Old English Literature. 600 AD – 1065 (Started in 6



7 century)
Medieval Period 1066-1450/1485/1500 The Renaissance 1450/1485/1500- 1660 Neo-Classical 1660 – 1798 • Restoration • Augustan • Age of sensibility


The Romantic Period 1789 – 1832 Victorian 1832-1901 Modern 1901- 1939/1945 Post Modern 1939/ 1945 – Present _____________________________________________________________________ Celts were the first people who lived in England. Then Romans occupied England. After that Anglo-Saxons (Angels, Saxons and Jutes) came to England and Celts went to Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Cornwall.
Romans Romans

Celts Wales

Angles Saxons Jutes

Celts went to Ireland, Scotland, Cornwall, and

1. They were two tribes of Gaels and Britons 2. They entered England in 6th century BC 3. Their religion was Druidism 4. They had Mediterranean culture. 5. They Believed in Hierarchy of Gods and made human sacrifices 6. They believed in trans-migration of souls. 7. They had different classes of society 8. They came from Austria and Switzerland 9. They were converted into Christianity by Romans 10. They had oral literature.


Main features of Old English
Oral Pessimistic and dark, mainly elegies. Anonymous Themes of war, warriors, complaint, love, courage, struggling, together with pensive mood. Fate is very important. In 54 and 55 BC, Caesar started occupying England. From 53-54 AD England became the colony of Rome. In 401 to 410 AD the Roman withdrew from England in order to protect Rome from Barbarian attacks (approx for 500 years). They converted British into Christians They built London They made Canterbury the seat of Roman church. One day Pope Gregory saw a group of boys playing. He asked who are they and they said they are Angels. He said no, they are Angles. So he sent St Augustine to convert them in 597 BC. In 447 AD (1550 years ago), Angles came to England and then Jutes and then Saxons. England = Angel land. Their culture was Tutanic (Germanic). They were farmers, seaman and sea pirates. Their religion was polytheism. Their Gods= Woden, Thore, Tiu, Saturn The most important God was Fate, Wird Anglo-Saxons started 7 empires called heptarchy: Sussex Wessex Essex Kent Mercia East Anglia Northumbria Anglo-Saxons were cold, reserved and pessimistic and believed in Fate. They had oral literature. Their language was inflectional (conjugated). Their language had only 30000 words. Their language relied on kennings (condensed metaphors). For example they referred to sun as world candle and referred to sea as monster’s home. They called prince a ring giver. Their language was harsh which is due to climate. 3

They had poets called scops who worked for kings in order to immortalize their lord. Their work was panegyric Their poetry was alliterative (head rhymed). Example: Grendel came creeping, accursed of God In a summer season when soft was the sun In a fair field full of folk.

A sad poem for death of a person. In old English literature it means a lyric poem of complaint and lamentation. Deor’s lament (First elegy) It was from a poet who was ignored by his lord because another poet had showed up and won his heart. Wulf and Eadwacer A woman who is lamenting absence of her vanished lover. The wife’s lament About a woman who is complaining because her husband is on a journey. The Husband’s Message The husband writes on a piece of wood that he will go back to her arms. The Ruin The Seafearer The Wanderer

Bede 673 – 735
The first English historian, the father of English learning/history. When he was 7, he was sent to an abbey and became a deacon at 19. Bede means priest. After death he was called deacon of church. He translated some parts of the Bible. His important work is Ecclesiastical History of English People.

Caedmon, late 7th century – early 8th century
The first English poet. He worked in a monastery. One night he had a dream in which a boy said “Caedmon, Sing me”. He said he knew nothing and the boy said “sing the creation”. Next day he woke up a poet and started writing hymns. His works are:


1. 2. 3. 4.

Genesis (‫)ﺳﻔﺮ ﺁﻓﺮﻳﻨﺶ‬ Christ and Satan Daniel Exodus (‫)ﺳﻔﺮ ﺧﺮوج‬

So he wrote religious narrative poems from the bible.

Beowulf (an epic), composed 675 – 725
It is an oral , Tutanic (Germanic) epic. It was in west Saxon dialect written down in 1000 AD, and it’s composer is anonymous. It is written in 2 books. Book one is in Denmark and about King of Danes, Herothgar. The name of his palace is Heorat. There’s a dragon which attacks his castle called Grendel. Beowulf, the hero, goes and kills the dragon. Then Beowulf has to kill the mother of dragon so he goes to bottom of the sea to do so. Book two is in Geatland 50 years later. Beowulf is in Geatland and he is the King. There’s a fire dragon which attacks the city because one of the Geats has stolen a golden cup from him. Beowulf fights with the help of only one of his thanes. Beowulf is wounded. He kills the dragon and dies. The setting is not in England. So the first English epic says nothing about England. There are Christian passages which are interpolated into the text.

Cynewulf (late 8th or 9th century)
According to critics, after the anonymous writer of Beowulf, he is the greatest Old English poet. He is the first known English poet. His works are: 1. Christ II 2. Elene (the mother of Constantine) 3. The fate of the Apostles 4. Juliana (a virgin who was martyred for Christ These four works are definitely his because they carry his signature. There are some other works that maybe his such as The Dream of the Rood(‫.)ﮐﺘﺎب ﻣﻨﺼﻮب( ,)ﺻﻠﻴﺐ‬

Old English Prose

King Alfred (Alfred the Great, 848- 899, became king in 871)
He was the best writer of old English prose. He was the king of Wessex and made it the cultural capital of England. He defeated Vikings and singed a contract with them. He defeated the Danes and in 878 recaptured London. His most important work is called the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (the most important history of old English Literature). Some poets borrowed parts of his book (Shakespeare). He translated Ecclesiastical History of English into English. His other important work are:


1. Translating “Concerning the Consolation of Philosophy” by Boethias. 2. Historia Universalias 3. The Battle of Molden – (Danish Attack).

Medieval English Literature Started in 1066 when Normans (French tribe from Normandy) attacked England in the Battle of Hastings.
Layamon William Langland: Was a poet born in 1332 to 1400. His work is Piers Plowman, an allegory in alliterative verse. A great religious and satirical poem. A dream vision of Jesus In a summer season when soft was the sun In a fair field full of folk Found there I between The narrator falls sleep and sees the Dungeon of Wrong. He sees the Tower of Truth on a mountain (because it is an allegory). Then he explains different class of people in his dream. Then he sees a lady called the Holly Church. The lady criticizes him for sleeping. He asks what he should do and the lady tells him to go after Saint Truth. Then he says how and the lady says he needs a guide (Piers Plowman). Not much is know about Langland. Medieval Literature was didactic.

King Arthur:
A legendary king. There are many Romance verses about king Arthur. He lived in 6th century. He was a saint and fought with Anglo-Saxons. There are Romances and narrative poems about King Arthur. Some stories form other cultures such as French or German has been added to this legend. He went to a war, but his nephew Mordred took over the kingdom and he was killed in a war with him. When King Arthur died, they put his body on a boat full of wood and then set fire to it and sent it to the lake. His soul went to Celtic Paradise Avalon. He gave his sword to someone and asked him to give it back to the Lady of the Lake. The man hesitated twice but at last did so.


An early novel. An adventurous story in prose or verse with the theme of quest (for the Holy Grail which is a cup from which Christ drunk in the last supper) and love.

Sir Gawain and the Greene Knight (Anonymous writer):
It is an Arthurian legend, written in the second half of the fourteenth century. The theme is quest, Chivalry and law. One of the best medieval poems. It is an alliterative poem and is written in four fitts. It is about 2500 lines. The western drama began in Greece. Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes

Rome: Palautus and Terence , Seneca
Comedians Tragedians

Medieval Period: Miracle and mystery plays: Priests started to act stories of bible and lives of saints and martyrs were played. However, Pope ordered them to stop it. Morality Play: An allegory which deals with abstractions. The examples are Everyman, and The Castle of Perseverance. They acted on a wagon called a pageant (portable stage). They acted in market places. In between acts there were some comic interludes.

Elizabethan Drama (Renaissance)
Seneca Tragedy or Tragedy of Blood. This kind of Tragedy had a major effect on Renaissance drama. The types of dramas in Elizabethan period are tragedy, comedian, tragic-comedy, history/chronicle play and masques. Shakespeare, Ben Johnson and Marlow are leading poets of this time. The theatres were closed down from 1649 to 1660 by Cromwell who was a puritan. From 1660 to 1700 (Restoration period) they were opened again and sentimental and neo-classical plays were acted. In 18th century, comedy of manners (immoral) changed into sentimental comedy and in 19th century, sentimental comedy changed into melodrama. Modern Drama: Henrik Ibsen (problem plays), Chekhov, Strindberg, Berecht (epic theatre), Oscar Wild, G.B Shaw, T.S Elliot, Samuel Beckett (theatre of the absurd,


Waiting for Godot), John Osborn (Angry young man, Look Back in Anger), Harold Pinter (Birthday Perly), Tom Stoppard (Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead) Arneld Wesker (Kitchen Sink Drama). The father of American drama is Eugene O’Neill Arthur Miller: Death of a Salesman Tennessee Williams= The Glass Menagerie, A Streetcar Named Desire. Edward Albee= Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?

