
HOUSE INNER PANEL

COMPARTMENT
INNER PANEL

TER WHEEL
HOUSE OUTER
PANEL

NG OUTSIDE
4101

4102

Fig. 1—Quarter Panel and Wheelhouse at Center Line
of Rear Wheel

Fig, 2—Quarter Panel "T" Moulding, Extension Panel
and Deck Lid

204

Section I—Construction Details
QUARTER TRIM PANEL
TRIM PANEL RETAINER

\

205

QUARTER WHEEL HOUSING ASS'Y
NLLAR REINFORCEMENT

410

Fig. 3—Underside of Quarter Panel at Lock Pillar
(Models 70 and 71)
QUARTER REGULATOR PANEL (TUDOR ONLY)
DOOR TRIM PANEL \
QUARTER PILLAR REINFORCEMENT

Fig. 5—Forward Section Quarter Panel and Rear Door
(Fordor)
SEALER BETWEEN ROOF PANEL AND DRIP MOULDING
HEAD LINING RETAINER
D LININGN/

ROOF PANEL
DRIP MOULDING
QUARTER PANEL
ROOF RAIL

QUARTER PANEL
INSIDE DOOR PANEL
OUTSIDE DOOR PANEL

WEATHERSTRIP

4104

Fig. 4—Showing Section of Quarter Panellock Pillar
and Door Cutaway Tudof and Coupe

4106

Fig, 6—Showing Section of Rear Door, Quarter Panel,
and Roof Panel (Fordor)

206

Chapter I—Bodies

FLOOR PAN ASSEMBLY

INSIDE TR M PANEL

!

QUARTER TRIM RETAINER

ROOF PA
HEADLINING
MOULDING ASS'Y
REINFORCEMENT
QUARTER W I N D O W

QUARTER W I N D O W GLASS

ASS'Y REVEAL MOULDING
AND WEATHERSTRIP^/

REINFORCEMENT
BODY SIDE LOWER EDGE

Fig. 7—Showing Section of Quarter Panel, Drip Rail,
and Roof Panel (Tudor and Coupe)

4109

Fig. 9—Showing Lower Section of Quarter Panel
Forward of Rear Wheel (Tudor and Coupe)

QUARTER PANEL.
BRACE CENTER P I L L A T T O FLOOR

REINFORCEMENT
DY LOWER EDGE-REAR

SEALED
WITH
SEALER

PANEL BODY ROCKER

PILLAR-CENTER BODY REAR

SEAL'

MEMBER ASS'Y FRONT
FLOOR CROSS REAR

4108

Fig. 8—Showing Section of Rear Floor Pan to Quarter
Panel Seal (Tudor, Coupe, and Fordor)

4110

Fig. 10—Showing Underside of Rocker Panel at
Center Pillar (Fordor)

Section 1 —Construction Details

207
QUARTER W I N D O W ASS'Y
__ ^
_
WEATHER STRIP

FINISH STRIP
REGULATOR PANEL

MOULDING W s i X ^ ^ X J

PANEL ASS'Y ROOF
HEADLINING ASS'Y

QUARTER

w ^
„.

^^.m1UM^
J

^-REVEAL
M O U L D I NG
UARTER PANEL

VENTILATING QUARTER
WINDOW

STATIONARY QUARTER
WINDOW

Fig, 11—Showing Section of Root Panel & Quarter Panel
at Upper Corner of Door (Tudor and Coupe)

Fig. 73—Showing Section of Quarter Panel and
Quarter Window (Tudor and Coupe)

DOOR BO
WEATHER STRIP;
INSIDE
DOOR PANEL
DOOR OUTSIDE
PA

REINFORCEMENT LOW
W I N D O W OPENING

FLOOR CARPET
FRONT FLOOR
CROSS MEMBER ASS'Y
R SILENCER
SEALER
RUBBER MAT

OUTSIDE DOOR PANEL
REINFORCEMENT BODY
SIDE LOWER EDGE
FINISH STRIP
ASSEMBLY DOOR

ET ASS'Y

ASHE
NUT
BOLT
SPACER

4112

Fig. 12—Showing Section of Rocker Panel and Front
Floor Cross Member (Fordor, Tudor, and Coupe)

Fig. 14—Showing Section of Door at Belt Line
(Fordor, Tudor, and Coupe)

208

Chapter I—Bodies

AINER
WIND LA
DOOR TRIM PANEL
T HEAD BOLTS
REINFORC

ROOF PANEL
SILENCER
SEALER BETWEEN ROOF
PANEL AND DRIP^"
LINING SUPPO
HEAD LINING ASS'Y
ROOF RAIL
REINFORCEMENT

ROOF
J
CENTER^PILLAR

FRONT
DOOR
DE PANEL

CENTER PILLAR REAR HALF

WEATHERSTRIP
(CEMENT SECURELY!

Fig, 15—Showing Section of Roof Panel & Drip Rail at
Center Pillar (Fordor)
^HEADLINING ASS

Fig. 17—Showing Section of Front Hinge Pillar at
Upper Hinge (Fordor, Tudor, and Coupe)

SILENCER
-ROOF PAN

HEADLIN
RETAINER

ROOF RAIL
ROOF RAIL
REINFORCEMENT
SEALER BETWEEN
ROOF PANEL AND
DRIP MOULDI

WEATHER CORD ASS'Y

•*-DRIP MOULDING
TACKING STRIP*

DOOR
INSIDE PANEL

WIND LACE AND
REINFORCEMENT ASS'Y

MOULDING AND
WEATHERSTRIP ASS'Y
^S

D O W REINFORCEMENT/

ASS'Y GARNISH
MOULDING AND
WEATHER STRIP

EXTENSION
CENTER
PILLAR
FRONT
INSIDE PANEL
FRONT DOOR OUTSIDE P p L | | ( | | | | |
l! I I^SWEATHERSTRI

Fig. it—Showing Section of Root Panel, Drip Rail,
Upper End of Door (Fordor, Tudor, and Coupe)

Fig. IB—Showing Section of Center Pillar above
Belt Line (Fordor)

Section 1—Construction Details

\ \ ^ DOOR FINISH S
7 W
HINGE (NOTE-CEMENT SECUREL

209

VENT WINDOW
WEATHERSTRIP

TACKING STRI
IELD FINISH STRIP
:\
SCREW
WINDSHIELD GLASS
Black Rubber Cement and
Sealer
\\
WINDSHIELD MOULDIN

FRONT
INSIDE PA
^WIND LACE A
REINFORC

WINDSHIELD WEATHERS

(Applied
//,Over
Pinchweld)

\
FRONT ROOF
SIDE RAIL REINFORCEMENT

OOR WEATHER STRIP
Cement Securely

4118

Fig. 19—Showing Section of Center Pillar Below Door
Handle (Fordor)

Fig. 21—Showing Section of Front Roof Side Rail
(Fordor, Tudor, and Coupe)
WINDSHIELD WEATHER
IELD HEADER

DIVISION BAR

DUST AND WATER LEVEL
WEATHERSTRIP
PACKAGE TRAY
WINDSHIELD GLASS
CHROME
FINISH STRIP
ROOF PANEL

MOULDING
HOOD PANEL
41!

Fig. 20—Showing Section of Rear Window and Deck
(Fordor, Tudor, and Coupe)

Fig. 22—Windshield Header and Lower Edge
(all Models)

Chapter I—Bodies

210

2. ALIGNMENT
This section describes the methods used to perform
this important segment of body repairing. In many cases
of body damage, a section will require aligning as well
as refinishing. Failure to properly align some body sections can be the cause of excessive rattling and vibration.
The procedures for aligning doors, fenders, and deck
lids as well as information concerning the aligning of a
complete body assembly are given below.

a. Doors.
Before attempting any door aligning, make sure the
body mounting bolts are tightened to the correct torque
as shown in fig. 23.
To correct door misalignment, it is usually necessary
to shift the door in one direction or another. Before
attempting to align a door, make a visual inspection to
determine in what direction the door can be shifted. As
an example, a door that is sagged cannot in some cases
be corrected by spreading the lower door hinge. The
first step is to determine the space available between
the door and the opening in the body. This will establish
where and how the door can be shifted to obtain proper
alignment.
A sagged door is usually caused by the door being
opened beyond the limit of the hinge or check strap.
This shifts the door close to the lock pillar, and it will

not close without scraping the door trim panel against
the lock pillar.
The procedures given below take into account all the
possible conditions and present the proper method for
the correction of misaligned doors.
(1) SAGGED DOOR. If it is determined that the
door can be shifted toward the lock pillar, place a fiber
block between the halves of the lower hinge. Close the
door to spread the lower hinge. Be careful not to overspread the hinge., Repeat this operation, varying the
thickness of the block if required, until the sag has
been corrected (fig. 24).
If inspection reveals that the door cannot be shifted
toward the lock pillar, it is necessary to work with the
upper hinge. The hinge in this case must be removed
and closed in (straightened to its original shape). Before
reinstalling the hinge, check the hinge mounting surfaces
on the pillar to make certain they are not pulled out of
shape. If necessary, place a spoon against the pillar, then
hammer against the back face of the spoon to bring
the metal back in place. Install the door hinge, and
cement the weatherstrip to the hinge pillar.
(2) TWISTED DOOR. If the door does not follow
the contour of the body, determine what part of the door
requires straightening, the upper, lower, or center portion. To do this type of repair, it is advisable to use tools
15 TO 18
18 TO 20

• 18 TO 20
• 18 TO 20

Jf 15 TO 18
TO 20
L *18
15
18
Jt 18 TO
/
TO 20

+ 15 TO 18
• 18 TO 20

/•••—

f

1*

15
• 18 TO 20
f 15 TO 18
• 18 TO 20
• CONVERTIBLE ONLY


HSs

18 TO 20
18 TO 20

f

ALL MODELS EXCEPT CONVERTIBLE

STATION W A G O N ONLY

t

COMPRESS RUBBER INSULATOR TO Vi
LESS THAN 7 FT. LBS.

Fig. 23—Body Bolt Torque Specifications

=•=• + 18 TO 20

18 TO 20
15 TO 18
18 TO 20
TO 18
TO 20

THICKNESS TORQUE TO BE NOT
4180

Section 2—Alignment

211

4162

Fig. 24—Fibre Block in Position at Lower Hinge
To Correct Sag

which are designed specifically for this type of work.
The illustrations shown in figs. 25 through 27 show the
proper method of mounting the bars and clamps to
accomplish the bending or twisting in order to obtain
proper door contour. If excessive bending is required to
change the contour on the door below the belt line,
apply heat as shown in fig. 25. If heat is required, remove all weather stripping and the trim panel from the
door. To prevent burning the paint, apply asbestos paste
around the area where the heat is to be applied.
To accomplish a bend or twist in the opposite direc-

4157

Fig. 25-—Tool in Position Ready to Pull Door Inward
at the Bottom

4158

Fig, 26—Tool in Position Ready to Pull Door Inward
at the Top

tion to the one shown in the illustrations, the bar is reversed so that pressure is applied to the outer side of
the door instead of the inner side.

4159

Fig. 27—Tool in Position Ready to Pull Both Top
and Bottom Inward

212

Chapter I—Bodies

b. Front Fenders.
The front fenders are mounted in such a manner that
either fender can be shifted fore or aft. It is this movement that regulates the clearance between the forward
edge of the door and the vertical edge of the fender. This
alignment is accomplished by loosening the three bolts
securing the rear edge of the fender to the cowl side
panel (fig. 28). Working in the engine compartment,
loosen the two cap screws at the upper rear corner of the
fender, then loosen the cap screw at the lower edge of
the fender as indicated in fig. 28.
Place a spoon between the edge of the door and
fender to shift the fender forward as shown in fig. 29.
To shift the fender toward the rear, place a pry bar
between the front tire and the lower rear edge of the
fender apron for leverage as shown in fig. 30. It is necessary to hold the fender to the desired position until
the fender bolts are tightened.

c. Deck Lid Alignment and Replacement.
The following information applies to deck lids that
are either twisted out of shape or do not follow the contour of the body. If the deck lid is seriously buckled, it
must be removed and the work done on a fixture.
(1) ALIGNMENT. It is important that proper deck
lid alignment be maintained at all times. An improperly
aligned deck lid allows water and dust to enter the lug-

4147

Fig. 29—Shifting Fender Forward

gage compartment resulting in considerable damage to
the interior. The deck lid alignment should be checked
at any time the deck lid is replaced or repaired or when*
ever the interior of the luggage compartment indicates
the entrance of moisture or dust.
To check the deck lid alignment, coat the edge of
the body flange with white chalk and close the lid so
the white chalk will be transferred to the weatherstrip.
If a chalk line is visible around the entire weatherstrip,
the deck lid is sealing properly.
If in the above deck lid alignment check no chalk
line is visible along the bottom part of the weatherstrip,

4146

Fig. 28—Location of Fender Bolts

Fig. 30—Shifting Fender Toward the Door

4148

Section 2—Alignment
adjust the striker plate. If the deck lid does not seal
properly after properly adjusting the striker plate, it
will be necessary to bend or twist the deck lid.
If trouble is experienced in sealing the deck lid on
early 1949 models, a breaker strip can be installed over
the edge of the drain gutter (fig. 31). This breaker strip
(8A-7043734) is available for service. If necessary,
straighten the drain gutter edge to eliminate any waves
or kinks in the metal. It is advisable to check the deck
lid after installing the breaker strip to make sure the
weatherstrip is sealing properly around the deck lid
opening as described above.
(a) TWISTED DECK LID. If the deck lid is twisted
so that it does not seat properly on one side, it can be
corrected by placing a rubber mallet between the deck
lid and the extension panel opposite the side that requires lowering as shown in fig. 32. Close the deck lid
to apply pressure against the mallet. This will force the
opposite side of the deck lid down. Do not apply excessive pressure against the mallet. Check the deck lid, and
if necessary repeat the above procedure.
(b) DECK LID DOES NOT FOLLOW CONTOUR OF
BODY. This condition may exist at several points along

the roof panel, extension panel, or the lower back panel.
If the deck lid does not follow the contour of the roof
panel, place a power jack between the floor pan and the
underside of the roof panel just back of the drain gutter
as shown in fig. 33. Raise the roof panel until the proper
contour is obtained. Do not apply excessive pressure
against the roof panel. Check the fit along the roof panel;
if necessary, repeat the operation.
If the deck lid does not fit the contour of the exterision panel along the sides above the tail light opening,
this condition can usually be corrected by the use of a
rubber mallet. First determine the approximate location, then strike the top surface of the extension panel as
shown in fig. 34. Care should be taken when using the
rubber mallet to make certain the blows are directed
with the flat face of mallet and close to drain gutter.

4077
Fig. 31 —Breaker Strip Installation

213

Fig. 32—Method Used to Correct Twist in Deck Lid

If the deck lid does not fit along the lower back panel,
this condition can be corrected as follows:
Place a piece of paper between the deck lid and lower
back panel. Close the deck lid, and pull the paper. If
the deck lid is sealing properly the paper cannot be
pulled out. Make this same check at both ends and at
the center next to the striker plate. If no contact is
obtained at the striker plate, adjust the striker plate.
If contact is made at both ends and not at the center
after the striker plate has been adjusted, place two
mallets at each corner and apply pressure against the
deck lid as shown in fig. 35.

4150

Fig. 33—Method Used to Raise the Rear Section of
the Roof Panel

Chapter I—Bodies

214

In some cases, the lower back panel may be hammered out toward the deck lid by striking the inner side
of the back panel with a rubber mallet. If the deck lid
is tight at the center and no contact is obtained at either
or both lower corners of the deck lid, two methods can
be used to make the correction. The first is to hold the
deck lid part way open, and with a rubber mallet, strike
the corner of the deck lid that is not making contact.
The other method is to place the mallet between the
deck lid and lower panel at approximately the center.
Apply pressure against the deck lid on the side that is
not making contact as shown in fig. 36.
(2) REPLACEMENT.
NOTE: When replacing the deck lid9 care should be
taken not to damage the body paint.
(a) REMOVAL. Raise the deck lid. Disconnect the
license plate light wire at the bullet connection (fig.
37). With an assistant to hold the deck lid up, remove
the screws that secure the support rod to the deck lid.
Remove deck lid hinge screws and the deck lid.
(b) INSTALLATION. Position the deck lid on the body.
If necessary, use a new rubber gasket under the hinges.
Line up each hinge with the mounting holes in the deck
lid. Install the deck lid hinge screws and tighten until
snug. Lower the deck lid, and check the fit along the
top and sides to assure proper alignment. Shift the deck
lid either up or to one side until the proper fit is obtained, then tighten the hinge screws.

NOTE: // the mounting holes in the deck lid are
not large enough to 'allow shifting of the deck lid9
elongate or enlarge the holes in the lid.

4151

Fig. 34-Method

Used to Fit Side of Deck Lid to
Extension Panel

Fig. 35-Method Used to Fit Deck Lid With Lower
Back Panel at Center

4152

Install the support rod. Connect the license plate
light wire at the bullet connection (fig. 37). If necessary, adjust the striker plate.

(3)

DECK LID WEATHERSTRIP REPLACE-

MENT. Remove the weatherstrip wire clips around
the deck lid flange. Pull the weatherstrip off the deck
lid. Use carbon tetrachloride to remove the old rubber
and cement. Do not use a metal scraper as this will
chip the paint along the edges.
To install a new weatherstrip, apply an adequate
amount of rubber cement (8A-19552) around the deck
lid flange and to the new weatherstrip. Allow the rubber cement to set for several minutes. Starting at any
one corner, position the weatherstrip around the deck
lid. The weatherstrip is made to size and should not be
stretched during installation as stretching will lengthen
the weatherstrip beyond the corners of the deck lid.
Install the wire clips that secure the weatherstrip to the
deck lid (fig. 37). Clean excess rubber cement off the
weatherstrip. If possible, the deck lid should remain
open until the rubber cement has set.

4153

Fig. 36—Method Used to Fit Lower Corner of Deck
Lid to Lower Panel

215

Section 2—Alignment
BULLET CONNECTION-LICENSE PLATE LIGHT WIRE
WEATHERSTRIP
HINGE
SCREWS

POINT B
REINFORCEMENT
QUARTER PANEL

LOCK SIDE AT

HEIGHT OF CREASE
LINE.

CORNER OF FLOOR PAN ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ f 0
AT CENTER OF PILLAR.
^ ^ S ^ J ^

DECK LID HINGES

4058

Fig. 37—Rear Deck Lid and Luggage Compartment

d. Body Alignment.
In many cases it is difficult to obtain proper body
alignment when repairing a body that is damaged on
both sides. The following illustrations (figs. 38 through
44) are primarily designed to assist in aligning bodies
without the use of another body as a sample.
All dimensions indicated in the various illustrations
are measured from the bare metal. This requires the
removal of the interior trim from the check points.
Although some of the dimensions indicated are in %4
inch, a Vs inch tolerance is permissible.
When checking alignment of a body that is badly

r P K i TEp f O' SFJ UMODCD
PPER
Jl i
HOLE ON
REINFORCEMENT
QUARTER PANEL
LOCK SIDE.
4131

CEN

Fig. 39—Quarter Panel (Tudor)

damaged, check and make the necessary frame corrections before attempting to align the body.
Badly damaged areas must be roughed out before
taking measurements for squaring up a body. Glass
should be removed to prevent breakage. Reinforcement
brackets and other inner construction often will have
to be removed or cut in severe cases to permit restoration of outer shell and pillars without excessive strain
on the parts. Of course after this these parts must be
straightened, reinstalled, and secured in place before
attempting to finally align the body.
In cases of severe or sharp bends, it may be neces-

POINT C
INSIDE OF PILLAR
UPPER CORNER.

LOWER EDGE OF
TACKING STRIP
REINFORCEMENT
AT CENTER LINE
OF N O .
ROOF BOW.

FOUNT A
REAR CORNER OF
FRONT PILLAR AT
FIOOR PLAN.

POINT B

POINT A
POINT C

FRONT PILLAR INNER EDGE
AT JOINT LINE OF ROOF RAIL.

4130

Fig. 38—Front Pillar (Fordor, Tudor, and Coupes)

CORNER OF FLOOR PAN
AT CENTER OF PILLAR.

INSIDE OF CENTER
PILLAR AT
CREASE LINE.
4132

Fig. 40-Center Pillar (Fordor)

Chapter I—Bodies

216

POINT F

POINT c

POINT D

EDGE OF
FLANGE EDGE
ROOF PANEL
OF CENTER
FLANGE AT
.PILLAR AT
ROOF RAIL.
ROOF RAIL.

END OF
REINFORCEMENT
ROOF SIDE RAIL
(TACKING STRIP)

POINT

POINT C
CORNER AT
CREASE LINE.
CENTER PILLAR
OUTER

FRONT PILLAR
JOINT LINE
WITH ROOF
X RAIL.'

POINT B
INSIDE OF
TACKING STRIP
RETAINER AT
CREASE LINE.

POINT A
CORNER OF TAB OF RETAINER
WINDLACE TACKING STRIP AT ROCKER PANEL.

POINT A
OUTER CORNER
OF PILLAR
AT ROCKER
PANEL.

4133

Fig. 41—Quarter Panel (Fordor)

sary to use heat. Any attempt to cold-straighten a
severely bent bracket may cause ruptures of the welds
(if any) and may also cause cracks in the bent part.
Never heat the area more than a dull red.

POINT B OUTER CORNER OF FRONT PILLAR AT ROCKER PANEL.

Fig. 43—Front Door Opening (Fordor)

3. QUARTER PANEL REPAIR
The rear fender is an integral part of the quarter
panel, and is in no way a separate or removable unit.
Although the outer panel is not removable, this does
not necessarily mean that the panel cannot be replaced.
With proper equipment, an experienced body repair man
can replace in whole or in part a damaged area in what

has been termed the rear fender. This is accomplished
by either of two methods: 1st, to repair and use original
panel. 2nd, to cut out the damaged area and replace with a
section of a repair panel (service panel 8A-7627846-7B).

FLANGE "EDGE OF QUARTER
PANEL AND ROOF RAIL.

POINT D
JOINT EDGE
OF ROOF RAIL
AT QUARTER
PANEL.

