Ǩ„uHß Ç¨^°H’â◊~

W~w¡+¨∞ - `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞

ã¨~áå^°Hí∞Å∞

Kı‰õÄi O®=∂O®=Ù
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí∞Å∞

XO°∞Qõ∞ Éèß㨯O∑
kfifÜ«µ =∞∞„^°} Ǩi+¨¯O°Î

|∂^°O®A O®^è•Hí$+¨‚

ã¨~áå^°Hí =∞~_«e
H≥.NxÇÍã¨O≥_ç¤ (Híhfi#O∑)

l.Ü«µãπ.=O°^®KÍi
S.Ç‹~Hí„>Ï=Ù

ã≤.O®Ñ¶¨∞"åKÍi
PO∑.q.O®=∂O®=Ù

P~„^谄Ǩ^Õâò „ÃÑãπ JHß_«g∞
5-9-166, KÍÃÑÖòO’_ü, <®~Ǩe¡
ÃÇÏ·^°O®ÉÏ^ü - 500 001

2004

Patrika Padakosam
English - Telugu

Editor

:

Chekuri Rama Rao

Assistance

:

Orugu Bhaskar

Editorial Board :

Ó :

K.Srinivasa Reddy, convenor
G.S.Varadachari
C.Raghavachari
I.Venkata Rao
R.V.Rama Rao
Press Academy of Andhra Pradesh

First Publication :
Revised edition :
Revised by
:

February, 1998
November, 2004
Budaraju Radha Krishna

Cover Design

:

Mohan

Type Setting

:

Nallomotu Raghu Ramaiah
(040-2416 0318)

Printed at

:

Akruthi Offset Printers
Chikkadpally, Hyderabad
(040-2766 4525)

For Copies:
● Press Academy of Andhra Pradesh
5-9-166, Chapel Road, Nampally
Hyderabad - 500 001
✆ 23298672; 23298673

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Price: Rs.

150

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`ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ k#Ǩ„uHíÅÖ’ ǨxKı¿ã [O°fleã¨∞ìÅHí∞ O’AÇÍs ǨxÖ’ LǨܡ∂QõǨ_Ë =∞~z
Ǩ^°H’â◊~ XHí>˜ KıuH˜ J~^°∞ÉÏ@∞Ö’ L~_ÍÅ#flk áå„uHıÜ«µ∞Å~^°i zO°HßÅÇÍ~Kè«.
WÖÏ~>˜ Ǩ^°H’âÍÅ Hí∂O°∞ÊHí∞ =ºHí∞ΊǨO°~Qå, ã¨~ã¨÷ŠǨO°~Qå J<ËHíÇ‹∞·# „Ǩܫµ`ÍflÅ∞
[iQåܵ. WǨÊ>˜Hı HÁxfl Ǩ^°H’âÍÅ∞ „ǨK«∞i`Œ=∞Ü«∂ºÜµ Hí∂_Í.
Jܵ`Ë ã¨=∞„Qõ Ǩ^°H’â◊~ XHí ^®xx O°¥á⁄~k~K«=Åã≤# P=â◊ºHí`Œ L~^°x,
HßÖÏ#∞Qõ∞}Ç‹∞·# =∂O°∞ÊÅHí∞ J#∞Qõ∞}~Qå Éèß+¨, Ǩ„uHß O°K«#ÅÖ’ O®=Åã≤# =∂O°∞ÊÅ#∞
^°$+≤ìÖ’ L~K«∞Hí∞x ZǨÊ>˜HíǨC_«∞ Ǩ^°H’â◊~Ö’ =∂O°∞Ê KıO°∞ÊÅ∞ [O°Qõ=Åã≤ L~^°x „Ǩ=∞∞Y
áå„uHıÜ«µ∞Å∞ ǨÅ∞=ÙO°∞ PHß~H˜∆~KÍO°∞. P PHß~Hí∆Hí∞ J#∞Qõ∞}~Qå<Ë P~„^谄Ǩ^Õâò „ÃÑãπ
JHß_«g∞ `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ Ǩ„uHß Ç¨^°H’âÍxfl O°¥á⁄~k~Kı Hí$+≤x KıǨ@ì_«~.
Zxq∞^Õà◊§ „H˜`Œ~ JHß_«g∞ UO°Ê_ç# `˘e<®à◊§Ö’<Ë, `˘e K‹·O°‡<ü H≥.NxÇÍãπ O≥_ç¤Qåi
ѨÓxHí Çı∞O°H∞í „Ç¨=∞∞Y Éèßë® âÍGA˝Å∞ KıH∂í i O®=∂O®=Ù Qåi ã¨~áå^°H`í fiŒ ~Ö’ Ǩ^H° ’â◊~
O°¥Ñ¨Ùk^°∞ÌHí∞~k. PÜ«∂ `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ k#Ǩ„uHíÅ ã¨~áå^°Hí∞Å∞, J#∞Éèí=A˝Å∞, Éèß+¨A˝Å∞
Jܵ# HÁ~^°O°∞ ã‘xÜ«µO∑ [O°fleã¨∞ìÅ ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO°~`À 500 ¿ÑrÅHí∞ ÃÑ·|_ç# |$ǨÏ`ŒÎO°
„Qõ~^ä°~Qå D Ǩ^°H’â◊~ Ç‹Å∞=_ç~k. D Hí$+≤x Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~g∞^° áå„uHıÜ«µ∞Å∞, Ǩ~_ç`Œ∞Å∞
Jaè#~k~KÍO°∞, P#~k~KÍO°∞. J#uHßÅ~Ö’<Ë Ç‹∞∞^°>˜ „Ç≤~>ò HßÇ‘Å∞ JܵáÈÜ«∂ܵ.
Ǩ^°H’â◊~ s„Ç≤~>ò J=ã¨O®xfl HÁ<®flà◊∞§Qå [O°fleã¨∞ìÅ∞ J_»áå^°_«áå JHß_«g∞ ^°$+≤ìH˜
`ˇã¨∞Î<®flO°∞. JHß_«g∞ Hí∂_», [O°fleã¨∞ìÅ =$uÎǨO°Ç‹∞·# <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}®ºxfl ÃÑ~K«_«Çı∞ ǨO°=∂=kèQå
ÃÑ@∞ìHí∞#fl~^°∞#, Ǩ^°H’âÍxfl s„Ç≤~>ò KıÜ«µ_«~ `Œ# ^è°O°‡~Qå Éèßq~z~k. s„Ç≤~>ò Hí$+≤H˜
ã¨<®flǨÏ~Qå `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ k#Ǩ„uHíÅ ã¨~áå^°Hí∞Å ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~ XHí ^®xx UO®Ê@∞Kıã≤ ÇÍi
ã¨ÅǨ ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO®Å#∞ H’i~k. J_çy#^Õ `Œ_«=ÙQå ã¨~áå^°Hí∞Å∞ Ǩ^°H’â◊~ `˘e„Ǩux
ã¨g∞H˜∆~z =∞i~`Œ LǨܡ∂QõHíO°~Qå L~_«_ÍxH˜ KıÜ«µ=Åã≤# =∂O°∞Ê KıO°∞ÊÅ#∞ 㨥z~
K«_«~ [iy~k. qÅ∞Ç‹·# ã¨=∞Ü«∂xfl W~^°∞H’ã¨~ Ç‹zÛ~z, =∞e„Ǩu Ç‹Å∞=_«_«~Ö’
`À_«Ê_ç# „Ǩ=∞∞Y Ǩ„uHß ã¨~áå^°Hí∞Å~^°iH© ¿ÑO°∞ ¿ÑO°∞<® JHß_«g∞ Hí$`Œ[˝`ŒÅ∞.
ã¨~áå^°Hí∞Å∞ Kıã≤# 㨥K«#Å#∞ ^°$+≤ìÖ’ ÃÑ@∞ìHí∞x =∞e„Ǩux ã≤^°ú~Kı¿ã ÉÏ^è°º`Œ#∞
'D<®_«∞— [O°fle[~ 㨥¯Å∞ „Ç≤xûáêÖòQå ǨxKıã≤ J#∞Éèí=~ Qõ_ç~z# „Ǩ=∞∞Y Éèßë®
âÍGA˝Å∞ |¥^°O®A O®^èßHí$+¨‚ QåiH˜ JǨÊy~K«_«~ [iy~k. PO’Qõº~ J~`Œ~`Œ=∂„`ŒÇı∞
Jܵ<®, |¥^°O®A QåO°∞ FÇ≤HQí å, ÇıQ~õ Qå Ǩ^H° ’â◊~ ã¨~㨯O°} HßO°º„Hí=∂xfl ѨÓiÎKâı ÍO°∞.
D Hí$+≤Ö’ PÜ«µ#Hí∞ 'O°K«# [O°fle[~ Híà®âÍÅ— „Ç≤xûáêÖò QÀq~^°O®A K«„Hí^è°O∑ ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ
Ǩ_ͤO°∞. ÇÍiO°∞=ÙiH© JHß_«g∞ `ŒO°Ñ¶¨Ù# ǨÏ$^°Ü«µÑ¨ÓO°fiHí ^è°#ºÇÍ^®Å∞.
Ǩ^°H’âÍxfl ã¨~㨯i~z =∞e„Ǩux ã≤^°ú~ KıÜ«µ_ÍxH˜ „Ǩ^èß#~Qå O≥~_«∞ =∞¥_«∞
ÅH∆ߺÅ#∞ Z~K«∞H’=_«~ [iy~k. Ç‹∞∞^°>˜k - [#O°Öò _çHí∆#sH˜ aè#fl~Qå XHí „Ç¨`˺Hí
Ǩ„uHß Ç¨^°H’â◊~Qå =∞ÅK«_ÍxH˜ „Ǩܫµufl~K«_«~. J=ã¨O°~ÖËx Ǩ^®Å∞ ÖË^® Ju™®^èßO°}