Geoffrey Chaucer 1340-1400, the best medieval writer
He is called the father of English poetry. His works fall into three periods (1- French influenced period, 2- Italian influenced period, 3- English influenced period). Allegories, abstractions and alliterations are characteristics of his time but didn’t write that way. His master piece is The Canterbury Tales. He wrote in couplets. He was forgotten until 19th century. His poetry is colourful, unlike other works in his period which are dark and depressive. The Canterbury Tales is a narrative. The Narrator says he went to an inn called Tabard. He and 29 others wanted to go on a pilgrimage to the tomb of Saint Thomas Becket, martyred in Canterbury church. The season is spring, the weather is good. The inn keeper says if a person who comes back can tell 4 stories, he will get a free meal (The General Prologue). The work is colourful, gives a clear picture of English people at that time (14th century), and it is not didactic.

A morality play = An allegory with the theme of quest for salvation in which the characters are abstractions. The theme of everyman is quest for salvation. It has been taken from a Buddhist parable and translated from a Danish work. Story of Mr. Everyman who is summoned by death. He asks some abstract entities such as Truth, Beauty, etc…, to accompany him. The only person which accompanies him is Good Deeds. Clearly, Everyman is didactic and teaches morality. It has several soliloquy (thinking aloud monologues), in the story. This life being preparation for after life is the theme of it. _____________________________________________________________________ 8

Renaissance (1450/1485/1500- 1660)
The word means rebirth. It is based on a reaction or amendment in dark period. 50 BC- 5th Century is the advent of Christianity. Rome became the military and ideological centre of the world. Greek (gold period)
1-Aristotle 2- Plato 3- Sophocles 4- Eccles 5- Euripides

Rome (silver period)
1- Arsen 2- Seneca 3- Virgil 4- Terence 5- Blautus

5th cent

Roman Church

15th cent

Medieval literature

Western Rome Empire Rome Easter Roman Empire


Rome Constantinople (Istanbul)

Constantinpole before Constantine was called Byzantium. In 1453, it was eradicated by Ottomans (Muslims). Rome remained the ideological centre up to 15th century and even now. Pope’s decisions are still important. Some of the works of western culture was translated by Arabs. The writers from Constantinople went to Italy. They took books from Muslims. They started translating works of Aristotle, Bible which marked the start of Translation Movement. So the golden days were revived (Renaissance: Revival of classical thinking).Some of the important figures of the Renaissance are: Dantes Petrarch Marcle Anglio In Renaissance an outburst happened in art, painting, sculpturing, etc. This movement was strengthened by religious reforms and the invention of printing machine in 1450s by Gutenberg (Germany). The first printer in England was called William.


Religious Reformation: 1- In Germany a man called Martin Luther started a new version of religion called Protestantism = protest against authority of Pope. Protestantism is a form of religious individualism because it means you can interpret religion on your own. It means you don’t need intervention of priests and church to communicate with God. It happened through translation of Bible. So this was one branch of religious reform. 2- Another branch happened in England under the ruling of Henry VIII. The then king wanted to divorce his wife, Catherine, because she didn’t bring him a son. So Henry VIII wrote a book against Luther and Pope was pleased with him. But his same defender revolted against Pope. He broke with him church of Rome and set up Anglican Church and became head of English church. Pope was angry and excommunicated with him but it was useless. His church was independent. 3- In other parts of Europe people like Copernic, made religious reforms. Europe changed its ideology from this life for after life to life precious per say (this life is worth living). 4- Another religious reformer of Renaissance is Sir Thomas More (1478-1538), the writer of Utopia. His refusal of act of supremacy lead to his beheading by King Henry VIII. He was a friend of Erasmus, and the first English humanist. The Praise of Folly is the work of Erasmus. In this book people who praise the church are criticised. He is considered a Martyr. His masterpiece is Utopia which is a political essay romance in two books which describes an image of a communistic society, where private property does not exist and almost complete religious toleration is practiced. Book 1: Portrays an ideal world which is contrasted with the corruption, war, poverty and immorality of Europe. • Book 2: Explains in detail the ideal society. The government is the representative of people. Men and women are educated, etc. Utopia is a rational world, governed by humanistic principles. There is religious toleration. Streets are 20 feet wide. House have gardens. He is against organized war. Gold is hated and only slaves and prisoners carry gold. It is a satire. It is a communistic democracy. Another important featuer of Renaissance is humanism = Human is precious, the life in this world is also precious, and this is related to changes in cosmology because it was discussed that the sun was stationery and this was the violation of Bible. So the cosmology of Ptolemus and Bible were weakened. •


The starter of it was Erasmus in Holland. The first English Humanist is Sir Thomas Moor. So in Renaissance all the following changes occurred: Individualism, Materialism, Humanism, Copernican Revolution, Martin Luther’s Protestantism, Henry VIII Anglican Church, and weakening of priests which reduced the authority of Pope. Another Important event was the growth of commerce which was related to slavery.
Goods Sugar



(Worked free of charge on plantations)

Europe acquired abundance of wealth which resulted in banking systems. So another feature of Renaissance is Colonisation. Lust for life, Lust for Knowledge and Lust for power = Themes of Marlow’s works. Vernaculars (native languages) were strengthened and Latin was weakened. Books were translated into vernacular. In England much of Renaissance coincided with Monarch of Queen Elizabeth. So Renaissance is synonymous with Elizabethan period, because in the Elizabethan period, there was peach and order and England became the supreme power by defeating the Spanish Armada (Spanish armed ships) in 1558. Spain had the biggest navy in the world and they wanted to convert British into Christians. They were defeated. In Renaissance, English Language was elevated and strengthened to a higher position. Theatres were built. Renaissance is the golden age of British drama. Shakespeare, Marlow, Ben Johnson and Webster wrote in that period. Renaissance was the period of outburst of drama, and the outburst of lyric poetry specially sonnet. Sonnet was imported from Italy. Sir Tomas Wyatt (1503-1542) translated the works of Petrarch who was in love with Laura and wrote fourteen line poems in iambic pentameter for her. The first sonneteers are Wyatt and H. Howard. Wyatt’s major works are Farewell Love (a debate between reason and love) and the Flee from Me. He was a writer, poet, ambassador and courtier. He introduced terza rima into English literature.


Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586)
In Defence of Poetry is his work of criticism, influenced by Aristotle. At his time, poetry meant literature. Sidney is the first English critic. In ‘An Apology of Poetry’ he summarized what he had been said before him. He believed that literature is an imitation of nature (and this is Aristotle’s view too). A poet not only imitates nature but also makes a better nature. He improves the nature. An Apology of Poetry is argumentative and persusasive. It is in three parts. In part one he says poetry is dignified and is superior to philosophy and history. In part two he aswers the criticism that poets are liers because poet affirms nothing (Plato said poets are liars). Part three is about the present English literature. After Aristotle and Hores, he was influenced by ?????. According to Sidney, poetry is virtue breeding. It moves man to virtuous action. Arcadia (Paradise of Shepherds), Astrophel and Stella, and An Apology of Poetry are three important works by him. He died at the battle of Zulphen. He was a soldier, diplomat, courtier, poet, critic, gentleman and Queen’s favourite. He is influenced by Platonism. He was not happy with the love poems of his time. Arcadia was prose romance (pastoral). It is about a group of shepherds who are discussing love and philosophy. It’s a courtesy book (teaching how to be gentleman). Astrophel and Stella is a sonnet sequence of 108 sonnets and 11 songs. It is about conflict of reason and passion. It is a criticism of Petrachan convention: turning the beloved into and angle or ideal. It is about the love of the Astrophel and Stella. Stella is a married woman and Astrophel is in love with her. But she does not respond to him because of her honour. So his love was frustrated. In Renaissance an early kind of novel was written an example of which is John Lyly’s Euphues. In the Renaissance literature was secularized. It is the beginning of secularization. They say the greatest poet of Renaissance is Milton and the greatest dramatist is Shakespeare.