POINT C
FLANGE EDGE
PILLAR AT
ROOF RAIL.

PANEL FLANGE
AT ROOF RAIL.

POINT E
CORNER OF
QUARTER
PANEL AT
CREASE LINE.

POINT F

POINT B

PILLAR JOINT LINE
WITH ROOF RAIL.

POINT A

OUTER CORNER OF OUTER CORNER OF QUARTER
FRONT PILLAR AT
PANEL AT ROCKER PANEL.
4134
ROCKER PANEL.

Fig. 42—Tudor and Coupe Door Opening

CORNER OF
CENTER PILLAR
AT CREASE LINE.

POINT B

POINT A
OUTER CORNER
OUTER CORNER
OF CENTER PILLAR
AT ROCKER PANEL. OF CENTER PILLAR
AT ROCKER PANEL.

Fig. 44—Rear Door Opening IF ordor)

4136

Section 3—Quarter Panel Repaii

21?

DAMAGED AREA
OFF READY FOR CUTTING

4137
Fig. 45—Damaged Area Ready for Cutting

The procedure below gives complete information for
replacing a portion of the panel.
(a) Rough out and shape as much of the damaged
area as possible. Measure the piece of metal to be cut
out, see fig. 45. These measurements should be taken
from a definite point, such as a moulding or bead.
(b) Make the corresponding measurements on the service panel; be sure measurements are taken from the same
points. Scribe a line around the area to be cut from
service panel (preferably straight-line-cuts).
(c) Drill a Vi-inch hole at any one corner of the
scribed line as a starting point for cutting. Use a suitable cutting tool and cut the new piece out along the
scribed line as shown in fig. 46.
(d) Straighten the edge of the piece that was cut out,
and position it over the damaged area as a template.
Secure the cut-out section of the service panel over the
damaged area of the body and scribe a line around the
panel. Cut out damaged area, see fig. 47.
NOTE: If the piece to be replaced is at the pillar
post or at any point where the panel is spot-welded

Fig. 47—Cutting Damaged Section

to other parts of the body, such as the reinforcement
body side lower edge or wheelhousing assembly
(fig* 48), the damaged piece should be split at the
weld if possible. To split a spot-weld, use a thin,
sharp chisel, and drive it between the two pieces of
SPOT-WELDED TO PILLAR

WHEELHOUSE

SPOT-WELDED TO WHEELHOUSE ASSEMBLY
SPOT-WELDED TO REINFORCEMENT BODY SIDE LOWER EDGE 4 1 4 0

Fig. 48—Quarter Panel Showing Spot-Weld Locations

REPLACEMENT PANEL TACK WELDED IN POSITION

Fig. 46—^Cutting Matching Portion from Service Panel

4139

Fig. 49—Panel Tack-Welded in Position

4141

Chapter I—Bodies

218

4144

Fig. 50—Welding New Section in Place

Fig. 52—Smoothing Solder with a Paddle

metal at the weld. In difficult cases, a spot-weld may
be split by drilling a ty-inch hole into the center
of the weld.

(f) Hammer the weld below the contours of the surface (fig. 51) not more than V16-inch by using a grooving
dolly.
(g) Metal-finish repaired area and file smooth, taking
care to produce the correct contour.
(h) Grind the welded area clean, and tin.
(i) Fill in with solder (fig. 52), taking care that sufficient
solder is applied so that final metal finish will not have
indentations.
(j) Metal-finish the panel to prepare for painting.

(e) Straighten the cut edge on the panel. Fit the service
panel portion into the cut-out area in the body panel,
being sure they do not overlap. Tack-weld at intervals as
shown in fig. 49, then make a continuous weld around the
two pieces, welding about 6 inches at a time (fig. 50).
Stagger the welds to prevent excessive distortion.

4. GENERAL BODY MAINTENANCE
Everyone concerned with the servicing of cars should
assume the responsibility in seeing that each vehicle
has the proper care and gives complete performance
satisfaction. Just as competent engineers and machinists frequently clean their units and periodically tighten
all mountings, so should the same attention be given
to cars. Owners prefer to operate clean and rattle-free
vehicles. If the necessity for proper body maintenance

is explained to the owner, he Will usually request his
service organization to do this type of work for him.
The following methods should be used in performing
this important but often neglected phase of automobile
servicing.

a. Eliminating Rattles.
Most rattles are caused by a loose bolt or screw. All
METAL FINISH TO LEVEL BOTH SURFACES

WELD HAMMERED BELOW METAL SURFACE

TINNING OVER WELD

SOLDER OVER WELD

METAL FINISH

4143

Fig. 51 —Metal-Finishing Operations

Section 4— General Body Maintenance
bolts and screws should be tightened immediately after
the first 1000 miles of vehicle operation. Regular bolt
and screw inspection and tightening should be performed during all the years of usage. In the event
tightening the bolts and screws located on such assemblies as the doors, hood, and deck lid does not eliminate
the rattles, the trouble is probably caused by mis-alignment. If this is the case, follow the adjustment and
alignment procedures for these assemblies.
Rattles and squeaks are sometimes caused by weatherstripping and anti-squeak material slipping out of position. Applying additional cement or other adhesive and
replacing the material in the proper location will eliminate this difficulty.

b. Cleaning.
The interior of a car should be regularly cleaned
with a whisk broom or vacuum sweeper. Spots and dirt
can easily be removed from the cloth upholstery with
foam type upholstery cleaner. The inside metal trim

219

should be wiped with a damp cloth or chamois.
To clean leather upholstery, apply saddle soap to the
surfaces, and rub the soap with a damp cloth. Using
another cloth that has been dampened with clean water,
rub the leather until it is thoroughly dry. If desired,
liquid wax may be applied to the leather to assist in
restoring and maintaining the original luster.

NOTE: Never use cleaning fluids on leather as most
cleaning solutions contain ingredients that cause
leather to deteriorate.
The outside finish should be frequently washed. Never
wipe the painted surfaces with a cloth. Dusting the finish when dry tends to rub the dust arid dirt into the
baked enamel leaving a sandpaper effect on the surface.
Washing the vehicle whenever it has accumulated an
excessive amount of dirt and road salt will keep the
finish bright and attractive, and eliminates the necessity
of using polish. If the finish does become dull and unattractive, it may be restored to its original brilliancy
by applying liquid polish.

SERVICE LETTER REFERENCE
Letter No.

Date

Subject

Changes Information
on Page No.

Part FOUR

BODIES
Chapter

n
Hardware, Glass, Upholstery, and Flat Trim
Section

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

J

'

Page

Door Locking Mechanism
Window Regulators
Door and Quarter Glass
Windshield and Rear Window
Grille and Hood
Deck Lid Locking Mechanism../....
Door and Quarter Trim Panels
Headlining Replacement

.
i\

.

This Chapter describes the replacement and adjustmerit procedures for the hardware, glass, front end sheet
metal, upholstery, and trim panel assemblies as listed
in the index above.
Common sense should guide the body man in the replacement of hardware and glass. Until he is experienced,
he should concentrate on how the part was originally
installed. This particularly applies to screws, bolts, rubber weatherstrips, gaskets, etc. Many of the hardware
parts have two or three different lengths or size screws
holding them to the panels. When removing a part, note
the length of the screws, and see that they are installed
again in their original location.

220
224
225
231
234
235
. 238
. 241

When service operations are performed on the inside
of a car, special attention should be given to cleanliness. When replacing trim panels, place a cover over the
seats and other inside sections of the vehicle that may
become soiled from contact with dirty hands, tools, and
clothing. Replacing upholstery with clean hands will
prevent unnecessary cleaning after the work is finished,
When removing the body hardware, make sure the screw
driver is firmly inserted in the slots of the screws. An
unsightly scratch usually results when a screw driver is
permitted to "slip." If these simple precautions are
observed, much time and expense will be saved by both
the owner and the serviceman.

1. DOOR LOCKING MECHANISM
The locking mechanism consists of the door lock, lock
cylinder, inside and outside handles, striker plate, and
the linkage connecting these units. In order to assure
proper operation, all of these units must be taken into
consideration when service operations are performed. As
an example, a door lock will not function properly if the
remote control linkage or outside door handle is out of
adjustment. Door misalignment is also a direct cause for
lock failure. Doors that are not properly aligned will place
excessive strain on the engaging parts of the lock and
striker and cause premature wear. The locking mechanism must have lubricant to function properly. It is
important that all moving parts be lubricated when
service operations are performed. This not only applies
to the specific units being replaced or repaired, but also
to the related units. The repair and adjustment procedures for all the parts related to the locking mechanism
are described below.
rk • »j rk
u
ji
a. Outside Door Handle.
Two types of handles are used. The pull-type is used
on 1949 cars and the push button type on the 1950-51

cars. For service information on the various type handles,
see (1) and (2) below.
(1) PULL TYPE DOOR HANDLE (1949 CARS).
The handle release pin must have a clearance of not less
than l/m inch measured between the release pin and the
contact surface of the release lever on the door lock. This
clearance can be checked for free travel by operating the
outside door handle. If there is no clearance, the handle
must be removed, and the release pin shortened by
grinding or filing.
(a) REPLACEMENT. Remove the lock screw located
under the door weatherstrip on the face of the door,
Slide the door handle back toward the hinge pillar to
release the retaining tangs. Pull the handle away from
the panel opening as shown infig.1.
To install, enter the door handle into the opening of
the door. Push the handle toward the lock end of the
door until the retaining tangs are properly fastened to
the door outer panel. Install the door handle lock screw.
( b ) L u B R I C A T I O N . T h e mec hanism of the outside door
handle requires lubrication. If a squeaky or noisy operation is encountered, the door handle should be removed,

220

Section 1—Door Locking Mechanism
and 8L-19586-A lubricant or its equivalent should be
applied to the release pin of the handle mechanism.

(2) PUSH BUTTON

TYPE OUTSIDE DOOR

HANDLE (1950-51). If any service is required on the
outside door handle, it must be removed from the door.
If the push button does not return when pressed, this
usually indicates that the push button spring is broken.
If the door latch does not release when the push button is
pressed, the door handle must be removed, and the release pin checked for proper length. Make the necessary
adjustments as outlined in (a) below. If it is necessary
to replace the door handle, refer to (b) below.
(a) ADJUSTMENT. The outside door handle is provided
with an adjustment to obtain the correct clearance
between the face of the door lock release lever and the
release pin on the door handle (fig. 2).
To make this adjustment, remove the outside door
handle. Loosen the pal nut at the release pin, and either
lengthen or shorten the pin until the required length is
obtained ("A"fig.2).
Theoretical door handle release pin length settings
with or without gasket are as follows:
Without Gasket With Gasket
(inch)
(inch)
OA-70 Door
0.44
0.49
OA-72 Door
0.44
0.49
OA-73 Door—Front. .
0.53
0.58
OA-73 Door—Rear. ..
0.48
0.53
OA-76 Door. . . . . . . .
0.86
0.91
With the setting of the release pin to the required
length, the clearance between the release pin and the
door lock release arm should be from l{2 to l/fc inch when
the handle is installed.
After establishing the proper pin length, tighten the
pal nut to 40 inch-pounds or finger-tight, then tighten an
additional }/z turn with a wrench.
(b) REPLACEMENT. Remove the door trim panel.
Working through the access hole provided on the door
inner panel, remove the screw from the outside door
handle (fig. 3). Remove the screw located at the face of
the door just above door lock then remove door handle.

221

CLEARANCE BETWEEN DOOR
"D^DOOR^LOCK1
PAL NUT

D O O R

HANDLE A

PUSH BUTTON AND
GUIDE ASSEMBLY

. SSEMBLY_OUTSIDE

SPRING-PUSH BUTTON

WASHER—RELEASE PIN

THEORETICAL
RELEASE
PIN SETTING

P I N — D O O R HANDLE RELEASE
PAL NUT—RELEASE PIN
4078

Fig. 2—Outside Door Handle Release Pin Adjustment

To install, position the gaskets and handle on the door.
Install the screw at the face of the door and tighten.
Working through the access hole in the door handle,
install the screw at the other end of the handle. Install
trim panel and hardware.

b. Striker Plate,
Several types of striker plates are used. In order to
obtain proper door lock engagement, the following adjustments are required.
(1) 1949 CARS. The striker plate should be mounted
as far to the inside of the body as it will go. There is
no "in" or "out" adjustment. An "up" or "down"
adjustment is provided, and is only used to maintain
alignment along the top of door in relation to body.
(a) ADJUSTING " U P " OR "DOWN" MOVEMENT. Before

making any adjustments, the door should be properly
aligned. Adjust the striker plate either "up" or "down"
until the bottom surface of the locking bolt housing is
resting on the bottom surface of the striker plate.
To make the adjustment, loosen the four screws on
the striker plate. Leave a slight tension on the screws.
Close the door and allow the striker plate to locate
itself, then firmly tighten the screws.
(b) ADJUSTING LOCKING BOLT OVERLAP ON STRIKER
PLATE. Check the overlap of the locking bolt in the

striker plate (fig. 4). The overlap must not be less than
% inch, but can be more provided the door face does
not hit the striker plate when the door is opened or
closed. If the overlap is less than % inch, the striker
OUTSIDE
DOOR HANDLE

4025

Fig. 1-—Removing "Pull" Type Door Handle

OUTSIDE DOOR HANDLE SCREWS***"

Fig. 3-Outside

® W F ^

'

Door Handle (1950 Cars)

4079

Chapter II—Hardware, Glass/Upholstery, and Flat Trim

222

plate must be shimmed toward the door with shim, part
No. 8A-7022058.
NOTE: Do not hammer or bend the striker plate as
this will close the opening required for the latch
bolt, causing hard operation when closing the door.
(2) 1950-51 CARS. The striker plate and dovetail
(female) are die cast, the dovetail being an integral part
of the striker plate. Adjustments are provided for "up"
and "down" movement as well as "in" and "out".
NOTE: When making either of the following striker
plate adjustments, be sure the striker plate is at right
angles to the hinge center line. Also, whenever the
striker plate locking screws used on the early 1950
cars are disturbed, they should be replaced with the
flat head cross-recessed screw and lockwasher assent'
hly part number 352282-S8.
(a) ADJUSTING "UP" AND "DOWN" MOVEMENT. This
adjustment is provided to hold the door in alignment at
the top of the door, and also prevents up and down
movement when the door is closed. This is only a minor
adjustment, and is not intended to raise a door that has
excessive sag. If the door has a noticeable sag when
opened, the door must be aligned to avoid excessive
strain on the dovetail and the contact surface of the
striker. Failure to align the door properly will cause
premature wear on the striker plate. When properly
adjusted, the dovetail on the door should ride not less
than \{<L inch below the lower contact surface of the
striker as the door is being closed (fig. 5).
NOTE: // the sliding block requires replacement,
replace the complete striker plate assembly as the
sliding block is not serviced separately.
(b) ADJUSTING "IN" AND "OUT" MOVEMENT. Scribe
a pencil line along the top of the striker plate so as not
ck Face Of Striker Plate With Lock
Assembly In Locked Position.

LOCKING BOLT

SHIM

STRIKER PLATE
ASSEMBLY
LOCK

ROTOR
LOCK ASSEMBLY

4082

Fig. 5—Striker Plate Ad/usfmenf (1950-57 Cars)

to disturb the "up" and "down" adjustment. Loosen the
striker-plate screws. Move the striker plate either inward
or outward so the door will close with a normal swing,
yet hold the door tight enough to prevent the door from
rattling. Tighten the screws securely.
(c) ADJUSTING ROTOR OVERLAP ON STRIKER PLATE.

The door-lock rotor must have not less than %j inch
overlap when the door is closed ("A" fig. 5). Shims
(OA-7022058) may be added or removed to obtain proper
rotor overlap. If all shims have been removed and the
overlap exceeds the limits to the extent that the trim
panel or the face of the door rub the striker plate as. the
door is being closed, it is necessary to shift the door
away from the pillar.

c. Door Lock Cylinders (All Models).
When replacing a door lock cylinder, it is reccommended that a complete set be installed. The set includes
the ignition switch as well as both door lock cylinders.
This is to avoid carrying an extra key when only one
lock cylinder is replaced, because it is not possible to
adapt the old key to fit the replacement lock.
(1) REMOVAL. Loosen the lock screw, and pull the
cylinder out of the door (fig. 6).
(2) INSTALLATION. When installing the lock cyl-

Locking Soft Overlap
In Striker Plate.

LOCKING
BOLT HOUSING
Lower Surface Of Striker Plate.

Fig. 4-Striker

Lower contact surface
of striker plate

Riding Surface Of Striker Plate.
4081

Plate Adjustment (1949 Cars)

Fig. 6—Removing Door Lock Cylinder Assembly

4085

Section 1—Door Locking Mechanism

Fig. 9—Removing Remote Control Assembly

Fig. 7—Installing Door Lock Cylinder Assembly

4086

inder, turn the key in the lock cylinder to the unlocked
position. If the trim panel was not removed, use a long
straight pin as a pilot for reinstalling the lock cylinder
as shown in Fig. 7. Push the straight pin through the
trim panel and on through the door lock assembly.
With the lock cylinder in position, press the end of the
lock shaft against the straight pin to pilot the lock into
the lock assembly. Tighten the lock cylinder set screw.

d. Remote Control Linkage.
The following information applies to all models.
(1) ADJUSTMENT. For proper lock operation, the
remote control linkage must be adjusted for a maximum
clearance of \{§ inch between the retaining rivet and the
slot in the remote control link (fig. 8). Elongated holes
are provided in the mounting bracket to make this
adjustment. Loosen the screws and shift the bracket.
(2) REPLACEMENT. Remove the door trim panel.
Remove the screws at the remote control mounting
bracket. Swing the remote control link downward to
release it from the lock assembly as shown in fig. 9.

223

4088

To install, hook the remote control link to the lock
assembly. Install the screws at the mounting bracket.
Adjust the remote control link to obtain a clearance of
X$ inch at the lock, then tighten the screws.

e. Door-Lock Replacement.
Although the lock assemblies used on the 1949 and
1950-51 cars differ in construction, the procedure is
basically the same.
(1) REMOVAL. It is not necessary to remove the
door finish strip when replacing the lock. Release the
trim clips and slide the trim panel out of the door finish
strip. Remove the remote control linkage. Remove the
door lock cylinder. To allow clearance to remove the
lock, remove the screw at the lower end of the glass run.
On some early 1949 models the glass run is fastened
with a rivet. Remove the four lock assembly screws.
Move the glass run to one side and lower the lock
assembly out of the door as shown in fig. 10.
(2) INSTALLATION.
Before installing the lock assembly, apply 8L-19586-A lubricant or its equivalent to
all movable parts. Work the lock (with the inside lock
rod attached if working on front doors) into position

REMOTE
CONTROL
LINK

4087

Fig. 8—Remote Control Linkage Adjustment

Fig. 10—Removing Lock Assembly

4089

224

Chapter II—Hardware, Glass, Upholstery, and Flat Trim

behind the glass run. Install the three screws at the face
of the door, then install the screw on the panel to assure
proper alignment of the lock (fig. 11).
Install the screws previously removed from the glass
run. If the glass run was fastened with a rivet, install a
screw, washer, and nut in its place. Install the remote
control linkage. Install the lock cylinder assembly.
Install the trim panel and hardware.

VHCI

70
72
73
73
76
79

1949
1950
A
B
A
B
DOOR...
.55
25
.49.. .22
.55
DOOR25
.49... ...22
DOOR (FRONTl.. 16
.55
.49......19
.63
DOOR (REAR). ...,20
.63... ...15
DOOR- ,
.....62
.55
.49... ...63
....32
.55
DOOR...
.34.. ..-63

f. Door Inside Locking Button and
Control Rod Assembly.
The inside locking button must be free of binds in the
finish strip and set to the correct height to assure proper
operation. See fig 12 for correct height of the door locking button. If the locking button slips on the rod, it must
be replaced.
The rear doors are equipped with a bell crank and a
vertical rod which is fastened to the door lock (fig. 13).
The bell crank and the anti-rattle covering the vertical
rod must be lubricated in order to obtain free operation.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the door trim panel. Remove
the inside locking button. On front doors, the lock assembly must be removed in order to release the vertical rod.

4092
Fig. 72—Correct Height of Door Inside Locking Button

On rear doors, remove the cap screw at the bell crank
(fig. 13). Bend the tabs off the horizontal rod. Lower the
crank to remove vertical and horizontal control rods.
(2) INSTALLATION.
To install the control rod at
the front door, fasten the control rod to the lock assembly, see e. above. To install the control rods at the rear
door, fasten both rods to the bell crank (fig. 13). Fasten
the horizontal rod to the door lock. Position the bell
crank on the door, and install the cap screw. Install
door trim panel and hardware.
>

2. WINDOW REGULATORS
Glass regulator failure is usually due to either lack of
lubricant, or the regulator is out of adjustment causing
the glass to bind in the glass runs. Various adjustments
are provided to maintain proper regulator operation.
Information in this section covers necessary adjustment
DIVISION BAR SCREWS

DIVISION BAR

GLASS REGULATOR
ADJUSTING SCREW

DOOR
HANDLE
LOCK
SCREW
REMOTE CONTROL
ASSEMBLY

and replacement procedures of regulator assembly.

a. Removal.
Remove the door trim panel. It is not necessary to
remove the inside finish strip. Remove the spring retainers from the regulator arms, then remove the regulator arm from the glass channel (fig. 14). Lift the glass to
the closed position. The glass can be held in the closed
BUTTON-PUSH ROD LOCK CONTROLVERTICAL PUSH ROD—LOCK CONTROL
BELL CRANK—LOCK CONTROLHORIZONTAL PUSH ROD-LOCK CONTROL.