4

5

Ǩ^®Å#∞ =keÇıÜ«µ_«~ [iy~k. J^Õ ã¨=∞Ü«µ~Ö’ Ǩ^®ÅHí∞ ã¨∞nO°…Ç‹∞·# q=O°}Å∞ Hí∂_Í
J=ã¨O°~ ÖË^°#fl ã¨~áå^°Hí∞Å Jaè„áåÜ«∂xfl ǨiQõ}#Ö’H˜ fã¨∞Hí∞x, J=ã¨O°~ ÖËx KÀ@¡
JÖÏ~>˜ q=O°}Å#∞ Hí∞k~K«_«~ [iy~k. WHí J`Œº~`Œ „Ǩ^èß#Ç‹∞·# HßO°º„Hí=∞~ W~w¡+¨∞
=∂@Hí∞ ã¨=∂#Ç‹∞·# `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ Ǩ^®xfl W=fi_«~† ã¨Éò Z_ç@O°∞¡ W~w¡+¨∞ HßÇ‘x J#∞=k~Kı
ã¨=∞Ü«µ~Ö’ ÖË^® iáÈO°ìO°∞¡ W~w¡+¨∞ LǨ<®º™®xfl `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞Ö’H˜ `ŒO°∞˚=∂ Kıã¨∞Hí∞x ÇÍO°Î
„ÇÍ¿ã ã¨=∞Ü«µ~Ö’ - JO°÷ q=O°} Hí~>ı P~Qõ¡ Ǩ^®xH˜ ã¨=∂#Ç‹∞·# `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ Ǩ^°~H’ã¨~
ZHí∞¯=Qå Ç‹`Œ∞Hí∞¯~>ÏO°∞. XH’¯™®i JO°÷~ `ˇeã≤<® - ã¨O≥·# Ǩ^°~ ^˘O°HíHí HíÅ~ Py
áÈ`Œ∞~k. JÖÏ~>˜ 'PǨ`Œû=∞Ü«∂ÅÖ’— Ǩ^°H’â◊~ HíO°nÇ≤HõQå L~_ÍÅ#flk Ǩ„uHß ã¨~áå^°
Hí∞Š㨥K«#. D 㨥K«# KÍÖÏ =∞∞YºÇ‹∞·#k. JÖÏ O°¥á⁄~k#ѨÙ_Ë Ç¨^°H’âÍxH˜ ™®O°÷Hí`Œ
Hí∂_Í. D J~âÍxfl „Ǩ`˺Hí~Qå |¥^°O®A QåiH˜ `ˇeÜ«µ*ËÜ«µ_«~, `Œ^°#∞Qõ∞}~Qå PÜ«µ#
ã¨=∞∞z`ŒsuÖ’ ã¨~㨯O°} Ǩxx KıǨ@ì_«~ [iy~k.
Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~ D Hí$+≤ HßO°}~Qå Ǩ^°H’â◊~ Ǩi=∂}~ `Œyæ~k. P Çı∞O°Hí∞ „Ǩ=∂}~,
„ǨÜ∂ˇ [#~ ÃÑiQåÜ«µx, áå„uHıܵ« ∞Å∞, Éèß+¨AÅ˝ ∞ Éèßq¿ã,Î JHß_«g∞ ã¨~HíÅÊ~ <ˇOÇ° iı #>ı!ì
D™®i Ǩ^°H’â◊~Ö’ HÁxfl [#O°Öò <®Öˇ_ç˚ J~âÍÅ#∞ Hí∂_Í *’_ç~K«_«~ „Ǩ`˺Hí`Œ. áå„u
HıÜ«µ∞ÅHí∞ J#∞k#~ J=ã¨O°=∞Ü˵º =∞∫eHí ã¨=∂KÍO®xfl D Ǩ^°H’âÍxH˜ J#∞|~^è°~Qå
KıO°Û_«~ [iy~k. D KıO°∞ÊÅ∞ Ǩ^°H’âÍxH˜ =∞i~`Œ LǨܫµ∞HíÎ`Œ#∞, ã¨=∞„Qõ`Œ#∞ `ËQõÅ=x
Pâ◊.
Ǩ^H° ’âÍxfl ã¨~㨯i~K«_~« , ѨÙ#O°∞‡„k~K«_~« XHí<®>˜`À PyáÈÜ˵ HßO°º„Hí=∞~ Hß^°∞.
J=ã¨O®xfl |>˜ì ZǨÊ>˜HíǨC_«∞ nxx ѨÙ#O°∞‡„k~K«=Åã≤# P=â◊ºHí`Œ L~_«<Ë L~@∞~k.
JnHßHí, âÍG ™®~HıuHí O°~QåÅÖ’, PÖ’K«#ÅÖ’, x`Œºrq`Œ~Ö’ =ã¨∞Î#fl ÃÑ#∞=∂O°∞ÊÅHí∞
J#∞Qõ∞}~Qå Éèß+¨ ã¨Üµ`Œ~ =$kú K‹~^°∞`Œ¥<Ë L~@∞~k. D =∂O°∞ÊÅHí∞ J#∞Qõ∞}OQå
Ǩ„uHíÅ¥ =∂O°∞ÊÅHí∞ Ö’#=Ù`Œ¥ L~>Ïܵ. g>˜H˜ J#∞Qõ∞}~Qå [O°fleã¨∞ìÅ∞ JÑπ_Ë>ò
J=_«~, ÇÍiH˜ Kı^À_«∞ ÇÍ^À_«∞Qå JHß_«g∞ xÅ|_«=Åã≤ O®=_«~ JxÇÍO°ºÇ‹∞·# J=ã¨
O®Å∞. J~^°∞=Å¡ xO°~`ŒO° HßO°º„Hí=∞~Qå D Ǩ^°H’â◊~ O°¥Ç¨HíÅÊ# ™®Qõ=Åã≤ L~k.
O®É’Ü˵ O’AÅÖ’ Ǩ„uHß Ç¨^°H’â◊~ =∞i~`Œ ã¨=∞„Qõ`Œ#∞, P^è°∞xHí`Œ#∞ ã¨~`Œi~K«∞Hí∞x
áå„uHıÜ«µ∞ÅHí∞ HíO°nÇ≤HíQå xÅ∞=QõÅ^°x Ptã¨∞Î<®fl#∞.
Ǩ„uHß Ç¨^°H’â◊~ `˘e„Ǩu<Ë Hß^°∞, =∞e„Ǩux „ǨK«∞i~K«_«~Ö’ ã¨Üµ`Œ~ „¿ÑO°}Qå
xez# H≥.NxÇÍãπ O≥_ç¤QåiH˜, „Ǩ`˺Hí „â◊^°ú K«¥Ç≤# Z~.q.PO∑.âÍ¢ã≤Î, H≥.O®=∞K«~„^°=∞¥iÎ,
@~HíâÍÅ Jâ’H±, D_«∞ÊQõ~>˜ <®QÕâ◊fiO°O®=Ù, q.NxÇÍã¨O®=ÙÅHí∞ „Ǩ`˺Hí Hí$`Œ[˝`ŒÅ∞.
ZǨÊ>˜=Öˇ JHß_«g∞ ã≤|ƒ~k D ѨÙã¨ÎHí „Ç¨K«∞O°}Ö’ Hí∂_Í „â◊q∞~KÍO°∞. ÇÍiH˜ Jaè
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J=HÍâ◊O HõeÊOz# „ÃÑãπ JHÍ_»g∞ "åiH˜, K≥·~°‡<£ N "≥OHõ„\Ï=Ù QÍiH© Hõ$`«[˝`«Å∞ K≥ѨÊHõ
`«Ñ¨Ê^Œ∞. D HÍ~°ºx~°fiǨÏ}Ö’ <å‰õΩ ™êÜ«∞=∞OkOK«\ÏxH˜ „ÃÑãπ JHÍ_»g∞ "å~°∞ ã¨=∞‰õÄiÛ#
_®Hõì~ü QÀqO^Œ~åA K«„Hõ^èŒ~ü QÍiH˜ <å Hõ$`«[˝`«Å∞.
JO^Œ∞ÉÏ@∞Ö’ L#fl ã¨=∞Ü«∞OÖ’ WO`«Hõ<åfl ã¨=∞~°÷OQÍ ã¨O㨯iOK«ÖËx <å Jâ◊HõÎ`«#∞
=∞xflOK«QÀ~åÎ#∞.
ÃÇÏ· ^Œ~åÉÏ^£
|∂^Œ~åA ~å^è•Hõ$+¨‚
10–11–2004

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ÅHõ∆º™®^è°# kâ◊Ö’
P~„^谄Ǩ^Õâò „ÃÑãπ JHß_«g∞ „ǨK«∞O°}Å∞
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qÖËHíi ܡ∂Qõº`ŒÅ∞ - ã¨`Œºx+¨ª
qÖËHíi - =ºH˜Î`ŒfiqHßã¨~
„Qåg∞} qÖËHíO°∞Å∞ - ÇÍO®Î=#O°∞Å∞
qÖËHíi - K«>ÏìÅ∞
[O°fleã¨∞ìÅ <ˇ·uHí „Ç¨=O°Î# - xÜ«µ=∂=o
„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~ - Ǩ„uHíÅ∞
ZÅ„HßìxH± g∞_çÜ«∂
Ǩ„uHß Éèß+¨
`ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ Ǩ„uHß Éèß+¨ - 㨥K«#Å∞
Ǩ„uHß Ç¨^°H’â◊~
U=∞~@∞<®flO°∞ Z_ç@O°∞¡?
P~„^è°Ç¨„uHí K«i„`Œ
P~„^è°*Ïu JHí∆O° ã¨~Ǩ^°- `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ Ǩ„uHíÅ∞
g∞_çÜ«∂ _≥·O≥Híìs

