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Mt S Kin Thc V Hm S Tun Hon

Cao Minh Quang


THPT chuyn Nguyn Bnh Khim, Vnh Long

Trong chng trnh THPT, kin thc v hm s tun hon (HSTH) c cp rt t, ch


yu khi hc sinh c hc v cc tnh cht ca cc hm s lng gic lp 11. Tuy nhin, trong
cc k thi hc sinh gii, vn thng hay xut hin nhng bi ton lin quan n ni dung ny. Bi
vit sau s trnh by mt s kin thc v l thuyt cng nh cc bi ton v HSTH.
1. nh ngha
Hm s y = f ( x ) c tp xc nh D c gi l HSTH nu tn ti t nht mt s T 0 sao
cho vi mi x D ta c:
i) x T D
ii) f ( x T ) = f ( x ) .
S thc dng T tha mn cc iu kin trn c gi l chu k (CK) ca HSTH f ( x) . Nu
HSTH f ( x) c CK nh nht T0 th T0 c gi l chu k c s (CKCS) ca HSTH f ( x) .
Ta s tm hiu mt s tnh cht c bn ca HSTH.
2. Mt s tnh cht
2.1. Gi s f ( x) l HSTH vi CK T . Nu x0 D th x0 + nT D , x0 D th x0 + nT D ,
vi mi n .
2.2. Gi s f ( x) l HSTH vi CK T v f ( x0 ) = a , x0 D , khi tn ti v s gi tr n
sao cho f ( x0 + nT ) = a .
2.3. Nu T1 , T2 > 0 l cc CK ca HSTH f ( x) trn tp D th cc thc dng mT1 , nT2 , mT1 + nT ,
vi m, n + , u l CK ca f ( x) trn tp D .
2.4. Nu f ( x) l HSTH vi CKCS T0 th T = nT0 , n + l mt CK ca HSTH f ( x) .
2.5. Nu T1 , T2 l cc CK ca cc HSTH f ( x), g ( x) v

T1
l s hu t th cc hm s f ( x) + g( x) ,
T2

f ( x ) g ( x), f ( x ).g ( x) cng l cc HSTH vi chu k T = mT1 = nT2 , m, n + .


Vic chng minh cc tnh cht 2.1 2.4 tng i n gin. Ta s chng minh tnh cht 2.5.
Chng minh. V

T1
T
n
l s hu t nn tn ti m, n + sao cho 1 = . t T = mT1 = nT2 ,
T2
T2 m

vi mi x D , ta c

f ( x) = f ( x + T1 ) = f ( x + 2T1 ) = ... = f ( x + mT1 ) = f ( x + T ) ,

g ( x ) = g ( x + T2 ) = g ( x + 2T2 ) = ... = g ( x + nT2 ) = g ( x + T ) .


Do ,
f ( x + T ) g ( x + T ) = f ( x) g ( x ), f ( x + T ).g ( x + T ) = f ( x ).g ( x ) .
Vy f ( x ) g ( x ), f ( x ).g ( x) l cc HSTH vi chu k T = mT1 = nT2 , m, n + .

Vic kt lun mt hm s c phi l HSTH hay khng ph thuc rt nhiu vo vic xc nh


CK hoc CKCS (nu c) ca hm s. Ta cp n CK (CKCS) ca mt s hm s thng gp.

3. Chu k v chu k c s ca mt s hm s
3.1. Hm s f ( x ) = c ( c l hng s) l HSTH vi CK l s dng bt k nhng khng c CKCS.
1, x

3.2. Hm Dirichlet f ( x ) =
l HSTH vi CK l s hu t dng bt k nhng khng

0, x \
c CKCS.

3.3. Hm s f ( x ) = { x} = x [ x ] l HSTH c CKCS T0 = 1 .


3.4. Cc hm s f ( x) = sin x, f ( x) = cos x l cc HSTH c CKCS T0 = 2 . Cc hm s

f ( x) = tan x, f ( x) = cot x, f ( x) = sin x , f ( x) = cos x l cc HSTH c CKCS T0 = .