DOOR
LATCH
SCREWS

REMOTE CONTROL
AND LINK ASSEMBLY

LOWER
GLASS
RUN
SCREW
REGULATOR SCREWS
SPRING RETAINERS
GLASS CHANNEL

Fig. 11—Trim Removed From Front Door

4031

4093

Fig. 13—Rear Door Inside Locking Button Linkage

Section 2—Window Regulators
position by wrapping several pieces of masking tape over
the door sticking the tape to each side of the glass.
Remove the division bar lower retaining bracket screws
to allow clearance when removing the regulator assembly
(fig. 14). Remove the regulator screws. Spread the lower
part of the division bar away from the inner panel, and
lower the regulator assembly to the bottom of the door.
Remove the regulator assembly.

b. Installation.
Before installing the regulator assembly, apply 8L19586-A lubricant or its equivalent to all movable parts.
Spread the lower part of the division bar away from
the door inner panel, and raise the regulator assembly
above the division bar lower retaining bracket. Install
the regulator screws, but do not tighten them at this
time (fig. 14). Install the felt washers at each of the
regulator arms. It is important that these felt washers
be*installed, otherwise the arms will rattle in the door.
Lower the glass and attach the glass channel to the
regulator arms. Install the spring retainers at each regu-

225

lator arm. Adjust the regulator as outlined below.

NOTE: A more specific regulator adjusting procedure for convertibles is described in Chapter HI.

c. Adjustment.
With the glass down, adjust the lower part of the
division bar so the glass does not bind in the glass runs.
Install the division bar lower retaining screws. Raise the
glass, and check thefitalong the top. If necessary, shift
the complete regulator assembly so the glass contacts
evenly, then tighten the four regulators screws (fig. 14).
Lower the door glass to its lowest position. The top
edge of the glass should be even with the top edge of
the outer door panel. If any adjustment is necessary,
loosen the lock nut at the eccentric regulator stop. Turn
the stop until the glass is at its proper height as shown
infig.15. Install the door trim panel and hardware.

NOTE: / / the proper height cannot be obtained with
the stop adjustment either raise or lower the complete regulator and repeat above adjustment.

3. DOOR AND QUARTER GLASS
It is essential that correct door glass, quarter glass,
and ventilator adjustment be maintained at all times.
An improperly adjusted window glass or ventilator
assembly will cause excessive rattling and permits water
and cold air to enter into the vehicle. These annoying
conditions can readily be eliminated by following the
simple but necessary methods of adjusting the window
glass and ventilators described in this section.

a. Door Glass and Ventilator Replacement
and Adjustment.
Because of the differences in design, the following
replacement and adjustment procedures for cars and
convertibles are described separately.

(1) PASSENGER CARS (EXCEPT

CONVERT-

retaining screws located along the-upper part of the door
(fig. 16). On 1950-51 models, one. of these screws is
located at the top end of the division bar. Remove the
screws at both the division bar center and lower retain-'
ing brackets.
Lower the glass, and remove the spring retainers from
the regulator arms as shown infig.17. Lift the glass to
the closed position. Tilt the upper end of the division
bar inward to allow sufficient clearance at the top for
removal of the glass. Carefully lift the glass out of the
door as shown infig.18.
(b) REMOVE VENTILATOR ASSEMBLY.

Remove door glass. Swing the ventilator assembly to
the position shown infig.19. Spread the inner panel to
allow sufficient clearance for the lower bracket of the

IBLES). The following procedures apply to both the
front and rear doors.
(a) REMOVE DOOR GLASS. Remove the inside finish

strip and door trim panel. Remove the ventilator frame
DOOR GLASS

SPRING RETAINERS

GLASS REGULATOR ASSEMBLY
DIVISION BAR LOWER
BRACKET RETAINING SCREWS'

GLASS REGULATOR
ASSEMBLY RETAINING
SCREWS

Fig. 74—Door Regulator Assembly

4028

4026

Fig. 15—Adjusting Door Glass Height

226

Chapter II—Hardware, Glass, Upholstery, and Flat Trim
DIVISION BAR CENTER BRACKET SCREWS
VENTILATOR FRAME
SCREWS

DIVISION
BAR

Fig. 18—Removing Door Glass
GLASS REGULATOR ASSEMBLY
^
GLASS" REGULATOR SCREWS
DIVISION BAR LOWER RETAINING BRACKET SCREWS
4027

Fig. 16—Door Assembly with Trim Removed
division bar when lifting assembly out of the door.
(c) ADJUST VENTILATOR PIVOT. The ventilator assembly must be removed in order to make this adjustment.
If the ventilator operates too freely, or will not stay
open, increase the spring tension by tightening the adjusting nut (fig. 20). If the ventilator binds or is hard to
operate, decrease the spring tension by loosening the
adjusting nut. Apply lubricant 8L-19586-A to the ventilator pivot before installation.
(d)

REMOVE VENTILATOR GLASS FROM FRAME.

NOTE: If is not necessary to remove the complete
ventilator assembly when replacing only the glass.
Apfcly carbon tetrachloride between the glass and
frame. Allow the carbon tetrachloride to soak into the
weatherstrip for several minutes, then pull the glass out
of the frame. In difficult cases, it may be necessary to
pry upper and lower ends of frame away from glass.
(e) INSTALL VENTILATOR GLASS IN FRAME. Before
installing the glass, thoroughly clean the glass channel.
If the ends of the frame were pried apart, the frame
should be straightened to its original shape.
Place a new weatherstrip over the edge of the glass.

Apply a thin film of liquid soap around the weatherstrip, then insert the glass in the frame. Force the glass
in the frame until it is flush with the upper and lower
ends of the frame. Trim off the excess weatherstrip.
(f) INSTALL VENTILATOR ASSEMBLY. Lubricate all
movable parts with 8L-19586-A lubricant or its equivalent. Position the ventilator assembly in the door. Do
not secure the assembly until the door glass has been
installed as described below.
(g) INSTALL DOOR GLASS. Start the door glass in the
glass runs. Connect the regulator arms to the glass
channel making sure the felt washers are in position on
each regulator arm. Install the spring retainers (fig. 17).
To prevent damaging the reveal moulding or the
paint, use a cord (chalk line) to pull lip of the ventilator
weatherstrip over the reveal moulding as shown in fig. 21.
Install the ventilator assembly retaining screws (fig.
16). Raise the door glass and check for proper fit along
the top edge of the window opening. If the door glass
does not contact evenly, loosen the regulator screws and
shift the regulator assembly to the desired position.

4032

Fig. 7 7—Removing Spring Retainers from Regulator Arms

4033

Fig. 19—Removing Ventilator

Assembly

4035

Section 3—Door and Quarter Glass

227

ADJUSTMENT NUT
Turn counter clockwise to decrease
spring tension. Turn clockwise to
increase spring tension.

4036
Fig. 20—Location of Ventilator Adjusting Nut

Tighten the screws after making adjustment.
Install the trim panel and hardware. Lower the glass,
and position the window finish strip on the door. Adjust
the finish strip to fit flush with the edges of the trim
panel. Hold the finish strip tight against the weatherstrip, and lift the lip of the ventilator weatherstrip over
the finish strip (fig. 22). Install finish strip screws.
(2) CONVERTIBLES. See Chapter III for convertible door glass and ventilator assembly adjustment.
(a)

DOOR GLASS AND FRAME ASSEMBLY REPLACE-

MENT. Remove the inside locking button. Remove the
finish strip and door trim panel. Remove the spring
retainers at the regulator arms. Release the regulator
arms from the glass channel. Lift the glass and frame
assembly out of the door.
To install, lower the glass and frame assembly into
the door. Place the felt washers over the pins on the
regulator arms. Connect the regulator arms to the glass
channels and install the spring retainers. If necessary,
adjust the glass travel as described in Chapter III.
(b) VENTILATOR AND FRAME ASSEMBLY

REMOVAL.

4034
Fig. 22—Installing Inner Weatherstrip

Remove the screws securing the ventilator frame assembly to the door (fig. 23). Remove the complete assembly.
(c)

DISASSEMBLY OF VENTILATOR AND FRAME ASSEM-

BLY. Figure 24 illustrates the ventilator assembly with
the parts arranged in the order of their assembly. If only
the glass is to be replaced, it is not necessary to remove
the complete assembly from the door.
The complete 1950-51 ventilator assembly is interchangeable with the 1949 assembly. Do not attempt to

Remove the door glass and frame assembly, see (a) above.

VENTILATOR ASSEMBLY
RETAIN!*

Fig. 2J— Pulling Ventilator Weatherstrip Over
Reveal Moulding

4037

VENTILATOR ASSEMBLY RETAINING NUTS-A

R PAD

4039

Fig. 23—Convertible Door with Trim Removed

228

Chapter II—Hardware, Glass, Upholstery, and Flat Trim
VENTILATING WINDOW
ASSEMBLY-21406

UPPER PIVOT
HINGE SCREWS-21480

RETAINER AND DIVISION
BAR ASSEMBLY-22204

WEATHERSTRIP ASSEMBLY

21448

UPPER PIVOT
ilNGE-22976

.HINGE SIDE RUN

RIVET
I 351922-S
1 PIN
1352471-S

PIVOT STOP-R.H.PIVOT STOP-L.H.-22993
SPRING-22926
NUT-351141-S
~

%VASHER
22982

BRACKET AND HANDLE
SHAFT ASSEMBLY-22938

21546

/
/

SPRJNG
22986
LOCKING KEY
22920
HANDLE
22916

4038

Fig. 24-Converfib/e Ventilator and Frame Assembly

interchange individual parts.
(d) INSTALL VENTILATOR AND FRAME ASSEMBLY. When
installing the complete ventilator assembly in the door,
do not tighten any screws until the adjustments are made
to assure proper fit with the top weatherstrip.
Position the ventilator assembly in the door. Install
the screws that secure the ventilator frame to the door
DIVISION BAR UPPER BRACKET SCREW
REGULATOR PANEL SCREWS
QUARTER
\
j
REGULATOR PANEL
GLASS ASSEMBLY \
f
I
GLASS REGULATOR ASSEMBLY

DIVISION BAR CENTER
\
REGULATOR ASSEMBLY SCREWS
BRACKET SCREWS
\
REGULATOR PANEL SCREWS
DIVISION BAR LOWER BRACKET SCREWS
4059

Fig. 25—Tudor Quarter Trim Panel Removed

(fig. 23). Install the door glass and frame, see (a) above.

b. Quarter Glass and Ventilator
Replacement and Adjustment,
The following procedures begin with trim removed.
(1) TUDOR. Because the removal of the ventilator
assembly is so closely related with that of the quarter
window glass, these instructions can also be followed
when replacing the quarter ventilator assembly.
(a) REMOVAL. Remove the screws that secure the
division bar to the quarter panel (fig. 25).
Raise the glass to approximately one inch from the
top, then remove the spring retainers that secure the
regulator arms to the quarter-glass channel as shown

SPRING RETAINERS

Fig. 26—Removing Spring Retainers from
Regulator Arms

4047

Section 3—Door and Quarter Glass

229

in 26. Tilt the ventilator assembly inward at the top to
allow sufficient clearance to remove the glass from the
panel, and carefully lift glass out of panel (fig. 27).
If the ventilator assembly requires replacement, remove the regulator panel assembly as follows:
Remove the screws that secure the regulator panel to
the body (fig. 25). Push the regulator panel toward the
rear of the body to release the forward end of the panel
from the pillar flange, then remove the regulator panel.
The ventilator assembly can now be removed. If the
regulator assembly requires replacing, remove the three
screws that secure it to the regulator panel.
(b) INSTALLATION. If the ventilator assembly has been
removed, proceed with (1) below. If only the quarter
window has been removed, proceed with (2) below.
NOTE: Lubricate all movable parts with 8L-19586-A
lubricant or its equivalent before installation. Do
not apply lubricant to the glass runs,
(1) VENTILATOR ASSEMBLY. Check the operation of
the ventilator before installation. The proper tension on
the ventilating glass can be maintained by adjusting the
nut located at the lower pivot post. Position the ventilator assembly in the quarter panel. Do not install the
screws at this time. If the regulator assembly has been
removed from the regulator panel, position it on the
panel and install the three screws, then install the
regulator and panel as an assembly. Install the screws
that secure the panel, but do not tighten them.
(2) QUARTER GLASS ASSEMBLY. Carefully start the
quarter glass down into the channel provided in the
division bar. Attach the glass channel to the regulator
arms, and install the spring retainers. Lower the quarter
glass. Install the ventilator weatherstrip over the reveal
moulding. To prevent damaging the outside reveal
moulding, use a cord (chalk line) to pull the lip of the

ventilator weatherstrip over the reveal moulding (fig. 28).
(c) ADJUST QUARTER GLASS. liaise the quarter glass
about half way, and adjust the division bar so the glass
does not bind. Tighten the screws that secure the division bar so the glass does not bind. Tighten the screws
that secure the division bar center bracket to the quarter
panel. Install the screw at upper end of division bar.
With the quarter glass all the way down, adjust the
lower part of the division bar so the glass does not bind
in the glass runs when raised or lowered. Install the
screws at the lower end of the division bar. Raise the
quarter glass, and check the alignment at the top.
Elongated holes are provided in the regulator panel for
making the adjustment. If the glass does not contact
evenly along the top, it is necessary to either raise or
lower the forward end of the regulator panel until the
proper alignment is obtained. Tighten the regulator
QUARTER

ASSEMBLY

FINISH STRIP RETAINING SCREWS (6)

Fig. 27—Removing Quarter Glass

4048

4049

Fig. 28—Installing Outer Weatherstrip

PILLARAIGHT

ASSIST STRAP

4060

Fig. 29—Chjb Coupe Quarter Glass with Trim Installed

Chapter II—Hardware, Glass, Upholstery, and Flat Trim

230
FINISH STRIP

VENTILATOR FRAME A N D GLASS ASSEMBLY

WEATHERSTRIP

LOCK PLATE

4054

PIVOT STOP
THRUST WASHERS
FRICTION WASHER

4052
Fig. 30—Club Coupe Quarter Glass Assembly

panel screws after making the adjustment. Install the
trim panel and hardware.
(2) CLUB COUPE. If only the glass is to be serviced,
it is not necessary to remove the complete assembly.
(a) REMOVAL. Remove the assist strap and pillar light
(fig. 29). Remove the finish strip retaining screws. Pry
the upper end of the finish strip away from the quarter
panel, then raise the assembly out of the quarter panel.
(b) DISASSEMBLY. Remove the nut, spring, and

washers from the lower pivot (fig. 30). Remove the lock
plate and the upper pivot pin. Push the upper part of
the frame and glass assembly out of the finish strip, then
lift the assembly out of the finish strip. Note the locations of the washers on the lower pivot so they can be
installed in their original positions. Pull the weatherstrip out of the channel in the finish strip.
(c) ASSEMBLY. Insert the weatherstrip into the finish
strip channel as shown in fig. 31. Be sure the holes provided for the pivots in the weatherstrip are aligned with
the holes in the finish strip. Place the pivot stop and
thrust washer in position on the lower retaining bracket
(fig. 30). Insert the lower pivot of the glass and frame
assembly into the finish strip.
In order to insert the upper part of the frame assembly
into the finish strip, pull a small portion of the weather-

Fig. 31—Installing Weatherstrip

4053

Fig. 32—Entering Upper Part of Ventilator into
Finish Strip

strip out of the channel as shown in fig. 32. Pull the
weatherstrip over the upper pivot, then press both the
weatherstrip and ventilator into position.
Install the upper pivot pin. Tighten the pivot pin until
the ventilator frame is evenly spaced along the top and
bottom of the weatherstrip. Install the lock plate. Position the thrust washer, friction washer, and spring on
the lower pivot. Install the nut, and adjust it until the
ventilator operates freely. Lubricate the pivot with
8L-19586-A lubricant or its equivalent.
(d) INSTALLATION. Insert a cord (chalk line) around
the outer lip of the quarter glass weatherstrip. The use
of the cord will prevent damaging the reveal moulding
or paint when pulling the outer lip of the weatherstrip
over the reveal moulding. Place the quarter glass
assembly in position on the body. Holding the assembly
firmly against the body, pull the cord to position the
lip of the weatherstrip over the reveal moulding (fig. 33).
Align holes and install the finish-strip screws.
Connect the pillar light wires and position the pillar

4055
Fig. 33—Positioning Weatherstrip Over Reveal Moulding

Section 3—Door and Quarter Glass
light on the finish strip. Install the assist strap. Install
the frame and lens on the pillar light.
(3) BUSINESS COUPE. The Business Coupe quarter
glass differs from that used on the Club Coupe in that
it is sealed in the quarter panel.
(a) REMOVAL. Remove the pillar light (fig. 34). Remove the finish strip screws. Pull the upper part of the
finish strip out at the top, then lift the finish strip off
the quarter panel.
Working from the outside of the body, carefully push
the quarter glass inward until it is out of the quarter
panel as shown in fig. 35. Carefully remove the rubber
weatherstrip from the glass.
(b) INSTALLATION. Remove the old sealer from the
glass channel in the weatherstrip and around the quarter
window opening. Install the weatherstrip on the quarter
glass. Apply rubber cement (8A-19552) between the
glass and weatherstrip. Apply M-5397-A sealer around
the window opening.

231

Place the glass in the quarter window opening. Position the finish strip firmly against the quarter glass and
install the screws. Tighten the screws evenly to assure
proper sealing of the quarter glass. Connect the pillar
light wires, and install the pillar light on the finish strip.
(4) CONVERTIBLE
COUPE. The following procedure covers the removal and installation of the quarter
glass assembly.
(a) REMOVAL. Remove the quarter trim panel. Disconnect the glass regulator arm from the quarter glass
channel (fig. 36). Remove the recess screw plugs at the
face of the quarter pillar. Remove the recess screws.
Swing the quarter glass assembly to the position shown
in fig. 37, then lift the assembly out of the quarter panel.
(b) INSTALLATION. Lubricate the quarter glass hinge
with a light engine oil. Insert the quarter glass in position in the quarter panel (fig. 37). Install the recess
screws. Do not tighten the screws until the quarter glass
adjustments are made. Connect the regulator arm in
the glass channel. Install the trim panel.

4. WINDSHIELD AND REAR WINDOW
When installing windshield and rear window glass,
several precautions are necessary to ensure proper sealing against water leaks. It is essential that all old cement
and broken glass be removed from the glass channel in
the rubber weatherstrip. The body flange should be
inspected thoroughly for roughness or uneven edge. It is
recommended that genuine Ford approved glass be used
to ensure proper fit in the body.

a. Windshield Replacement.
The procedure for the replacement of the windshield
is given below.
(1) REMOVAL. Working inside the car, remove the
upper and lower plates from the windshield center retainer. Remove the inner and outer center retainers.
Remove the finish strip. Remove the windshield-wiper
arm. Loosen the inner side of weatherstrip around the
QUARTER GLASS

FINISH STRIP SCREWS (6)
V

body flange (fig. 38).
From inside the car and with the flat of the hand, apply
pressure at the upper corner of the windshield. Use
gloves to protect the hands when performing this operation. After the glass is out at the corner, continue to
apply pressure, working toward the center until the glass
is completely off the body flange. If equipped, remove the
chrome strip from the weatherstrip. Remove the glass
from the weatherstrip as shown in fig. 39.
(2) INSTALLATION.
Before installing the windshield, clean all the old cement and broken glass from
the body flange and the channel in the rubber. Inspect
the body flange for rough or uneven edges. If inspection
shows a rough or uneven edge, apply cellulose tape over
the surface to provide a smooth surface for sealing.
Insert the glass into the center section of the weatherstrip and stretch the weatherstrip around the glass. Be

PILLAg LIGHT

FINISH STRIP
4056
Fig. 34—Business Coupe Quarter Glass with Trim Installed

4057
Fig. 35—Removing Quarter Glass from Business Coupe

232

Chapter II—Hardware, Glass, Upholstery, and Flat Trim
QUARTER GLASS

REGULATOR ARM

4070

Fig. 38—Loosening Windshield Weatherstrip from
Body Flange

4067

Fig. 36—Convertible Quarter Panel with Trim Removed

certain the glass is well imbedded in the channel. Apply
rubber cement, 8A-19552, between the glass and weatherstrip on both sides of the glass. Install a strong cord
(chalk line) completely around the inner lip of the
weatherstrip, and position the windshield in the opening
as shown in fig. 40.
If equipped, install the outside chrome strip. If the
complete windshield has been removed, install the
chrome strip on the bench before positioning the assembly
on the body. Make certain the finish strip is properly
seated into the outer lip of the weatherstrip.

Fig. 39—Removing Glass from Weatherstrip

4071

NOTE: A light application of liquid soap to the
weatherstrip will facilitate installation. Do not use
oil or grease.
Press the glass firmly against the body flange, and
pull the cord starting along the top and working around
the corners, as shown in fig. 41. After withdrawing the
cord, carefully strike the glass with the palm of the hand
to seat the weatherstrip tightly over the body flange.

4045

Fig. 37—Quarter Glass Assembly Replacement
(Convertible)

Fig. 40—Windshield Ready for Installation

4072

233

Section 4—Windshield and Rear Window

4044
Fig. 41— Pulling Draw Cord

4073

Position the rubber plugs at each end of the defroster
slot. Install the inside finish strip. The screws should be
drawn up uniform and snug, but not excessively tight.
Install the inner and outer center retainers. An assistant
is required to locate and hold the outer retainer while
the screws are installed (fig. 42). Draw the screws up
until snug. Install the upper and lower plates at the center retainer. Install the wiper arm assembly. Remove
excess cement, and water-test for leaks.

b. Rear Window Replacement.
The rear window is installed from the outside of the
vehicle and not from the inside as on models prior to
1949. The glass is held in the body by a rubber weatherstrip around the glass. Although the rear window is a
safety glass, it is not the laminated type used on the
windshield and doors. If the rear window is to be removed for other reasons than breakage, this procedure
will eliminate the possibility of glass breakage.

