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THREATENING BACTERIA

Urgent Threats:
Clostriduium difficile
Carbapenem-resistant
Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)
Drug-resistant Nesseria
gonorrhoeae
Serious Threats:
Multidrug-resistant
Acinetobacter
Drug-resistant
Campylobacter
Fluconazole-resistant
Candida (fungus)
Extended spectrum lactamase producing
Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLs)
Vancomycin-resistant
Enterococcus (VRE)
Multidrug-resistant
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Drug-resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella
Drug-resistant Shigella
Methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA)
Drug-resistant
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Drug-resistant tuberculosis

References
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013, April 23). Antimicrobial Resistance
Threat Report. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from
http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/
World Health Organization. (2014, April). Antimicrobial resistance. Retrieved July 1,
2014, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/en/

For additional information, please visit the sites above!


Erin Rentch for GRNS 504

Concerning Threats:
Vancomycin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus
(VRSA)
Erythormycin-resistant
Group A Streptococcus
Clindamycin-resistant
Group B Streptococcus

People can help by:


Using antibiotics only when they
are prescribed by a certified
health professional
Completing the full treatment
course, even if they feel better
Never sharing antibiotics with
others or using leftover
prescriptions

Health workers and pharmacists


can help by:

Enhancing infection prevention


and control
Prescribing and dispensing
antibiotics only when they are
truly needed
Prescribing and dispensing the
right antibiotic to treat the
illness

Policymakers can help by:


Strengthening resistance tracking
and laboratory capacity
Strengthening infection control
and prevention
Regulating and promoting
appropriate use of medicines
Promoting cooperation and
information sharing among all
stakeholders

Policymakers, scientists,
industry can help by:

and

Fostering innovation and


research and development of
new vaccines, diagnostics,
infection treatment options and
other tools

Antibiotic Resistance

FACTS

At least 2,000,000 people are infected each year


by bacteria that are resistant to one or more antibiotics
in the United States alone.
At least 23,000 people die as a direct result of
these antibiotic-resistant infections.
Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed
drugs used in medicine, but up to 50% of all
antibiotics prescribed are not needed or are not
optimally effective as prescribed.
Taking an antibiotic when it is not needed can lead to
the development of antibiotic resistance and increases
the risk of developing a resistant infection in the
future.
The use of antibiotics is the single most important
factor leading to antibiotic resistance around the
world.
The loss of effective antibiotics will challenge our
ability to fight infectious diseases and manage the
infectious complications common in vulnerable
patients.
As antibiotic resistance grows, the antibiotics used to
treat infections do not work as well or at all.
Patients with infections caused by drug-resistant
bacteria are generally at increased risk of worse
clinical outcomes and death, and consume more
healthcare resources than patients infected with the
same bacteria that are not resistant.
Antibiotic-resistant infections add considerable and
avoidable costs to the already overburdened U.S.
healthcare system. Estimates have ranged as high as

$20 billion

in excess direct healthcare costs.

Antibiotic-resistant
infections can happen
anywhere!
Most infections happen in
the general community,
but most deaths happen in
healthcare settings.

PEOPLE AT HIGH RISK


Cancer Chemotherapy
Complex Surgery
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Dialysis for ESRD
Organ & Bone-Marrow
Transplants

SOLUTION
1. Preventing infections and preventing spread of
resistance
2. Tracking resistant bacteria
3. Improving the use of todays antibiotics
4. Promoting the development of new antibiotics and
developing new diagnostic tests for resistant
bacteria