3.5. Cc hm s f ( x) = sin ( ax + b), f ( x) = cos(ax + b) , a 0 l cc HSTH c CKCS T0 =
Cc hm s f ( x) = tan (ax + b), f ( x) = cot ( ax + b) , a 0 l cc HSTH c CKCS T0 =

2
.
a

.
a

Chng minh. Ta s chng minh cho hm s f ( x ) = { x} = x [ x ] v f ( x) = sin ( ax + b) ,


cc hm s cn li xin dnh cho bn c nh bi tp t luyn.
Vi mi n , ta c f ( x + n) = {n + x} = { x} = f ( x) . Do f ( x + 1) = f ( x ) . Mt khc,

nu 0 < T0 = t < 1 l CKCS ca f ( x) th vi x = 1 t , ta c 0 < x < 1 , do .


f ( x + t ) = f (1) = 0 f ( x ) = { x} = 1 t .

Vy hm s f ( x ) = { x} = x [ x ] l HSTH c CKCS T0 = 1 .
Trc ht, ta chng minh T0 = 2 a , a 0 l CK ca f ( x) = sin ( ax + b) . Tht vy, ta c

f ( x + 2 a ) = sin a ( x + 2 a ) + b = sin (ax 2 + b) = sin (ax + b) = f ( x ) .

Gi s tn ti s dng t < 2 a sao cho f ( x + t ) = f ( x ) , vi mi x . Khi , vi


x=

2b
, ta c
a
2 b

+ t + b = sin ( 2 + at ) = cos at = cos (t a ) < 1 ,


f ( x + t ) = sin a

2 b

+ b = sin ( 2) = 1 .
f ( x ) = sin a

Do , f ( x + t ) = f ( x ) khng xy ra vi mi x , tc l T0 = 2 a , a 0 l CKCS
ca f ( x) = sin ( ax + b) .
4. Mt s bi ton
Bi ton 1. Xt tnh tun hon v tm CKCS (nu c) ca cc hm s sau

a)

f ( x ) = cos x

b)

f ( x ) = cos x

c)

x
3x
f ( x ) = cos cos
2
2

d)

f ( x ) = cos x + cos 2 x

e)

f ( x ) = sin x 2

Li gii.

a) Theo tnh cht 3.5, d thy rng f ( x ) = cos x l HSTH vi CKCS T = 2 .


b) Tp xc nh ca hm s l D = [0, +) . Gi s f ( x ) = cos x l HSTH vi CK T > 0 .

Nu x0 D th x0 + nT D , vi mi n . Tuy nhin, iu ny khng th xy nu cho n < 0


b th x0 + nT < 0 . Do f ( x ) = cos x khng l HSTH.
x
3x 1
c) Ta c f ( x ) = cos cos = (cos x + cos 2 x ) = f ( x + 2 ) . Ta s chng minh T0 = 2
2
2
2
l CKCS ca hm s ny. Tht vy, vi 0 < a < 2 th cos a < 1,cos 2a 1 , suy ra
1
f (a ) = (cos a + cos 2a ) < 1 = f (0) .
2
Do , f ( x + a ) = f ( x ) khng th xy ra vi mi x , tc l T0 = 2 l s dng nh
nht sao cho f ( x + T0 ) = f ( x) vi mi x hay T0 = 2 l CKCS.
d) Gi s f ( x ) = cos x + cos 2 x l HSTH, tc l tn ti T > 0 sao cho f ( x + T ) = f ( x ) ,
vi mi x , hay cos ( x + T ) + cos 2 ( x + T ) = cos x + cos 2 x .
Vi x = 0 , ta c cos T + cos 2T = 2 , suy ra cos T = cos 2T = 1 hay T = 2k , 2T = 2m ,
m
trong k , m + . Do 2 = (v l). Vy f ( x ) = cos x + cos 2 x khng l HSTH.
k

e) Gi s f ( x ) = sin x 2 l HSTH, tc l tn ti T > 0 sao cho f ( x + T ) = f ( x ) , vi mi


x , hay sin ( x + T ) = sin x 2 .
2

Vi x = 0 , ta c sin T 2 = 0 hay T 2 = k , k + hay T = k . Suy ra f x + k = f ( x) .