Fig. 43—Removing Rear Glass

Fig. 44—Installing Weatherstrip on Glass

4095

(1) REMOVAL. From inside the car, apply pressure
against a corner of the rear window as shown in fig. 43.
If sufficient pressure cannot be applied with the hand,

4096
Fig. 45—Applying Rubber Cement to Rear Glass

4074

Fig. 42—Installing Center Strip on Windshield

Fig. 46—Installing Chrome Finish Strip

4097

234

Chapter II—Hardware, Glass, Upholstery, and Flat Trim

additional pressure can be obtained by pressing on the
glass with the feet. If using this method, use a rubber
pad to prevent scratching the surface of the glass. Apply
pressure until the Weatherstrip begins to roll off the
body flange. Moving toward the opposite end, continue
to apply pressure until the weatherstrip is completely off
the body flange. If equipped with a chrome finish strip,
pry off the joint cover and remove the finish strip. Remove the weatherstrip from the glass.
(2) INSTALLATION.
Clean the channel in the
weatherstrip and the body flange. Stretch the weatherstrip over the glass as shown in fig. 44. Make sure the
glass is seated firmly in the weatherstrip.
Apply rubber cement (8A-19552) between the glass

and weatherstrip as shown in fig. 45. Apply the rubber
cement to both sides of the glass.
If equipped with a chrome-finish strip, install the
finish strip as shown in fig. 46. Apply liquid soap around
the weatherstrip before installing the chrome finish strip.
Install the finish strip joint cover.
Insert a piece of cord (chalk line) around the inner lip
of the weatherstrip allowing both sides to overlap. Apply
liquid soap around the inner side of the weatherstrip.
Position the glass on the body. It is necessary to have a
helper to withdraw the cord while the window is held
firmly against the body as shown in fig. 47.
After carefully pulling the cord, strike the glass with
the palm of the hand to seat the weatherstrip over the
body flange. Clean the window and water test.

5. GRILLE AND HOOD
The radiator grilles on Ford vehicles are designed so
the component parts comprising the grille assembly may
be serviced separately. The parts included with the hood
assembly are also replaceable. To maintain proper hood
operation and alignment, adjustments are provided. One
of these adjustments is located at the lock dowel, and
the other is at the hood hinges. These are only minor
adjustments and will not correct serious,misalignment.
In cases of serious hood misalignment, it is necessary to
either replace the hood or the defective parts.

NOTE: When replacing a radiator grille or hood
be careful not to scratch the chrome and paint.

a. Radiator Grille.
The front stone deflector moulding (fig. 48) does not
connect with the grille assembly, and is easily detached
by removing the retainers located beneath the stone
deflector. To remove the center bars and ornament on
the 1949 grille, remove the right and left-hand parking
light lens frame. On the 1950 and 1951 grille, remove the
parking light extension panel. On the 1949 and 1950

grilles, remove the screws located at the ends of the bars
and at the upper and lower ends of the center bracket,
then lift the assembly off the vehicle. On the 1951 grille,
remove the screws located at each end of the bars, at the
center of the center bracket, and at the center of the
right and left-hand grille supports (fig. 49). The center
bars and ornament: must be removed before the upper
frames can be removed.

b. Hoods.
Hoods are removed and installed as shown in fig. 50.
If the hood support rod requires replacing, remove the
cotter pin, washer, and spring securing the rod to the
hood lock plate, and remove the rod. The following paragraphs describe the method for making the hood lock
dowel adjustment and the adjustment at the hood hinges.
(1) LOCK DOWEL ADJUSTMENT. Loosen the lock
nut at the top of the dowel. Turn the dowel with a screw
driver until the proper fit is obtained. If the front of the
hood fits too tight or requires slamming to lock the hood,
turn the dowel outward. If the hood has excessive clearance or is loose on the dowel, turn the dowel inward.
Tighten the lock nut after making the adjustments.
(2) HINGE ADJUSTMENT. To make this adjustment, loosen the screws at each hood hinge just enough
to maintain a slight drag on the screws. Lower the hood,
CENTER BRACKET
CENTER FRAME
R.H. UPPER FRAME

L H . UPPER FRAME
L H . CENTER BAR
iBLY

CENTER BAR
ASSEMBLY

Fig. 47—Installing Rear Window

4098

ORNAMENT
. RING

CENTER MEDALLION

FRONT STONE
DEFLECTOR MOULDING
4123

Fig. 48—Radiator Grille Assembly (1949-50)

Section 5—Grille and Hood
and move it either forward or backward until the desired
position is obtained. Carefully raise the hood, and tighten
the hood hinge screws. The auxiliary latch hook should

235

be checked after making the adjustment to make sure it
will latch properly. If necessary, bend the hook to obtain
the proper adjustment.

6. DECK LID LOCKING MECHANISM
The following paragraphs describe the replacement
procedures for the deck lid lock cylinder, hinges, remote
control and link assembly, and handle retainer assembly
and the adjustment procedures for the striker plate.

a. Deck Lid Lock Cylinder.
Although the 1949 and 1950 lock cylinders are similar
in appearance they are not interchangeable. The two
lock cylinders are identified as follows:
The 1949 lock cylinder actuating lug turns clockwise
from 12:00 o'clock position (key removes) to a 6:00
o'clock unlocked position as shown in (fig. 51).
The 1950 lock cylinder actuating lug turns clockwise,
as viewed from the inside, from a 3 o'clock position (key
removes) to 9 o'clock unlocked position (fig. 51).

(1) REMOVAL.
NOTE: It is advisable to remove the handle assentbly when replacing the 1951 lock cylinder (Fig, 52).
Insert the deck lid key into the lock cylinder, and turn
it to the right until the key is in a horizontal position.
With the key in this position, press the lock pin down
with a piece of wire to release the lock cylinder from the
outer shell as shown in fig. 52. Pull oh the key to remove

the cylinder lock from the deck lid handle.
(2) INSTALLATION. Press the lock pin down, and
insert the lock cylinder into the deck lid handle. Turn
the key to the locked position, then remove the key.

NOTE: When installing the lock cylinder in the lock
retainer on 1950-51 models, be sure the handle bolt
(part No. OA-7043506) is in position in retainer.

b. Deck Lid Striker Plate Adjustment.
To adjust the deck lid striker plate, loosen the two
screws enough to maintain a slight drag (fig. 53). This
illustration shows the 1949 and early 1950 as well as the
1951 striker. However, the adjustment is the same on
the late 1950 striker plate. Move the striker plate either
up or down until the proper fit is obtained by closing
the door and checking to see if the lid is secured. Tighten
the screws after making the adjustment.

c. Deck Lid Hinges.
The external hinges used on the 1949 and 1950 Ford
are either die-cast or stamped. The 1951 models are
equipped with counterbalanced hinges.

NOTE: Where it becomes necessary to align the

HOOD LOCKING
PLATE ASSEMBLY

R.H. OPENING
PANEL
R.H. EXTENSION
ASSEMBLY

L.H. EXTENSION ASSEMBLY

4211
Fig. 49-fladiator

Grille Assembly (7951)

236

Chapter II—Hardware, Glass, Upholstery, and Flat Trim

CENTER MOULDING.-16736

SPEED NUT
356752-S
RETAINER-358306-S
A,
EMBLEMS—16606

REINFORCEMENT
ASSEMBLY—16668
HOOD ASSEMBLY—16611
ORNAMENT
16607
SPRING-1692
GUIDE-16927
DOWEL—16929

•PAD—16740

HINGE ASSEMBLY L.H.—167971
HINGE ASSEMBLY R.H.—16796 J
HOOD SUPPORT ROD—16826

SPRING-16789
BRACKET—16930

PANEL ASSEMBLY—8162

SPRING^ 16832

SPRING—16897

AUXILIARY CATCH HOOK—16896
CABLE ASSEMBLY-16916

4126

Fig. 50—Hood Assembly

deck lid. care should be taken to prevent placing too
much stress on the die-cast type hinge.
(1) REPLACEMENT (1949 AND 1950). Raise the
deck lid. Remove the screws that secure the hinge to the
deck lid and to the body, then remove the hinge.
When installing the deck lid hinge, use a rubber gasket
under the hinge. Place the hinge in position on the deck

lid, then install the deck lid to body screws.
(2) REPLACEMENT (1951). To remove the deck
lid hinge support the deck lid in the open position. Remove the shield covering the counterbalance hinge. Remove the cotter pins and clevis pins from the hinge (fig.
54). Remove the cap screws that secure the hinge to the
deck lid and remove the hinge.
To install, line up the hinge and install the clevis pins.
Install the cap screws that secure the hinge to the deck
lid. Do not tighten until the deck lid is aligned.

d. Deck Lid Lock and Link Assembly
Replacement (1949).
1949 MODEL
LOCKED POSITION

MODEL
LOCKED POSITION

Fig. 51-1949

1949 MODEL
UNLOCKED POSITION

The deck lid locking mechanism on the 1949 and 1950

1950 MODEL
UNLOCKED POSITION
4061

and 1950 Deck Lid Lock Cylinders
Identification

I

4062

Fig. 52—Removing Lock Cylinder from Deck Lid Handle

Section 6—Deck Lid Locking Mechanism

passenger cars is the snap-lock type. The 1951 models
is equipped with rotor-type locks.
Remove the hex nut that secures the handle assembly
to the deck lid, then remove the handle. Remove the
four screws that secure the remote control and link assembly to the deck lid (fig. 55). Remove the four screws
that secure the lock assembly to the deck lid. Pull the
lock assembly away from the deck lid, and release the
remote control link from the lock. The remote control
and link assembly can now be removed through the upper
opening in the deck lid inner panel.
To install, fasten the remote control link to the lock
assembly. Install the screws that secure the lock assembly
and the remote control assembly to the deck lid. Install
the deck lid handle. Do not enter the shaft into the remote control assembly until the hex nut and washers
are positioned in line with the shaft. Push the handle
into the remote control assembly, then tighten nut.

e. Deck Handle Retainer Replacement.
The following applies only to 1950 cars.
(1) REMOVAL. Disconnect the wire from the license
plate light. Remove the two screws and lamp assembly
from the deck handle retainer (fig. 56). Remove the
shoulder bolt and nut that secure the trigger.
Working through the access hole provided in the inner
panel, remove the screw at the base of the deck handle
retainer. Remove the four screws that secure the deck
handle retainer to the deck handle. Lift the deck handle
retainer and trigger out of the deck lid.
(2) INSTALLATION. Place the trigger in position
on the deck handle retainer. Assemble the metal spacer
and gaskets on the deck handle retainer in the order
shown in fig. 56. Position the felt washer against the
inner side of the deck lid panel. While holding the felt
washer, insert the deck handle retainer and trigger into
the deck lid with the trigger properly entered in the remote link of the lock assembly.
Working through the access hole provided in the deck
lid inner panel, install the screw at the base of the deck
handle retainer. Do not tighten the screw at this time.

COUNTER-BALANCE HINGE SPRING

237

CLEVIS PINS

Fig. 54-Deck Lid Hinge (795?)

Install the screws that secure the deck handle retainer
to the deck handle. Tighten the screws previously installed at the base of the deck handle retainer (fig. 56).
Raise the lock remote link over the notch of the trigger
and against the felt washer. Install the shoulder bolt and
nut to secure the trigger to the deck handle retainer. Position the license plate light on the deck handle retainer.
Install the two screws then connect the wire.

f. Deck Lid Lock and Handle Assembly
(1951).
The 1951 deck lid is not equipped with any manual controls for operating the latch, except the key. When the
lock is operated by the key, the latch is automatically
released, and the counter-balanced hinges will raise the
SCREWS

REMOTE CONTROL A N D
LINK ASSEMBLY
DECK LID STRIKER P IATE'
STRIKER PLATE SCREWS'

1949-50
1951
Fig. 53—Striker Plate Adjustment

4205

4063

Fig. 55—Deck Lid Assembly (1949 Models)

238

Chapter II—Hardware, Glass, Upholstery, and Flat Trim

deck lid. The 1951 locking mechanism is shown in fig. 57.
(1) DECK LID HANDLE REPLACEMENT.
Remove the snap ring and flat washer that secure the control link to the actuating lug at the lock cylinder. Disconnect the control link. Disconnect the wire from the
license plate light. Remove the nuts securing the handle
to the deck lid. With the actuating lug in the position
shown in fig. 58, tilt the handle downward to remove.
To install, position the gaskets on the handle. Insert
the handle in the deck lid as shown in fig. 58, and install the nuts securing the handle to the deck lid. Con-

nect the control link to the actuating lug. Connect the
license plate light wire.
(2) DECK LID LOCK REPLACEMENT.
Disconnect the control link at the handle. Remove the cap
screws securing the lock to the deck lid and remove the
lock from the deck lid as shown in fig. 59.
Before installing the lock, make certain the bellcrank
is properly positioned behind release lever (fig. 59).
Insert the lock into the deck lid. Install the cap screws
securing the lock to the deck lid. Fasten the control
link to the bellcrank and then to the actuating lug.

7. DOOR AND QUARTER TRIM PANELS
With the exception of convertibles and station wagons,
it is not necessary to remove the door finish strip to replace a door trim panel. The door trim panel on the
station wagon is fastened to the door with screws.

a. Door Trim Panel Replacement.
With the above exceptions, the door trim panel replacement procedures are the same on all models.
(1) REMOVAL. Remove the remote control and regulator handles. The handles on 1949 and 1950 models are
held to the shafts by pins. To remove the pins, compress
the collar to expose the pin, then push the pin out with
a drift as shown in fig. 60.
The handles on 1951 models are held to the shafts by
a spring retainer (fig. 61). Remove the retainer using
special tools as shown in fig. 62. Remove the arm rest and
screws at the lower corners of the trim panel (fig. 63). If
the forward lower corner of the finish strip is fastened
with a screw, it must be removed. Pry the trim panel
fasteners away from the door, then lower the panel out

from under the finish strip.
(2) INSTALLATION. Before installing the trim panel, check all fasteners to make sure none are missing or
bent. All padding must be properly cemented.
Slide the trim panel under the finish strip. Center the
panel on the door, then fasten the top clip fasteners at
each end. Fasten the remaining clips along the bottom
and sides of the panel. Install the lower corner screws
and the screw at the lower forward end of the finish
strip. Install the arm rest.
Position the remote control handle and regulator
handle on the shafts so the handles are pointing toward
the front of the car. On the 1949-50 models install the
handles using a raw-hide mallet to locate and set the
pin as shown in fig. 64. On 1951 models, snap the spring
retainer in position on the handle then press the handle
on the shaft as shown in fig. 64.

b. Quarter Trim Panel Replacement.
Because of differences in design, the following quarter
LOCK CYLINDER
TRIGGER

HANDLE
HANDLE TO DECK LID NUTS (6)

LOCK HANDLE BOLT

LOCK RETAINER TO
HANDLE SCREWS

LINK
LOCK" GUARD
LOCK ASSEMBLY

Fig. 56-Deck

4065

Lid Lock Mechanism (1950 Car)

239

Section 7—Door and Quarter Trim Panels

-LOCK ASSEMBLY
4206

Fig. 57—Locking Mechanism (7957)
LICENSE PLATE LIGHT WIRE

4155

Fig. 60—Removing Pin from Handle (7949-50)

HANDLE

4207

Fig. 58-Removing Handle (1951)
trim panel replacement procedures are described according to the various passenger car models.
BELL CRANK

(1) TUDOR. If the car is equipped with a pillar light,
remove the screw that secures the pillar light and assist
strap to the pillar. Disconnect the pillar light wire, and
remove the assembly. Tape the pillar light wires to prevent shorting against the pillar. Remove the arm rest.
Remove the finish strip screws. On some models, the
finish strip is fastened at the lower rear corner. Pull the
finish strip out at the top, then raise it off the quarter
panel flange. Remove the glass regulator handle. Release the quarter panel fasteners along the pillar, and
remove the quarter trim panel (fig. 65).
To install, lower the quarter panel into the retainer
along the floor. Align the edge of the quarter trim panel
with the pillar, and secure the fasteners. Install the glass
regulator handle and arm rest.
Position the finish strip over the flange of the quarter
panel, then press the finish strip in at the top. Lift the
lip of the weatherstrip over the finish strip as shown in
fig. 66. Align the holes, and install the finish strip screws.
Use the shortest screws at the point nearest the pillar
light to prevent shorting the pillar light wire. If the car
is so equipped, install the pillar light and assist strap.
(2) CLUB COUPE. Remove the rear seat assembly.

HANDLE

4208

Fig. 59-Removing Lock (7957)

SPRING RETAINER
4209

HANDLE

4210
Fig. 67— Door Inside Handle Fig. 62—Removing Inside

(7957)

Door Handle (7957)

240

Chapter II—Hardware, Glass, Upholstery, and Flat Trim

VENTILATOR AS

GARNISH MOULDING SCREWS ( 6 )
INSIDE LOCKING BUTTON

FINISH STRIP
SCREWJS ( 7 )

FINISH STRIP
REST \
ASSIST STRAP

LIGHT

ARM REST

REGULATOR HANDLE
REMOTE HANDLE
ARM REST SCREWS ( 2 )
DOOR TRIM PANEL
TRIM PANEL CORNER SCREWS ( 2 ) .

Fig. 63—Door with Trim Installed

4154

Remove the screws that secure the pillar light and
assist strap to the finish strip (fig. 67). Disconnect the
pillar light, and remove the pillar light wire. Tape the
wire to prevent shorting against the pillar. Remove
the finish strip screws. Pull the complete quarter window assembly out at the top.
Remove the arm rest, and release the quarter trim
panel fasteners along the pillar. Remove the panel.
To install, insert the lower end of the quarter trim
panel into the retainer along the floor pan. Align the
trim panel at the pillar, and secure the fasteners. Install
the arm rest. Install the quarter glass assembly. Install
the rear seat assembly.
(3) BUSINESS COUPE. If equipped with a pillar
light, remove the pillar light (fig. 68). Disconnect the
pillar light wire. Tape the wire to prevent shorting
against the pillar. Remove the finish strip screws. Pull
the finish strip out at the top, then lift the finish strip
off the quarter panel. Remove the screws, and release
the fasteners along the pillar. Remove the panel.

1949-50
195
Fig. 64—Installing Pin in Handle

ARM REST SCREWS ( 2 )

REGULATOR
HANDLE

QUARTER TRIM PANEL
RETAINER 4 0 4 6

Fig. 65—Tudor Quarter Trim Panel

To install, insert the quarter trim panel between the
platform and quarter panel. Align the trim panel along
the pillar, and secure the fasteners and screws. Position
the finish strip firmly against the quarter panel, and
install the finish strip screws. Tighten the screws evenly
to assure proper sealing of the glass. If necessary, apply
plastic sealer M-5397-A between the weatherstrip and
quarter window opening.
(4) CONVERTIBLE COUPE. Remove the rear seat
and seat back. Remove the quarter glass regulator han-

Fig. 66—Seating Weatherstrip Over Finish Strip

4050

Section 7—Door and Quarter Trim Panels

die. Remove the quarter trim panel screws (fig. 69).
Raise the quarter trim panel slightly forward to release
the panel from the retainer.

241

To install, position the trim panel slightly forward of
the lock pillar, then push the trim toward the rear to
secure the trim panel to the retainers on the lock pillar.
Install the trim panel screws.

8- HEADLINING REPLACEMENT
The following headlining removal and installation procedures apply to all models.

a. Removal.
Remove the sun visors. Remove the windshield center
bar and finish strip. If working on a Coupe or a Tudor,
remove the quarter window finish strip. Remove the rear
window. Remove package tray button fasteners.
Pull the headlining loose where it is cemented around
the rear window and windshield. If working on a Tudor
or a Coupe, pull the headlining loose around the quarter
windows. Remove the tacks securing the headlining to
the rear tacking strip. When working on a Fordor remove
the pillar light assembly. Disconnect the pillar light
wire, and tape it to prevent shorting against the
pillar. Insert a screw driver between the windcord and
headlining, and pry the headlining retainer away from
the roof rail about }/i inch. Headlining retainers are used
only over the door openings. Unhook the headlining
from the teeth of the retainers. Check to make sure the
headlining has been loosened around all sides of the
interior. Remove drive nails holding headlining.
Starting at the forward end, pry the headlining support bows out of their retainers on both sides. Remove
FINISH STRIP SCREWS (6)
QUARTER W I N D O W ASSEMBLY

PILLAR LIGHT

ASSIST STRAP

the headlining assembly and bows from the body. Due
to the difference in the length of the support bows, each
bow should be marked or tagged to assure proper location on the headlining. After marking the bows, remove
them from the headlining.

b. Installation.
Before installing the headlining, check the headlining
retainers to make sure they are tightened securely to
the roof rail. Also straighten up any teeth in the retainers
that were bent during the removal of the headlining.
Install the bows in the headlining listings, make sure
each bow is installed in its original location. Starting at
the rear of the body, hook each end of the rear bow into
the retaining hole provided in the roof rail. Install the
remaining bows in their proper sequence spacing the
headlining evenly between the bars as they are installed.
After installing the bows, stretch the headlining at the
front and rear to take up any slack in the material between the bows. Also stretch the material along the
sides to make sure it is properly centered. In some cases,
it may be necessary to cut the ends of the headlining
listings in order to stretch the material tight.
Apply trim cement along the headlining edge of the
windshield header. Allow the cement to set for several
minutes, then pull the headlining over the header. When
pulling the headlining at the header, be sure the first
seam is straight from side to side. Starting at the center,
pull the rear of the headlining down, and tack it to the
rear tacking strip with three ounce tacks. Work toward
the ends until the headlining has been tacked completely
across the rear section (space tacks V/i inches apart).
Do not pull the headlining down too tight so as to
lose the contour at the rear corners. When tacking the
QUARTER GLASS

SEAT BACK

QUARTER TRIM PANEL

SEAT

Fig. 67—Club Coupe Quarter Trim Panel

4051

FINISH STRIP SCREWS (6)
\

PILLAR LIGHT

FINISH STRIP

Fig. 68—Business Coupe Quarter Trim Panel

4056

242

Chapter II—Hardware, Glass, Upholstery, and Flat Trim

headlining, avoid tack draws by stretching the material
evenly while tacking. This will also keep the rear headlining seams straight.
Cut the rear window opening in the headlining. In
order to assure proper cutting, draw a line around the
opening on the headlining. This can be done by pressing
the headlining against the opening and allowing approximately one inch to overlap. Apply trim cement around
the edge of the rear window opening. To avoid wrinkles
in the material at the corners, cut a series of radial slits
about two inches apart and % inch deep in the overlap
material. Pull the material evenly over the opening
starting at center and working around ends and bottom.
When working on a Tudor or a Coupe, apply trim
cement around the quarter window openings along the
top and down to the lower rear corner. Trim the headlining around the quarter window opening so only V/i
inches of material is allowed for overlap. It will be necessary to cut a series of radial slits similar to those made
at the rear window at the curved part of the opening to
avoid wrinkles. Pull the material just hard enough to
remove wrinkles. Press material on cemented surface.
Leave about one inch overlap, then trim the excess
material along the top of the door opening. Starting at
the forward bow, pull the headlining down to remove
wrinkles at the seam. Use a dull putty knife to push the
headlining up under the headlining retainer. Repeat the
same operation at the next bow. Be sure that all slack
between the bows has been stretched out. Fold the forward corners of the headlining, and drive a nail to hold
the corners. Install the finish strip and the center bar.