Ǩ„uHß O°K«Üµ`ŒÅHí∞ xO°~`ŒO° =$uÎ <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~ J=ã¨O°~. D ÅHí∆ º ™®^è°#H’ã¨~ „ÃÑãπ
JHß_«g∞ UO®Ê@∞ J=ã¨O°=∞x P~„^谄Ǩ^Õâò =i¯~Q∑ [O°fleã¨∞ìÅ Ü«µ¥xÜ«µ<ü Jaè
„áåÜ«µ Ǩ_ç~k. Hí_«z# HÁ~`Œ HßÅ~Qå Kıã¨∞Î#fl D ܡ∂K«# ^®^®Ñ¨Ù O≥~_«∞ ã¨~=`Œû
O®Å „H˜~^°@ P~„^谄Ǩ^Õâò „ÃÑãπ JHß_«g∞ UO®Ê@∞Hí∞ ^ÀǨÏ^°Ç¨_ç~k.
D O≥~_«∞ ã¨~=`ŒûO®Å HßÅ~Ö’ „ÃÑãπ JHß_«g∞ Ǩ„uHß O°K«Üµ`ŒÅ∞ „Ǩ^èß#~Qå
=∞# O®R~Ö’ JkèHí ã¨~YºÖ’ L#fl „Qåg∞} qÖËHíO°∞Å =$uÎ <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}®ºxfl ÃÑ~K«_ÍxH˜
XHí L^°º=∞㨥ÊùiÎ`À Hí$+≤ Kıã≤~k. „Qåg∞} qÖËHíO°∞Å∞ Ǩ„uHß „ǨǨ~K«~Ö’ H©ÅHí
áå„`Œ#∞ xO°fiÇ≤Ïã¨∞<Î ®flO°x =∞#~^°iH© `ˇÅ∞ã¨∞. ÇÍO°∞ `Œ=∞ =$uÎ <ˇÑ· Ù¨ }º~ ÃÑ~K«∞H’=Å
ã≤# J=ã¨O°~ L~k. W~^°∞H’ã¨~ „ÃÑãπJHß_«g∞ =∞∞~^°∞Qå =∞¥_«∞ HßO°º„Hí=∂Å#∞
KıǨ>˜ì~k. Ç‹∞∞^°>˜k tHí∆}† O≥~_«=k ѨÙã¨ÎHí „Ç¨K«∞O°}† =∞¥_«=k Ǩ„uHß Ç¨^°H’â◊
O°¥Ç¨HíÅÊ# - „ǨK«∞O°}.
tHí∆} HßO°º„Hí=∞~Ö’ O≥~_«∞ ÇıÅHí∞ ÃÑ·Qå „Qåg∞} qÖËHíO°∞Å∞ áåÖÁæ<®flO°∞.
O®R~Ö’x Jxfl lÖÏ¡Ö’¡#∞ tHí}
∆ `ŒOQ° `õ ∞Œ Å∞ [iQåܵ. „Ǩã^≤ ú° ã¨~áå^°H∞í Å∞ ã‘xÜ«µO∑
Ǩ„uHß O°K«Üµ`ŒÅ∞ qq^è° O°~QåÖ’¡ x뮂`Œ∞Öˇ·# xѨÙ}∞Å∞ D `ŒO°Qõ`Œ∞Ö’¡ É’kè~z
`Œ=∞ J#∞ÉèÇí Íxfl J~k~KÍO°∞. É’^è#° `Àáå@∞ [O°fle*ÏxH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z J=ã¨OÇ° ∞‹ #·
É’^è°# ™®=∞„y - J~>ı, JK«∞ÛáåOîßÅ∞ - O°¥á⁄~k~KÍÅx JHß_«g∞ Éèßq~z~k.
Ǩ„uHß O°K«#Hí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z# qq^è° J~âÍÅ g∞^° xѨÙ}∞Å∞ „ÇÍã≤# áåOîßÅ#∞
z#fl ѨÙã¨ÎHßÅ∞Qå „Ç¨K«∞i~z~k.
`ˇÅ∞Qõ∞Ö’ =∞~z xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÅ∞ ÖËx Ö’@∞ KÍÖÏ L~k. Wk Ǩ~_ç`Œ∞ÖË J~wHí
i~z# ÇÍã¨Î=~. W~w¡+¨∞ `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ xѶ¨∞~@∞=Ù Hí∂_Í ã¨=∞„QõÇ‹∞·~k Un ÖË^°~>ÏO°∞.
XHí>˜ O≥~_«∞ Ǩ„uHíÅ∞, Ǩ„uHß O°K«Üµ`ŒÅHí∞ LǨܫµ∞HíÎÇ‹∞·# Ǩ^°H’âÍÅ#∞ `ŒÜ«∂O°∞
KıâÍܵ. Jܵ`Ë âÍG ™®~HıuHí Jaè=$kú *Ï~|=~`Œ∞x J~QõÅ`À Jaè=$kú K‹~^°∞
`Œ∞#fl ^°â◊Ö’ HÁ`ŒÎ ™®~HıuHí Ǩ^°*ÏÅ~ =zÛ Ç¨_«∞`À~k. D Ǩ^°*ÏÖÏxfl `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞
áåOî°Hí∞ÅHí∞ JO°÷=∞Ü˵º suÖ’ LǨܡ∂y~K«_«~ Hí+¨ì™®^谺Nj∞·# Ǩx. ã‘xÜ«µO∑ Ǩ„uHß
O°K«Üµ`ŒÅ∞ WÖÏ~>˜ Ǩ^°*ÏÖÏxfl ã¨$+≤ì~K«HíáÈÖË^°∞. Hßx P Ǩ^°*ÏÖÏxfl XHí¯KÀ@
KıiÛ Éèßq`ŒO®Å ÇÍiH˜ J~^°*Ë¿ã Ǩx=∂„`Œ~ [O°QõÖË^°∞. D Ö’@∞#∞ HÁ~`Œ =O°H≥·<®
ѨÓ_«Û_ÍxH˜ „ÃÑãπ JHß_«g∞ H’â◊xO®‡}~ J#fl |$ǨÏ`ŒÎO° ÉÏ^è°º`Œ#∞ KıǨ>˜ì~k.
U Éèß+¨Ö’ Jܵ<® J#∞x`Œº~ Z<ˇfl<Àfl HÁ`ŒÎ Ǩ^®Å∞ KıO°∞`Œ¥ L~>Ïܵ. D
^°$+≤ì`À K«¥ã≤#ǨC_«∞ U xѶ¨∞~@∞=Ù Jܵ<® ã¨O°fiã¨=∞„Qõ~QÍ L~_«_ÍxH˜ P™®¯O°~
ÖË^°∞. JÖÏQõx Kı`Œ∞Å∞ =∞∞_«∞K«∞Hí∞x Hí∂O’ÛÖË~. J~^°∞Hı Ǩ„uHß O°K«Üµ`ŒÅHí∞ LǨ
ܡ∂QõÇ_¨ Ë Ç¨^H° ’âÍxfl `ŒÜ∂« O°∞ KıÜ∞« _®xH˜ ™®Ç¨Ïã≤~KÍ~. WÖÏ~>˜ Ǩx KıÇ>¨ #ì˜ Ç¨C_«∞
`Œy# ã¨=∞Ü«µ~ J=ã¨O°~ J=Ù`Œ∞~k. Hßx Wk J#~`Œ~Qå HÁ#™®Qõ_ÍxH˜ gÖË¡^°∞.

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J~^°∞=Å¡ gÖˇ·#~`Œ `ŒHí∞¯= ã¨=∞Ü«µ~Ö’, J~>ı XHí ã¨~=`ŒûO° HßÅ~Ö’ D Ǩ„uHß
Ǩ^°H’â◊~ Ç‹Å∞=i~KÍÅx xO°‚ܵ~KÍ~. HßÅ~`À ǨO°∞Q≥uÎ`Ë `ŒÇ¨Ê Ѷ¨e`Œ~ L~_«^°#fl
Éèß=#`À J#∞Hí∞#fl „ǨHßO°~ H’â◊xO®‡}~ ѨÓiÎKıâÍ~. W~^°∞Ö’ L~_Íeû#
Ǩ^°*ÏÅ~ ã¨=∞„Qõ~Qå L~_«HíáÈ=K«∞Û. HÁxfl Ö’áåÅ∞ Hí∂_Í L~_«=K«∞Û. Hßx PO°~
aè~K«Hí∞~_«_»~ Hí<®fl, Kı`Œ<ˇ·# „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~ Kı¿ãÎ =∞~z^°#fl L^ÕÌâ◊~`À J#∞Hí∞#fl
=º=kèÖ’ D Ǩ„uHß Ç¨^°H’â◊~ O°¥á⁄~k~KÍ~.
D Ǩ„uHß Ç¨^°H’â◊~ xO®‡}®xH˜ ã¨~áå^°Hí ÉÏ^è°º`ŒÅ∞ KıǨ@ì_ÍxH˜ „Ǩã≤^°ú
Éèßë®âÍGÇı`,ÎŒ ™®Ç≤ÏfÇı`ÎŒ PKÍO°º KıH∂í i O®=∂O®=Ù J~wHíi~K«_~« ã¨~`À+¨HOí Ç° ∞‹ #·
q+¨Ü«µ~. Ju `ŒHí∞¯= ã¨=∞Ü«µ~Ö’ Ǩ^°H’â◊ xO®‡}~Ö’ L#fl Ǩiq∞`Œ∞Å Qõ∞i~z
Kı. O®. QåO°∞ Qõ∞O°∞Î Kı㨥Î<Ë L<®flO°∞. Jܵ<® xs‚`ŒHßÅ~Ö’ Ǩ„uHßǨ^°H’â◊~ Ç‹Å∞=
i~KÍÅ#fl L^ÕÌâ◊~`À ÇÍix `˘~^°O° ÃÑ@ìHí `ŒÇ¨ÊÖË^°∞. D |$ǨÏ`ŒÎO° HßO°º „Hí=∂xfl
J#∞Hí∞#fl ã¨=∞Ü«µ~Ö’ ѨÓiÎ KıÜ«µ_ÍxH˜ J~wHíi~z ã¨Ç¨ÏHíi~z#~^°∞Hí∞ KıHí∂i
O®=∂O®=ÙHí∞ Hí$`Œ[˝`ŒÅ∞ `ˇeÜ«µ*Ëã¨∞Hí∞~@∞<®fl~.
ã‘xÜ«µO∑ áå„uHıÜ«µ∞Å∞, qâÍÖÏ~„^è° ã¨~áå^°Hí∞Å∞ ã≤.O®Ñ¶¨∞ÇÍKÍi, `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞
qâ◊fiq^®ºÅÜ«µ~ [O°fle[~ qÉèßQõ~ JkèǨu l.Ü«∞ãπ.=O°^®KÍi, P~„^è°*’ºu
ã¨~áå^°Hí∞Å∞ S.Ç‹~Hí„>Ï=Ù, P~„^è°Éèí¥q∞ O≥ã≤_≥~>ò Z_ç@O∑ PO∑.q.O®=∂O®=Ù D
Ǩ^°H’â◊~ ã¨~áå^°Hí =O°æ ã¨Éèí∞ºÅ∞Qå =º=ǨÏi~KÍO°∞. `Œ=∞ O’AÇÍs =$uÎÖ’ fiHí
ÖËHí∞~_Í L~@¥ Hí∂_Í, Ǩ„uHß Ç¨^°H’â◊~ xO®‡}®xH˜ `Œy# ã¨ÅǨÅ∞ WKÍÛO°∞.
D Ǩ^°H’â◊~ xO®‡}~Ö’ Ǩ^°ã¨~„QõǨÏ}Ö’ Ǩ„uHß O°K«Üµ`ŒÅ<Ë ÉèßQõ™®fi=∞∞
Å#∞ Kı¿ãÎ =∞i~`Œ „Ǩܡ∂[#HíO°~Qå L~@∞~^°#fl Pâ◊`À J#∞Éèí=A˝Öˇ·# Ǩ„uHß
O°K«Üµ`ŒÅ ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~ Ji÷~KÍ~. H≥.NxÇÍãπ (L^°Ü«µ~), a.Zãπ.O®=∞K«~„^°O®=Ù
(P~„^è°Éèí¥q∞), ã≤.ÃÇÏK£.q.q.ã¨`Œº<®O®Ü«µ} (P~„^è°*’ºu), >˜.â◊~HíO° <®O®Ü«µ}
(P~„^è„° ǨÉ)íè . Z<ü.*’º`Íûfl^Õq (PHßâ◊ÇÍ}˜), Z<ü.ÉÏc˚O®A (P~„^è„° ǨÉ)íè , >˜.Ç≤.qOîÖ° ò,
(P~„^è„° ǨÉíè =∂r), Ü«µ~.Ç≤.™®O°kè (qâÍÖÏ~„^è)° . Ç≤.Z.q.=Å¡Éßè KÍO°∞ºÅ∞ (P~„^è„° ǨÉíè
ÇÍO°Ç¨„uHí) - Ǩ^° ã¨~„QõǨÏ}Ö’ ã¨Ç¨ÏHíi~KÍO°∞. gOÕHßHí z=i ^°â◊Ö’ _ç.#O°ã≤~Qõ
O®=Ù, H≥.*’ºu, H≥.ã‘`ŒÅ∞ Hí∂_Í Ç¨^°ã¨~„QõǨÏ} KıâÍO°∞. Ǩ^°¿ãHíO°}Ö’#¥ ÇÍ>˜x
ã¨iK«¥_«_«~Ö’#¥ a.Zãπ.O®=∞K«~„^°O®=Ù, >˜.Ç≤.qOî°Öò K«¥Ç≤# „â◊^°ú, WzÛ#
`À_ÍÊ@∞#∞ „Ǩ`˺Hí~Qå Qõ∞O°∞Î KıÜ«µ_«~ =∂ qkè.
ÃÇÏ·^°O®ÉÏ^ü Hı~„^° qâ◊fiq^®ºÅÜ«µ sÃãiÛ ™®¯ÅO∑ XO°∞Qõ∞ Éèß㨯O∑ JHí_«q∞H±
Jã≤Ããì~>òQå Ǩ^°H’â◊xO®‡}~ XHí HÁeH˜¯ O®=_ÍxH˜ JǨϟO®„`Œ∞Å∞ Kıã≤# Hí$+≤
J##º ™®=∂#ºÇ‹∞·~k. PÜ«µ#Hí∞ „Ǩ`˺Hí~Qå Hí$`Œ[˝`ŒÅ∞ K‹Ç¨CHí∞~@∞<®fl~.
D xѶ¨∞~@∞ xO®‡}®xH˜ „áå*ˇHí∞ì xÇıkHí#∞ `ŒÜ«∂O°∞KıÜ«µ_«~ ^°QõæO°#∞~z
ѨÓO°Ü
Î µË º =O°H∞í Jxfl ^°âÖ◊ ’¡#¥ ã¨~áå^°Hí =O°æ ã¨É∞íè ºÅ∞ PO∑.q.O®=∂O®=Ù Hí#|iz#