Vi x = 2k , ta c sin
sin

2k + k

2k + k

= sin

2k

= sin (2k ) = 0 , v l v

= sin 2k + k + 2k 2 = sin 2k 2 0 .

Vy f ( x ) = sin x 2 khng l HSTH.


[ x]

Bi ton 2. Chng minh rng hm s f ( x ) = (1) { x} l HSTH.


Li gii. Ta s chng minh T0 = 2 l CKCS ca hm s. Tht vy, ta c
[ x + 2]

f ( x + 2) = (1)

2 +[ x ]

{x + 2} = (1)

[ ]
{ x} = (1) { x} = f ( x) .
x

Gi s tn ti 0 < a < 2 sao cho f ( x + a ) = f (a ) , vi mi x . Ta s xt ba trng hp.


(i). 0 < a < 1 . Chn x = 2 a th 1 < x < 2 . Do f ( x ) = { x} 0 ; f ( x + a ) = f (2) = 0 ,

suy ra f ( x + a) f ( x ) .
3

(ii). a = 1 . Chn 0 < x < 1 , ta c f ( x ) = { x} = x; f ( x + a) = { x} = x , f ( x + a) f ( x ) .


(iii). 1 < a < 2 . Chn x = 2 a th 0 < x < 1 , ta c f ( x ) = { x} = x; f ( x + a) = f (2) = 0 ,
suy ra f ( x + a) f ( x ) .
Vy khng tn ti 0 < a < 2 sao cho f ( x + a) = f (a ) , vi mi x hay T0 = 2 l CKCS.
Bi ton 3. [Vit Nam 1997, bng B] Cho a, b, c, d l cc s thc khc 0 . Chng minh rng

f ( x ) = a sin cx + b cos dx l HSTH

c
l s hu t.
d

Li gii.

() Gi s f ( x) l HSTH, tc l tn ti T > 0 sao cho f ( x + T ) = f ( x) , vi mi x .


Vi x = 0 ta c f (T ) = f (0) hay a sin cT + b cos dT = b .

Vi x = T , ta c f (T ) = f (0) hay a sin cT + b cos dT = b .


Cng theo tng v cc ng thc trn, ta nhn c cos dT = 1 , suy ra dT = 2k , k \ {0} .
Tr theo tng v cc ng thc trn, ta nhn c sin cT = 0 , suy ra cT = m, m \ {0} .

T suy ra

c
m
=
.
d 2k

() Ngc li, gi s
dng T =

c
c m
l s hu t, tc l tn ti m, n \ {0} sao cho = . Ta chn s
d
d
n

2m 2n
, khi vi mi x , ta c
=
c
d

2m
2n
f ( x + T ) = a sin c x +
+ b cos d x +

= a sin cx + b cos dx = f ( x) .

c
d

Do , f ( x) l HSTH vi CK T =

2m 2n
=
.
c
d

Bi ton 4. Chng minh rng nu th hm s f ( x) c hai trc i xng x = a, x = b(a b) ,


th f ( x) l HSTH.

Li gii. Trc ht, ta gi (C ) l th ca hm s. Khng mt tnh tng qut, ta gi s rng



a < b . Tnh tin (C ) theo vector v = (a,0) . Bi ton tr thnh: Chng minh rng nu th
ca hm s f ( x) c hai trc i xng x = 0, x = c = b a th f ( x) l HSTH.
V th ca hm s f ( x) i xng qua x = 0 nn f ( x ) = f (x) . Mt khc, th ca
hm s f ( x) cng i xng qua x = c nn f ( x ) = f (2c x ) . Suy ra f (x ) = f (2c x ) , vi

mi x , tc l f ( x) l HSTH vi CK T = 2c = 2(b a) .
Bi ton 5. Cho hm s f ( x) xc nh trn D v f ( x + a ) =
rng f ( x) l HSTH.