If working on a Tudor or a Coupe, install the quarter
window finish strip. If working on a Tudor install the
center pillar trim and pillar light. Install the rear window.
Install the sun visors. To locate the visor mounting
bracket under the headlining, use a straight pin. After
locating the screw holes, make a slight % inch cut (large
enough for the visor pivot) in the headlining between
the screw holes. Position the visor in line with the holes,
and install the screws.
WINDOW REGULATOR HANDLE

Arrows Indicate Quarter Trim Panel Retaining Screws

4129

Fig. 69—Convertible Quarter Trim Panel

SERVICE LETTER REFERENCE
Letter No.

Date

Subject

Changes Information
on Page No.

Part FOUR

BODIES
Chapter

Convertible Coupe, Crestliner, and Station Wagon
Section

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Van*'.

Convertible Coupe Power System
Convertible Coupe Top Alignment
Convertible Coupe Window Adjustments
Convertible Coupe Top Material Replacement
Convertible Coupe and Crestliner Top Preservation
Crestliner Top Material Replacement
Care of Station Wagon Paneling
Station Wagon Paneling Replacement

This chapter describes the operations required to properly maintain and service the various Convertible Coupe,
Station Wagon, and Crestliner features that are not
associated with conventional type passenger cars. Service on Convertible tops is divided into maintenance,
alignment, and replacement operations, and the service
operations on the Crestliner top is limited to maintenance and replacement. The care and replacement of
panels are the special service operations required on
Station Wagons.

243
250
252
255
259
262
263
264

Certain aspects of maintenance are a part of the
owner's responsibility of reasonable care and the avoidance of abuse. However, owners will now know of the
things they should do or avoid unless these are pointed
out by servicemen. Throughout this chapter certain
points of everyday care are given. These should be
pointed out to new owners. Likewise, when damage that
obviously is the result of mishandling is encountered,
it should be pointed out to the owner, and he should be
told how to avoid similar damage in the future.

1. CONVERTIBLE COUPE POWER SYSTEM
The operating principles, maintenance of the power
unit, and replacement of the major assemblies are described below:
The power system used to operate the 1949-50 Convertible top is basically the same as the system used
on previous models. This system was also used to operate the hydraulic window lifts on the Sportman convertible (1946, 7, 8). The only difference on the Sportsman convertible was an increased capacity of the reservoir to accommodate the additional amount of fluid
required to operate the windows.
The 1951 convertible power system differs with the
1949-50 system. This system is placed in operation by
means of an electric switch thus eliminating the manually operated control rod and top operating valve
assemblies previously used.

a. Operating Principles.
The power system consists of an electric motor which
drives a hydraulic pump. On the 1949-50 power system,
the hydraulic pump forces a supply of fluid through a
selector valve into a pair of double acting cylinders
located at the sides of each rear quarter panel. On the
1951 power system, the fluid is forced from the hydrau-

lic pump directly to the cylinders.
The 1949-50 hydraulic pump and motor assembly is
mounted on the dash panel and is accessible through
the engine compartment. On the 1951 Convertible, the
hydraulic pump and motor assembly is mounted on the
left-hand rear quarter panel. To gain access to the 1951
pump and motor, it is necessary to remove the rear
seat and back and the left-hand rear quarter trim panel.
Figures 1 and 2 show both hydraulic systems including
the layout of the lines.
The 1949-50 pump unit operates in one direction
only. Movement of the top "up" or "down" is controlled
by a rotary valve containing one channel for directing
the fluid into the proper line, and another channel
simultaneously returning the fluid from the opposite
line to the reservoir.
When the top is operated in the "down" direction,
fluid is pumped through the valve into the lines connected to the upper ends of the cylinders. Hydraulic
pressure is brought to bear on the top of the piston in
each of the two cylinders, and the pistons are forced
downward. Downward movement of the pistons displaces the fluid contained in the lower portions of the
cylinders. The fluid displaced in this manner flows

243

244

Chapter Ill—Convertible Coupe, Crest liner, and Station Wagon

through the lines attached to the lower ends of the cylinders, through the valve, and into the reservoir.
When the top is operated in the "up" direction, the
same action takes place, but the "pressure" channel in
the valve is open to the "lower" lines and the "return"
channel is open to the "upper" lines so that fluid displaced above the pistons can flow into the reservoir.
On the 1951 power system, the pump unit is designed
to operate in two directions. When the top is operated
in the "down" direction, the fluid is forced directly into
the top of the cylinders. When the top is operated in
the "up" direction, the pump unit operates in a "reverse"
direction, thus the fluid is forced back into the reservoir.
The top operating cylinders used with the 1951 power
system are the same used with the 1949-50 system.
(1) MOTOR. The electric motor which provides the
power for the 1949-50 system is similar in construction and operation to a starting motor. This motor is
equipped with a relay similar in appearance to the
starter relay; however, the circuit is different in that the
relay is internally grounded.
The electric motor used on the 1951 power system
is a 6-volt direct current motor. This motor is a sealed
unit and is serviced as a complete assembly.
(2) PUMP. Because of the differences in design, the
description of the 1949-50 pump and the 1951 pump

TOP. CONTROL SWITCH
Yellow.

TO CIRCUIT
BREAKER ., ,
Yellow

4200
Fig.2—Convertible Hydraulic and Electrical System (1951)

are given separately.
(a) 1949-50 PUMP. The lower end of the motor is
enclosed by an aluminum die cast pump housing which
provides a bearing surface for the lower end of the
armature shaft. Pressure is created by the rotation of
internal rotor gears driven directly off the armature
shaft. Above the rotors a steel port plate, held from
rotating by an integral tab, is seated in a notch in the
housing. Below the rotors a cup-shaped disc is held in
contact with the rotor face by a spider spring.
The combination of the port plate, the sealing disc,

MOTOR WIRE
FLOW FROM BOTTOM
ELECTRICAL
CONTACT

PRESSURE

STARTER
V RELAY

FLOW TO BOTTOM"
OF CYLINDERS

O F

ELECTRICAL
CONTACT

RETURN LINE TO
RESERVOIR

FLOW TO TOP
OF CYLINDER
LOWERING POSITION

NEUTRAL POSITION
N O FLOW OF FLUID

FLOW FROM TOP
OF CYLINDERS
RAISING POSITION

GROUND

CONTROL VALVE
AND SWITCH

HYDRAULIC MOTOR

FLUID PRESSURE
TO AND FROM
-UPPER PART
OF CYLINDER
LOWER PART
OF CYLINDER

DOUBLE
ACTION
CYLINDER

HYDRAUUC FLUID RESERVOIR
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE

4OO1

Fig. 1-Convertible Hydraulic System (1949-50)

245

Section 1 —Convertible Coupe Power System
the spring, the rotors, and the differential fluid pressure
bearing against the sealing disc results in zero end clearance at the rotors under all circumstances. The lower
end of the rotor cavity is closed by a stamped plate held
in place by six screws. A rubber sealing ring is used at
this point to prevent leakage.
The pump is provided with a combination spring
loaded pressure relief valve. Pressure can be adjusted
by removing or adding washers under the valve plug.
Two pressed-in steel tubes extend down into the fluid
reservoir. A cup-shaped fluid diffuser assembly is fitted
at the lower end of the tubes to prevent agitation of any
abrasive sludge which may settle in the reservoir, and
to retain a small amount of fluid around the lower end
of the tubes when the reservoir is removed. This prevents air from getting into the lines or fluid draining
from the system. The reservoir is held to the pump by
a snap-on spring bail. A synthetic rubber gasket is fitted
to the pump between the reservoir and the housing. The
reservoir is vented to atmosphere through a hole in the
pump casting near the relief valve plug.
The power unit is mounted on flexible synthetic rubber mountings and is electrically grounded to the body
by a ground strap as shown in fig. 3. Flexible hose lines
connect the pump to the control valve.
(b) 1951 PUMP. The pump housing is secured to a
mounting bracket which is attached to the motor assembly. Pressure is created by the rotation of a rotor assembly which is located in the pump housing. The armature
shaft of the motor extends through the pump housing
and contacts the rotor by the means of a drive ball
located in a hole on the shaft. The drive ball fits in a
groove located on the inner rotor.
The reservoir is attached to the pump housing by
four hex head bolts. These bolts, which are accessible
through the top of the reservoir, also secure a pressure
valve to the bottom of the reservoir. A plunger, two ball
bearings, two springs, and two caps are located inside
the valve housing. This is a balance valve and is not
adjustable. The reservoir is enclosed at the top by a
rubber seal and a metal cap. A stud, that is mounted
in the pressure valve, extends through an opening in the
reservoir cap. A rubber seal and seal retainer are
mounted on the end of the stud. An acorn nut keeps the
seal, seal retainer, and reservoir cap in position.
The power unit is attached to a bracket located on
the left-hand rear quarter panel. The unit is electrically
grounded by a ground strap which runs from the motor
to the junction block rear mounting screw. Flexible hose
lines connect the pump to the hydraulic lines.

(3) TOP OPERATING CYLINDERS, The operating cylinders are of steel tube construction and are fitted
at each end with crimped-in die castings and together
with synthetic rubber seals from a fluid-tight assembly.
The lower casting forms a yoke, which together with a

clevis pin, provides a secure mounting to the floor
bracket at the lower end. The upper casting provides a
bearing for the piston rod and a cavity for the synthetic
rubber fluid seal and felt. These parts are held in place
by a snap ring and metal washers. The piston rod is
chromium plated and carries at its inner end an assembly of metal and synthetic rubber washers. The upper
and lower ends of the cylinder are provided with Mi-inch
dry-seal pipe threaded holes for the fluid line connections. The cylinders should be replaced as a unit.
CAUTION: Mineral oil should not be used on the
piston rod or upper seal as it will cause swelling and
deterioration
of the synthetic rubber. Use a few
drops of castor oil or brake fluid.
( 4 ) CONTROL VALVE AND SWITCH ASSEMBLY (1949-50 ONLY). The control valve switch is
mounted on the dash panel (fig. 4) and is controlled
by a knob on the instrument panel. The function of the
valve, as previously described, is to direct the pump
pressure to either end of the top operating cylinders,
and to provide a passage back to the reservoir. This unit
NUT—34051-S7-8 (1 required)
SCREW—36798-S7-8 (1 required)
LOCK WASHER—34937-S7-8 (1 required)

NUT—34064-S (1 required)
LOCK WASHER—34937-S7-8 (1 required)

#76 Gauge Wire
Black— Yellow Tracer

VALVE TOP OPERATING
ASSEMBLY-5EH-7650738

#76 Gauge Wire—Black
GROUND"STR~A>

#76 Gauge
Wire— Black

CLIP-353262
(wiring to top
mounting screw)

#76 Gauge
Wire—Yellow
\

WIRE ASSEMBLY

51 A-14332-A
(top elevated screw
to circuit breaker)

CIRCUIT BREAKER—51 A-12250-A4-5
SCREW-42239-S7-8 (2 required to
attach circuit breaker to cowl panel)
NUT—34079-S7-8 (2 required)
LOCK WASHER—34803-S7-8 (2 required
to attach wiring to circuit breaker)
CABLE ASSEMBLY—8A-14506
(Starter relay to pump relay)

4005

Fig. 3-Electrical Circuit for Power Unit (1949-50)

246

Chapter III—Convertible Coupe, Crestliner, and Station Wagon

also incorporates a switch, which through the medium of
a relay on the power unit, operates the motor at each
extreme "in" or "out" movement of the control knob.
NOTE: On the 1951 Convertibles, the direction of
the fluid pressure is controlled by an electric switch
mounted under the instrument panel above the hood
catch control. Refer to fig. 2 for the electrical circuit
of the power unit.
A self-centering spring incorporated in the unit returns the valve and knob to the neutral position when
released, and also opens the electrical connection, thus
stopping the pump and motor. The base plate of the
valve is an aluminum die-casting provided with four
Vfc-inch dry seal pipe threaded holes for fluid line connections with four port holes on its inner lapped face.
A moulded plastic valve with a lapped sealing face is
held in fluid-tight contact with the inner face of the
base plate by a leaf spring and also by the differential
fluid pressure on the two sides of the valve when the
pump is operating. The moulded plastic cover is held
to the base plate by four screws and is sealed from
leakage by the same type of synthetic rubber ring that
is used in the pump. A synthetic rubber ring housed in
the cover seals the valve operating shaft against leakage.
To assure that the electrical switch makes positive
contact, make sure the control rod is adjusted so as to
provide at least % -inch "over-travel" when pushed in.
The control rod must be free from binding to assure a
positive return of the valve to the neutral position.
Internal leakage in the valve from one port to the other
will cause a loss of pump pressure or poor operation of
the entire system. The pressure may be checked with a
gauge connected at any convenient point in the fluid
system. Do not attempt to repair the valve.

reservoir with alcohol. On the 1949-50 reservoir fill the
reservoir with brake fluid to the level mark which is
about V2-inch below the top. Install the reservoir on the
pump, and snap the wire bail into position. On the 1951
reservoir, fill the reservoir half full with brake fluid.
Disconnect the operating cylinders at the top. Operate
the electric switch until the operating cylinders have
completed two or three cycles of full strokes. Add fluid
as required to maintain the half full level while the
cylinders are operating. Reconnect the operating cylinders and lower the top. Recheck the fluid in the reservoir. Install the reservoir cap, seal, seal retainer, acorn
nut, trim pad, seat back and rear seat.
NOTE: The fluid pressure on the 1951 power system is set at 180-200 pounds per square inch at the
time of manufacture, and is not adjustable.
(2) ADJUSTMENT OF FLUID PRESSURE
(1949-50 ONLY). The fluid pressure of the hydraulic
pump is controlled by a spring-loaded piston type pressure relief valve. The pressure relief valve is located at
the rear of the pump. In conjunction with the tension
of the spring on the valve, washers are also added under
the head of the valve plug to allow for adjustment of
variation in pressure. Adding washers reduces the pressure; removing washers increases the pressure.
NOTE: The pressure relief valve is adjusted at the
time of manufacture to obtain maximum allowable
fluid pressure. Do not exceed this setting.
When cleaning or servicing this valve, install the same
number of washers when plug is reinstalled.
Two types of pressure relief valves are used. On the
early 1949 type, the pressure relief valve is adjusted to
PRESSURE RETURN LINES
TO OPERATING CYLINDERS
CIRCUIT

CONTROL VALVE
JD SWITCH ASSEMBLY
BRACKET PRESSURE LINE

AY

b. Maintenance of Power System.
Fluid level should be checked at 5000 mile intervals
or at least once every 6 months. Use only genuine Ford
hydraulic brake fluid in the pump reservoir.
NOTE: Mineral oil or inferior brake fluids will
damage the rubber parts.
(1) CHECK FLUID LEVEL. To check the fluid
level, first operate the top two or three times in both
directions to help expel air from the lines. Make sure
the top is either all the way up or all the way down.
It does not matter which position the top is in as long
as it has reached the limit of travel.
On the 1949-50 unit, unsnap the wire bail, and remove
the reservoir from the pump.
On the 1951 unit, remove the rear seat, rear seat back,
left-hand rear quarter trim pad, acorn nut, seal retainer,
seal, and reservoir cap. Inspect the condition of the fluid,
and check for dirt in the bottom of the reservoir. If the
fluid is gummy or contains sediment or dirt, clean the

RETURN LINE

MOTOR AND PUMP ASSEMBLY

fig. 4—Power Unit in Vehicle (1949-50)

4004

247

Section 1 —Convertible Coupe Power System
a maximum fluid pressure of 210 pounds per square
inch. On late 1949 and 1950 models, the fluid pressure
is adjusted between 250 and 260 pounds per square inch.
These pressure relief valves can be identified by the
plating of the plugs. A copper plated plug is used on the
high pressure pumps, and a cadmium plated plug is used
on the low pressure pumps.

NOTE: These pressure relief valves are not interchangeable. When testing fluid pressure, do not confuse the two pressure specifications.
Adjustment of the pressure relief valve should only
be made if the fluid pressure exceeds the limits specified above. If the fluid pressure is below normal, the
complete hydraulic system should be checked for possible leakage or a faulty unit.

(3) ADJUSTMENT OF CONTROL VALVE CONTROL ROD 1949-50 ONLY). The control rod is adjusted to permit at least Vfc-inch "over-travel" in either
direction to assure good electrical contact in the switch.
This adjustment is made as follows:
Loosen the set screw that secures the control rod at
the control valve. Pull the control knob out at the instrument panel until there is approximately a one-inch
space between the control knob and support bracket
(fig. 5). Holding the control rod in this position with
the control valve switch in the neutral position, tighten
the set screw to lock the control rod in the sleeve.

c. Top-Operating Cylinder Replacement.
NOTE: When replacing a cylinder assembly9 the top
must be either all the way up or all the way down.
Do not replace a cylinder with the top partially open.
Disconnect the battery cable to prevent accidental
operation of the top. Remove the rear seat and seat
back. Remove the quarter trim panel. Disconnect the
hydraulic lines at the top and bottom of the cylinder
(figs. 6 and 7). Remove the cotter pin and clevis pin
that secure the upper end of the piston rod to the rear
arm assembly. Remove the cotter pin and clevis pin
that secure the lower end of the cylinder to the floor
pivot bracket, and remove the cylinder assembly.

NOTE: The complete top operating cylinder is serviced as an assembly.
To install the cylinder assembly, position the cylinder on the floor bracket with the spacers in their proper
positions in the yoke (fig. 6). On the 1949-50 Convertibles, be sure the cylinder is installed with the inlet and
outlet holes facing the front of the car. On the 1951
Convertibles, make sure the inlet and outlet holes are
facing toward the floor. Install the clevis pin and cotter
pin to secure the cylinder assembly to the floor pivot
bracket. Line up the piston rod with the top arm assembly, and install the clevis pin and cotter pin. Connect
the hydraulic lines to the cylinder.

Connect the battery cable and check the top operation. Before installing the quarter trim panel, check for
leaks at the connections. Operating the top will also
allow the new cylinder to fill itself with fluid.
Install the quarter trim panel seat back, and seat.

NOTE: Refill the reservoir to the proper level after
replacing the cylinder,

d. Top Operating Valve and Switch
Assembly Replacement (1949-50).
Disconnect the hydraulic lines at the control valve
assembly (fig. 4 ) . Disconnect the wires leading from the
circuit breaker to the control valve (fig. 3 ) . Disconnect
the control rod at the control valve. Remove the screws
that secure the control valve to the bracket on the dash
panel, and remove the valve.

NOTE: Do not attempt to repair the control valve
or switch as this is serviced only as an assembly.
To install, position the control valve assembly on
the dash panel. Install the screws to secure the control
valve to the bracket on the dash panel. Install the control rod to the control valve, and adjust the control rod
as outlined under "b. Maintenance of Power System".
Connect the wires to their proper terminals at the control valve as shown in fig. 3. Install the hydraulic lines
to the control valve (fig. 4 ) .

NOTE: Operate the top to eliminate all air from
the lines, then fill the reservoir to the level mark.

e. Hydraulic Pump and Motor Assembly.
The following covers the replacement of the complete
power unit, as well as the disassembly and repair of the
pump unit.
Repair of the motor used in the power unit is not
included. The motor used on the 1949-50 system is
similar to the starting motor used to crank the engine
and all information pertaining to the motor can be
obtained in Part THREE, CHAPTER II.
The motor used on the 1951 system is serviced as a
complete assembly. This motor may be checked for
proper operation by removing the motor from the pump
assembly and checking the current draw. If the current
NEUTRAL POSITION

Pig, 5— Control Valve Control Rod Adjustment
(1949-50)

248

Chapter III—Convertible Coupe, Crestliner, and Station Wagon

draw exceeds 35-40 amperes, the motor must be replaced.
(1) REMOVAL OF PUMP AND MOTOR ASSEMBLY. Because of the differences in their locations
and mountings, the removal procedures for the 1949-50
pump and motor and the 1951 pump and motor are
described separately.
(a) 1949-50 PUMP AND MOTOR. Disconnect the return line and pressure line at the pump (fig. 4). Disconnect the wires at the relay (fig. 3). Remove the two
lower mounting screws that secure the pump body to
the dash panel. Remove the screw from the upper
bracket, and remove the pump and motor assembly.
(b) 1951 PUMP AND MOTOR. Disconnect the flexible
fluid lines at the hydraulic lines (fig. 7). Disconnect,the
wires at the terminal block located on the quarter panel
(fig. 2). Remove the two bolts and the motor and pump
assembly from the mounting bracket.
(2) REMOVAL OF PUMP FROM MOTOR ASSEMBLY. Refer to (a) below for the removal procedures on the 1949-50 unit and to (b) below for the
removal procedures on the 1951 unit.
(a) 1949-50 PUMP AND MOTOR. Before separating
the pump from the motor, scribe a line on the pump
housing and on the motor housing to assure proper alignment when reassembling the pump to the motor. Release the bail wire, and remove the reservoir (fig. 8).
Remove the four screws that secure the pump housing
to the motor. Carefully lift the pump housing assembly
off the motor allowing armature to remain in motor.
(b) 1951 PUMP AND MOTOR. Remove the acorn nut,
seal retainer, and seal from the reservoir stud (fig. 9).
Remove the reservoir cap and the reservoir cap to reservoir cap gasket. From inside the reservoir, remove the
four reservoir to pump screws. Remove the reservoir and
valve assembly and gasket from the pump housing.
Remove the two self-tapping screws attaching the
PISTON ROD

mounting bracket to the pump housing. Lift the rotor
assembly out of the pump housing using caution not to
loose the drive ball. Remove the drive ball from the
armature shaft. Lift the pump assembly off the motor.
Remove the two pump mounting bracket nuts, mounting bracket and seal washers. Remove the rubber oil
slinger from the armature shaft.
(3) DISASSEMBLE PUMP HOUSING (1949-50).
Remove the two screws that secure the diffuser cup and
baffle assembly at the ends of the tubes, and remove
the diffuser cup and baffle assembly.
Remove the screws that secure the pump bottom plate
to the pump housing. Remove the bottom plate, spring,
sealing disc, and rubber seal. Raise the pump housing
in the upright position to remove the rotor assembly and
the pump port plate from the housing. Remove the pressure relief valve plug, washers, and spring.
To simplify the removal of the pressure relief valve,
use a tool as shown in fig. 10. When removing the pressure relief valve, note the number of washers used
behind the plug so that the original amount is reinstalled. Remove any remaining plugs from the pump
housing and clean the pump housing thoroughly. Clean
all fluid passages with compressed air, being sure all
passages and vent holes are open.
(4 ) DISASSEMBLE, INSPECT, AND ASSEMBLE
PRESSURE VALVE (1951). Unscrew the valve plugs
on each side of the valve housing. Remove the two
springs, ball bearings, and plunger from the housing.
Check the ball bearings, and if excessively worn,
replace the bearings. Replace the springs if they are
broken. Replace plunger if it is cracked or broken.'