Jq∞`ŒÇ‹∞·# „â◊^®úã¨Hí∞ÎÖË HÁO°=_ç#@¡Üµ`Ë D ã¨~HíÅÊ~ W~`Œ `ŒfiO°Qå <ˇO°ÇıOÕk Hß^°∞.
D<®_«∞ =º=ǨO°H’â◊~ xO®‡}~Ö’ PÜ«µ#Hí∞#fl J#∞Éèí=~ Hí∂_Í W~^°∞Hí∞ Z~`À
LǨHíi~z~k. PÜ«µ# `À_ÍÊ@∞Hí∞ qâı+¨ Jaè#~^°#Å∞ `ˇeÜ«µ*ËÜ«µ_«~ =∂ ÉÏ^è°º
`ŒQå Éèßqã¨∞Î<®fl~. Ǩ^°H’âÍxfl ã¨iK«¥_«_«~Ö’ J~Éı^°¯O∑ ™®O°fi„uHí qâ◊fiq^®ºÅÜ«µ~
=∂r „á⁄ÃѶã¨O∑, „Ǩã≤^°ú Hí^äß O°K«Üµ`Œ Hı`Œ∞ qâ◊fi<®^ä°O≥_ç¤ `À_ÍÊ@∞#∞ Hí$`Œ[˝`Í
ѨÓO°fiHí~Qå Qõ∞O°∞Î Kıã¨∞Hí∞~@∞<®fl~.
xѶ¨∞~@∞ xO®‡}~Ö’ ÃÑ·# `À_«Ê_ç# q∞„`Œ∞ÖË HßHí∞~_Í =∞O≥~^°O’ [O°fleã¨∞ì
q∞„`Œ∞Å∞ Hí∂_Í ã¨Ç¨ÏHíi~KÍO°∞. ÇÍi ¿ã=Å#∞ JHß_«g∞ ZǨÊ>˜H© =∞izáÈÖË^°∞.
xѶ¨∞~@∞ xO®‡}~ ™®y# D U_Ík HßÅ~Ö’ „ÃÑãπ JHß_«g∞ HßO®ºÅÜ«µ ã≤|ƒ~k
xifiO®=∞ Hí$+≤ KıâÍO°∞. HßO°º^°i≈ Z.ã¨`ͺO®=Ù, JHß_«g∞ W`ŒO° ã≤|ƒ~k Jaè#~^°
hÜ«µ∞Å∞. Ǩ^°*ÏÖÏxfl Hí~ѨӺ@sHíi~K«_«~Ö’ Ü«µ∞=q∞„`Œ∞Å∞ ã≤.ÃÇÏK£.O®=∂O®=Ù,
l.„ǨâÍ~`ü Hí∞=∂O∑ JÅ∞ÃÑO°QõHí∞~_Í Ç¨xKıâÍO°∞.
P~„^谄Ǩ^Õâò O®R =∞∞Yº=∞~„u N Z<ü.K«~„^°ÉÏ|∞ <®Ü«µ∞_«∞ „ÃÑãπ JHß_«g∞
J=`ŒO°}Hí∞ HßO°Hí∞Å∞. „Ǩ„Ǩ^ä°=∞ JHß_«g∞ J^è°ºHí∆∞Å∞Qå ##∞fl xÜ«µq∞~KÍO°∞. D
O≥~_Ëà◊§Ö’ „ÃÑãπ JHß_«g∞ xO°fiÇ≤Ï~z#, xO°fiÇ≤Ïã¨∞Î#fl qq^è° HßO°º„Hí=∂ÅHí∞ PÜ«µ#
=ºH˜ÎQõ`Œ~Qå, „ǨÉèí∞`ŒfiǨO°~Qå WzÛ# <ˇ·uHí, Pi÷Híã¨Ç¨ÏHßO°~ =∞O°∞=ÖËxk. „ÃÑãπ
JHß_«g∞ `Œ# ÅH∆ߺŠ™®Ñ¶Ö¨ ϺxH˜ Kıã∞¨ #Î fl Hí$+≤x ZǨÊ>˜HÇí C¨ _«∞ PÜ«µ# „áÈ`ŒûÇ≤Ï㨥<Î Ë
L<®flO°∞. ã¨~|~kè`Œ „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi JkèHßO°∞Å∞ Hí∂_Í J=ã¨O°Ç‹∞·# ã¨Ç¨Ü«∂xfl =∂Hí∞
J~k~KÍO°∞. ÇÍO°~^°iH© Hí$`Œ[˝`ŒÅ∞.
„ÃÑãπ JHß_«g∞ ™®÷Ç#¨ H’ã¨~ „ǨÉ∞íè `Œfi~ UO®Ê@∞Kıã#≤ „Ǩ`ºË Hí Híq∞>©Ö’ ã¨É∞íè º_«∞Qå
L#flǨÊ>˜ #∞~Kı Ǩ„uHß O°KÜ
« µ`ŒÅH’ã¨~ XHí „Ç¨`ºË Hí xѶ∞¨ ~@∞=Ù#∞ O°¥á⁄~k~KÍÅ<Ë
L^ÕÌâ◊~ <®Hí∞ L~_Ëk. Jk WǨÊ>˜H˜ ™®^谺Nj∞·~k. J~^°∞Hí∞ =ºH˜ÎQõ`Œ~Qå <®Hí∞ KÍÖÏ
ã¨~`À+¨~Qå L~k. qq^è° âÍ„™®ÎÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z# ™®~HıuHí Ǩ^*° ÏÖÏxfl KıOÛ° _ÍxH˜
qq^è° áåiÉèß+≤Hí Ǩ^°H’âÍÅ#∞ P^èßO°~Qå fã¨∞Hí∞<®fl~. D Ǩ^°H’â◊~Ö’ 25 ÇıÅ
ÃÑ·zÅ∞Hí∞ Ǩ^®Å∞<®flܵ. W~Hß KıO®Ûeû#q J<ËHí~ L~_˘K«∞Û. nx „Ǩܡ∂[<®xfl
xO°Ü
‚ µ~K«=Åã≤~k Ǩ„uHß O°KÜ
« µ`ŒÖ.Ë D Ǩ^H° ’â◊~ xO®‡}~Ö’ L#fl Ǩiq∞`Œ∞Å#∞,
=º=kèx ã¨Ç¨Ï$^°Ü«µ~`À JO°÷~ Kıã¨∞Hí∞x `Œy# ã¨ÅǨÅ∞ W¿ãÎ =∞e =∞∞„^°}Ö’ nxfl
=∞i~`Œ xO°∞Ì+¨ì~Qå, ã¨=∞„Qõ~Qå O°¥á⁄~k~K«_ÍxH˜ gÅ∞~@∞~k.
Jaè=~^°#Å`À
ÃÇÏ·^°O®ÉÏ^°∞
16, Ѷ≤„|=i 1998

(H≥.NxÇÍã¨O≥_ç¤)

10

ã¨~áå^°H©Ü«µ~
Éèßë®aè=$kúH˜ xѶ¨∞~@∞ xO®‡}~ XHí ™®^è°#~. `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞Ö’ O°HíO°HßÅ xѶ¨∞~@∞
=ÙÅ∞ O®=Åã≤# J=ã¨O°~ KÍÖÏ L~k. P kâ◊Qå XHí z#fl „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~ D
Ǩ„uHß Ç¨^°H’â◊~. Wk W~w¡+¨∞ `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ kfiÉèßë® xѶ¨∞~@∞=Ù. W~`ŒHí∞ =∞∞~^°∞
W~w¡+¨∞ – `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÅ∞ KÍÖÏ L<®flܵ. ÇÍ>˜Ö’ ZHí∞¯=ÉèßQõ~ Qõ`Œ
â◊`Í|Ì~Ö’ `ŒÜ«∂O≥·#q. D â◊`Í|Ì~Ö’ =zÛ# xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÅ∞ ZHí∞¯=ÉèßQõ~ UÇ’
xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÅHí∞ J#∞ÇÍ^®Å∞ =∂„`ŒÇı∞. =∞iHÁxfl xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÅ∞ HÁ`ŒÎQå
`ŒÜ«∂O°∞Kıã≤# =∂@ x[Çı∞Qåx ÇÍ>˜ Ǩikè KÍÖÏ ã¨~Hí∞z`Œ~.
`ˇÅ∞Qõ∞Ö’ Ǩ„uHßO°K#« qã¨iÎ ~z~k. O°HOí H° ßÅ k# ÇÍO° ǨH∆í =∂ã¨Ç„¨ uHíÅ∞
W>©=e O≥~_«∞ ^°âÍÉÏÌÖ’¡ ZHí∞¯Ç‹·<®Üµ. D Ǩ„uHíÅÖ’ O°HíO°HßÅ ji¬HíÅ∞ Hí∂_Í
qã¨Îi~KÍܵ. D Ǩ„uHíÖ’¡ HÁ`ŒÎQå Kıi ǨxKı¿ãÇÍO°∞ `Œ=∞Hí∞ W~`ŒHí∞ =∞∞~^°∞
`ˇeÜ«µx J<ËHí q+¨Ü«∂Å#∞ Qõ∞i~z ÇÍO°ÎÅ∞, ÇͺYºÅ∞, ji¬HíÅ∞ xO°fiÇ≤Ï~KÍeû
L~@∞~k. WǨC_«∞ Ǩ„uHß O°K«Üµ`ŒÅHí∞ L^ÀºQõ J=HßâÍÅ∞ ÃÑO°Qõ_«~`À áå@∞
ÉÏ^è°º`ŒÅ∞ Hí∂_Í ÃÑiQåܵ. U q^®º=~`Œ∞_çH≥·<® D HßÅ~Ö’ U XHí¯ âÍG~
Ö’#¥ Ö’`ˇ·# „ǨÇıâ◊~ ã¨~áåܵ~K«@~ Hí+¨ì~. Hßx [O°fleã¨∞ìÅHí∞ Jxfl
âÍ„™®ÎÅ#∞ Qõ∞i~z J~`À W~`À `ˇeã≤ L~_Íeû# J=ã¨O®xfl P^è°∞xHí q*Ï˝#~
HíeÊ~z~k. [~°fleã¨∞ìÅ∞ `Œ=∞ L^ÀºQõ ^è°O°‡~Qå J<ËHí ÇÍO®Î~âÍÅ#∞, q*Ï˝#
q+¨Ü«∂Å#∞ Ǩ„uHíÖ’¡ J#∞ÇÍ^°~ KıÜ«∂eû# J=ã¨O°~ L~@∞~k. D
J#∞ÇÍ^®xH˜ ÅHí∆ º Éèß+¨Ö’ `Œy# Ǩ^®Å∞ HßÇÍe. P Ǩ^®Å∞ =ºHíÎ~ Kı¿ã
Éèß=#Å¥ JO°÷~ HßÇÍe. D O≥~_«∞ ÅH∆ߺÅ#∞ ™®kè~K«_ÍxH˜ ã¨=∂# Ǩ^°
xѶ∞¨ ~@∞=Ù ã¨iáÈ^°∞. Ju q=O°}®`Œ‡Hí xѶ∞¨ ~@∞=ÙÅ∞ JÅqHßHí∞~_Í áÈ`Íܵ.
Jq XHÁ¯Hí¯ âÍ„™®ÎxH˜ q_ç q_çQå ™®^è°º~ J=Ù`Íܵ. XHı xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÖ’ WKıÛ
q=O°}Å∞ q+¨Ü«µ~ 㨥÷Å~Qå `ˇe¿ã~`Œ ã¨=∞„Qõ~Qå#¥ L~_Íe, Hí∞¡Ç¨Î~Qå#∞
L~_Íe. D O≥~_«∞ ÅH∆ߺÅH’ã¨~ `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ [O°fleã¨∞ìÅHí∞ =∞∞Yº~Qå =$uÎÖ’
„ǨÇıt~Kı HÁ`ŒÎ ÇÍiH˜ XHí xѶ¨∞~@∞=Ù `ŒÜ«∂O°∞ KıÜ«µ_ÍxH˜ „ÃÑãπ JHß_«g∞
ѨÓ#∞Hí∞#flk. D ÅHí∆ º ™®^è°# J`Œº~`Œ H˜¡+¨ìÇ‹∞·#k. ^®xH˜ qã¨Î $`Œ „áåuǨkHí
J=ã¨O°~. J<ËHí ^ÕâÍÖ’¡ „áå=∂}˜Hí xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÅ K«i„`Œ#∞ Ǩije¿ãÎ U
xѶ∞¨ ~@∞=Ó XHí ^°âÍ|Ì~ ֒ѨÙQå |Ü«µ@Hí∞ =zÛ# ^®YÖÏÅ∞ ÖË=Ù. Éèßë®*Ï˝#~
L#fl Ǩ~_ç`Œ∞Å∞ J<ËHí∞Å∞ XHí KÀ@ Hí∂O°∞Ûx `Œ=∞ ѨÓiÎHßÖÏxfl qxܡ∂yã¨∂Î
ã¨∞nO°H… ßÅ~ qq^è° =∞¥ÖÏÅ #∞~z Ǩ^®Å#∞, „ǨÜ∂ˇ QåÅ#∞ ã¨~„QõÇÏ≤ ~z ÇÍ>˜x
`ˇ·áåO°∞Çıã≤ ѨÙ#óѨÙ#ó Ǩije~z xQõ∞æ^ÕeÛ „Ǩ=∂}©Híi~K«=Åã≤ L~@∞~k.

