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Berman, N., White, A., (2013).

Refusing the stereotype Decoding negative gender imagery


through a School-based digital media literacy program. Youth Studies Australia, 34(1),
38-47

This investigation its about how the stereotypes on the media about woman and man
have an effect on teenagers and their confidence, media show this body stereotypes of
beauty and body shape that makes almost all the teenagers be under the scale, because of
these they lack on self-esteem and confidence, the young females are the most affected
with a 43% of young ladies feeling extremely concerned about their body image. Using
the projected SeeMe the Queen Victoria Womens Centre (QVWC) was trying to
improve the critical awareness of the media unrealistic portrayals of body image and
gender stereotypes and improved their sense of body satisfaction. Presenting different
scenarios and asking to analyses them they were improving the critical thinking and
having a deeper understanding of the process by which social reality is constructed and, it
was anticipated, could have implications for young peoples sense of self and body
satisfaction.

Even when the project was applied in Australia the same ideas and even the project can
be applied here, it presents one of the affected population by the stereotypes and one way
to fight the effects, this article can be used to show how the stereotypes affect the
teenagers causing them to be insecure, and also provides a way to fight the stereotypes in
the media

Burns, S., Eberhardt, L., Merolla, J.L., (2013). What Is the Difference Between a Hockey Mom
and a Pit Bull? Presentations of Palin and Gender Stereotypes in the 2008 Presidential
Election. Political Research Quarterly, 66(3), 687701.

This research about Saras Palin nomination for vice president by the republicans
presents how the stereotypes can be a disadvantage for woman on politics because Voters
also tend to associate each sex with different ideological stances and policy expertise.
While they think of female candidates as more liberal and better equipped to handle
issues perceived as feminine such as education, health care, the environment, the arts,
and poverty reduction, voters perceive men as more conservative, and better equipped to
handle the military, foreign policy, and crime. But this research presents using some
hypothesis, how this Sara plain reflects masculine and feminine traits, and how this can
help her to get a better acceptance between masculine and feminine group of voters. But
because of the mixture of traits Sara pallin fell behind with the most conservative group
of voters because the resemblance to the homosexual groups (another stereotype).

This was an research made on L.A. and was locked on just one candidate, but it proves
that female candidates don not need to separate their femininity to accomplish political
success because our society has move on from the times when a woman couldnt think on
get a position on the government, but even now the stereotypes are present and make it
hard. Using this research we can present how the stereotypes on the media still affects

woman on the political environment but also how this is no longer a total burden for
them.

Coyne, S. M., Linder, J. R., Rasmussen, E. E. (2014). Its a Bird! Its a Plane! Its a Gender
Stereotype! : Longitudinal Associations Between Superhero Viewing and Gender
Stereotyped Play. Sex Roles, 70(no issue number), 416430

This article shows that even when woman are a affected more often by the stereotypes
because of the Sexualization of the gender, man are also affected by the stereotypes, this
investigation present an example of how men creates their masculinity in part by using
certain types of media, including television programs, movies, print media, and hip hop
music. Because of this the superhero genre takes the ideals of masculinity to a different
and ideal level. And as we know children learn from watching others, and also tend to
follow examples that are rewarded rather than those punished, and adding these to the
parents showing and also talking about superheroes like something superior or a model of
citizen the kids will try to copy everything from those super heroes and make them their
ideal. The results showed that those kids viewed superhero programs were more gender
stereotyped in terms of their play and activities 1 year later, even after controlling for
initial levels of gender stereotyped play and other controls. Superheroes have many
positive qualities, such as saving, protecting, and defending those in peril; however, the
research suggests that exposure to such programs during the preschool years may be a
cause given the associations with heightened male-stereotyped play and weapon play
over time.

This paper shows how even something as the superheroes shows have stereotypes, and
they also affects the behavior of the kids, also shoes that not only woman can feel the
effect of the stereotypes in their lives, when we think about the superheroes we think that
they can be a good role model for the kids, but the bad thing is that instead of being a role
model they are ideals that nobody can reach. This can be used as proof that stereotypes
also affects men and everything can be a stereotype even superheroes.

Cortese A. J. (2008). PROVOCATEUR, Images of women and minorities in advertising. Lanham,


Maryland: ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD publishers, INC.

In this book the author shows a critical analysis of the advertising of one of the most
important institutions of the cultural and economic world. Focusing on pictures of women
and minorities, he shows the ideas of domination and control in contemporary commerce,
the illustrations of ethnic and gender relations in the media, and presents to us the truth
about status arrangements and social boundaries. Connecting these pictures to certain
periods of a society brings up, in a subtle way, the social norms and cultural ideologies of
a particular age. We can see how society perceived woman and minorities in different
times, and how the perception of the stereotypes have changed in the society and the
media.