RETURN LINE

CLEVIS PIN

TOP OPERATING CYLINDER

PIVOT BRACKET

4003

Fig. 6—Hydraulic Top Cylinder Assembly (1949-50)

Fig. 7—Hydraulic Top Cylinder and Power Unit
Assemblies (1951)

4201

Section 1 —Convertible Coupe Power System

To assemble the valve, insert a ball bearing and
spring in the housing, then install the valve cap. On the
opposite side, insert the plunger, other ball bearing and
spring, and cap. Firmly tighten the caps.
(5) INSPECTION OF PUMP ASSEMBLY ON
THE (1949-50) PUMP. Check the condition of the sealing disc and port plate (fig. 8). If they are excessively
scored or have grooves worn into them or if the tab on
the port plate is broken, they should be replaced.
Replace the pump housing if it is cracked or has stripped
threads at any of the pressure line or return line ports.
If oil is leaking past the oil seal located in the pump
housing and is entering the motor on both the 1949-50
pumps, replace the entire pump unit.
NOTE: Do not attempt to replace the oil seal in the
pump housing. This oil seal is not serviced separately.
If the pump rotors are excessively worn or pitted,
replace both inner and outer rotors.
(6) ASSEMBLE PUMP TO MOTOR. Refer to (a)
below for the method of assembling the 1949-50 pump
to the motor, and to (b) below for the method of assembling the 1951 pump to the motor.
(a) 1949-50 PUMP AND MOTOR. With the armature installed in the motor, place the fiber washers on
the armature shaft (fig. 8). Position the pump housing
on the motor. If necessary, rotate the housing until the
scribed lines, which were made during the disassembling
procedure, are in line with each other. Install the screws
to secure the pump housing to the motor frame.
Place the port plate in the pump housing with the tab
on the port plate facing toward the motor and seated
into the slot provided in the pump housing.

ROTOR ASSEMBLY-8H-7353400
SCREWS-8H-7353408
DIFFUSER CUP-5EH-7353389
GASKET-5EH-7353374-B
BAIL-5EH-7353378

249

VALVE HOUSING
PLUG

MOUNTING BRACKET
PUMP HOUSING
GASKET
SEAL
WASHER

SEAL
RETAINER

BALL

STUD /PLUNGER
CAP SCREW

//GROMMET

SPRING / /

PLUG 1/

SLEEVE
SCREW

ROTOR ASSEMBLY
SLINGER'

MOTOR
ASSEMBLY
DRIVE BALL 4202

Fig. 9-Hydraulic Pump and Motor (1951)

Place the rotor assembly in the pump housing with
the flat on the inner rotor visible at the top.
NQTE: It is important that the inner rotor be installed
with the flat facing up; otherwise, the rotors will not
seat flush with each other in the pump housing which
will cause a pump failure.
Install a new rubber seal on the pump housing. Place
the sealing disc and spring in the pump housing, and
install the bottom plate (fig. 8). Position the baffle plate
and diffuser cups at the ends of the tubes, and install
the two screws.
Fill the reservoir* to the proper level. Fasten the reservoir to the pump housing with the wire bail.
(b) 1951 PUMP AND MOTOR. If necessary, install a
new oil slinger on the armature shaft. Check the condition of the two rubber seal washers. If necessary, install
new seal washers, then position the mounting bracket
on the motor. Install the two slotted nuts. Position the
pump housing in the mounting bracket, with the arrow
on the housing toward the bracket. Align the holes in

HOLDER ASSEMBLY-8H.7353387
FRAME AND FIELD ASSEMBLY-8H-7353343-B
STRAP-5EH-7353386
LOCK WASHER
SOLENOID SWITCH-7EH-7353380
SCREW-27068-S2
LOCK WASHER NUT
THRUST WASHER-8H-7353352
^
ARMATURE ASSEMBLY-8H-7353349
FIBER WASHERS-8H-7353353
PUMP HOUSING
ASSEMBLY-8A-7653395
RUBBER SEAL
j PLUG
811-7353406

PRESSURE RELIEF

-7353410
SCREWS-36976-S2
PORT-8H-7353405
SEALING DISK-8H-7353404
SPRING-8H-7353407
BOTTOM PLATE-8H-73534O9
BAFFLE PLATE-5EH-7353388

SPRING-8H-7353412
WASHERS-8H-7353411
~, ^ PLUG-8H-7353413 NUT
LOCK WASHI
GROUND STUD-8H-735337.
LOCKWASHERS-34803-S2
SCREWS-31596-S2
HEAD-BAND ASSEMBLY-5EH-7353348
4006

Fig. 8—Pump and Motor (1949-50)

250

Chapter III—Convertible Coupe, Crestliner, and Station Wagon

the pump housing with the holes in the bracket and
install the two self-tapping screws. Install the drive ball
in the hole in the armature shaft. If necessary, use grease
to hold the drive ball in the recess. Install the assembly
in the pump housing. Make sure the drive ball is properly seated in the proper groove on the inside diameter
of the inner rotor. Install a new pump to reservoir gasket. If the reservoir stud was removed from the pressure
valve, install the stud in the valve housing. Tighten the
stud in the housing to 6 foot-pounds torque. Position the
valve housing in the reservoir, then position the reservoir on the pump housing. Make sure the arrow on the
valve housing is aligned with the arrow on the pump
housing. Align the holes in the valve housing with the
holes in the reservoir and the pump housing, and install
the four hex head bolt and washer assemblies. Tighten
the bolts to 7 foot-pounds torque. Fill the reservoir half
full with Ford brake fluid. If necessary, install a new
reservoir cap to reservoir gasket, then position the reservoir cap on the reservoir. If necessary, install a new seal
and seal retainer on the reservoir stud. Install the acorn
nut on the stud and tighten to 5 foot-pounds torque.

(7)

INSTALLATION OF THE PUMP AND

MOTOR ASSEMBLY. Refer to (a) for the procedures
for installing the 1949-50 pump and motor, and to (b)
for procedures for installing 1951 pump and motor.
(a) 1949-50 PUMP AND MOTOR. Position the pump
and motor assembly on the dash panel. Secure the unit
to the upper bracket. Place the rubber cushions in position between the lower bracket and the mounting holes
on the pump housing. Install the screws that secure the
unit to the dash panel. Install the wires to the terminals
on the relay (fig. 5). Connect the pressure line and
return line to the pump (fig. 4).
After installation of the unit, operate the top several
times, and check all connections for leaks. Check fluid
level after operating the top, and refill if necessary.
(b) 1951 PUMP AND MOTOR. Place the pump and
motor assembly in position. Align the holes in the pump
housing bracket with the holes in the mounting bracket
installed on the quarter panel. Install the two bolts,
washers, and nuts. Install the wires on the terminal
block. Connect the flexible fluid lines to the hydraulic
lines. Operate the top several times as previously
described and check all connections for leaks. Check the
fluid level in reservoir. Refill if less than V2 full.

2. CONVERTIBLE COUPE TOP ALIGNMENT
Unless the top linkage has been bent out of shape or
binds at any one of the pivot points, the top can be
adjusted to obtain proper alignment. Before attempting
to align the top, it should be operated to determine if
any of the linkage is binding, and if necessary, the faulty
linkage should be replaced or freed from binds.

NOTE: After obtaining proper top alignment, check,
and if necessary, adjust the door and quarter window
to assure proper fit along the top side rails. Do not
adjust windows unless the top has been aligned,

a. Header Bracket Adjustment.
For the alignment of the header along the top of the
windshield frame, an adjustment is provided at the
header bracket as shown in fig. 11 and 12.
This adjustment also eliminates any excess slack in
the top material between header and number one bow.

NOTE: This is only a minor adjustment and will not
correct serious misalignment. If the complete top
assembly requires shifting, it is necessary to adjust
the main pivot bracket as outlined in c.
To make the adjustment on the 1949-50 top, raise
the top slightly to relieve the strain on the top material.
Pry the weatherstrip out of the retainer along the
bottom of the front side rail assembly. Remove the
metal screws that secure the weatherstrip retainer to
the front side rail, and remove the retainer.
Loosen the screws at the header bracket (fig. 11).
The header bracket can now be moved either forward

or toward the fear of the body to align the header with
the windshield frame or to remove excess slack from the
top material. Tighten the screws at the header bracket
after making the adjustment. Install the weatherstrip
retainer. It may be necessary to re-locate the hole in
the front side rail at the forward end of the weatherstrip retainer in order to install the self-tapping screw.
Install the weatherstrip. Seat it firmly in the retainer.
To make the adjustment on the 1951 top, raise the
top about half way to permit easy access to the weatherstrip retaining nuts.
Remove the three retaining nuts and the weatherstrip
from the front side rail. Lower the top to a slightly
raised position to relieve the strain on the top material.

Remover—07 36-N
PUMP HOUSING

4007

Fig. TO—Removing Pressure Relief Valve, Using Tool
No. 0736-N (1949-50)

251

Section 2—Convertible Coupe Top Alignment
Loosen the two tapping plate screws. Move the front
side rail to header bracket either forward or backward
as shown in fig. 12.
After making the adjustment, tighten the tapping
plate screws. Position the weatherstrip on the front side
rail, and install flat washers, lockwashers, and nuts.

b. Front and Rear Side Rail Adjustment.
Two adjustments are provided on the 1949-50 top
to maintain the alignment between the top of the door
window and the side rail assemblies. One of the adjustment points is a top screw located at the rear control
link (fig. 11); the other adjustment is the balance link.
On the 1951 top, this adjustment is made only at the
balance link.
(1) STOP SCREW ADJUSTMENT. If the top has
sagged between the front and rear side rails directly
above the door glass, it can be corrected as follows:
First check the stop screw at the rear control link to
make sure it is properly adjusted (fig. 11). This can be
determined by fastening the top down and checking the
position of the stop screw. Assuming the side rails are
not sagged or bowed, the stop screw should be adjusted
so that it just contacts the rear control link. If the side
rails are bowed, turn the stop screw counterclockwise.
This will lower the side rails. If the side rails sag, turn
the stop screw clockwise. Raise the side rails.
HEADER
HEADER BRACKET

Fig. 12—Adjusting Header Bracket (1951)

4203

NOTE: // the side rails are sagged and the top screw
does not contact the rear control link, it is necessary
to adjust the balance link.
(2) BALANCE LINK ADJUSTMENT. Raise the
top above the windshield until the tension is removed
from the balance link. Place a block between the header
and windshield frame to hold the top in the raised position. On the 1949-50 top, loosen the shoulder bolt at
the lower end of the balance link (fig. 13), allowing the
balance link to slide downward in the slot provided in
the main pivot bracket. On the 1951 top, loosen the
balance link bolt nut (fig. 14). Bend the tab of the
star washer up, then turn the balance link adjusting bolt
to either raise or lower the balance link.
If the balance link does not move in the slot under
its own weight, pull the balance link down by hand
about V4 inch, then tighten the shoulder bolt (1949-50)
or bend down the tab on the star washer, and tighten
the balance link bolt nut (1951). Remove block previously installed under header, and fasten down top.
Check for sag at the front and rear side rails after

BALANCE LINK
FRONT SIDE RAIL ASSEMBLY
QUARTER W I N D O W
STOP SCREW

BALANCE LINK
SHOULDER BOLT

REAR SIDE RAIL ASSEMBLY
REAR CONTROL LINK
MAIN CONTROL LINK

4008
Fig. 11—Front and Rear Side Rail Assemblies
(1949-50)

MAIN PIVOT BRACKET

MAIN PIVOT BRACKET SCREWS (4)
4OO9

Fig. 13—Main Pivot Bracket and Balance Link (1949-50)

252

Chapter III—Convertible Coupe, Crestliner, and Station Wagon

the adjustment is made. If necessary, repeat the above
procedure until the sag has been eliminated.

NOTE: On the 1949-50 top, pay particular attention
to the stop screw at the control link. If necessary,
readjust after making the balance link adjustment.

c. Main Pivot Bracket Adjustment.
The adjustment of the main pivot bracket is provided
to maintain the proper clearance between the pillar rail
and the quarter window. The complete top assembly can
also be shifted, if necessary, at the main pivot bracket.
If the quarter window binds along the top of the
pillar rail when it is lowered, proceed as follows:
Loosen all the screws that secure the main pivot

bracket to the body (figs. 13 and 15). Raise the main
pivot.bracket just enough to eliminate the bind at the
quarter window. When raising the main pivot bracket,
use spacers under the main pivot bracket at the rear
mounting screws to prevent tilting the bracket when
tightening the screws. If necessary, repeat the adjustment at the other main pivot bracket.
If the complete top assembly requires shifting toward
the front or rear of the body, loosen all of the mounting
screws at both main pivot brackets. Shift the top assembly to desired position and tighten mounting screws.

NOTE: When making the above adjustment, care
should be taken to avoid disturbing the "up" and
"down" adjustment.

3. CONVERTIBLE COUPE WINDOW ADJUSTMENTS
Procedures for adjusting windows and weatherstrips
are given in this section. The procedures vary depending on the window or weatherstrip.
Before attempting to perform adjustments on any of
the windows, make a visual inspection, paying particular atterltion to the fit of the glass frame against the
top side rail weatherstripping. The window frames must
be parallel with the side rails, and the ventilator frame
must be parallel with the front pillar. The window frame
must also fit tight against the weatherstripping. Check
the quarter window frame to make sure it is parrel with
the door window frame and does not overlap.
Insert a piece of paper between the window frame
and weatherstrip (fig. 16). The paper should pull out
ADJUSTING BOLT

BALANCE LINK

with a slight drag. This will indicate whether the frame
is properly sealed against the weatherstrip. Make this
check at several points along the side rails and also
between door and quarter window frame (fig. 16).

a. Weatherstrip Adjustment.
The weatherstrip retainers along the front pillar and
the top side rails are provided with elongated holes to
permit proper fit against the window frame. The weatherstrip can be moved either inward or outward approximately VA inch. To make this adjustment on the 194950 top, use a piece of fibre or a wood block to drive
against the weatherstrip retainer as shown in fig. 17. On
the 1951 top, no weatherstrip retainer is used on the
top side rails. The weatherstrip is adjusted by loosening
the retaining nuts located on the top of the side rails
and shifting the weatherstrip to the desired position.

MOUNTING
SCREWS

STAR WASHER

BALANCE LINK BOLT NUT

Fig. I4-Ba/ance Link (195?)

4204

4199

Fig. IS—Main Pivot Bracket (1951)

Section 3—Convertible Coupe Window Adjustment

253

This is only a minor adjustment. If the fit between
the frame and side rails cannot be obtained, it is necessary to adjust either the door or quarter window to
meet the weatherstrip.
If the ventilator frame is not parallel with the front
pillar, it is necessary to shim the weatherstrip toward
the ventilator frame. A wedge shaped shim approximately 12 inches long (OA-7602636 or OA-7602637)
is available for this purpose. Before installing this shim,
determine the thickness required. If necessary, cut a
piece off the thick end of the shim. Allow at least two
holes for securing purposes. Place the shim and retainer
in position on the front pillar as shown in fig. 18, and
install the retainer screws.

4011

Fig. 77—Adjusting
Weatherstrip Retainer to
Fit Against Window Frame

4012

Fig. 18—Installing Shim

Before installing the weatherstrip in the retainer, cut
or grind off step at lower end of weatherstrip (fig. 19).
Install the weatherstrip in the retainer (fig. 19). Adjust
the weatherstrip as previously described. Cement the
lower end of the weatherstrip to the pillar.

OA-7602636 or 7 on
Fronf Pillar
If the assembly requires raising, place the required
amount of flat washers between the upper division bar
bracket and the flange of the cloor inner panel. Tighten
the screws after adjustment is made.

b. Door Ventilator Frame Adjustment.

c. Door Window and Frame Adjustment.

Adjustments are provided to maintain proper fit
against the weatherstrip. Also up or down adjustments
are provided to establish proper clearance at the top.

Adjustments are provided on the door window and
frame assembly to maintain proper fit against the
weatherstrip.
If the door window requires tilting toward the weatherstrip, loosen the hex nuts at point "A" shown in fig.
20. This will allow the frame assembly at the lock end
of the door to be shifted either toward the weatherstrip
or away from the weatherstrip. Additional tilting can be
obtained by the use of shims between the division bar
bracket and inner door panel. It is not necessary to move
both sides an equal amount. Move each side only enough
to obtain even contact against the weatherstrip. Tighten
the hex nuts after making the adjustment.

NOTE: It is necessary to remove the door trim panel
when making adjustments.
If the ventilator frame assembly requires tilting
toward the front pillar weatherstrip, loosen the screws
at points "A," "B," and "C," as shown in fig. 20.
Move the complete assembly either in or out until
proper fit against the weatherstrip is obtained. Tighten
the screws after adjustment is made.
If the complete ventilator frame assembly requires
raising or lowering to obtain proper clearance along the
top, loosen the screws at points "B" and "D", then
remove the screws at point "C," (fig. 20).
If the assembly requires lowering, bend the upper
bracket on the division bar toward the top. This will
allow the assembly to set lower in the door.

4O1O

Fig. 16—Checking Seal Between Window Frame &
Weatherstrip

4013

Fig. 19—Installing Reworked Weatherstrip in Retainer

254

Chapter III—Convertible Coupe, Crestliner, and Station Wagon

If after adjusting the top linkage the door window
frame is not parallel with the side rail, loosen the window regulator assembly screws (see fig. 21). Shift the
regulator assembly to raise the lowest end of the window until it is parallel with the side rails. Tighten the
regulator screws. After making the adjustments, loosen
the glass run assembly lock screw and shift the glass
run either toward or away from the glass frame so that
the frame is snug between the glass runs.

d. Door Glass Travel Adjustment.
Adjust the window regulator stops so the frame does
not raise above the level of the ventilator frame, or does
not lower below the level of the reveal moulding along
the top edge of the door.
To adjust the window height, loosen the screw at
point "A" shown in fig. 22. Shift the regulator stop to
the desired position and tighten the screw.
To adjust the window frame so the frame does not
lower below the level of the reveal moulding, loosen
the screw at point "B" (fig. 22).
4015

e. Quarter Window Adjustment.
Adjustments are provided at the quarter window to
maintain proper alignment with the top side rails and
door window frame assembly. These adjustments must
be made in the following sequence:
To raise or tilt the quarter window, remove the three
button plugs located at the lock pillar. Loosen the Allen
screws (fig. 23) and raise or lower the quarter window
pivot bracket to establish the proper clearance between
the top side rail and quarter window. The proper clearance is determined by operating the quarter window
and observing the clearance between the weatherstrip
and the quarter window as it is being operated. The
quarter window must not bind against the weatherstrip.

Fig. 27—Door Window and Frame Adjustment

If the quarter window requires tilting toward or away
from the weatherstrip, the adjustment is made at the
same location. When tilting the,quarter window do not
disturb the previous adjustment. Operate the quarter
window to make sure the quarter window does not ride
over the weatherstrip. Tighten the Allen screws and
install the button plugs after making this adjustment.
To adjust the quarter window so that it does not
overlap the door window frame, remove the button plug
at point "A" shown in fig. 24. Adjust the quarter window
stop screw until the quarter window and door window
are parallel with each other. Install the button plug
after making the adjustment.
WINDOW

UPPER
ST

REGULATOR ASSEMBLY

WINDOW REGULATOR ARM

4014

Fig. 20—Location of Adjustments on Ventilator
Frame Assembly

WINDOW REGULATOR ARM

LOWER WINDOW STOP

Fig. 22—Door Glass Travel Adjustments

4016

Section 3—Convertible Coupe Window Adjustments
If the quarter window rides over the weatherstrip as
it is being raised or if the quarter window does not fit
tight against the reveal moulding in the closed position,
the following adjustment is required:
Lower the quarter window about half way, then

255

loosen the two cap screws at the pivot bracket as shown
in fig. 25. Move the rear part of the window to the
desired position. Tighten the cap screws and recheck
the window operation* If necessary repeat adjustment.
Install quarter trim panel, seat back, and cushion.