11

L#fl =º=kèÖ’, J~>ı XHí¯ U_Ík֒ѨÙ<Ë, L#fl =#O°∞Å`À J<ËH∞í Å ã¨ÇϨ HßO°~`À
[O°fleã¨∞ìÅ ™œHíO°º~ H’ã¨~ J=ã¨O°Ç‹∞·# D xѶ¨∞~@∞=Ù#∞ O°¥á⁄~k~K«QõeQå~.
xѶ¨∞~@∞ „Ǩ=∂}®Å ^°$ë®ì º K«¥¿ãÎ KÍÖÏ Ö’áåÖË HíxÇ≤™®Îܵ. xѶ¨∞~@∞
„Ǩܡ∂[<®Å ^°$ë®ì º K«¥¿ãÎ W~`ŒHí∞ =∞∞~^°∞ xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÅÖ’ ÖËx J<ËHí ™œHí
O®ºÅ∞ D H’â◊~Ö’ HíxÇ≤™®Îܵ. „áå=∂}˜Hí`Œ#∞ ™®kè~K«ÖËx =∂ Jâ◊HíÎ`Œ#∞
=∞xfl~K« QÀO°∞`Œ∞<®fl~. ™®kè~z# „Ǩܡ∂[Hí`Œ#∞ qxܡ∂y~K«QÀO°∞`Œ∞<®fl~.
`ÍuÎ fiHí~Qå JxÇ≤~KÍÅx Hß^°∞Hßx „ǨǨ~K«~Ö’ ã¨=∞„Qõ`Œ J<Ëk ÃÑ@∞ìH’
^°Åz# ÅHí∆ ºÇı∞Qåx ™®kè~K«^°y# J~â◊~ Hß^°x „Ǩ`˺Hí~Qå K‹Ç¨ÊHí¯O°ÖË^°∞.
xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÅ q+¨Ü«µ~Ö’ Wk ǨO°=∞ã¨`Œº~. D xѶ¨∞~@∞=Ù q+¨Ü«µ~Ö’ Wk
=∞s x[~.
D Ǩ^°H’â◊~Ö’ k#Ǩ„uHí „Ç¨^èß# ÇÍO°ÎÖ’¡ HíxÇ≤~Kı ™®^èßO°} Ǩ^®Å∞
W~w¡+¨∞ k# Ǩ„uHíÅ #∞~z qiqQå ¿ãHíi~KÍ~. Pi÷Hí O®[H©Ü«∂k ™®~Ѷ≤∞Hí
âÍ„™®ÎŠǨ^*° ÏÅ~, W`ŒO° Éè“uHí r=âÍ„™®ÎŠǨ^*° ÏÅ~, Ǩ„uHíÅ#∞~_ç ¿ãHíi~z
#q HßHí W`ŒO° „Ǩ`˺Hí xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÅ #∞~_ç Hí∂_Í „QõÇ≤Ï~KÍ~. L#fl HÁkÌ
=º=kèÖ’ „Ǩ`˺Hí âÍG Ǩ^®ÅH’ã¨~ Ǩ„uHíÅ g∞^° =∂„`ŒÇı∞ P^èßO°Ç¨_ç`Ë Z<Àfl
=∞∞YºÇ‹∞·# Ǩ^®Å#∞ =keÇı¿ã „Ǩ=∂^°~ L~k. W`ŒO° âÍG „Qõ~^äßÅ #∞~z
„QõÇ≤Ï~z# Ǩ^®Å∞ ™®^èßO°} Ǩ„uHß Çͺ™®Ö’¡ O®^°y# ÇÍ>˜<Ë „QõÇ≤Ï~KÍ~. D
=∂ xO°‚Ü«µ~ J~`Œ ã¨iQåæ áå@~K«|_ç~^°x K‹Ç¨ÊÖË~. =∂ Ǩ^° ã¨~„QåǨÏHí∞Å∞
J`Œ∞º`ÍûǨÏ~`À ¿ãHíi~z# QõǨÏ#Ç‹∞·# âÍG Ǩ^®Å#∞ ™®^谺Nj∞·#~`Œ=O°Hí∞
`˘Åy~KÍ~. W~Hß q∞yeáÈܵ#q L~>ı L~_«=K«∞Û.
XHí W~w¡+¨∞ =∂@ É’kè~Kı JO°÷ ã¨O°fi™®fixfl KÍÖÏKÀ@¡ XHı `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞=∂@`À
K‹Ç¨Ê@~ Hí+¨ì=∞ܵ~k. ã¨fiÅÊ JO°÷Éèı^®Å`À L#fl J<ËHí ã¨=∂#Ǩ^®Å#∞
`ˇÅ∞Qõ∞Ö’ WzÛ# ã¨~^°O®ƒùÅ∞ KÍÖÏ L<®flܵ. Wq L^ÕÌt~z# =∂@#∞ ѨÓiÎQå
JO°÷~ Kıã¨∞H’=_ÍxH˜ =∂„`ŒÇı∞ HßHí J#∞ÇÍ^° ã¨~^°O®ƒùxH˜ J#∞Ç‹·# =∂@#∞
Z~K«∞H’=_ÍxH˜ Hí∂_Í `À_«Ê_«`Íܵ. KÍÖÏKÀ@¡ =∞∞YºÇ‹∞·# âÍGǨ^®ÅHí∞
Hí∞¡Ç¨Î~Qå q=O°}Å∞ WKÍÛ~. D q=O°}Å∞ KÍÖÏ=O°Hí∞ P Ǩ^°~Qåx Ǩ^°|~^è°~
Qåx L^ÕÌt~z# ÉèßÇÍxfl 㨥÷Å~Qå JO°÷~ Kıã¨∞H’=_ÍxH˜ ǨxHÁ™®Îܵ. W~Hß
Ö’`Œ∞Qå JO°÷~ Kıã¨∞H’ÇÍÅ~>ı PÜ«∂ „Ǩ`˺Hí âÍGxѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÅ#∞ ã¨~„Ǩ
k~KÍeû =ã¨∞Î~k. HÁxfl Ǩ^®Å∞ 㨥÷Å ^°$+≤ì`À K«¥¿ãÎ JO°÷Ç‹∞·#>ıì HíxÇ≤™®Îܵ
Hßx P =∂@ÅHí∞#fl Ǩiq∞`Œ∞Å∞, q=O°}Å∞ K«¥_«@~ =Å¡ =∞i~`Œ qâ◊^°
=∞=Ù`ÍÜ«µ#fl L^ÕÌâ◊~`À `ˇeã≤#>ıì HíxÇ≤~z# =∂@ÅHí∞ Hí∂_Í JO°÷<ˇ·t`Œº~
H’ã¨~ q=O°}Å∞ KıO®Û~.