1500 – 1642/1660 = Renaissance in England.
The first English drama written in blank verse is Gorboduc. In tragedy Seneca and in comedy Terence and Plautus influenced English. 1456= Invention of printing machine. 1531= Henry VIII broke with Pope 1570= Martin Luther broke with Pope 1588= Spanish Armada Renaissance was an age of peace, order, financial improvement, religious liberty, intellectual energy and desire to enlarge bounds of learning. Age of new ideas, exploration, discovery, individualism, religion, thought and art. It was a cultural outburst. America was discovered in 1492 by Columbus. In 1543 the polish astronomer Copernicus proved that earth went around the sun. Renaissance was the rebirth of classical arts, outburst of creativity in literature, painting, sculpture and architecture. It was the age of da Vinci, Angelo, Petrarch, Bucaccio, Sir Thomas More, Erasmus, Martin Luther, Dante, Shakespeare, Milton, Marlow, Lyly, Webster, Bacon and Ben Johnson. Third Session

Edmund Spencer – 1552-1599
One of the greatest English poets of the Renaissance period. He was a Cambridge sizer (a poor student). Spencer used archaic language. He introduced Spencerian stanza into English literature. He was greatly admired in the Romantic period. He was influenced by new-Platonism (Plato made Christian, Plato accorded to Christianity). He died for lack of breath and buried in Westminster Abbey. Faerie Queen is a long allegorical epic poem of about 700 pages and is his most important work. The word means the beautiful Queen and refers to Queen Elizabeth I. the poem is about the Queen Gloriana (Faerie Queen). There is a 12 day feast in her palace . She is the Queen of fairy land. Each day a stranger comes to her palace and asks for help. He or she might have a problem with a tyrant, dragon, etc. The Queen would send a knight to help them. These knights at a stage of the work have a great trouble and King Arthur come to help them. Spencer wanted to write 12 books but only could finish 6 of them. 12 refers to 12 virtues of Aristotle. Book one is about Holiness 13

Book two is about Temperance Book three is about Chastity Book four is about Friendship Book five is about Justice Book six is about Curtsey This work is an allegory on 3 levels. 1. It is a moral allegory: virtues versus vices 2. A religious allegory: church versus atheism and paganism. 3. It is a political, historical allegory (allusions to execution of Queen Mary, etc.) In book one, the Knight of Holiness (the Red Cross knight) is assigned a mission of protecting Una and free her parents from a dragon. But he falls in trouble and King Arthur frees him. It is individual Christianity vs. false Christianity. Book two is about Guyon who is the Knight of Temperance (golden mean). Book three is about Britomart, a female Knight of Chastity. She is looking for her future husband. Book four is about Friendship (very important in Renaissance period). Book five is about Sir Artegal, the Knight of Justice, who should destroy Grantorto and rescue Arina. It is about Queen Elizabeth. Book six is about Sir Calidor, the Knight of Curtsey. He should capture the Blatant Beast (the ignorant slanderous, clamour of mob). His next work is Shepherd’s Calendar, a poem with archaic language. A pastoral poem with political allegory dedicated to Sidney. It is written in 12 books and it is about unsatisfied love of Colin Clout for Roselyn. Each part is called an eclogue and named after one month in the year. He also wrote Amoretti (little love). It is a sonnet sequence (a poem made up of sonnets). It has 89 sonnets and a wedding song, Epithalamion. It is about Spencer’s courtship of an Elizabeth (maybe Queen Elizabeth, or his mother or his beloved, Elizabeth Boyle). It is a justification of married life. The other work is Colin Clouts Come Home Again, dedicated to Raleigh. It is pastoral and praises simple country life.

Francis Bacon 1561-1626
He is the first English essayist who has a book called The Essays, which has 58 essays. The famous ones are Of Death, Of Revenge, Of Goodness, Of Beauty, and Of Friendship. This book is very aphoristic, witty and concise with ……… structure. It is epigrammatic, (many quotations from this book: knowledge is power, revenge is a kind of wild justice, cure the disease and kill the patient, all colors will agree in dark, children sweeten labours but they make misfortunes more bitter, if a man be gracious


to strangers it shows he is a citizen of the world, travel is part of education, etc.). A famous quotation from him is “I have taken all knowledge to be my province”. His works fall in three groups: 1. Philosophical: the advancement of learning, Novum Organum. 2. Literary works: Essays such as New Atlantis, The History of Henry 3. Professional: Maxims of the Law He went to Trinity College. About university professors he said “men of sharp wits, shut up in their cells of a few authors like Aristotle”. This shows he was against Aristotle, because Aristotle introduced deductive method but Bacon introduced inductive method. He rebelled against Aristotle. In Novum Organum (‫ )ارﻏﻨﻮن‬named after one of the works of Aristotle called (Organum), he says our understanding is limited by four idols. These are bad habits of mind that cause people to fall into error. 1. Idol of the tribe referring to misunderstanding from nationality. 2. Idol of the cave referring to mistakes and misunderstandings of within. 3. Idol of the market place referring to misunderstandings from communication with other people. 4. Idol of the theater referring to philosophy and literature. Alexander Pope describes him as “the wisest, brightest and meanest of man”. “Hope is a good breakfast but not a good supper” = a famous quotation. His next work is the New Atlantis, and unfinished philosophical semi-romance, a utopian work. In this work he proposed a College of Solomon’s House (6 Days Work College). He predicted refrigerator, telephone, submarine, aeroplane in this work. He was the first empirical philosopher (‫.)ﻓﻴﻠﺴﻮف ﺗﺠﺮﺑﯽ‬ He is the first martyr of science (caught cold while experimenting in snow). He became Lord Chancellor.

Christopher Marlow 1564-1593
He is a good representative of Renaissance thought. Marlow is the greatest writer of tragedy before Shakespeare (After Shakespeare is Webster). Marlow is considered father of English tragedy. He was arrested because of atheism (stabbed to death, his death is mysterious). It is said that some works of Shakespeare is written by Marlow. He died too young. His major works are: 1. Tamburlane the Great (‫ = )ﺗﻴﻤﻮر ﻟﻨﮓ‬Lust for power. 2. The Jew of Malta = Lust for Money 3. Doctor Faustus = Lust for knowledge 15

4. Edward II = First chronicle play of English literature His works are nihilistic and express spiritual doubt. He enhanced blank verse (unrhymed iambic pentameter). He is the greatest dramatist of his time. His works manifest new learning, worship of man. He sums up the Renaissance. Tamburlane the Great: A heroic epic, epic tragedy in blank verse: it has two parts. It is about the famous conqueror. “Give me a map and see how much is left for me to conquer”. In one part of the play he attaches the king of the countries to his carriage. For example he imprisoned King of Turkey and his wife in a cage, and the king butted his head against the wall and killed himself. When he wanted to conquer the city of Babel, virgins were put in the city gate as symbols of innocence but he killed them all. This play shows the spirit of military power. Doctor Faustus: A tragedy of blank verse with the theme of lust for knowledge. It is about a man from Germany who learned a lot. So Satan sent his top minister, Mephistopheles, to him and he tells Faustus that he will teach him all the knowledge for 24 years and in exchange for his soul. He does many things in those 24 years, but dies after that. It is a spiritual tragedy. The Jew of Malta: Barabus, lust for wealth. The governor of Malta takes his money and gives it to Turks, so Barabus gets angry and starts taking revenge from Muslims and Christians. But falls in a trap that he had prepared himself for an evil purpose. Hero and Leander: An unfinished poem which was finished by Chapman. It is about love of Leander for Hero. Leander is being sunk while swimming to her, and Hero in despair throws herself into the sea.

John Webster (late 16th cent – early 17th cent).
He is the greatest writer of tragedy after Shakespeare. (Marlow-ShakespeareWebster). His famous works are The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi. He writes about violence, revenge, murder, and wrong-doing. His characters are Faustian. His works are Gothic (predecessor of Gothic, mysterious and frightening), and his vision is dark and pessimistic. The White Devil (1612) is about a love between Brachiano and Vittoria, both married. The wife of Mr. Brachiano is called Isabella and the husband of Vittoria is Camllo. Brachiano kills his wife in order to be with Vittoria and Vittoria’s brother, Francisco, contrives revenge. So it is a Senecan tragedy and his tragedies are Senecan.


The Duchess of Malfi is about a widow, who is called the Duchess of Malfi. She falls in love wither servant, Antonio. They marry secretly and they have two children. Her brothers Duke Ferdinand, and the Cardinal hire someone called Bosola, and he kills her and the two children. When the brother sees the face of her dead sister he say: ‘Cover her face: Mine eyes dazzle: she di’d yong’. This is an immoral line in English literature showing indifference and cruelty. The Elizabethan drama was in blank verse.

Ben Jonson (1572/3-1637)
He was contemporary of Shakespeare and more famous than him. He was a poet, play-write and critic. He was virtually (not officially) a poet laureate (chosen by the King to write poems on important national occasions). He wrote thirty masques, seven plays (two tragedies and five comedies). He was one f the first English critics and the first to write masques, epigrams and comedy of humours. He had followers who were called The Sons of Ben. He was the first English classicist. Classicism was a type of Literature written in 17th and 18th century. He was a Renaissance writer but he was classicist. He believed in the unities. Unity of time, place and action, and was against mixing of genres (He was a Decorum, the inventor of which is Horres). He wrote comedy of humours. It goes back to ancient medicine (four fluids in the body: blood, phlegm, melancholy and choler. Imbalance in these fluids in the body will result in abnormal behaviour). He was translator as well. He translated Ars Poetica (art of poetry) by Horres. He wasn’t afraid of expressing his opinion. He had a dwell with a fellow actor and killed him. He was the first person to write epigrams (a short poem containing an idea). He wrote Everyman in His Humour (the first comedy of humour in English literature in which Shakespeare acted). It is about a business master, Mr. Kitely, who thinks his wife has an affair with someone else. Another comedy by him is Everyman Out of His Humour which has many humorous characters and by means of every episode, each character is eventually driven out of his humour. He wrote Cynthia’s Revels (another comedy of humour). His next comedy is Volpone (or The Fox). Volpone a rich man without children pretends that he is dying in order to draw gifts from his would-be heirs. Mosca, his accomplice, persuades them each of them to do so in turn that he is to be the heir. One of them even attempts to sacrifice his wife to Volpone in hope of the inheritance. The Alchemist, is his other comedy. Two charlatans pretend that they have discovered the formula of changing base metals into gold. They abuse people. He has an allegorical comedy called The Devil is an Ass. 17

He wrote two tragedies, Catiline and Sejanus His Fall, which both are Roman tragedies. He wrote thirty masques (an entertainment play with dance, music, simple plot, lavish costume and expensive scenery. The audience are rich and they take part in the play and wear masks). Poetaster (‫ )ﺷﺎﻋﺮﻧﻤﺎ‬is his next comedy. He had 133 epigrams. He has a sonnet called ‘To the Memory of My Beloved Master, William Shakespeare’. “Thou art a monument without a tomb”

John Lyly 1553/4-1606
He was a play-write and prose writer. In the Renaissance period there were two kinds of artificial prose: Ciceronian and Euphuism (introduced by Lyly in two books: Euphues and His Anatomy of Wits and Euphues and His England). The theme of his works is love. Euphues was a prose romance and about the illusion of love, weakness of woman and folly of youth. Euphues is considered a predecessor of novel. He wrote comedies as well like Endimion which is an allegorical comedy about love between moon and human. Mother Bombie and Campbaspe are among his comedies. Campaspe is a prose comedy about Alexander the Great who yields a beautiful girl (Campaspe) to her artist lover. He wrote a play called Gallathea, which is about a city cursed by Neptune. In order to remove the curse, two virgins must be sacrificed and their parents put on boy clothes on them (a normal theme of those days). Themes of Greek plays: Curse and Interference of Gods.