Li gii. Vi mi x D, a 0 , ta c
4

f ( x) 1
, a 0 . Chng minh
f ( x) + 1

f ( x + a ) 1 ( f ( x) 1) ( f ( x ) + 1) 1
1
.
f ( x + 2a ) = f ( x + a) + a =
=
=
f ( x + a) + 1 ( f ( x) 1) ( f ( x ) + 1) + 1 f ( x )
Suy ra, f ( x + 4a ) =

1
= f ( x ) . Do f ( x) l HSTH.
f ( x + 2a )

Bi ton 6. Cho hm s f ( x) xc nh trn , tha mn cc iu kin f ( x + 3) f ( x) + 3 ,

f ( x + 2) f ( x ) + 2 , vi mi x . Chng minh rng g ( x ) = f ( x ) x l HSTH.


Li gii. Ta s chng minh g ( x + 6) = g ( x) , vi mi x . Tht vy, ta c

g ( x + 6) = f ( x + 6) x 6 = f ( x + 3 + 3) x 6

f ( x + 3) + 3 x 6 f ( x ) + 3 + 3 x 6 = f ( x ) x = g ( x) .
Mt khc, g ( x + 6) = f ( x + 6) x 6 = f ( x + 4 + 2) x 6 f ( x + 4) + 2 x 6
f ( x + 2) + 4 x 6 f ( x) + 6 x 6 x = f ( x) x = g ( x) .
Suy ra g ( x + 6) = g ( x) , vi mi x hay g ( x ) = f ( x ) x l HSTH vi CK T = 6 .
Bi ton 7. Chng minh rng nu HSTH f ( x) tha mn iu kin kf ( x) = f (kx ), vi mi
x , k , k 0, k 1 th f ( x) khng c CKCS.

Li gii. Gi s T0 l CKCS ca HSTH f ( x) . Khi , vi mi x , k 1, k 0 , ta c


T
T
f (kx + T0 ) = f (kx) = kf ( x) v f (kx + T0 ) = f k x + 0 = kf x + 0 .


k
k

T
Do , f ( x ) = f x + 0 . Ta s xt hai trng hp sau:

k
T0
< T0 (v l v T0 l CKCS). Nu k < 1 hay k > 1 , bng cch
k

T
T
T
t y = x + 0 , ta c f ( y ) = f y 0 (v l v 0 < T0 ).

k
k
k

(i) k > 1 . Nu k > 1 th

x
(ii) k < 1 . Vi mi x , ta c f ( x + kT0 ) = f k + T0 = kf + T0 = kf = f ( x ) .

1
T
t k ' = , ta nhn c f ( x ) = f x + 0 , vi k ' > 1 . Theo (i), ta cng nhn c iu v l.

k
k '
Tm li, f ( x) khng c CKCS.
1
Bi ton 8. Cho a > 0 v hm s f : +
tha iu kin f ( x + a) = + f ( x) f 2 ( x) ,
2
vi mi x > 0 . Chng minh rng f ( x) l HSTH.

Li gii. V f ( x + a) =

1
+
2

1
f ( x) f 2 ( x), vi mi x > 0 nn f ( x + a) .
2

1
Do , f ( x) . Suy ra
2

f ( x + 2a ) =

1
+
2

1
f ( x + a) f 2 ( x + a) = +
2

1
1
= + +
2
2

f ( x + a ) 1 f ( x + a)

1
1
1
f ( x) f 2 ( x) f ( x) f 2 ( x) = +
f ( x) + f 2 ( x)
2
2
4

1
1 1
1
+ f ( x) = + f ( x) = f ( x) .
2
2 2
2

Vy tn ti T = 2a > 0 sao cho f ( x + T ) = f ( x ) , vi mi x + nn f ( x) l HSTH.


Bi ton 9. Tn ti hay khng cc hm s f , g :
, vi g l HSTH tha mn iu
kin x3 = f ([ x ]) + g ( x ) , vi mi x , k hiu [ i ] ch phn nguyn.
Li gii. Gi s tn ti cc hm f , g tha mn yu cu bi ton. Gi T0 l CKCS ca g . Vi
mi x , ta c

( x + T0 ) = f ([ x + T0 ]) + g ( x + T0 ) = f ([ x + T0 ]) + g ( x) .
3

Suy ra f ([ x + T0 ]) f ([ x ]) = ( x + T0 ) x 3 = 3T0 x 2 + 3T02 x + T03 (*) .