This source is really helpful because it allows us to see the perception of women through
time and how they have changed. It also shows other stereotypes, this is the only one

from all the sources gathered that does this. The information is reliable. We can now
literally see the image that the society of a certain time had about women and we can use
these images as examples in future papers.

Byerly, C. M., Ross K. (2006). Women & media: a critical introduction. Carlton, Australia:
Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Women in the media is a cultural examination of how woman have worked inside and
outside the media organization since the 1970s. The book gives us a perspective of the
key issues and developments in feminist media critiques and interventions for over the
last 30 years. Beginning in the expanding literature of this growing field and ending with
a new study of women media activism in 20 nations. The authors recount and analyze the
first hand narrative of almost 100 women media activist whose work has contributed to
the making of a feminist public sphere that has moved women leaders and agendas more
forcefully into their societies.

This is a really original source that would help to bring another perspective. It is showing
how woman working in the media have been treated in the past and how those women
have changed their own perception on society, its unimaginable helpful. Since these
stories come from first hand experiences they are reliable. This source brings back to
memory the past and how woman werent able to even get a job and now fast-forward

into the future, after a lot of work, we have woman working in really prestigious and
powerful positions.

Schmader, T., Croft, A. (2011). How Stereotypes Stifle Performance Potential. Social and
Personality. Psychology Compass, 5(10), 792806.

Research over the past 15 years has documented a phenomenon called stereotype threat,
whereby subtle situational reminders of negative stereotypes can affect the performance
of those who are targeted by them. This article tries to understand the effect that
stereotypes have over the way we think and the affective process that comes with this
situational performance impairments. The author of this article reviews all evidence
showing that if you are targeted by negative stereotypes the cause will be self-uncertainty
and psychological stress and that will bring on a decrease of performance and an
inefficiency to regulate undesired negative thoughts and feelings. Alone or surrounded by
people this extra process in your mind takes away mental capacity to solve problems
needed for successful performance.

This is really helpful because, differently to past sources this article investigates how the
stereotypes affects the performance in adults. This could be really helpful because we can
focus on stereotypes in adults and how the stereotypes affect them. After reading this we
can see that stereotypes are more than just the perception that we have about a specific
group of people, its something that can affect a person both physically and emotionally
in a negative way.

Frank, R. H. (2007). Despite the Dumb Jokes, Stereotypes May Reflect Some Smart Choices.
The New York Times. Retrieved from
Http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/07/business/07scene.html?fta=y&module=Search&ma
bReward=relbias%3Ar%2C%7B%222%22%3A%22RI%3A15%22%7D&_r=0

This article from the New York Times explained how even with the stereotype of dumb
blondes, blondes would probably be smarter than the average person. Because blonde
girls are perceived as more attractive by men and women are attracted to men because of
income and status, blondes that are more attractive can choose from men with the highest
rates of income and status. Also people perceived as good looking earn more than those
described as plain. So maybe being blond opens different value opportunities that do not
require an investment in human capital like college level education, an extensive
vocabulary, or incorporating more reading; they decide to just invest different ways of
human capital that relate to their looks.

This source is a clear example of how woman are represented in the media. The fact that
this article presents a logical way of thinking that tries to explain a stereotype by giving
more value to other stereotypes make this article a little bias, but it can be used as a bad
example. This artcle show us that stereotype are present everywhere, and there is a lot of
them: dumb blondes, good looking people are more successful. We are surrounded by
stereotypes and we use stererotypes to explain stereotypes.

Smith, S. (2008, November 13). Gender Stereotypes: An Analysis of Popular Films and TV.
Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media. Retrieved on 2014, October 24. From
http://seejane.org/wp-content/uploads/GDIGM_Gender_Stereotypes.pdf

A study made by Stacy smith, a professor at the USC Annenberg School, shows that
woman in prime-time series face inequity on screen across eight industries. Men keep
getting promoted to prime-time over woman, and during prime time almost no women
are shown working in engineering or mathematical occupations. These occupations
appear with male characters 4.5 times more often than they do with female characters. It
also shows that woman are still highly sexualized in comparison to males and are often in
roles as mothers, wives, or relational partners. In prime time there is 1.57 males to every
1 female making these genre the most gender balanced.

This report brings to earth all the other sources, showing its no longer just an idea but
solid and supported with facts. It explains how theres a gap between women and men in

the media and actually put numbers and statistics to show how woman are more often to
be portrayed as just house wives while male character are more often viewed as engineers
or mathematicians. This is the proof of all the other sources that have been collected,
showing the stereotypes in the media. With these statistics we know that its not
something rare but in fact a very common occurrence and there is still a huge gap
between women and men in the media.