Robert Burton 1577-1640
He was a writer of prose. In the Renaissance period, maturity of English language is important, and this happened through borrowing words and communicating with Europe. Important prose writers of Renaissance: Holinshed Sir Thomas Brown 18

Robert Burton Francis Bacon John Bunyan (The Pilgrim’s Progress) Anatomy of Melancholy: A very lengthy book of half a million words. Dr Johnson said about it “The only book that took me out of bed two hours sooner”. “A world of literature in itself” Machen. This book is erudite (challenging, full of ideas). It is full of allusions, French, Latin, biblical and Greek words. It is a book in three parts with many subdivisions. He tells us about the cases ad symptoms of different kinds of melancholy. In fact, it is an Anatomy of Man. His next work is Philosophaster, which is a Latin drama and a criticism of charlatanism.

Raphael Holinshed 1529-1580.
Chronicle is the day to day account of events and are early versions of history. There are two important chronicles. One is Chronicle of England, Scotland and Ireland known as Holinshed’s Chronicle (1577). The other one is King Alfred’s Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Holinshed’s chronicle is important because it provides the plot of Macbeth, Cymbeline, The Tragedy of Richard III and King Lear. He is another Renaissance prose writer.

Thomas Kyd 1558-1594.
He and Marlow are the starters of English tragedy. The Spanish Tragedy is a Senecan tragedy and the first good English Tragedy. The story is about Horatio’s murder. The reason was that he was in love with Belimperia. The brother of her beloved, Lorenzo, kills him. Before she is taken, she writes a letter to the father of Horatio. This tragedy was the most important, popular and influential tragedy of Shakespeare’s time. Hamlet is indebted to this play. This play was performed in Germany and Holland, so it influenced Dutch Literature.

George Chapman 1559-1634
He was a writer of tragedy and comedy. He translated Homer, Odyssey and Iliad, Petrarch and Hesiod.


He wrote Bussy d’Ambois, and The Revenge of Bussy d’Ambois which are Senecan tragedies. The latter is influenced by Hamlet. He wrote comedies like All Fools. He believes that “the truest wisdom is the pursuit of beauty”. He is famous for “my first looking into Chapman’s Homer” written by Kyd about Champman’s translation of Homer. Another play by him is Eastward ho in which he collaborated with Ben Jonson and John Marston. He finished Marlow’s Hero and Leander.

Shakespeare 1564-1616
His father was a wool merchant. At the age of 18, married a woman of 26 and had three children. He moved to London with his family from Stratford, which is on the bank of a river called Avon. Shakespeare was a dramatist sonneteer and an actor. He wrote 36 plays and 154 sonnets. His plays are comedies, tragedies, tragic comedies and history plays. He borrowed many of his plots from history books, Chronicles etc. He was a part-owner of the Globe theatre. It is a round theatre which is wooden and imitated from the style of inns. They say that Bacon and Marlow wrote some of his works. Jonson: “He was not of an age but for all time” It is said that Shakespeare never omitted any lines and Ben Jonson said “I wish he had blotted out a thousand lines”. He was a master of blank verse. Shakespeare acted in Jonson’s ‘Everyman in His Humour’. Above all Shakespeare had an excellent knowledge of nature: knowledge of human nature, heart and passion. An ordinary English person uses 450 words and expressions from Shakespeare. An educated person uses 2000. Shakespeare’s works represent contradictions in human nature. He could do well in tragedy as well as in comedy. A French critic said “next to God, Shakespeare has created most”. Shakespeare was uplifted to his present status in the Romantic period. He was never in the court. He wrote for all classes of society. Alexander Pope said ‘his characters are so much nature herself that it is a sort of injure to call them by so distant a name as copies of nature’. This means Shakespeare is above rules. Samuel Johnson said “Shakespeare is above all writers. He is the poet of nature. He holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of his life. Haslitt calls Shakespeare the poet of nature in the largest use of the term. Shakespeare describes things as they would be. 20

Thomas Carlyle says Shakespeare is great in painting men and things. His works are meta-narrative (a language which is above human language), and have been translated many times in many culture. An important Shakespeare’s or Elizabethan theme is order. Sonnets He wrote 154 sonnets with the themes of love. Angelic love to a young man, and a diabolical love to a dark lady. It is said that the young man was a friend (friendship was a very important theme of Renaissance). The other theme of Shakespeare is beauty, nature, marriages, immortality, death, change. From sonnet 1 to 17 are about immortality through getting married and having children, and no. 17 urges the man to have a child so that there will be proof for Shakespeare’s verses about him. From sonnet 18 to 126 is about friendship, love, death, change and immortality. From 127 to 152 is about the Dark Lady. The most important about her is no. 144, which says the Dark Lady is the bay where all men ride. So Dark Lady is the symbol of sexual desire rather than love. Important sonnets: 18, 73, 130 (anti-Petrarchan). One classification of his works is comedy, tragedy, tragic comedies, histories and romances. Another one is 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th period. A Mid-Summers Night Dream is a masque fantasy. Henry V (5th). A history play about Henry’s victory over the French. He is a man of justice, wisdom and fortitude. Romeo and Juliet. Is a romantic tragedy and about love at first sight. The balcony scene is important. It has been used in many movies, plays, etc. Julius Caesar is a fall of prince tragedy. It is about Brutus and Castille. He wrote The Taming of the Shrew, which is a farce. Henry IV (4th). It is in two parts. Its and education of prince play. It is about Henry V and his funny friend Falstaff. It was popular and even the Queen loved it. They live a very wild life. People love this very much. He wrote The Merry Wives of Windsor (a continuation of Henry IV) in 14 days. All’s Well That Ends Well. It is about Helena. It has the theme of disguise.


Much Ado About Nothing. It is a problem play about the war of sexes. He wrote Coriolanus which is about Mr. Coriolanus who is proud, who becomes and enemy of Rome people. So he brings and army of Volsicans Troilus and Cressida. Chapman and Homer wrote it as well. It is a tragedy. Troilus is the son of knight of the Troy. Anthony and Cleopatra. It is a fall of prince tragedy. Timon of Athens is his next work. It is unfinished and is about the danger of excess and false friends. Cymbeline is about Imogen who is the daughter of the King of England. The Two Gentleman of Verona. It is about a disguised girl in search of her lover. Comedy of Errors. It is About mistaken identity. The Tragedy of Titus Andronicus. It is a revenge tragedy. The Merchant of Venice. It is a tragic comedy and about Shylock and Antonio. Portia appears in disguise and solves the problem. It is about revenge. King Lear: It has two plots. King Lear and his three daughter Goneril, Regan, and Cordilia. He wants to divide the country among his daughters. Regan and Goneril get accepted in his love test. The two daughters mistreat the King. He goes mad and dies with Cordilia at the end. At the same time it is a story of Gloucester and his two sons, Edgar and Edmund. Theme: Moral blindness and false visions vs. vision and self-knowledge. It is also about the duty of children. The love test and hot temper are the King’s flaws. The other theme is suffering restores greatness Another theme is order. The plot has been taken from Holinshed’s Chronicle. The subplot from Sidnie’s Arcadia. Othello: it is about a moor. The play is about anguish and jealousy. There is a villain called Iago (‘motive hunting of motiveless malignity’). He tells Othello that your wife has affair with Cassio. Othello kills him, his wife and himself. “Chaos is come again” is a famous sentence from it. Macbeth: Tragedy of evil. The tragic flaw of Macbeth is over-ambition. It starts with the witches. Macbeth is a very successful General. King Duncan comes to his palace