12

13

D Ǩ^°H’â◊~Ö’ HíxÇ≤~Kı W~w¡+¨∞ =∂@Åxfl~>˜H© `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞Ö’ ã¨=∂<®O°÷Hí
â◊ÉÏÌÅ∞ `ŒÜ«∂O°∞HßÖË^°∞. `ŒÜ«∂O°Üµ#q ^˘iH˜`Ë WKÍÛ~. Ǩ^°ã¨~„QåǨÏHí∞Å∞
`ŒÜ«∂O°∞Kıã≤#q ܡ∂Qõº=∞#∞Hí∞#fl ÇÍ>˜x H’â◊~Ö’ KıO®Û~. ã¨~^°O®ƒùxfl J#∞ã¨
i~z ã¨~áå^°Hí∞Å∞, HÁ~^°O°∞ ã¨~áå^°Hí =∞~_«e ã¨Éèí∞ºÅ∞, JǨC_«Ç¨C_«¥ W`ŒO°
Ǩ~_ç`Œ∞Å¥ 㨥z~z#q Hí∂_Í W~^°∞Ö’ KıO®Û~. D Ǩ^®ÅHí∞ „Ǩܡ∂Qõ
ܡ∂Qõº`Œ L~^À ÖË^À#<Ë q+¨Üµ« ~ HßÅÇı∞ xO°Ü
‚ µã¨∞~Î k. HÁxfl Ǩ^®Öˇ<· ® xÅ∞™®Î
Ü«µ#fl Pâ◊ =∂Hí∞~k. HÁ`ŒÎQå O®¿ãÇÍiH˜ KıuH˜ J~^°∞ÉÏ\’¡ L~>ÏÜ«µ<Ë Pâ◊`À
D ǨxKıâÍ~. Jܵ`Ë ™®^è°º~Hßx KÀ@¡ q=O°}Å∞ =∂„`ŒÇı∞ WKÍÛ~.
XHı „ǨǨ~KÍxfl aè#fl Éèß+¨Å∞ O°HíO°HßÅ∞Qå Ǩije™®Îܵ. Ǩ^®Ö’¡ =ºHíÎ
ǨO°∞™®Îܵ. XHí Éèß+¨Ö’ <®=∞~ Jܵ~k W~H’ Éèß+¨Ö’ „H˜Ü«µQå#∞ ÖËHí „H˜Ü«µ
<®=∞~Qå#∞ =ºHíÎ~ Hß=_«~ `ŒO°K«∞Qå HíxÇ≤~Kı XHí Ǩ^°úu. =∞¥ÅÉèß+¨Ö’ Ǩ^®
ÅHí∞ ÇÍ>˜ Éèßë®ÉèßQåefl ã¨O°fi„`Í ã¨¥z~KÍÖÏ ÖË^® J<Ë xO°‚Ü«µ~ ã¨HßÅ~Ö’
fã¨∞H’ÖËHíáÈÜ«∂~. J~^°∞=Å¡ D Éèßë®ÉèßQåxfl 㨥z~Kı Qõ∞O°∞ÎÅ∞ J=ã¨O°Ç‹∞·#
Jxfl KÀ>Ï¡ HíxÇ≤~K«=Ù. xѶ¨∞~@∞ âÍG ^°$ë®ì º K«¥¿ãÎ Wk xÜ«µ=∞áåÅ<®
֒ǨÇı∞. Jܵ`Ë D H’â◊~ W~w¡+¨∞Ö’ O®¿ã ÇÍiH˜ HßHí `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ [O°fleã¨∞ìÅHí∞
=∂„`ŒÇı∞ L^ÕÌt~K«_«~ =Å¡, D ֒Ǩ~ L^ÕÌt~z# „Ǩܡ∂[<®xH˜ U=∞~`Œ
Éèí~QõHíO°~ Hß^°x Éèßqã¨∞Î<®fl~.
D Ǩ^°H’â◊~Ö’ ™®^èßO°} xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÖ’ ^˘iHı =∂@Åhfl L~_«=Ù.
J~`Œ=∂„`Œ~ Kı`Œ ™®^èßO°} xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÖ’ =∂@Å∞ W~^°∞Ö’ fã¨∞H’Hí∞~_Í#¥
L~_«Ö~Ë . HßO°}Çı∞=∞~>ı ™®^èßO°} Éèßë®Ç¨^®Öˇ<· å Ǩ„uHßÉèß+¨Ö’ HÁ`ŒÎ ã¨~^°O®ƒù
ÅHí∞ qã¨Îi~z HÁ`ŒÎ KèßÜ«µÅ#∞ Hí∂O°∞ÛHí∞x XHÁ¯Hí¯Ç¨C_«∞ ѨÓiÎQå aè<®flO®÷Å∞
Hí∂_Í KıO°∞ÛHí∞#fl ^®YÖÏÅ∞ HíxÇ≤™®Îܵ. D O°Hí~ qã¨ÎO°} PO’áåÖ’¡ WzÛ#
W~w¡+¨∞ =∂@ÅHí<®fl JO®÷Ö’¡ WzÛ# `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞=∂@Ö’¡ W~Hß ZHí∞¯= HíxÇ≤ã¨∞Î~k.
W>Ï¡ W~w¡+¨∞ `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ =∂@Å „Ǩܡ∂Qõ Ǩikè WǨC_«∞ =∞#Hí∞ ^˘~°∞Hí∞`Œ∞#fl
W~w¡+¨∞ `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÖ’¡ J~`ŒQå Hí#|_«_«~ ÖË^°∞. D Ǩ^°H’â◊~Ö’
g\˜#xfl~>˜h ã¨~ѨÓO°‚~Qå ™®kè~KÍ=∞x K‹Ç¨ÊÖË~Qåx P =∂O°æ~Ö’ HÁ~`Œ
„Ǩܫµ`Œfl~ KıâÍ~.
=∂@ÅHí∞#fl ã¨O®fiO°÷KÍÛùÜ«µÅ#∞ WKıÛ „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~ KıÜ«µÖË^°∞. Jxfl q+¨Ü«∂
Ö’¡#¥, ã¨O°fiã¨=∞„Qõ xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙQå `ŒÜ«∂O°∞Kı¿ã „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~ Hí<®fl Ǩ„uHíÅÖ’
`ŒOK° ∞« Qå HíxÇ≤~Kı =∂@Å#∞ `ŒOK° ∞« Qå ÇÍ_Ë JO®÷Å`À WÜ«µº@Çı∞ D „Ǩܵ« `Œfl~
Ö’x „Ǩ^èß#Ç‹∞·# ÅHí∆ º~.

HÁxfl =∂@Å∞ „ǨǨ~K«~Ö’ =∞¥O°Î Ǩ^®O®÷Å#∞ 㨥z™®Îܵ. g>˜x
Qõ∞iÎ~K«_«~Ö’ U=∞~`Œ zHí∞¯Å∞~_«=Ù. ™®^èßO°} xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÅÖ’ g>˜x ÉÁ=∞‡Å
^®fiO® 㨥z™®ÎO°∞. J=∞¥O°Î ÉèßÇÍÅ ã¨~|~^èßÖ’¡#¥, =ºH©ÎHíO°}Ö’#¥, Éèß+¨Å
=∞^è°º Éèı^®Å∞ ZHí∞¯=Qå L~>Ïܵ. D H’â◊~Ö’ J=∞¥O®Î~âÍÅHı ZHí∞¯=
„áå^èß#ºq∞KÍÛ~. L^®: awe J~>ı ÉèíH˜Î ѨÓO°fiHí ã¨~„Éèí=∞~, ÉèíÜ«µ~ J<Ë
JO®÷Å`À áå@∞ h>˜K«„Hí~ J<Ë JO°÷~ Hí∂_Í L~k. D H’â◊~Ö’ O≥~_À JO°÷~
ÖÏ~>˜q HíxÇ≤~K«HíáÈ=K«∞Û.
=∂@ÅHí∞#fl J<ËHí JO®÷Ö’¡ XHí HßÅ~Ö’ HÁxfl „Ǩܡ∂Qõ ã¨~^°O®ƒùÖ’¡ HÁxfl
JO®÷Å∞ „Ǩ^èß#~Qå#∞, =∞iHÁxfl JO®÷Å∞ J„Ǩ^èß#~Qå#∞ HíxÇ≤™®Îܵ. KÍÖÏ
KÀ@¡ W`ŒO®O®÷Å#∞ ǨiQõ}#Ö’H˜ fã¨∞Hí∞#flǨÊ>˜H© HÁxfl KÀ@¡ Ǩ„uHß Éèß+¨Ö’
HíxÇ≤~Kı „Ǩ^ßè # JO®÷Å#∞ WzÛ W`ŒO° JO®÷Å#∞ HÁ~`Œ xO°H¡ ∆í º~ KıâÍ~. W~^°∞Hí∞
HßO°}~ xO°¡Hí∆ º~ KıÜ«∂Å#fl ã¨~HíÅÊ~ Hß^°∞. „Ǩ^èß# JO°÷~`À `ŒfiO°Qå ã¨~`Œ$Ç≤Î
Ǩ_ç W`ŒO° JO®÷ÅH’ã¨~ J<Ëfi+≤~K«@~Ö’ HÁ~`Œ ™®Kı`Œ [iy~k. Jܵ<® WzÛ#
JO®÷Å#∞ W`ŒO° ã¨~^°O®ƒùÅHí∞ J#fiܵ~K«∞H’=_«~Ö’ zHí∞¯ÖËg∞ L~_«=Ù. L^®:
irregularities, partisanship J<Ë=∂@Å JO®÷Å∞ U O°~Qõ~Ö’ Jܵ<® „ǨÜ∂
ˇ Qõ
ܡ∂QåºÖË. Ǩ„uHíÅÖ’ „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi, „Ǩ*ÏáåÅ# HßO°º„Hí=∂ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z
ZHí∞¯=Qå Hí#|_«`Íܵ. JO°÷ q=O°}Ö’ ÃÑ·O°~QåÅ#∞ ¿ÑO˘¯#fl~`Œ =∂„`Í#
W`ŒO° O°~QåÅHí∞ J#fiܵ~K«^°x =∂ L^ÕÌâ◊~ Hß^°∞. Ǩ„uHß Éèß+¨Ö’ „Ǩ^èß#~Qå
D JO°~÷ Ö’ =ã¨∞#Î fl^°<Ë =∂ L^ÕâÌ ~◊ . Jܵ`Ë D ÉèßQåxfl =∂@#∞ JO°~÷ Kıã∞¨ Hí∞<Ë
„Ǩ^èß# ^è’O°}˜x 㨥z~KÍÅ<Ë Qåx J#∞ÇÍ^°~Ö’ W^°~`Í LǨܡ∂y~KÍÅx
Hß^°∞.
W~w¡+¨∞ =∂@ÅHí∞ `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ ã¨=∂<®O®÷Å∞ WzÛ#~`Œ =∂„`å# Jxfl KÀ>Ï¡
P =∂@Å „Ǩܡ∂QåÅ#∞ „QõÇ≤Ï~K«@~ ™®^è°º~Hß^°∞. J~^°∞=Å¡ HÁxflKÀ@¡
W~w¡+¨∞ =∂@Å ã¨=∂<®O°÷HßÅ`Àáå@∞, `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ q=O°}Å`À áå@∞ ã¨~„QåǨÏ
Hí∞Å∞ ã¨O°Ñ¶¨O® Kıã≤# ã¨~^°O®ƒùÅ #∞~z W`ŒO°„`Í ^˘iHı ã¨~^°O®ƒùÅ#∞~z HÁxfl
Ǩ^°|~^è•Å#∞ L^®Ç¨ÏO°}Å∞Qå WKÍÛ~. L^®: Spiral J<Ë Ç¨^®xH˜ ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞
J<Ë JO°÷~ =¿ãÎ =Ü«µã¨∞ ÃÑO°Qõ_«=∂ =_ô¤ ÃÑO°Qõ_«=∂ J<Ë J#∞=∂#~ O®=K«∞Û.
spiraling costs J<Ë „Ǩܡ∂Qõ~ Hí∂_Í WzÛ JO°÷~ W¿ãÎ ^è°O°Å ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å Jx
JO°÷=∞=Ù`Œ∞~k. XHí =∂@#∞ =∞∞~^°∞Qåx `ŒO®fi`ŒQåx qã¨Îi~z ÇÍ_ç#
O°¥áåÅ∞ Ǩ^°|~^èßÅ∞Qå L~>ı ÇÍ>˜x qã¨ÎO°} O°¥áåÅ∞Qå<Ë WKÍÛ~. L^®:
W>©=Å Pollution J<Ë =∂@ ÉÏQå „Ç¨KÍO°~Ö’H˜ =zÛ~k. ^®xH˜ `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞Ö’
HßÅ∞+¨º~ J<Ë =∂@ ÇÍ_«∞`Œ∞<®fl~. D HßÅ∞+¨º ã¨~|~^èßxfl qã¨Îi~z# J<ËHí