3

Vi mi x 0,[T0 ] + 1 T0 ) th v tri ca (*) l hng s, do (*) l a thc bc 2 c v s


nghim, suy ra 3T0 = 3T02 = T03 = 0 hay T0 = 0 (v l).
Vy khng th tn ti cc hm f , g tha mn yu cu bi ton.

Bi ton 10. Gi s f ( x) l mt HSTH c CKCS T0 . Tn ti hay khng lim f ( 1x ) ?


x 0

Li gii. Trc ht, ta nhn thy rng f ( x ) c ( c l hng s), v hm hng khng c CKCS.
Do , s tn ti hai s thc a, b sao cho f (a ) f (b) . t an = a + nT0 , bn = b + nT0 . Khi , ta

1 n
1 n

0,

0 . Do
an
bn

lim

1
= lim f (an ) = lim f (a + nT0 ) = lim f (a) = f (a) ,
f
n
n
1 an n

1
= lim f (bn ) = lim f (b + nT0 ) = lim f (b) = f (b) .
lim f
n 1 b
n
n
n
n
1
lim
Suy ra, lim f
n
1 an n

1
hay khng tn ti lim f ( 1x ) .
f
x 0
1 bn

Bi ton 11. Cho f ( x) l HSTH v lin tc trn , c CK 2T . Chng minh rng tn ti


x0 sao cho f ( x0 + T ) = f ( x0 ) .

Li gii. t g ( x) = f ( x + T ) f ( x) . Ta c g ( x +T ) = f ( x + 2T ) f ( x +T ) = f ( x) f ( x +T ) .
Do , g ( x ).g ( x + T ) = f ( x + T ) f ( x ) 0 .
2

V f ( x) l hm s lin tc nn g ( x ) cng l hm s lin tc, do , theo nh l Cauchy


Bolzano, tn ti x0 [ x, x + T ] sao cho g ( x0 ) = 0 hay f ( x0 + T ) = f ( x0 ) .

Mt s bi tp t luyn
Bi 1. Xt tnh tun hon v tm CKCS (nu c) ca cc hm s sau

a)

f ( x ) = sin x + cos x

b)

f ( x ) = cos x + sin 2 x

c)

f ( x ) = x 2 cos x

d)

x
f ( x) = x n
n

e)

x
f ( x ) = (1) cos x +

Bi 2. Chng minh rng nu th hm s f ( x) c tm trc i xng E(a, b) v c trc i

xng x = c (c a ) , th f ( x) l HSTH.
Bi 3. Cho f ( x) l HSTH v lin tc trn , c CKCS T0 . Chng minh rng, vi mi
a +T0

a th

T0

f ( x )dx = f ( x )dx .
0

Bi 4. Cho f ( x) l HSTH, lin tc trn v lim f ( x) = a, a . Chng minh rng vi


x +

mi x , ta c f ( x ) = a .
Bi 5. Cho f ( x), g ( x ) l cc HSTH, lin tc trn v lim f ( x) g ( x) = a, a . Chng
x +
minh rng f ( x) = g ( x ) + a , vi mi x .
Bi 6. Cho hm s f ( x ) tha mn iu kin f ( x ) 2008 v f ( x + 2) + f ( x) = 2 f ( x + 1) ,

vi mi x . Chng minh rng nu f ( x +1) f ( x) = a th f ( x + n) f ( x ) = na , vi n l


mt s nguyn dng. Hm s f ( x) c tun hon khng?

Ti liu tham kho


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[3]. Nguyn V Thanh. Chuyn bi dng s hc. NXB Tin Giang, 1993.
[4]. Nguyn Qu Dy, Nguyn Vn Nho. Tuyn tp 200 bi ton gii tch. NXB Gio Dc,
2000.
[5]. Phan Huy Khi. Ton nng cao cho hc sinh THPT i S (tp 1). NXB Gio Dc,
2000.
[6]. Nguyn Vit Hi. Khai thc nh ngha hm s tun hon. Tp ch Ton Hc v Tui
Tr, s 1/2000.