and he kills the king because his wife tempts him. But later the wife feels guilty and kills herself. So in the end Macbeth dies as well. It is a tragic hero and shows human corruptibility and lust for power. It is about moral wills vs. moral intellect. The sleepwalking scene is important. It is taken from Holinshed’s Chronicle. It is about degeneration of his moral nature. It shows how evil enters society. Hamlet: the most famous play in the world. It is a revenge tragedy. Hamlet is an intellectual. He is a man of thought, not action. It is said that he is our contemporary. He doesn’t take revenge, because he is not sure. He suffers from an Oedipus complex (misogynist- woman hater). The uncle killed the father (what hamlet unconsciously desired). He does not kill his uncle, because in doing so he will kill himself. Hamlet procrastinates and he is misfit to live in world because this world is and “unwedded garden”. He is also the symbol of Christ. His age is 23-30. He is a scapegoat. The most famous soliloquy is from Hamlet (To be or not to be, that’s the question). Hamlet is philosophical. It is a fall of prince, love and revenge tragedy. It is the story of Cane and Abel. The brother kills his brother. Hamlet procrastinates because he is torn between Anglo-Saxon (revenge) and Christian (forgiveness) tradition. 1. Hamlet is mad 2. The world is mad 3. He pretends to be mad The Tempest: It is Shakespeare’s last play. It is a dramatic romance. Prospero, the Duke of Milan, who is absorbed in books and magic, is expelled by his brother Antonio and cast adrift with his baby daughter Miranda in a leaky boat. Prospero dwells on a deserted island and makes servants out of the ethereal spirit Ariel and the subhuman Caliban. Twelve years later, when the play opens, Prospero causes tempests and shipwrecks. He continues to isolate Ferdinand, Antonio’s son, who falls in love with Miranda. He frees Ariel, and sails for Italy and leaves Caliban, the sole resident of the island. When Miranda sees Ferdinand for the first time, she says “Brave new world” because she hadn’t seen anybody but her father. Themes: Nature and Nurture (‫)ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺖ‬ Forgiveness. Prospero forgives Sebastian Cheerfulness in misfortune. Magic Some interpret it with a post-colonial approach. Prospero goes to an Island to make its inhabitants civilized. Prospero is a philosopher, moralist and wise. He is Shakespeare. With the tempest, Shakespeare said goodbye to writing. *** In the 17th century there were three important poetry schools. 1- Metaphysical (Donne). 2- Cavelier (Ben Jonson). 3- Spencerian (Milton).


Metaphysical poetry is the poetry of reason which mixes mind, body and soul. It is very witty. It is called the poetry of long lines. It is harsh. It violates decorum. It is a reaction to smooth and sweet tone of 16th century poetry. It is called energy poetry as well. Shock tactics, direct address, rough language, colloquial language and above all, meta-physical conceit are used in it. In metaphysical poetry inventiveness, stylistic manoeuvres and fusion of thoughts and feelings play important roles. The meter is rough. The comparisons are far-fetched. It is argumentative, and intense. It is erotic (physical love). There are two groups of metaphysical poems, religious and secular. They are usually humorous. Metaphysical poetry was not famous until Girearson and compiled and anthology and T.S. Eliot wrote two essays about it.

John Donne (1572-1631)
He is the best representative of metaphysical poetry, both religious and secular. He writes erotic poetry. He was the opposite of Spencer. Spencer’s poetry of gently and smooth. He was a lover, drinker, poet, lawyer, priest and writer of passionate love. John Haywood is his grand-father. None of his works are faultless. His tone is colloquial. “Romantic by reason of an intense individuality”. His holly sonnet is his number 10 “Death thou shal’t die”, the most famous paradox of English literature. Works: Valediction Forbidding Mourning. The Flee Canonization Commonwealth Period = Civil War = Puritan Period 1500 1649 1660

The King, Charles I vs. Oliver Cromwell. Charles I was challenged by the parliament for charging too much tax. The parliament wanted a hand in the government. So they entered a war. In 1648 Charles I was defeated and in 1649 he was beheaded. Oliver Cromwell became the Lord Protector (like a president). The Prince, Charles II escaped to Holland. Oliver Cromwell was a puritan (a strict version of Christianity). Any form of entertainment such as too much laughing, theaters, etc were forbidden. So people in reality weren’t very happy. In 1658, Oliver Cromwell died so his son who was a weak and inefficient became the Lord Protector. But the parliament voted 24

for the return of Charles II (the same parliament which beheaded his father, Charles I). In 1660 he became the king. 1649 – 1660 is called Interregnum (no king). 1660 marks the end of the Renaissance. Elizabeth made England a super power. She colonized many countries. Literature was strengthened. From 1660 to 1700 is Restoration Period. It is return of the Merry King (Charles II). Theaters were opened again.












Age of sensibility

In the Puritan Period there are two important names; John Milton (poetry) and John Bunyan. John Bunyan (1628-188) wrote Pilgrim’s Progress. It is a prose dream vision which is allegorical. It expresses the Puritan spirit and is very close to Everyman. It is translated to more than 100 languages and dialects. A man falls sleep and has a dream vision. Mr. Christian travels from the city of destruction to the celestial city. He travels in search of salvation. This book became popular and he was asked to write a second book. The story of the second book is the same. In it, Christiana (the wife of Mr. Christian) and her children and a neighbor go on the same journey. Mr. Bunyan was a puritan preacher. He was imprisoned for preaching. He wrote 9 books in prison. He was released in 1672 and was put in prison again in 1677. He caught pneumonia and died in 1688. Pilgrim’s Progress is didactic, moral and humorous. The full name is Pilgrim’s Progress from this World to that which is to come. His next books are The Holy war Grace Abounding The life and death of Mr. Badman His works are allegorical. He was great preacher and speaker of puritan period. He looked to the Bible (King James’s version, translated under the monarchy of King James by 40 translators, which is a literature itself). He expresses the puritan spirit that this life is a preparation for the after life. His work is an important predecessor of the novel. John Donne revolted against the Elizabethans sonnets which were soft and smooth. He used a harsh language.


Andrew Marvel (1621-1678).
He was the secretary of John Milton in Oliver Cromwell’s government. He was an opportunist. He served Charles I, Charles II and Oliver Cromwell. He was satirist, pamphleteer and puritan. He was an ambassador thus knowing several languages. His important themes are gender, death and sex, as well as love. He went to Cambridge. T.S. Eliot: “He combines levity and seriousness” When asked about the civil war he said “I think the cause is was too good to have been fought for”. His most famous work is To His Coy Mistress. It is very sensual and physical and sexual. This poem in reality is about life is short and beauty of life. The structure is interesting. The first stanza starts with if, the second with but and the third with therefore. It is a parody of courtly love and satirical love. The other important poem is The Garden. It is the symbol of innocence and it symbolizes the Garden of Eden. It is ideal human. He wrote occasional poems (marriages and birthdays). He wrote A Horation Ode upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland. He also wrote on the death of Oliver Cromwell. He was in love with beauty, garden, friendship and wine. His poetry is erotic as well, like that of John Donne.

Isaac Newton (1642-1727).
The second half of the 17th century and 18th century are called the Age of Reason because of philosophy and Newton’s ideas. “Universe is a gigantic machine governed by rules”. “Universe is a clock work governed by rules”. His world view is mechanistic and deterministic. In simple language, he says there are rule in the world and you must discover them. He discovered the gravity (falling of the apple). He discovered universal laws (what neoclassicists were after). So he thought in terms of the universal laws. He was the president of the Royal Society (a scientific center in England). _____________________________________ Another important school was the Cavalier poetry. The cavalier poets were royalists. They were associated with Charles I and Charles II. Their poetry was erotic and with Carpe Diem (seize the day) theme. Some of them are Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, Sir John Suckling and Thomas Carew. They wrote from 1637 to 1660. Their poetry was about upper class, pre-commonwealth England. They imitated B. Jonson. They opposed to metaphysical poets. They favored short lyric poems. They 26

represented 17th century gentleman values. Their poems are simple and direct. An important theme for them is Carpe Diem. To Lucosta is the famous book of Richard Lovelace (1618-1657), a cavalier poet. It is about her beloved, who when he went to war and didn’t return, married someone else and didn’t wait for him. Lucosta means pure light. He has a mock epic called grasshopper.

John Milton (608-1674)
He is famous because of his Paradise Lost, the greatest epic in English literature. His style is artificial. He played the organ. He is called the master of grand style. He was very knowledgeable. In one of his notebooks, they found eighty different quotations from writers of different languages such as Latin. Like Joyce and Homer, he lost his eyesight. He was very handsome and was called the lady of the Christ. He wrote prose as well. The end of Renaissance is called the age of Milton. He is the last great Renaissance poet. He looked to the Bible because he was a puritan. He was the Latin secretary of Oliver Cromwell. His works are divided into three periods. He was a lover of freedom and moral poetry. He said “a poet teaches … of liberty and purified religion”. He was rich so he never worked. His poetry weds the puritan spirit with that of the Renaissance. He is the only English poet who wrote in grand style (difficult and complicated). He wrote 23 sonnets, which except one or two, are not about love. For him sonnet was for propaganda. Wordsworth said ‘Milton turned sonnet into a trumpet”. On His Blindness is one of his sonnets. His works fall into three periods 1- he wrote short poems in Horton, up to 1640 2- from 1640 to 1660, he wrote propaganda prose 3- and from 1660 to 1674 he wrote his great long poems. He was a late Renaissance epic poet, sonneteer, pamphleteer (or tracts on political, social and religious subjects), courtier. He is the greatest Renaissance poet. He was imprisoned in 1660. First period: he wrote On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity. It is an ode about the victory of baby Christ over pagan gods. His next work is l’Allegro Il Penseroso. (l’Allegro= Happiness, cheerfulness, Il Penseroso= to think, the melancholic man). 27