14

15

Ǩ^®Å∞ ÇÍ_«∞HíÖ’ L<®flܵ. L^®: air pollution, water pollution, sound
pollution etc.... Wq „Ǩ`˺HíÇ‹∞·# =∂@Å∞ HßHíáÈܵ<®, =∂@Å ã¨~ܡ∂Qåxfl
|\˜ì JO°÷~ `ˇÅ∞ã¨∞Î<®fl J#∞ÇÍ^®xH˜ J=ã¨O°~ Hß|>˜ì qã¨ÎO°} Ǩ^®Å∞ K«¥Ç≤
`ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ Ǩ^®Å∞ 㨥z~KÍ~.
D qã¨ÎO°} q+¨Ü«µ~Ö’ HÁxfl zHí∞¯Å∞<®flܵ. qã¨ÎO°} Ǩ^°|~^è°~Qå<Ë
L~^®? UHíÇ^¨ ° ™®÷ܵH˜ Kıi~^®? J<Ëk XHí Ǩ>Ïì# xO°Ü
‚ µ~K«Qeõ y# q+¨Üµ« ~
Hß^°∞. „áå=∂}˜Hí P~Qõ¡ xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÖ’¡<Ë D q+¨Ü«µ~Ö’ UHí`Œfi~ L#fl@∞ì
HíxÇ≤~K«^°∞. J~^°∞=Å¡ D q+¨Ü«µ~Ö’ D H’â◊~Ö’ Kıã≤# xO°‚Ü«∂Å∞ J~^°iH©
J~wHßO°~ HßHíáÈ=K«∞Û.
HÁxfl =∂@Å JO®÷Å#∞ ã¨~|~kè`ŒÇ‹∞·# W`ŒO° Ǩ^®Å`À áÈeÛK«¥¿ãÎ
JO°÷ã¨Ê+¨ì`Œ UO°Ê_«∞`Œ∞~k. W>Ï¡~>˜ =∂@Å∞ xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÖ’¡ ^°¥O°^°¥O°~Qå
L~>Ïܵ. D H’â◊~Ö’ J=ã¨OÇ° ∞‹ #· KÀ@¡ J>Ï¡~>˜ =∂@Š㨥zHíÅ#∞ KıO®Û~.
D Ǩ^°úu=Å¡ XHı q+¨Ü«∂xH˜ ã¨O|~kè~z# =∞O’=∂@ ǨiK«Ü«µ~ Hß=@~
Hí∂_Í XHí „Ç¨Üˇ∂[#Çı∞.
XH’¯™®i HÁxfl =∂@ÅHí∞ xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÖ’ WzÛ# Ǩ^®Å∞ „Ǩܡ∂y~z#
JO®÷xH˜ ã¨iáÈ=Ù. =∞∞Yº~Qå W`ŒO° Éèßë®Ç¨^®Å∞ W~w¡+¨∞Ö’ ÇÍ_ç#ǨC_«∞
W@∞=~>˜q Z^°∞O°=Ù`Íܵ. 1997 PQõã¨∞ì 23 A.P.Times ã¨~áå^°H©Ü«µ
ѨÙ@Ö’ a birthday accolade to Andhra Kesari J<Ë Çͺã¨~Ö’ accolade J<Ë
=∂@ JO°÷xO°‚Ü«µ q+¨Ü«µ~Ö’ HÁ~`Œ zHí∞¯ UO°Ê_ç~k. D =∂@Hí∞ „ÃѶ~z,
W~w¡+¨∞ xѶ¨∞~@∞=ÙÖ’ hug, kiss J<Ë JO®÷Å∞<®flܵ. American College
Dictionary Ö’ ÃѷǨ^®xH˜ award, honor J<Ë =∂@Å∞ JO®÷Å∞Qå WKÍÛO°∞.
WÇıg D ÇÍ_«∞HíHí∞ 㨥>˜Qå ã¨iáÈ=Ù. P ã¨~^°O®ƒù#fl#∞ã¨i~z nxH˜ „Ǩâ◊~ã¨
J<Ë JO®÷xfl HíeÊ~KÍ~. W>Ï¡~>˜ JO°÷HíÅÊ#Ö’¡ Çı∞~ HÁ~`Œ ™®Ç¨Ïã¨~ Kıã≤#
=∂@ ÇÍã¨Î=Çı∞. Wk ^°∞™®ûǨÏã¨~ Hß^°x J#∞Hí∞~@∞<®fl~.
XH’¯™®i HÁxfl W~w¡+¨∞ =∂@Å∞ UHí=K«#~Ö’ L<®fl `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞ JO®÷Ö’¡ D
H’â◊~Ö’ |Ǩï=K«# „Ǩܡ∂Qõ~ HíxÇ≤~K«=K«∞Û. JO°÷q=O°} ™œHíO°º~ H’ã¨~ D
Ǩ^°úux Z#∞flHí∞<®fl~. W~w¡+¨∞Ö’ vector J<Ë=∂@ UHí=K«#Ç‹∞·<å `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞Ö’
ÇͺkèÇÍǨÏHßÅ∞, Çͺkè„Ǩ™®O°HßÅ∞ J<Ë JO®÷ÅxKÍÛ~. O°HíO°HßÅ H©@HßÅ∞
ÇÍǨÏHßÅ∞Qå ǨxKı™®Îܵ Qõ#∞Hí |Ǩï=K«#~Ö’ JO°÷„QõǨÏ}~ `ËeHí=Ù`Œ∞~^°x
WÖÏ KıâÍ~.
ÃãÊe¡~Qõ∞Å q+¨Ü«∂xH˜ =¿ãÎ, `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞Ö’ =O°‚„Hí=∞=º=ã¨÷ W~Hß ã¨iQåæ
UO°Ê_«ÖË^°∞. XHı =∂@ J<ËHí ÖËY# Ǩ^°ú`Œ∞Ö’¡ HíxÇ≤ã¨∞Î~k. ã¨~kèHí∂_Í XHí™®i

Kı™®Î~, XHí™®i KıÜ«µ~. D H’â◊~Ö’ HÁ~`Œ xÜ«µux áå>˜~KÍ~ Hßx, Jxfl
Çıà◊ÖÏ J xÜ«µuH˜ Hí@∞ì|_«_»~ Hí∞^°O°ÖË^°∞. W~w¡+¨∞ ÃãÊe¡~Qõ∞Å#∞ ã¨i
K«¥¿ã@ǨC_«∞ LǨܡ∂y~z# xѶ¨∞~@∞ Éèı^®Å =Å¡ HÁ~`Œ xÜ«µ=∞ Ç‹·q^è°º~
HíxÇ≤ã¨∞Î~k. Jܵ`Ë =∞# ^Õâ◊~Ö’ „Ǩã¨∞Î`Œ~ „a>˜+¨∞ W~w¡+¨∞`À áå@∞ JÇ‹∞iHí<ü
W~w¡+¨∞ Hí∂_Í `Œfii`ŒQõux ÇͺÇ≤ã¨∞Î~_«@~ =Å# D Ç‹·q^è°º~ W|ƒ~k ÃÑ@ì^°∞.
W~HÁHí¯=∂@: D Ǩ^°H’â◊~Ö’ Çı∞~ K‹Ü«∂ºÅ#∞Hí∞#flq KÍÖÏ KıÜ«µÖËHí
áÈÜ«∂~. Ǩ^®Å Éèßë®ÉèßQåŠ㨥K«# Qõ∞i~z W~`ŒHí∞ =∞∞~^Õ „Ǩ™®Îq~KÍ~.
„Ǩ^èß<®O’Ǩ~ H˜~^° WzÛ# qã¨ÎO°}Ǩ^®Ö’¡ =O°‚„Hí=∞~ áå>˜~K«_«~ XHí
Ǩ^°úu. D xO°‚Ü«µ~Ö’ [iy# *ÏǨº~=Å¡ HÁxfl KÀ@¡ D Ǩ^°úuH˜ =º`ŒºÜ«∂Å∞
HíxÇ≤~K«=K«∞Û. Jܵ`Ë D J#∞|~^è° Ç¨^®Å Qõ∞~Ѩ٠Ǩiq∞`ŒÇ‹∞·#^Õ Qõ#∞Hí
=º`ŒºÜ«∂Å∞ J~`Œ W|ƒ~k ÃÑ@ìHíáÈ=K«∞Û.
XHí =∂@H˜zÛ# ã¨=∂<®O°H÷ í Ǩ^®Å#∞ =O°„‚ Hí=∞Ǩ^uú° Ö’ WÜ«µº@~ xѶ∞¨ ~@∞
xO®‡}~Ö’ áå>˜~Kı Ǩ^°úu. WHí¯_« Hí∂_Í D Ǩ^°úuH˜ KÍÖÏKÀ@¡ ÇͺѶ¨∂`Œ~
[iy L~_«=K«∞Û. Wk Hí∂_Í L^ÕÌâ◊ѨÓO°fiHí~ Hß^°h, xO°fiǨÏ}Ö’ [iy#
™®öe`Œº=∞h, H’â◊ qxܡ∂Qõ^®O°∞Å∞ „QõÇ≤Ï~K«QõÅO°x Pâ◊.
XHí =∂@Hí∞ L#fl JO®÷ÅÖ’ „Ǩ^•è <®O°~÷ , Q“}®O°~÷ ÇıOfiÕ O°∞Qå 㨥z~KÍeû#
ÉÏ^è°º`Œ H’â◊HßO°∞ÅÃÑ· L~k. J~`ËHßHí∞~_Í XH’¯ =∂@Hí∞ qq^è° âÍ„™®ÎÅÖ’
JO®÷Å#∞ P âÍ„™®Îxfl ã¨~Hıu~z K‹Ç¨Ê=Åã≤# J=ã¨O°~ Hí∂_Í L~k. D
ÉÏ^è°º`Œ#∞ xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«HíáÈ=_ÍxH˜ ã¨=∞Ü«∂Éèß=~ XHí „Ç¨^èß# HßO°}~. WkHßHí
W~H’ =∞∞Yº HßO°}~ Hí∂_Í L~k. W>©=Å qã¨Îi~z# q*Ï˝#O°~QåÅ∞ XHí
^®x`À XHí>˜ ã¨~|~^èßÅ∞ `ˇ~K«∞Hí∞#flq Hß=Ù. „Ǩu âÍG~Ö’#∞, „Ǩu q*Ï˝#
O°~Qõ~Ö’#∞ =∞O’ âÍG„ǨÜ∂ˇ Qõ~, =∞O’ q*Ï˝# q+¨Üµ« ã¨~|~^è~° JxÇÍO°º~Qå
ÃÑ#Çıã¨∞Hí∞x L<®flܵ. W@∞=~>˜ Ǩiã≤÷`Œ∞ÅÖ’ U =∂@ U âÍ„™®ÎxH˜ Ǩiq∞`Œ
Ç‹∞·#^À xO°‚ܵ~K«@~ J~`Œ ã¨∞ÅÉèíÇ‹∞·# Ǩ<Ëg∞ Hß^°∞. |ǨïâÍ HÁxfl =∂O®æÅ
^®fiO® PÜ«∂ âÍG ã¨~|~^èßÅ#∞ 㨥z~K«_«~ ™®^è°º=∞Ü˵º^ÕÇ‹Ø? D H’â◊~Ö’
PÜ«∂ âÍ„™®ÎÅ „ǨÇı∞Ü«∂xfl ã¨~Hı`Œ Ǩ^®Å ^®fiO® HßHí∞~_Í JO°÷ q=O°}Ö’
㨥z~KÍ~.
W>Ï¡ q=i~K«∞Hí∞~@¥ áÈ`Ë =∂ Ö’áåÅ∞ =∂Hı HÁ@ì=zÛ#@∞ì HíxÇ≤ã¨∞Î
<®flܵ. D Ö’áåÖËg D H’â◊ „Ǩܡ∂[<®xfl `Œyæ~K«=x Çı∞~ ^°$_è°~Qå #=∞∞‡
`Œ∞<®fl~. g>˜ „Ǩ™®Î=# Z~^°∞Hí~>ı D Ö’áåÅxfl~>˜h ã¨=i㨥ΠJ#u
HßÅ~Ö’<Ë W~`ŒH<í ®fl Çı∞Öˇ#· „Ǩ=∂}®Å`À D H’âÍxfl ѨÙ#óǨije~z ѨÙ#O°∞^°ú