4. CONVERTIBLE COUPE TOP MATERIAL REPLACEMENT
It is advisable that this type of work be assigned to
personnel who have had some previous experience with
trim or upholstery.
The complete convertible top assembly consists of the
rear curtain and stay back assembly (OA-7652 500),
quarter side top pad assemblies (OA-7652874-5), and
the top deck and quarter assembly (OA-7652700). The
various assemblies are shown in figs. 26 through 28.
To avoid a mismatch in color, it is recommended that
both the back curtain assembly and the top deck be
replaced at the same time. If the padding is damaged or
mildewed, it should be replaced.
When installing the top deck and quarter assembly,
it is necessary to install fasteners at the quarter flap
and along the lower edge of the deck. In order to secure
these fasteners to the fabric, it is necessary to use a
special tool designed specifically for this operation.
Other tools required are a magnetized tack hammer,
trimming knife, curved needle (2 inches long), and a
V2 inch offset handle wood chisel to remove tacks.
NOTE: Although this procedure deals with the 1950
models, it can be applied to previous models.

a. Top Removal.
To remove old top, follow procedure given below.
(1) RELEASE QUARTER FLAP. Remove the
quarter window weatherstrip and retainer to release the
fabric from the rear rail. Remove the nut frcftn the lower
glass channel "D" (fig. 28) and remove the quarter flap.
(2) BINDING REMOVAL. Remove the top boot
fastener (352392-S-13) along the body rail binding.
Remove the binding tips (353125-6-S7) from the binding
at the body rail, No. 4 bow and No. 1 bow. Raise the upper

half of the body rail binding to expose the tacks. Insert
the tool (V2 inch wood chisel) between the binding and
top fabric and remove the tacks holding the binding to
the tacking strip. Repeat this operation to remove the
binding at the No. 4 bow and No. 1 bow.
( 3 ) TOP DECK AND QUARTER DECK
REMOVAL. Starting at No. 1 bow, remove the tacks
securing the top deck and quarter assembly to the No.
1 bow, to the No. 4 bow, and to the body rail. When
removing tacks, care should be taken so as not to remove
any of the tacks securing the padding. Make a final
check to be certain that all tacks have been removed,
then remove the top deck and quarter assembly.
(4) REAR CURTAIN REMOVAL.
NOTE: When removing the rear curtain assembly
on 1950 models, it is advisable to remove the back
stay with the curtain. The rear curtain is serviced
with the back stay as an assembly (OA-7 652500).
Remove the tacks along the upper end of the rear
curtain and back stay assembly. Remove the tacks along
the body rail. Remove the assembly.
(5) QUARTER TOP SIDE PAD REMOVAL. If
the quarter top side pad assembly (fig. 27) requires
replacement, start at No. 1 bow and work toward No.
4 bow, and remove the tacks securing the pad assembly
to the tacking strips on the bows.

QUARTER WINDOW BRACKET
QUARTER WINDOW STOP SCREW
ADJUSTING SCREWS (3)
4017
4018

Fig. 23—Quarter Glass
Adjustment

Fig. 24—Adjusting Stop at
Quarter Glass

4019

Fig. 25—Adjusting Quarter Glass at Rear

256

Chapter III—Convertible Coupe, Crestliner, and Station Wagon

b. New Top Installation.
Before installing new top fabric, check the alignment
and operation of the top linkage. Check the clearance
between the top side rails and window frames. If the
side rails are sagging, they must be adjusted. Check the
alignment of the No. 1 bow to make sure it is centered
on the windshield header. Make any adjustments for
proper fit and operation.
(1) PRELIMINARY. Before installing the back
curtain, cut two wood braces or spacer sticks, each
approximately 21 inches long, to go between No. 4 bow
and the edge of the body rail. Use one brace on each
side, parallel to the rear curtain zipper. It is important
that the proper distance at this point be maintained to
assure proper fitting of the top fabric.
Lock the top in the closed position. Examine all tacking strips. If they are damaged, they should be replaced.
Cover the rear deck of the body to prevent damage
to the paint while working along the body rail.
(2) REAR CURTAIN AND BACK STAY INSTAL-

LATION. Center the rear curtain on No. 4 bow. Center
markings are provided on the rear curtain and on the
No. 4 bow. Temporarily stay tack the rear curtain to
No. 4 bow to assure proper fit. Tack the top of the rear
curtain to No. 4 bow with twenty-two 4-ounce suede
tacks ("1A" fig. 26).
Tack the top of the back stay to No. 4 bow with nine
4-ounce suede tacks ("IB" fig. 26).
Starting at the center and working toward the end,
pull the bottom of the rear curtain tight to eliminate sag,
and tack to the body rail with fifty 6-ounce lace tacks.
("1C" fig. 26).
Tack the bottom of the stay to the body rail, working
from the curtain toward the quarter window ("IB" fig.
26). Repeat this operation on the other side. When
tacking the back stay, it must be pulled tight enough
to eliminate sag and wrinkles. Space all tacks evenly.
Stretch three pieces of 3-inch webbing from No. 4
bow to the body rail and tack them in place ("2" fig.
26). Space the three pieces of webbing so there is no

4020

Fig. 26—Rear Curtain and Back Stay Assembly

Section 4—Convertible Coupe Top Material Replacement
space between the webbing. Tack each end with five
4-ounce suede tacks. The webbing must be tight to eliminate sag. Repeat this operation at the other side.
Apply trim cement over the webbing. Position the
blue wadding on the webbing so that it is evenly spaced
at the top, bottom, and sides ("3" fig. 26).
Pull the back stay cover over the wadding, and tack
the upper end to No. 4 bow with five 4-ounce suede
tacks ("4A" fig. 26).
Pull the lower end of the cover tight and tack it to
the body rail ("4B" fig. 26).
Hand-sew the cover where the edges of the cover
material come together, using the blind stitch method
("4C" fig. 26).

(3) QUARTER SIDE TOP PAD INSTALLATION.
Position the pad on the No. 1 bow so the lower end of
the pad is just touching the top side rail. Tack the pad
to the No. 1 bow with nine 4-ounce suede tacks equally
spaced ("8A" fig. 27).
Stretch the pad over to the No. 4 bow. Line up the

257

pad with the back stay cover, and tack the pad to the
No. 4 bow with nine 4-ounce suede tacks ("8B" fig. 27).
Tack the pad to No. 2 and No. 3 bows to hold the
pad in place ("8C" fig. 27).
Position two pieces of 3-inch webbing at the top and
bottom edges of the pad at the No. 4 bow ("9A" fig. 27).
Tack each end of webbing (five 4-ounce suede tack).
Stretch the webbing tight over No. 2 and No. 3 bows
and tack the webbing with three 4-ounce suede tacks
at each bow ("9B" fig. 27).
Tack one piece of webbing to the No. 2 bow over the
center of the pad with five 4-ounce suede tacks. Stretch
webbing tight and tack it to the No. 4 bow then to No. 3
bow with five 4-ounce suede tacks ("9C" fig. 27).
Apply trim cement over the webbings and position
the blue wadding on the webbing in the order shown in
("10" fig. 27). Be sure each piece of blue wadding is
properly located on the webbing.
Pull the lower flap over the wadding and tack the flap
at each end with three 4-ounce suede tacks at each end

4021
Fig. 27—Quarter Top Side Pad

258

Chapter III—Convertible Coupe, Crestliner, and Station Wagon

("11A" fig. 27). Pull top flap over lower flap. Tack each
end with three 4-ounce suede tacks ("B," fig. 27).
Hand-sew both flaps together, using a blind stitch
("11C" fig. 28).
(4) TOP DECK AND QUARTER ASSEMBLY
INSTALLATION. Position the top deck and quarter
assembly over the top slats. It is important that the top
deck is properly centered on the top slats. Center marks
are provided on the top deck as well as on the No. 4
and No. 1 bows. The center marking on the top deck
is identified by a small hole through fabric (both ends).
Starting at the center, tack the top of the lower curtain to the center of the No. 4 bow with twenty-two
6-ounce lace tacks ("1A" fig. 28).
Pull the lower edge of the quarter panel down, and
tack it to the body rail tacking strip with eighteen
6-ounce lace tacks ("IB" fig. 28). When tacking the
quarter panel, start at the rear curtain and work toward
the quarter window. Pull the fabric evenly and tight

enough to remove any wrinkles.
Starting at the center and working toward the ends,
tack the top of the rear deck to the No. 4 bow with thirty
6-ounce lace tacks ("IC" fig. 28). Be sure the tacks are
evenly spaced and in a straight line so the tacks will
not be exposed when the binding is installed.
Tack the front edge of the deck to the No. 1 bow
with thirty 6-ounce lace tacks ("ID" fig. 28). Start at
the center and work toward the ends. Stretch the fabric
evenly and tight enough to remove sag and wrinkles.
Trim off any excess fabric at the No. 1 bow and the
No. 4 bow, and at the body rail with a trimmer knife.
Apply top sealer to the seam at the No. 4 bow and along
the body rail ("2" fig. 28).
Position the binding over the seam at the No. 4 bow,
and tack the binding with thirty 6-ounce lace tacks,
evenly spaced ("A" fig. 28). Bend the upper half of the
binding over the tacks and hammer binding smooth.
Position the binding tip (353125-S-6 or S-7) at each

N0.1
BOW

BACK
RAIL

KIT NO. 50100-N

QUARTER

BUTTON PRESS

FLAP

4022
Fig. 28—Top Deck and Quarter Assembly

Section 4—Convertible Coupe Top Material Replacement
end of the binding ("4" fig. 28) and fasten it with a
screw (52358-S-13).
Position the binding over the edge of the deck at the
No. 1 bow and tack the binding with twenty-three
6-ounce lace tacks evenly spaced ("5" fig. 28). Hammer
the upper half of the binding down smooth over the
tacks. Install the end tips at each end of the binding,
using same end tips as on No. 4 bow ("6" fig. 28).
Position the back rail binding over the edge of the
body rail and flush with the rear deck ("7" fig. 28). Be
sure all tacks are covered. Tack the binding in place with
thirty 6-ounce lace tacks evenly spaced. Hammer the
upper half of the binding down smooth. Position the
binding (part No. 353125-S-6 or S-7). Secure the binding
to the body rail with screws (95215-S-13) ("8" fig. 28).
These screws are used to fasten the top boot. A total
of eleven screws must be installed in the back rail binding, equally spaced.

NOTE: To assure proper fit of the top boot, fasten
the boot to the screws at each end of the binding.

259

Mark location of each boot fastener on binding.
Apply trim cement to the quarter flap, then pull the
flap over the rear rail assembly at the lower end of the
quarter window ("9" fig. 28).
Punch a small hole through the lower corner of the
quarter panel fabric in line with the fastener already on
the body. Assemble stud (95464-S-6) and cap (8H7653029) to the fabric, using special tool ("11" fig. 28).
Attach stud (95464-S-6 and eyelet (95443-S-6) to
the under side flap at the lower edge of the deck ("12"
fig. 28). Be sure they are in line with the self-releasing
fasteners on the tip side rails.
Attach the quarter flap to the lower glass channel stud
and install the nut and flat washer ("D," fig. 28).
Install the weatherstrip retainer assembly over the
quarter flap at the lower end of the rear top rail assembly. Adjust retainer to fit snugly against quarter window.
Trim the deck material from around the rear window
with a trimmer knife. Use the window frame as a guide,
and use caution not to allow knife to slip over frame.

5. CONVERTIBLE COUPE AND CRESTLINER TOP PRESERVATION
Proper care and maintenance are essential in maintaining long life and original appearance of top fabric.

a. Care of Top Fabric.
Because of the differences in the fabric used, the care
of the top material on Convertibles and Crestliners is
described separately.
(1) CONVERTIBLE COUPES. Proper care of the
top material will reduce the possibility of water stains,
mildew, or shrinkage of the top. Do not keep the top
folded for long periods if it is damp or soaked. The top
should be raised, properly fastended, and allowed to dry.
Always use the Convertible top boot to keep the top
material clean and dry when the top is in the fully
lowered position.
The top compartment behind the rear seat back must
only be used for storage of the top when it is in the

3

/s"R.

Fig. 29—Drawing of Tool Used to Install Vinyl
Retainer in Drip Rail

lowered position. The storage of other items such as car
jack, golf clubs, luggage, or other miscellaneous objects,
not only interferes with the proper operation of the top,
but may damage or stain the top material.
Top material that has become faded should be coated
with a top dye. Top dye not only restores its original
color but also preserves the material and acts as a sealer.
If the material is allowed to remain faded for any length
of time, it will become cracked and develop leaks.
The top material should be cleaned and washed at
least every three months to prevent the accumulation
of fine particles of dust and grit from embedding into
the fabric. If those fine particles are allowed to remain
in the fabric, it will require hard scrubbing and a

4165

4177
Fig. 30—Prying Moulding off Drip Rail

260

Chapter III—Convertible Coupe, Crestliner, and Station Wagon

stronger soap solution to remove the dirt and in doing
so will injure the surface of the fabric.
Before washing the fabric, remove all loose dirt with
a hair brush or a small portable vacuum cleaner.
Mix one part of foam cleaner (8A-19526-A) with 10 to
20 parts of water. Cover the bottom of a suitable sized
container with diluted foam cleaner. Soak up liquid with
a clean sea-wool sponge (about the size of a fist). Add
more liquid if necessary to completely saturate sponge.
Alternately squeeze and release sponge until all the
liquid has been transformed into foam.
Apply foam to the fabric with the sponge. Rub in a
circular motion and finally in the direction of the nap of
the material. Never saturate the fabric with liquid. Occasionally dip the dirty sponge in a separate pan of clean
water and squeeze dry before applying more foam.
Thoroughly clean the sponge (or use a second
sponge) and squeeze the water out. Wipe off the surface to remove emulsified dirt and excess foam. Be sure
all foam and dirt are thoroughly removed.
Dry the cleaned fabric with an absorbent cloth and
brush thoroughly when dry.
(2) CRESTLINER. Proper care and maintenance
is essential for maintaining longer life of the top material. Certain aspects of maintenance are a part of the
owners responsibility. However, owners will not know
of the things they should do or avoid doing unless they
are pointed out by the servicemen.
The top of the car should never be used for hauling
items such as car top boats or ski and luggage racks.
(a) WASHING FABRICS. TO prevent the accumulation of fine particles of dust or grit from embedding in
the fine basket weave pattern of the top fabric, it should
be washed with a mild soap or with (8A-19526) Foam
Upholstery Cleaner. If these fine particles are allowed
to remain in the fabric, injury to surface may result.
(b) PRESERVATION. The original luster of the top
material can be maintained by using 8A-19534 polishing wax. Do not apply a polishing wax in the hot sun.

4166
Fig. 32—Checking Clearance in Drip Rait
(c) REMOVAL OF SPOTS AND STAINS. Stains, grease,

gum, etc., that cannot be removed by washing may be
removed with any one of the ordinary cleaning agents.
When using these cleaners, do not apply under the hot
sun. Also avoid dripping the cleaning solution on the
body paint as some cleaners are harmful to paints.
Remove spots by applying the cleaner directly over
the spotted area, then rub gently until the spot is
removed. If necessary, use a fine brush to remove spots
embedded in the basket weave pattern.
Some cleaners do not remove trim or rubber cement.
In these cases, use Ethyl Acetate (M-2507) and apply
in the same manner as other cleaning agents.
Stains that occur on the painted surface of the body
can be removed with 8A-19518 liquid cleaner. In more

CAUTION: Do not use top dye or other top material
preservation solutions on the fabric.

4164

Fig. 31—Pulling Vinyl Retainer Out of Trough

Fi

9- 33—Installing

Drive Nail at the Seams

the Rear Window Opening

Above

4167

Section 5—Convertible Coupe and Crestliner Top Preservation

Fig. 34—Stretching Front Seam with Trimmers Pliers

serious cases a cut down rubbing compound may be used.
Polish surrounding area after removing the stain.

b. Application of Top Dye (Convertibles).
Top dye is available in black (8A-19510-A), and in
green (8A-19510-C).
Before applying top dye, clean the loose dirt and
film from the fabric with a brush or a vacuum cleaner.
Wash the fabric lightly with foam upholstery cleaner
(8A-19526-A) as described in u a " above. Allow the top
to dry thoroughly. Top dye may be applied with a good
paint brush; however, a spray gun is recommended.
If using a brush, stir the top dye thoroughly and if
necessary thin the dye with turpentine before brushing. For spraying, reduce the viscosity by adding one
part enamel or lacquer thinner to two parts top dye.
The body should be covered before spraying. Apply
top dye in the same manner as applying paint to the

261

4170

Fig. 36—Trimming Surplus Material from Front Retainer

body. Usually one coat of top dye is sufficient, however,
an additional coat may be added if the top is badly
faded. If an additional coat is to be added, allow the
top to dry for 15 to 20 minutes between coats.
Keep the car in direct sunlight, or in a warm dry
place for at least 12 hours after applying top dye. Do
riot fold the top for at least two days.
If through improper masking same top dye falls on
the body, it should be wiped off immediately with a
cloth soaked in turpentine.
CAUTION: Do not use top dye near an open flame.

4171
4169

Fig. 35—Installing Retainer Along Top of Windshield

Fig. 37—Stretching Material Around Rear Section
of the Roof

262

Chapter III—Convertible Coupe, Crestliner, and Station Wagon

6. CRESTLINER TOP MATERIAL REPLACEMENT
The following operations can be performed by
anyone who has had some previous service experience
with automobile trim. Only one special tool is required
to perform these operations. This tool, which can be
made from brass stock, is used to install the vinyl retainer
(M-9791-B) into the trough of the drip rail. A drawing
of this tool (fig. 29) shows the necessary dimensions.

a. Removal.
Remove the window glass. The rear glass removal
procedure is identical with other models. To assure
proper positioning of the new top material, scribe a line
on the body directly below each seam at the windshield and at the top of the rear window opening.
With a screw driver, pry the rear moulding joint
cover (OA-7051736). Remove the oval head screws
from each end of the rear moulding. Start at one end
and pry the rear moulding off the retainer. Care must
be taken to avoid scratching the body paint. Start at
the forward end of the drip rail and pry the moulding (OA-7051734-5) off the drip rail (fig. 30).
Remove the self-tapping screws and rear retainer
(OA^7051760).
Start at one end and pry the front moulding
(OA-7053716) off the retainer. Remove the self-tapping
screws and the retainers (OA-7053718-9). With a screw
driver, lift one end of the vinyl retainer (M-9791-B)
out of the drip rail trough, then pull the remainder of
the retainer out of the trough With a pair of pliers (fig.
31). Repeat this operation on the opposite side.
Remove the drive nails securing the top material

around the rear window opening. The drive nails are
removed by grasping the head of the nail with pliers
and turning the nail in the counterclockwise direction.
Carefully pull the top material out of the drip rail on
both sides. Remove the top material from the roof. Do
not disturb the roof pad unless it requires replacing.

b. Installation.
If a new pad is required, coat the roof with trim
cement (M-5333-C), and position the new pad on the
roof and around the rear window opening. If the pad
is only slightly torn or out of place, re-cement the pad
in place. Check the clearance inside the drip rail. The
vinyl retainer will not hold the top material in the
trough if the clearance exceeds 0.160 inch. To check
the clearance, slide a gauge through the trough (fig. 32).
If the gauge does not slide through the trough, spread
the drip rail until the correct dimensions are obtained.
If the clearance is excessive, force the drip rail inward
by tapping it with a rubber mallet.
Position the new top material (OA-7053700) on the
roof. Locate the seams of the material with the marks
previously scribed over the rear window opening. Allow
the material to overhang approximately two inches at
the rear. Install two drive nails at each rear seam.
Stretch the material tight between the seams along the
top of the rear window as shown in fig. 33. Locate the
seams at the front with the marks previously scribed
over the windshield. Grasp the material at one of the
seams with trimmers pliers as shown in fig. 34, and
stretch the material until all wrinkles have been removed along the seam. Locate the hole in the roof
panel nearest the seam with a straight pin, and install a
drive nail. An assistant is required to install the drive
nails. Repeat this same operation at the other seam.
Make sure all wrinkles are removed, and the material
is stretched tight across the top of the windshield.
Apply M-5397-A sealer to the underside of the front

4172

Fig. 38—Installing Vinyl Retainer in Drip Rail Trough
with Special Tool

Fig. 39—Installing Rear Moulding Retainer

4173

Section 6—Crestliner Top Material Replacement
retainers (OA-7053718-9). Position a retainer along the
top of the windshield. Align the end holes in the retainer
with the holes on the roof and install the self-tapping
screws (32914-S8) as shown in fig. 35. Stretch the
material tight under the retainer and install the selftapping screws in the holes that are aligned with holes
in the roof. Using a sharp knife, trim the surplus material from around the lower side of the retainer, (fig. 36).
Install the other front retainer in the same manner
as described above.
Align the seams in the material below the rear window opening with the seams in the top material. Remove
the wrinkles from the material between the seams, and
install a drive nail at each seam along the belt line.
Fold the top material back along the belt line, and
apply trim cement completely around the rear section
covered by the material. Allow the cement to set for
several minutes, then fold the material over the cement.
Work all wrinkles down and toward the drip rail as
shown in fig. 37. To hold the material tight, install a
drive nail approximately one inch from the end of the
drip rail. Repeat this operation on the other side.
Apply trim cement to the trough of the drip rail.
Starting at the rear, pull the top material over the drip
rail. Starting at one end of the drip rail, drive the vinyl
retainer (M-9791-B) into the drip rail trough as shown
in fig. 38. Make sure the seam is straight and continue
to pull the material over the drip rail while driving the

263

retainer into trough. Repeat operation on other side.
Apply sealer to the rear side of the rear moulding
retainer (OA-7051760). Center the retainer, align the
retainer holes with the holes in the body, then secure
the retainer with self tapping screws, as shown in fig. 39.
Pull the material tight around the rear window opening, and install approximately 22 drive nails around the
opening. Trim all excess material from around the rear
window opening and below the rear retainer.
If drip rail moulding (OA-7051726-7), front moulding
(OA-7053716) or rear moulding (OA-7051734-5) were
damaged or excessively spread apart during their
removal, new mouldings should be used. Tap the front
moulding onto the retainer as shown in fig. 40.
Hook the upper part of the moulding flange over the
drip rail, then strike the lower part of the moulding with
a rubber mallet until it snaps into place along the underside of the drip rail as shown in fig. 41.
Position the end of one half of the rear moulding over
the drip rail moulding, then tap the moulding onto the
retainer with a rubber mallet as shown in fig. 42. Repeat
this operation to install the other half of the rear moulding. Install the oval head screws (52344-S13) to secure
the ends of each rear moulding to the drip rail. Install
the rear moulding joint cover.
Install the rear window glass. Apply sealer under
the rear window weatherstrip directly over each top
material seam. Clean away excess cement and sealer.