l’Allegro is about the joy of country life, and Il Penseroso is about the pleasant of solitude. He wrote Arcadias which is a pastoral masque. He wrote Lycides, about a friend who was drowned. It is an occasional poem, an elegy. He wrote Comus (a masque). It is a morality play with pastoral entertainment. It is about the confrontation of virtue and evil. Second Period: In this period he wrote the Doctrine and Principles of Divorce. It is a pamphlet. He wanted to divorce his wife so he wrote it. He wrote another pamphlet called Of Education. He favors humanistic education. He wrote Aeropagitica (about the freedom of expression and press). He wrote Image Breaker (Iconoclastic) in which he broke the image of Charles I. He said he acted evilly under the name of religion. The most famous pamphlet by him is Aeropagitica in which he says no to cloistered virtue. He favors sophisticated innocence. Third Period In this period he wrote Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained, Samson Agonistes ‫)ﺷﻤﻌﻮن‬ (‫ .ﮐﺸﺘﯽ ﮔﻴﺮ‬The latter is about a blind biblical figure, who is imprisoned by the philistines of Gaza, but he is very strong and the strength is in his long hair. His wife betrays him and reveals the secret to the enemy. Samson Agonites is a …. drama (a play written to be read, no performed). That is because Milton was a puritan and for them theater was immoral. Milton’s style is highly artificial, allusive and archaic and Latinate. Parallel’s Lost The theme is to justify the ways of God man. So this is the theme according to the epic itself. It is the greatest epic in English literature. It is a religious one. It is about the story of Adam and Eve and expulsion of Satan from heaven. It is an epic in 12 books. The setting is universe. The language is strong, written in blank verse in long complex sentences. He created a new kind of English. He invented eye-witness. It is written in 13 thousand lines. He looks to the bible. Both the style and subject are grand. Book one is about Hell Book two is about Chaos Book three is about Heaven and Sun Book four is about Paradise Book five is about Paradise and War in Heaven


Book six is about War in Heaven Book seven is about Creation Book eight is about Science, love and epics. Book nine is about The Fall Book ten is about Aftermath of the Fall Book eleven is about The Future Book twelve is about The future and the Expulsion. He did “things” un-attempted yet in prose or rhyme. His language is lofty and grandiloquent. The epic starts in Mediasres. Blake said “Milton was of the devil’s party without knowing it”. T.S. Eliot criticized Milton. He said Milton built a china wall against the blank verse and he said that Milton with his artificial style corrupted poetry. Stantey Fish in his “Surprised by Sin” says ambiguity of Milton’s syntax compels to recognize our fallen state. Then he wrote Paradise Regained which is in four books. The them is man’s disobedience lost paradise but Christ’s obedience will regain it. It is about Christ’s triple temptation. Firstly by bread, then by wealth and finally by glory. He will regain paradise because he resisted temptation. Of the Tenure of Magistrate and Kings is a pamphlet which justifies tyrancide.

Neo-classical Period 1660-1798
End of civil war when Cromwell defeated Charles I and beheaded him. Friction between Parliament and the King was ended.

Commonwealth or puritan period



1649 1900-1901

1660 1945





Age of sensibility

Restoration is when the parliament restored the monarchy. Milton and Bunyan are speakers of Puritan period in poetry and prose, respectively. Charles II opened the theatres and brought actresses from France. Themes of Restoration drama or comedy of manners are the behaviour of couples and sexual reactions. This comedy was accused of immorality and was replaced by comedy of sensibility in the 18th century, but it was later revived by Oscar Wild.


John Dryden (1631-1700).
He is the best writer of the Restoration period. He was a poet, dramatist, satirist, critic translator and founder of modern prose. He was the most representative of the Restoration. He became a poet laureate in 1668. He excels his contemporaries in every field, except that of comedy. He is called the father English criticism. He was the first modern critic. Mr Gosse called him the strongest poet of the age of prose. His comedies satisfy the corrupt taste of the merry monarch’s court. In the Restoration, he was the greatest man. He was accused of opportunism. He wrote in rhymed couplet. The blank verse of the Renaissance was replaced by the couplet especially heroic couplet. Satire was another important sub-genre in the neoclassical period. It is the age of couplet, prose, reason and satire. Dryden was neo-classicist. He translated Juvenile, Virgil and parts of Horace and Ovid. He was accused of opportunism. He wrote All for Love, which is a play in blank verse with the theme of love vs. honor. It is a reworking of Anthony and Cleopatra. He wrote Of Dramatick Poesy, in which four critics are discussing the literature of time. One of them is Eugenius, the second is Crites, the third is Lisideius and the fourth one is Neander, who is Dryden himself. They are comparing British and French drama. He defended the use of rhythm in drama. He praised Shakespeare. “Nature is the same in all places and reasons too. Yet the climate, the age and the disposition of the people to which a poet writes is different” is a quotation from the book. He wrote The Hind and The Panther. It is allegorical. The Hind represents other sects of Christianity. It is about religious toleration and reconciliation. It is an allegorical beast fable He wrote Don Sebastian, a tragic comedy in blank verse about the king of Portugal. It is his best play. He wrote Mac Flecknoe, he attacks a rival and bad poet, Shadwell. He is the king of realm of stupidity. He wrote Aureng-Zebe, his last tragedy in rhymed couplets. It is about a struggle for empire in India. He wrote Absalem and Achitophel, a verse allegory which uses the biblical story of Absalem’s rebellion against his father King David. In this story Achitophel (of the bible) in Shaftsbury. King David of the bible is Charles II. Absalom of the bible is Monmouth, the bastard son of King (Charles II). It is a satire. There were two parties of Whig (labour) and Tory (conservatives) in his time. 1665 and 1666 was when the great fire of London and the great plague happened. He wrote Annus Mirabilis, meaning the wonderful year. He wrote it in 1667. The wonderful of the title is 1666, because that year fire of London and war with Holland 30

happened. He says that the fire and the war were God’s test, not punishment. He wanted to inspire his fellow countryman. He wrote Religio Laici, meaning the “the faith of a layman”. He defended the Church of England against the Catholics. He attacks the Catholics (pope’s followers). He is against deism (natural religion, religion through reason). He has several famous odes 1. To Anne Killigrew 2. A Song for Saint Cecelia’s Day. Saint Cecelia is the patron of music. 3. Alexander’s feast. It is again about Saint Cecelia. It is about Alexander the Macedonian who set Persepolis on fire. The real story is that he did it because his wife tempted him, but in this work he says that he did it because he was captivated by music of Thimothias and the God of wine, Bacchus. His other work is The Medal. The Whigs gave a medal to Shaftsbury. Dryden satires this giving of medal. Another book is Fables Ancient and Modern. Marriage A-la-Mode is about a wife who does not love her husband and vice-versa. They love other people’s husbands and wives. The theme of it is: why should a foolish marriage vow. T.S. Eliot called it his best work. It is a comedy in blank verse, influenced by Molier (the French writer who had the most influence on British comedy). The Conquest of Granada is his other work.

William Congreve (1670-1729)
Restoration was famous for immorality and it was about the life and immoralities of the upper class. The masterpiece of Restoration comedy is the Way of the World written in 1700, by comedy. Congreve was in fact England’s Mollier. In early modern comedy Oscar Wild, imitated and revived comedy of manners. Jeremy Collier wrote ‘A short view of the immorality and profaneness of the English stage’ in which he attacked Congreve, and he answered back by writing ‘Amendments of Mr. Collier’s False and Imperfect Citations’. Congreve was a master of repartte (verbal fighting), which is witty. It consists of beaux and bells (fashionable gentleman and ladies). He was the best writer of comedy in Restoration. He was a formalist, technician, and he unmasked the follies of the age. He received his education in Trinity College. He is buried in Poet’s Corner of the Westminster Abbey. His comedies deal with the world of passion, courtship, and seduction. His comedies are witty as well. They are about manners and their priority over morals.


The Old Bachelor is about Mr. Heartwell who hates woman, but falls in love with Silvia. He wrote Double Dealer. He wrote Love for Love which is about Valentine and Vangelica. His masterpiece is the Way of the World, which is about Mirabell who is in love with Millamant. It has a complex plot. They want to build a true marriage because marriages of those times were built around property and were called marriage of convenience, a marriage which is not based on the ways of the world, which is falsehood and pretense. ‘Grief walks upon the heels of pleasure’.

Daniel Defoe (1660-1731)
He was a pamphleteer, journalist, novelist, social historian and a secret agent (spy). He was a dissenter, an outsider. He is the first English novelist who wrote fictional lives. His style was simple, direct and colloquial. He was a traits man in outlook and morality. He discovered the novel of incident. He was the first writer to give a voice to the spirit of individualism and the sense of personal confrontation with the world that was to be typical of the emerging middle-class, and in general of the shifting mobile society, in which characters such as Moll has to learn to survive, an individual who has stamina, integrity, etc. Defoe was not a member of Church of England. In ‘Shortest Way with the Dissenters’ he proposed that the ‘dissenters’ be hanged. He was pilloried for 3 days for writing this pamphlet, and narrowly escaped, cutting one of his ears. Robinson Crusoe is about a man who is cast away in an island. It is about colonising other countries and civilizing and converting them. It is a middle-class man of perseverance. It is about social optimism, the need to master and taming the nature and the importance of social living. It is a praise of middle-class virtues and values. He wrote novels about an individual’s situation which was tangible to read. His first writings are autobiographical, the fictional ones turned into novels. Moll Flanders is about an old woman who has become old and repented. She was a thief and prostitute. She married 5 times, once her own brother. It is again a kind of autobiography and it lacks a coherent plot. She is on the edge of the society. Defoe was very prolific and wrote more than 200 works. Another autobiography by him is Colonel Jack. It is about a convicted pick pocket. His Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain is a guide book. Moll Flanders was a picaresque (a novel of adventure on the road). Virginia Woolf called it the best novel (it is liked by feminists). 32

Novel started in 18th century. He was a poet, dramatist, gambler, drinker and inventor of ballad opera. It drove the Italian opera from the English stage.

John Gay
He is famous for writing the best 18th century drama called Beggar’s Opera (1728). It is about Newgate prison and Capt. Macheath, who is the leader of a gang of robbers and popular with woman. He secretly marries Polly who is the daughter of Peachum, buyer of stolen goods. Peachum reports him and he is arrested. In prison he finds Lucy, daughter of Mr. Lockit, the warder of the prison. Lucy helps him escape, but he is arrested again. Four other wives come with their children claiming that he is their husband. He is going to be hanged but the people tell Mr. Beggar, the narrator, why the poors are always hanged. So he changes the ending and Macheath goes and lives with Poly. It became very popular. There are many ironies and humours in it and it is musical. The play satires the corruption of the governing class. Since it was popular, he wrote a sequel on it called ‘The Polly’. ‘Three Penny Opera’ by Brecht is an imitation of this opera. It is the story of lowlife in prison.

Alexander Pope (1688-1744)
He is the best speaker of Neo-classicism period and is called Boileau (French neoclassicist) of England. Pope was catholic, physically deformed, self-educated and wrote in heroic couplets. He was not original. He believed in the poetry of common sense. He believed in nature as the pure standard of taste and judgement that should control all man’s artistic endeavours. He believed in nature methodized which means controlled, normalized and improved. He believed in imitation of the ancients. ‘To copy nature is to copy ancients’. He was against extremes and originality. He was socially pre-occupied and translated Horace and Homer. He was a satirist as well and his style was didactic. He was the best example of Augustan (height of neo-classicism) poetry. There is a famous definition of wit by him: ‘True Wit is Nature to advantage dressed What oft was thought, but ne'er so well expressed’ He was stoic. ‘Dunciad’ is an attack on bad poets and his enemies. He wrote ‘Moral Essays’ which is book of four essays about men and women characters.


‘Essay on Man’ is a didactic poem in heroic couplet. He wants to justify the ways of God to man. It is a simple work. In this book, he was influenced by Shaftsbury’s philosophy that God is a pure, rational idea (deism). Man is fundamentally good and desires other’s happiness. It is not an original work but sums up the philosophy of neo-classicism. It was written in four epistles. ‘Essay on Criticism’ is about the cannons of literary taste and style according to classical works of Aristotle and Quintilian (Italian Renaissance figure). It is didactic. ‘The Rape of the Lock’ is a mock epic (which has style of epic but has a low subject) in which there is a lady called Arabella and a man called Lord Petre, who took a lock of Arabella’s hair which gave rise to a quarrel between the families. Pope composed this poem in order to correct things and put an end to the quarrel. The lady is preparing to go on a party near the river Thames, but it seems that she is going on a war of Troy. She plays a card game which is described as a war. In this game Lord Petre takes a string of her hair. There are two purposes for this poem. 1. First, to put an end on enmity and quarrel of two families. However the families became his enemy. 2. Second, to make fun of fashionable society of the day. It was written in 5 parts with topical allusions. It is about beaux and bells. Hazlitt called it ‘the triumph of insignificance’. _____________________ There are four great names in neo-classical period: Dryden, Pope, Dr. Johnson and Swift.

Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)
He was a poet, essayist, critic, lexicographer, dramatist, biographer and the greatest literary figure of the end of neo-classical period. He imitated classical poetry. English new classical criticism has Dryden at the beginning, Pope in the middle and Johnson at the end. He was a Tory. He wrote in heroic couplets and followed Pope. ‘Vanity of Human Wishes’ is a satirical poem about vanity. ‘London’ is another satirical poem about the vanities and sins of London life, in heroic couplet. He edited plays of Shakespeare and wrote a preface to it. He says ‘Shakespeare is above all modern writers. He is the poet of nature, the poet that holds up to its readers a faithful mirror of manner and life’. The Lives of the English Poet: It's a biography of 52 poems. He wrote a Dictionary of English language in two volumes. He wrote ‘Rosselas Prince of Abyssinia’. It is a philosophical romance. It is didactic. The theme is: the disillusioning search after happiness. It lacks a coherent plot. It is 34

based on a Persian story. In fact it is a book of essays on various subjects. The plot is about a prince who has everything and lives in a valley, but is not happy. He goes in search of happiness and lives different kind of lives, and returns to his palace unsatisfied. The last chapter is called ‘A conclusion in which nothing is concluded’.

Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)
He is the greatest prose writer of the 18th century. He was a bitter and savage satirist. Unlike other new classicists, he was pessimist and misanthrope (man hater). He was a cynic and attacked human nature and reversed the great chain of being by putting human beings lower than animals and called them ‘an animal capable of reason’. He was a neo-classicist but had opposite idea. He was an original writer. He was Irish but believed that Ireland a place good enough to die in. Some famous questions from him: ‘all governments without consent of the governed are the very definition of slavery’. ‘Now and then beasts may generate into man’. He was a radical critic of the Augustan’s faith in human nature and man’s capacity for improvement. ‘The Battle of the Books’ is about St James’s Library were the ancients and moderns fight. The spider symbolizes the modern who make webs and the bee symbolizes the ancient who make honey out of nature. ‘A Tail of a Tub’ is about three brothers who inherit three pairs of suits and a will (the bible) from their father. The pairs of suits symbolize different sects of Christianity: Calvinism, Anglican Church and Roman Catholic Church. ‘A Modest Proposal’ an ironic essay in which he proposes that the children of Ireland who are poor and have no future ahead of them and expensive to look after, be brought up until they are one year old and then sold out to be eaten. His master-piece is ‘Gulliver’s Travels’ in four books. Book one is in Lilliput Book two is in Brobdingnag Book three is in Laputa Book four is in Houyhnhnms In book one, Gulliver who is a surgeon and on a merchant ship, takes his shipwreck to Island of Lilliput, where he is arrested by the Lilliputians. They are in war with Blefuscu over how to break an egg. It symbolizes conflict between British and French and different sects of Christianity. There is a fire in palace of the king and he urinates on the palace to put out the fire. They try to poison him but he doesn’t die. In book two inhabitants of Brobdingnag are shocked by his shrewdness. There are a lot of descriptions of human body in it. It is an attack on human physique. Book three is set in Laputa, a flying island made of science and technology. It is a criticism of science, technology and industrial revolution. Laputa in Spanish means 35

prostitute. In this island, scientists are so mentally preoccupied with science that they forget to answer back in conversations. There are some people called ‘flappers’ who remind them about this. It's a disillusionment of human being. Book four is in country of clean and rational horses. They have servants called ‘Yahoos’, who eat human beings. Then he goes back to his own country, and finds that he even hates his wife. The book is very pessimistic and nihilistic. There is a lot of description of excretion and toilet in it. Swift suffered from anal fixation. He shows the evil human pride and is disillusioned about human mankind. It is a satire on vices of human and human institutions.


American Literature
1492- Discovery of America.



How Europe Developed



Slaves 10 millions slaves went to America in 340 years. Who worked free of charge on plantations

1565: 1607: 1600-1776: 1619: 1626: 1650: 1754-1763: 1764-1766: 1770: 1773 1776: 1781:

a town called St. Augustine was set up but it was later burnt. Jamestown in Virginia was set up by English Colonial period First African slaves arrived in Jamestown Mr. Minuit buys Manhattan Island for the Dutch and names it NewAmsterdam Slavery was made legal French and Indian (who fought for British) between England and France. Tax was imposed on sugar and tea. Stamp act. Boston Massacre Declaration of Independence (4th of July) British surrender and end of Revolutionary war.

American Literature
Colonial or puritan period is 17th and 18th centuries. Transcendental or Romantic is first half of the 19th century. Realism and Naturalism is second half of the 19th century. Modernism is from 1900 or 1945 (between the two World Wars). From 1945 to the present is called post modernism. 1787: 1789: 1800: In Philadelphia people like Washington and Adams wrote America’s constitution. First American president, George Washington was elected.