7. CARE OF STATION WAGON PANELING
This section describes the various procedures required
to properly maintain the station wagon body. This information applies to both the 1949 and early 1950 station
wagon equipped with wood panels, and the late 1950

Fig. 40—Installing Front Moulding on Retainer

4176

and 1951 station wagon equipped with metal panels,
It is the responsibility of everyone connected with
the servicing of station wagons to see that the body
panels and frame finish have the proper care. If this

Fig, 41 —Installing Drip Rail Moulding

4174

264

Chapter III—Convertible Coupe, Crestliner, and Station Wagon

responsibility is assumed by the serviceman, it will
assure the owner that he has a personal interest in the
appearance of his vehicle thus promoting customer satisfaction. The goodwill created will tend to promote
future service and repair business.
Station wagon body paneling should be treated the
same as the planking of a yacht. Just as the boatsman
periodically refinishes his craft, so should the station
wagon paneling be properly maintained. Of the two,
the station wagon is subjected to a greater number of
finish destroying elements. Some of these damaging elements encountered in normal driving are road salt, slush,
mud, grease, tar, arid extremes of heat and cold.
A station wagon should be regularly washed to remove mud or other harmful ingredients.

a. Washing.
NOTE: Never wipe the body off with a dust cloth.
This method of cleaning tends to rub dust particles
into the varnish and leaves scratches on the surface.
Flush off all loose dirt and other elements, then with
a sponge and plenty of cold water, wipe off the body
panels and frames. If desired, a mild detergent soap
may be used. Rinse thoroughly with clear water.
After the station wagon has been washed, wipe it
with a damp chamois. A damp chamois may also be
used to clean the inside trim.
Waxing the panels and frames is not recommended.
If wax has been used, it must be completely removed
before the panels and frames can be revarnished. The
preparation and labor required to properly apply the
wax, and the amount of protection received, does not
compare with the added benefits of a coat of varnish.

b. Varnishing.
The most practical means for protecting and maintaining the original luster on the panels and frames is
by periodic varnishing. The finish should be given a
varnish coat whenever it becomes dull or marred.

NOTE: / / the metal panels have been severely
scratched or damaged, they can be replaced.
(1) PREPARATION FOR VARNISHING. The
panels and frames should be prepared for varnishing
by scuffing the finish with No. 320 grit sandpaper or
steel wool. On wood panel or frame areas that are in
extremely bad condition, use 5/0 (180 grit) sandpaper
and work down to the wood.
Inspect the wood frames for separation at the joints.
Clean all separated portions with a knife or hacksaw
blade. Apply water-proof glue to the frame joint and
clamp until dry. Wood filler may be used to fill small
cracks or separations.
After the surfaces have been scuffed and the separations sealed, blow off the dust; then wipe the paneling
with a tack rag. Make sure the. surface is dry and at
room temperature before applying the varnish. The
ideal temperature for varnishing is 70 °F. If the varnishing is to be done in an area other than a spray booth,
dampen the floor to settle the dust.
(2) APPLYING THE VARNISH. The varnish may
be applied with either a spray gun or brush. If the spray
method is used, mask all other sections of the body.
If the varnish is applied with a brush, care should be
taken to avoid dripping. The brush method is often
improved by placing the varnish container in warm
water before applying the varnish.
A more satisfactory result will be obtained if two
coats of varnish are applied. Make sure the first coat of
varnish is thoroughly dried before the second coat is
applied. The varnish should be allowed to dry naturally
and not by the use of an oven or lights. After the first
coat of varnish has thoroughly dried, scuff the surface
slightly with No. 320 grit sandpaper or steel wool. Blow
off with air, then wipe the surfaces with a tack rag.
Do not scuff the final coat of varnish. After allowing
the varnish to dry for 12 to 15 hours, wipe with cold
water. This will help the varnish to harden.

8. STATION WAGON PANELING REPLACEMENT
Repairing station wagon wood panels is limited to
glueing or filling separations of the panels from the
frames. The wood panels are serviced with the frames as
complete assemblies, and no other repair on them is
recommended. The metal panels used on the late 1950
station wagon are serviced separately.

a. Wood Paneling (1949 and Early
1950).
The wood panel and frame assemblies are attached
to the metal shell with screws, hex head bolts, and blind
sleeve nuts (fig. 43). The interior trim is fastened to
the steel inner shell with screws. Before installing the
wood panel and frame assemblies, apply plastic sealer

around each bolt hole and along the top side surfaces
that bear gainst the body shell.
NOTE: The following replacement procedures apply
to the assemblies on both sides of the station wagon.
(1) DOOR FINISHUPPER FRAME ASSEMBLY.
Remove the door inside trim panel. Working through
the access'holes in the inner panel, remove the hex head
bolts from the sleeve nuts around the upper frame. Remove the self-tapping screws under door weatherstrip
along flange of the door, then remove upper frame.
To install, place the upper frame against the door,
and install the hex head bolts. Install the self-tapping
screws along the door flange. Apply additional cement

265

Section 8—Station Wagon Paneling Replacement
(8A-19552) to the weatherstrip around the door. Install
the door trim panel and finish strip.
(2) DOOR FINISH LOWER PANEL ASSEMBLY.
Remove the glass-regulator handle, arm rest, lock cylinder, and inner and outer door handles. Remove the
inner trim panel. Working through the access hole on
the door inner panel, remove the hex head bolts from the
sleeve nuts securing the lower panel to the door. Remove the self-tapping screws located under the door
weatherstrip on the sides and bottom of the door flange,
then remove the lower panel assembly.
To install, place the lower panel and frame in position on the body, and install the hex head bolts. Install
the self-tapping screws along the door flange. Install the
outside door handle. Position the inside trim panel and
secure with screws. Install the arm rest, glass regulator
handle, and inner door handle.
(3) BODY SIDE FINISH UPPER FRAME ASSEMBLY. Remove the inside finish strip, sliding glass
and runs. Pull the headlining loose at the roof rail.
Remove the inside trim panel. Working through the
access holes along the roof rail and inside panel, remove
the hex head bolts from the sleeve nuts. Remove the
self-tapping screws securing the frame to the inner metal
shell, then remove the upper frame assembly (fig. 44).
To install, position the upper frame assembly, and
secure it to the body shell with the hex head bolts.
Install the self-tapping screws. Fasten the headlining
along the roof rail. Install glass runs and sliding glass.
Install inside trim panel, hardware, and finish strip.
(4) BODY SIDE FINISH LOWER PANEL ASSEMBLY. Remove the finish strip and inside trim
panel. Working through the access holes in the inner
panel, remove the hex head bolts from the sleeve nuts.
Remove the self-tapping screws securing the panel and

METAL SIDE MOULDING
W O O D FRAME

METAL PANEL

fig. 42—Installing Rear Moulding

frame to the body shell, then remove the lower panel
and frame assembly (fig. 44).
To install, position the lower panel assembly, and
secure it with the hex head bolts. Install self-tapping
screws. Install inside trim panel, hardware, and finish
strip.
(5) TAIL-GATE FINISH FRAME ASSEMBLY.
An all metal tail gate is used on the late 1950 and
1951 station wagon. This tail gate is serviced as a complete assembly. The wood paneling on the early models
is replaced as follows:
Remove the spare tire assembly. Remove the tail
gate, then remove the inner panel (fig. 45). Disconnect
the taillight holding bracket and the wires at the tailgate finish frame. Remove the spare tire holding bracket.
Remove the hex head bolts from the sleeve nuts. Remove the self-tapping screws securing the frame to the
tail gate, then remove the frame assembly.
To install, position the frame assembly on the tail
gate, then install the hex head bolts and self-tapping
screws. Install the taillight assembly and connect the
wires. Install the inner trim panel and .screws. Install

0

WOOD FRAME
'

ATTACHING FLANGE,

\

WOOD PANEL

HEX HEAD BOLT
WOOD PANEL CONSTRUCTION

METAL PANEL CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 43—Sectional View of Station Wagon

4068

Chapter III—Convertible Coupe, Crestliner, and Station Wagon

266

the spare tire holding bracket and spare tire assembly.

TAIL GATE FINISH FRAME ASSEMBLY*

(6) METAL PANELING (LATE 1950 AND 1951).
The metal panels used on the late 1950 and 1951 station wagons are firmly held to the wood frames by wood
stripping (cleats). The wood stripping is fastened to the
frames wkh wood screws. The metal panels and the
frames are serviced separately. The complete assembly
must be removed from the station wagon before the
metal paneling can be removed.

NOTE: Before left-hand inside trim panel can be
removed, remove the center seat back bracket.
The procedure for removing the panel and frame
assemblies from the station wagon is the same as the
method for removing the wood panels.
To remove the metal panels from the frames, remove
BODY UPPER SIDE FINISH
FRAME ASSEMBLY

DOOR UPPER FINISH
FRAME ASSEMBLY

Fig. 45—Tail Gate Finish Frame Assembly

4076

the screws and wood stripping securing the particular
panel (fig. 46), then lift the panel off the frame.
To install a metal panel, position it on the frame,
then install the wood stripping and screws. Tighten the
screws evenly to prevent distorting the panel. Apply
body undercoating to the inner side of the panel. This
will protect the metal and eliminate body noise. Install
the panel and frame assembly.
METAL PANELS

BODY LOWER SIDE
FINISH PANEL ASSEMBLY

DOOR LOWER FINISH
PANEL ASSEMBLY

WOOD STRIPPING

4075

Fig. 44—Body Side Finish Upper Frame and Lower
Panel Assemblies

4094

Fig. 46—Inside View of Metal Panels and Frame
Assembly

SERVICE LETTER REFERENCE
Letter No.

Date

Subject

Changes Information
on Page No.

Part FIVE

MAINTENANCE, TROUBLE SHOOTING, AND SPECIFICATIONS
Chapter

I

Maintenance Procedures
Section

1
2
3
4
5

P a g e

Engine Tune-Up
Wheel Alignment . .
Brake Adjustment .
Lubrication
Preventive Maintenance . . .

,

267
269
274
276
278

..

Repair and adjustment operations, of course, deal with
specific parts or systems. Maintenance services however
are operations wherein different services on a number of
parts or systems are grouped for performance at one
time. Some maintenance operations are groupings of

things that should be done to the vehicle as a whole at a
certain mileage interval. Other maintenance operations
have to do with performance or control of the vehicle. The
various maintenance procedures covered in this chapter
are listed in the section titles above.

1. ENGINE TUNE-UP
An engine tune-up operation is intended to restore an
and head nuts to 50-55 foot pounds torque. Tighten the
engine to normal operating condition. It is a corrective
intake and exhaust manifold bolts and nuts to 25-30 foot
procedure and not merely a checking procedure. Only
pounds torque.
parts and units influencing engine performance are con(c) CLEAN, ADJUST, AND INSTALL SPARK PLUGS.
sidered when tuning an engine. This includes cylinder
Sandblast the spark plugs, wipe the porcelain clean,
compression, ignition system, fuel system, engine vacuum, file the electrode tips lightly and adjust the spark gap
and combustion analysis. The procedure is made in
(0.029-0.032 inch). Test the plugs in an approved spark
steps which are listed below under headings which
plug tester. Replace any plugs that have broken or
describe the nature of the test or corrective measure.
chipped porcelain, badly burned electrodes or do not
(a) TEST CYLINDER COMPRESSION. Operate the
check satisfactorily on tester. Install spark plugs with
engine until normal operating temperature is reached.
new spark plug gaskets and tighten to 24-30 foot-pounds.
Remove all spark plugs. Set the throttle to the wide
(d) CLEAN AND INSPECT BATTERY CABLES. Remove
open position and leave it open for this test. Test the
cables from battery. Clean battery terminals and cable
compression of each cylinder (fig. 1).
connectors. Inspect battery case for cracks and leaks.
The compression of all cylinders should be uniform
Replace deteriorated connectors and cables with worn
within ten pounds. The cylinder compression tolerance is
insulation. After connecting cables to the battery, cover
plus or minus 10 p.s.i. at the altitudes given below.
the terminals and connectors with a film of petrolatum
to retard further corrosion.
E
ine
Altitudes (feet) Sea Level 1000 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
Compression (p.s.i.)
120
114 111 103 94 85 78

A reading of more than ten pounds above normal indicates carbon or lead deposits in cylinder.
A reading below normal indicates leakage at the rings,
valves, or gasket.

^ T^MCT^^^^M*

Leakage must be eliminated and deposits of lead or
carbon must be removed to bring compression within the
ten pound limit before tune-up is resumed.
(b)

TIGHTEN CYLINDER HEAD AND MANIFOLD. Com-

pression leaks may be stopped by tightening cylinder
head nuts or bolts (fig. 2) providing the heads are
not warped and the head gasket is in good condition.
Tighten cylinder head bolts to 65-70 foot pounds torque,

267

'ft-

I''JT?WB^ ifTHROTTLE WIDE OPEN DURING

TEST llT*
f/g. J-Checking Cylinder Compression

268

Chapter I—Maintenance Procedures

Manometer
DISTRIBUTOR
HOLDING
CLAMP

VACUUM HOSE
CLAMP
LOCK
SCREW

TORQUE WRENCH

11 T7

Fig. 2—Tightening Cylinder Head Bolts
(e) TEST BATTERY. Check the battery (fig. 3) and

recharge or replace if necessary to insure dependable
service.
(f) TEST DISTRIBUTOR. Test the distributor vacuum
advance on the distributor stroboscope (fig. 4) and
make adjustments, repairs, or replacements as required.
On new distributor points set the gap on the 8-cylinder
distributors at 0.014 to 0.016 inches and on the
6-cylinder distributors at 0.024 to 0.026 inches.
After the distributor points are worn in, a dwell indicator can be used to set the points at 58 to 63 percent
dwell.
(g) TIME IGNITION. Disconnect the vacuum line
between distributor and carburetor to eliminate the
possibility of any vacuum advance. Start the engine and
operate it at idle speed. Check timing with a timing
light (fig. 5) and make the necessary adjustments to
align the pointer and the timing mark. Connect the distributor vacuum line after completing the adjustment.
(h)

CLEAN AND INSPECT THE DISTRIBUTOR CAP.

Clean and inspect the distributor cap for cracks or other
damage. Terminal housing sockets should be free from
carbon deposits.
(i)

SIGHT

DRIVE COUPLING

1119

Fig. 4—Checking Distributor on Stroboscope

If the spark is unsatisfactory at all spark plugs, trouble exists in the coil, condenser, rotor, internally in the
distributor, or the external primary circuit.
If the spark is unsatisfactory at some but not all of the
spark plug wires, the trouble is in the wire itself, the wire
is not seated in the housing socket or the terminal housing is shorted.
A quick check on spark intensity can be made with
the engine idling. Disconnect one spark plug lead at a
time and hold it 3/16 inch from the cylinder head. If the
spark jumps this gap regularly, it is satisfactory
POINTER

LEAD TO NO. 1 SPARK PLUG

CHECK IGNITION PRIMARY CIRCUIT AMPERAGE.

Check the primary circuit amperage with a Diagnosis
Test set. The amperage draw with engine stopped should
be 5 to 5.5 amps and with engine at idle speed the amperage draw should be 2.75 to 3.0 amps. Inspect the wires
visually for faulty insulation and poor connections. If
the amperage is not within limits repair or replace wiring
in the primary circuit.
(j) TEST SPARK INTENSITY. Determine if the spark
from each spark plug wire will jump a 14 kilovolt gap
setting by using a sparkmeter as shown in fig. 6.
NEGATIVE LEAD

POSITIVE LEAD

1118

Fig. 3—Checking Battery

DAMPER

Timing Light

Fig. 5—Checking Timing with Timing Light

1115

269

Section 1—Engine Tune-Up
(k)

TEST ENGINE VACUUM. Check the engine maniTEST SET VACUUM HOSE

fold vacuum at idle speed (fig. 7).
If the vacuum is lower than normal (18 to 21 inches
Hg), check for leakage at the vacuum lines and intake
manifold. Check carburetor idle adjustment.
If the vacuum is still below normal or is erratic, it is an
indication of bad rings, sticky valves, weak valve springs,
or leaking gaskets.
(1)

TEST FUEL

PUMP

PRESSURE.

Check the

fuel

pump pressure as shown infig.8. If the pressure is not
within 4 to 5 p.s.i. for 6-cylinder engines and 3.$ to 4.5
for 8-cylinder engines, replace or repair the pump.
(m) TEST FUEL PUMP VACUUM. Check the fuel pump

vacuum (fig. 8). If the vacuum is below 10 inches Hg
or if the vacuum drops rapidly when the engine is
stopped, it is necessary to replace or repair the pump.
(n)

CLEAN CARBURETOR. Disassemble and clean the

carburetor and throttle body.
NOTE: The upper idle discharge hole is continually
exposed to manifold pressure when carbon deposits
form on the throttle body and prevent the throttle
plate from closing.
Use a gauge to set the float lever (1.322-1.353 inches)
as shown infig.9. Reassemble carburetor and install.
(p)

CLEAN AIR CLEANER. Clean the air cleaner,

remove obstructions, and reinstall. If the air cleaner is
the oil bath type, refill to indicated level with engine oil.
(q)

ADJUST

CARBURETOR

IDLE.

Connect

vacuum

1120

Fig. 7—Checking Manifold Vacuum

INSPECT AND CLEAN FUEL PUMP. Remove the

fuel pump bowl and clean the screen. Clean out sediment bowl and reinstall, using a new gasket.
(o)

DISCONNECT WINDSHIELD
WIPER VACUUM HOSE

gauge and correct any leaks at intake manifold, windshield wiper, or distributor lines. Set the idle speed at
475 to 500 r.p.m. (425 r.p.m. on cars equipped with
automatic transmission). Set the idle fuel adjustment to
the point of highest engine r.p.m. Reset the idle speed
if required.
NOTE: / / the mixture is too rich when the idle fuel
adjustment is all the way in, either the throttle body is
dirty or the idle adjustment screw is not seating.
(r)

ANALYZE ENGINE COMBUSTION. Test the engine

fuel-air ratio and acceleration pump operation with an
engine combustion analyzer.
(s) ROAD TEST. Road test the vehicle as a final
check on the work performed.

2. WHEEL ALIGNMENT
Front wheel alignment involves all the factors affecting the running and steering of the front wheels. All of
these factors must be considered when checking and
adjusting wheel alignment. For this reason, it is essential
that a definite checking procedure, such as outlined in
"a. Checking Procedure," be followed. The correction of
LIFT IGNITION WIRE CLEAR WITH CLAMP
AND DETERMINE MAXIMUM SPARK AVAILABLE

ARK HERE
GAP ADJUSTMENT
CALIBRATED IN KILOVOLTS

wheel alignment factors is discussed under "b. Correction
of Factors."

a. Checking Procedure.
Different makes of equipment may be used for checking the factors of wheel alignment provided the results
obtained are accurate. The illustrations in this section
show one type of portable equipment which can be used.
It is essential that wheel alignment checking be perPRESSURE SCALE 0 TO 5 POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH
VACUUM SCALE
HOSE
0 TO 3 0 " MERCURY

VACUUM TEST
ATTACH
CORRECT
ADAPTER

SPARK PLUG

GROUND LEAD
CONNECTED TO ENGINE

Fig. 6—Checking Spark Intensity

1127

CARBURETOR
DISCONNECT CARBURETOR FUEL
LINE FROM FUEL PUMP

CARBURETOR
FUEL PUMI
DISCONNECT FUEL LINE FROM
FUEL PUMP TO GAS TANK
1121

Fig. 8—Fuel Pump Pressure and Vacuum Test

270

fLOAT

Chapter I—Maintenance Procedures

> Or" " M WGBF

HPSO1*

Float Position Gauge
6-Cylinder and V~8

9505-A
CARBURETOR
AIR H O R N

Fig. 9—Checking Carburetor Float Level

formed by someone familiar with alignment work and
the equipment being used.
(1) LEVEL FLOOR. Since all the factors of wheel
alignment are established from either a true horizontal
or a true vertical plane, the vehicle must be reasonably
level when the factors of wheel alignment are measured.
The large, runway type of wheel alignment equipment
automatically levels the vehicle. If portable equipment
is used, white spots should be painted on the floor to
indicate areas that are level enough for checking wheel
alignment.
(2) INFLATE TIRES. Check the air pressure in all
the tires. If the pressure does not agree with the recommended pressures given in Specifications, inflate the tires
to the correct pressures. Both front tires must be inflated
to the same pressure.
(3) STRAIGHT AHEAD POSITION. While driving the car in the straight ahead position, place a pencil
mark on the steering wheel hub and steering column
tube (fig. 10) to establish the straight ahead position on
the steering gear for later reference during the checking
procedure.
(4) CHECK WHEEL BEARINGS. Raise the front

2372

Fig. 11—Checking

Spindle

Bushings

wheels off the floor. Grasp the wheels at each side and
push in and pull out. If any free play is noticed adjust
the wheel bearings.
(5) CHECK SPINDLE BUSHINGS. With the front
wheels off the floor, grasp the wheel at top and bottom
(fig. 11) and shake it, observing the movement of the
brake plate. If the brake plate has more than %2 * n c n
movement, rebush the spindle.
(6) CHECK LINKAGE. Grasp the front of the
front wheels, push them away from each other then pull
them toward each other, observing the spindle connect-

2374
ALIGNMENT MARKS

Fig. 10—Steering Wheel Alignment Marks

2371

Fig. 12—Checking Wheel Balance with Wheel Spinner

271

Section 2—Wheel Alignment
ing rod (tie rod) ends for looseness. Replace worn parts.
(7) CHECK MOUNTING BOLTS. Check the steering gear mounting bolts and tighten if required. Check
the idler arm bracket mounting bolts and tighten if
necessary.
(8) CHECK WHEEL BALANCE. Using a wheel
spinner (fig. 12), spin each wheel in turn. A wheel that is
out-of-balance will cause the front of the car to shake.
Balance the wheels if required.
(9) CHECK CAMBER. Position the car in the working stall with the front wheels in the center of the white
level spots on the floor.
(a) INSTALL GAUGE HOLDER. Adjust the