1803: 1812: 1844: 1846-48: 1852: 1861: 1863: 1865: 1869: 1898: 1903-1914: 1908: 1919-1933: 1917-1919: 1929: 1941: 1945: 1950-53: 1953-1955: 1954: 1964: 1965-73: 1969:

Louisiana was purchased by the French American war with British. The Whitehouse was burnt by the British. Telegraph line was established between Washington and Baltimore. War with Mexico Uncle Tom’s Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, which triggered civil war between industrial north and slave The Civil war began. President Lincoln freed most of the slaves The civil war ended with southerners defeated. Lincoln was assassinated. The railroad connecting east and west coast was completed. Spanish-American war started. The Americans defeated the Spanish and took control of the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam and America emerged as a super-power. The Panama Canal was built connecting Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Henry Ford introduced the Model T car, in mass production (cost around $850). The Prohibition act (of alcohol) was passed which lead to mafias and godfathers. America joined World War I. Allies were Britain, France, Russia and America against Germany, Austria and Hungry. Great depression. Wall Street crashed leading to unemployment. Japan attacked Pearl Harbour in Hawaii. America bombarded Nagasaki and Hiroshima. It is end of World War I and America is a super-power. Korean War. Senator McCarthy started McCarthyism. Anyone who was related to communism was imprisoned or killed. For example Arthur Miller was interrogated for writing The Crucible, to attack McCarthy. Racial Segregation (separation of blacks and whites) in public schools was forbidden. Civil Rights act was passed in congress, forbidding discrimination in voting and jobs. Orientals was written by Edward Saeed. The Vietnam War. Armstrong landed on the moon.

Neo-classicism (1660-1798)
The first neo-classicist in English literature is B. Jonson. There are several important key words in neoclassicism. 1- Follow the rules: It is the theory of Horace, saying studying the works of ancient will make you a poet. So it means one should follow the past to become a poet. It is a very important feature. 2- Imitate the ancients 3- Literature for the sake of the society to improve it (writing satire). Laughter must be used to as a weapon to improve the society. 38

The greatest writers of this period are Dryden, Alexander Pope, Dr. Johnson and Jonathan Swift. It was age of optimism. Another feature of it was decorum: the fitness of subject and style, which was also important in Renaissance. The other feature is that literature must give pleasure and delight. Simplicity and clarity are among other features. Literature should instruct and correct the society. The neo-classicists interested in nature as rules and standards for judgement. Shakespeare and Horace’s works are important for them. One of the most important features is reason: literature, life and even religion which is rational. The second half of the 18th century is called age of reason. The other name for this period is Age of Prose. Periodicals, novels and satires emerged. Enlightenment: Reason is enough to guide you through your life. Literature of the head, not heart. You must prune your readers and teach morality.

There was a drama called sentimental drama called sentimental drama appealing emotions which replaced comedy of manners. Blank verse was replaced by heroic couplet which was simple, direct and brief. Novel was born in the neo-classical period. According to neo-classical period, a person must be trained to become a poet. Neo-classical literature is objective, in contrast with Romantic literature which is subjective. “Whatever is is right” said Alexander Pope, a deformed man. He is the writer who summed up rules and doctrines of neoclassical period. He added nothing, but summed up what was said before him, especially by the French writer, Boileau. “Nature methodised”. It means a nature which is cut, formed, shaped and regulated. Dryden is the greatest restoration writer. He is the first great critic of English literature. They believe in conventions and forms.


Washington Irving (1783-1859)
He was a knickerbockers writer (writers in New York from 1810-1840). He was a short story writer, essayist, poet, travel-book writer, biographer and columnist. He is the first American short story writer- first American to be recognized abroad. He was born in New York City and had 10 brothers and sisters. His parents loved G. Washington so he was named after him. He lived in England, France and Spain. His style is popular and elegant, based on the style of Addison and Goldsmith. His works are usually about English lives and customs. His famous works is ‘A Legend of Sleepy Hollow’. It is about a legendary headless horseman. The other famous short story by him is Rip Van Winkle, about a man who fell asleep in the woods for 20 years. It is based on a Greek folk tale. He wrote ‘A History of Christopher Columbus’, and ‘The Conquest of Granada’. He has a book called The Sketch Book, which has 35 short stories. He was a US Minister in Madrid. He wrote ‘A History of New York’ which is comic. He wrote ‘The Alhambra’, when he was in Spain. The setting is Spanish.

James Fennimore Cooper (1789-1851)
He is called the American Walter Scott (British romantic novelist). He was the first true American novelist. He wrote the first sea novel of American culture ‘The Pirate’. He wrote the first trilogy in American Literature. He wrote the five volume epic called ‘The Leather Stocking Tales’. The first volume of it is The Pioneers, the protagonist of which is Natty Bumppo. He is the ideal man of democracy. He also wrote ‘The Last of the Mohicans’ which is the second book of The Leather Stocking Tales. It is a romance between Uncas (an Indian man) and Corae (a white girl). The setting is the war between British and French. It is an action novel, and Uncas is the last of the Mohicans. The third book is called The Freri, the fourth one is The Path Finder and the fifth one is The Deer Slayer. He has a trilogy which consists of Bravo, Heindermauer and the Headsman. He has a book called Gleanings in Europe about his travels to Europe. His themes are American society and history, frontier and sea.


Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
He was a transcendentalist, philosopher, poet, essayist and lecturer. He believed that human relations to nature should transcend the idea of usefulness, so transcendentalism is optimist. It is influenced by eastern mysticism. It is romanticism, but optimistic and influenced by eastern mysticism (like Sepehri). There are two groups of transcendentalists. Emerson and Thoreau believe in social reform and people like Whitman believe in individualism. An important concept for transcendentalists is oversoul. It means the unity within which every man’s particular being is contained and made one with all things. Man is a stream whose source is hidden. Emerson believes in poetry and the philosophy of insight, not tradition, and a religion by revelation to us. ‘To be great is to be misunderstood’, ‘Never read any book that is not but a year old’, ‘We must free ourselves from the grip of tradition’, ‘Whose soul would be a man must be a non-conformist’ (famous quotations). Some of his essays are Self Reliance, The Over Soul, American Scholar, Prudence, Friendship, Heroism, Intellect, Art. Emerson was a spiritual teacher.

Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)
He wan an American novelist and short story writer. He was born in Salem village which was the centre of Puritanism and witchcraft. The major theme of Hawthorne is guilt. The theme of Young Goodman Brown: Man is by nature evil, sinful and corrupt. “The past is inescapable and sin is omnipresent. Man can transcend it only by accepting its reality and in Hawthorne this often means a withdrawal into isolation as a way to both tenants and self discovery’. His characters are in conflict with guilt (guilt complex). There is always a constant internal conflict. He is the first American psychological novelist. His works are gothic, symbolic and allegorical. My Kinsman Major Molineaux is about Robin who goes to a town to see a relative who is high ranking man. He sees tat he is feathered and bursts into a belly laughter, according to Oedipus complex. The boy wanted to get rid of authority of his father and his uncle. He becomes happy because his relative is degraded.


‘Twice Told Tales’ is one of his short stories which is important in literature. Poe referred to it when he introduced his sing effect theory. Hawthorne is one of the first short story writers together with Poe. His most important work is Scarlet Letter. They put an A letter on Hester’s chest, who has committed adultery. The House of Seven Gables, Rappaccini’s Daughter, The Minister’s Black Veil and The Great Stone Face, are his important works. His works are explorations of moral and spiritual conflicts.

Henry David Thoreau (1817-186)
He was a transcendentalist and is famous for his Civil Disobedience, and his autobiographical work, Waldo. The former affected Ghandi and Luther King. He was an anarchist. In the latter he says people must resist to governments that are more harmful than helpful and therefore not justified. He was put into prison for not paying tax, which triggered Civil Disobedience. He went to Waldo pond in the forest for 2 year, 2 months and 2 days. In it, he gives an account of his everyday life and criticizes American society. The book is about virtue and against materialism. Walden Walden is neither a novel nor a true autobiography, but a social critique of the Western World. It details Thoreau's life for two years, two months, two days in Walden. Thoreau examines other issues afflicting man in society raging from economy and reading to solitude and higher laws, so we can say it's against materialism. He lived a mystic life. He was an abolitionist and against slavery.

Walt Whitman (1819-1892)
He is the most famous and greatest American poet who is very American (democratic, individualistic etc.) The poem which summarizes him is Leaves of Grass. Famous poems from Leave of Grass are ‘O Captain My Captain’, ‘When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d’, and ‘Song of Myself’. ‘Leaves of Grass’ is a transcendental work. He is the American national poet. ‘Leaves of Grass’ is the most influential book of poetry in American literature with long sentences and unconventional style, which 42

ends with the transcendental idea of self. In fact, it's a development of the theory of "Over-soul". Self is a key word in his works. Song of Myself is his masterpiece. This extremely long poem announces all of the major themes of Whitman's work.

Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)
He is one of the first short story writers, who with Hawthorne are the fathers of short story which is an American genre. He was a poet, critic, short story writer, novelist and essayist. He was the forerunner of ‘art for art’s sake’, symbolism, surrealism and psychological fiction. He influenced French symbolism. Some famous quotations: ‘the ultimate purpose of art is aesthetics’. ‘Poetry is the rhythmic creation of beauty’. His themes are terror, guilt and death. He is the father of detective story. He was a gothic writer as well. In short story he introduced the idea of single effect. His most famous poem is ‘The Raven’. Raven is the symbol of melancholy which is the philosophy of composition. So we can call Poe a romantic figure as well. He was alcoholic as well. In his works, you can see preoccupation with death (death fixation).


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