16

17

A1

i~K«=Åã≤# P=â◊ºHí`Œ#∞ =∂Hí∞ Çı∞~ Qõ∞O°∞Î Kıã¨∞H’=@~ H’ã¨~. J>Ï¡~>˜
ã¨~HíÅÊ~ =∂Hí∞~^°x g∞Hí∞ `ˇeÜ«µ*ËÜ«µ@~ H’ã¨~.
W>Ï¡~>˜ Ǩ^°H’â◊ xO®‡}®xH˜ D Ǩiq∞`Œ „Ǩܫµ`ÍflxH≥·<® Z~`À =∞~k
ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO°~ ÖËHí∞~_Í D „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~ ™®Qõ^°∞. ¿ÑO°∞¿ÑO°∞# J<ËHí∞Å ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO®xfl
WHí¯_« K‹Ç¨ÊÖË=∞∞ Hßx, HÁxfl =∞∞YºÇ‹∞·#q K‹Ç¨ÊHíáÈ`Ë Jã¨~`Œ$Ç≤Î HíÅzÇıã¨∞Î~k.
Ǩ^°ã¨~„QåǨÏHí∞Å∞ J~`Í HßHíáÈܵ<®, =∂ ÅH∆ߺxfl JO°÷~ Kıã¨∞Hí∞x =∂`À
ã¨Ç¨ÏHíi~z# ÇÍà◊∞§ HÁkÌ=∞~k ÖËHíáÈÖË^°∞. WkHßHí ã¨~áå^°Hí=∞~_«eÖ’ Psfi
O®=∂O®=ÙQåO°∞ D H’â◊ xO®‡} „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~Ö’ „áåO°~Éèí~ #∞~z =∞∞y~ѨÙ
=O°Hí∞ qq^è° ^°â◊Ö’¡ ã¨Ç¨Ü«µÇ¨_ͤO°∞. Ǩ^° ã¨~„QåǨÏHí∞Ö’¡ XHíO≥·# a.Zãπ.O®=∞
K«~„^°O®=٠Ǩ^° ã¨~„QõǨÏ}Hí∞ q∞~z JO°÷xO°‚Ü«µ~Ö’ áåÅ∞Ǩ~K«∞Hí∞<®flO°∞. z=i
^°â◊Ö’ PKÍO°ºHı`Œ∞ qâ◊fi<®^ä°O≥_ç¤ Ç¨„uHßO°~Qõ~Ö’#∞, Éèßë®O°~Qõ~Ö’#∞ `Œ#Hí∞#fl
J#∞ÉèíÇÍxfl ^®K«∞H’Hí∞~_Í D H’âÍxH˜ Ç‹zÛ~K«_«~ D H’â◊~ J^°$+¨ì~. =∞s
=∞∞Yº~Qå PÜ«µ# WzÛ# P`Œ‡qâÍfiã¨~ =∂Hí∞ =∞i~`Œ `À_«Ê_ç~k. Ǩ^°
ã¨~„QåǨÏHí∞Å∞Qå ǨxKıã≤# >˜.Ç≤.qOî°ÖòQåO°∞ `Œ#Hí∞#fl qã¨Î $`ŒÇ‹∞·# J#∞ÉèíÇÍxfl
D H’â◊~ z=i ^°â◊Ö’ Z_ç>˜~Q∑Ö’ Hí∂_Í qxܡ∂y~KÍO°∞. z=i^°â◊Ö’ HÁxfl
á⁄O°áå@¡#∞ Qõ∞O°∞ÎǨ@ì_«~Ö’ ã≤.ã¨∞*Ï`Œ ™®Ü«µÇ¨_ͤO°∞.
D H’â◊ „áåO°~Éèí~ #∞~z z=i=O°Hí∞ ã¨~ѨÓO°‚~Qå x=∞QõflÇ‹∞·#
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí∞_«∞, ÃÇÏ·^°O®ÉÏ^ü Hı~„^° qâ◊fiq^®ºÅÜ«µ `ˇÅ∞Qõ∞âÍY Ǩiâ’^è°Hí q^®ºi÷
XO°∞Qõ∞ Éèß㨯O∑ `Œ# PO’Qåºxfl Hí∂_Í ÅHí∆ ºÃÑ@ìHí∞~_Í ã¨~ѨÓO°‚ x=∞Qõfl`Œ`À
Kıã≤# Hí$+≤x =i‚~K«_ÍxH˜ U =∂@Å¥ KÍÅ=Ù.
PYO°∞Qå D O°HíÇ‹∞·# PÖ’K«# Kıã≤# „ÃÑãπ JHß_«g∞ J^è°ºHí∆∞Å∞ H≥.NxÇÍã¨
O≥_ç¤ QåO°∞ Jaè#~^°hÜ«µ∞Å∞. PÇ‹Ø^°Ñ¨ÓO°fiHíÇ‹∞·# PÜ«µ# zO°∞#=Ùfi, ã¨~H’K«~
ÖËx PÜ«µ# ã¨ÇϨ HßO°~ D H’â◊ xO°fiǨÏ}Hí∞ J=ã¨OÇ° ∞‹ #· Pã¨O®#∞ J~k~KÍܵ.
HßO°º^°i≈ Z.ã¨`ͺO®=Ù ã¨=∞#fiÜ«µ Hí$+≤ W~^°∞Hí∞ =∞i~`Œ `À_«Ê_ç~k.
xѶ¨∞~@∞ xO®‡}®xH˜ „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆ã¨~|~^è°~ ÖËHíáÈܵ<® ǨO’Hí∆~Qå Jxfl
q^èßÖÏ ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO®#fl~k~z# „ÃÑãπ JHß_«g∞ qq^è° ™®÷ܵŠã≤|ƒ~k J~^°iH©
Jaè#~^°#Å∞, Hí$`Œ[˝`ŒÅ∞.
D H’âÍxfl xt`Œ~Qå Ǩije~K«~_ç. g∞ 㨥K«#Å∞ xO˘‡Ç¨Ï=∂@~Qå
„ÃÑãπ JHß_«g∞H˜ Ǩ~Ç≤~K«~_ç. =∞e =∞∞„^°}Ö’ nx Jaè=$kúH˜ ã¨Ç¨ÏHíi~K«~_ç.

KıHí∂i O®=∂O®=Ù

abduction

Aa
L`ŒÎ=∞„âı}˜H˜ K‹~k#, „âı+¨ªÇ‹∞·#,
J`Œº~`Œ <®}º`Œ Híey#
aback Ç‹#HíHí∞. take ~ Pâ◊ÛO°ºÇ¨_ç#,
HíÅ=O°Ç¨_ç#
abaddon #O°H~
í † #O°Hßxfl áåe~Kı ^°∞+¨ì
^Õ=`Œ
abai ÃÑ·`Œ$Hí, `Œ~„_ç#∞~z =zÛ#
abalienate (ǨÏHí∞¯, „Ǩܡ∂[#~) ǨO®
nè#~ KıÜ«µ∞
abalienation
ǨÏHí∞¯#∞ ǨO®nè#~
KıÜ«µ_«~, J<®º„Hß~`Œ~ KıÜ«µ_«~
abandon qâ◊$~YÅ ¿ãfiK«Ûù, =∞∞~^°∞ Ç‹#
HíÅ∞ K«¥_«x ¿ãfiK«Ûù† =keÇıÜ«µ∞,
`Œºl~K«∞, ^®ÇÍ LǨã¨~ǨÏi~K«∞HÁ#∞†
Ǩi`ͺQõ~ KıÜ«µ∞: Pâ◊Å∞ =^°∞Å∞HÁ#∞
abandoned `ŒºHíÎ~, =keÃÑ>˜ì#
abandonment =^°∞Å∞H’=_«~, *ÏO°
q_«=_«~, q_çzÃÑ@ì_«~, Ǩi`ͺQõ~ ~
clause Ǩi`ͺQõ x|~^è°#
ab ante =∞∞~^°∞Qå<Ë
abase H˜~K«Ç¨O°K«∞, J==∂x~K«∞, Ç‘Ï#
ǨO°K«∞
abash ã≤Qõ∞æǨ_Ë@@∞¡, `ŒÅ=~K«∞‰õΩ<Ë@∞¡
KıÜ«µ∞
abashed ã≤Qõ∞æ=∂e#
abasia #_«=ÖËHíáÈ=_«~
abask Ç‹K«Ûx Hß~uÖ’ L~_«∞, Z~_«
HßQõ∞
abate `Œyæ~K«∞, ^°∞O°ƒùÅǨO°K«∞, `ŒQõ∞æ
=∞∞Y~ Ǩ@∞ì, LǨâ◊q∞~ǨKıÜ«µ∞, O°^°∞Ì
KıÜ«µ∞, fã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞
abatement `ŒQõ∞æ^°Å, PѨÙ^°Å, LǨ
â◊=∞#~, ã¨Î~Éèí#: ^®ÇÍ K«O°º#∞ PÇ≤
ÇıÜ«µ_«~, ^®ÇÍ Ç¨ÏHí∞¯#∞ Hí∞k~K«_«~.
A1

~ legacies gÅ∞<®=∂ ǨÏHí∞¯Å
Hí∞k~ѨÙ. ~ of action ^®ÇÍ =∞∞y~ѨÙ.
~ of appeals JÇ‘Êà◊∞§ O°^°∞ÌHß=_«~.
~ of judgement J=∞Å∞ KıÜ«µÖËx
f~°∞Ê O°^°∞Ì Hß=_«~. prorata ~
^®=∂ë® „ǨHßO°~ Kı¿ã `Œyæ~ѨÙ.
abattoir HíÉıÖÏ, =^è°ºâÍÅ
abaxial Hı~„^®Ç¨™®O° LáåHí∆
abbacy „H≥·ã¨Î= =∞`ÍkèHßi Ǩ^°q† Jkè
HßO° Ǩikè† Ç¨^°g HßÅ~
abbess „H≥·ã¨Î= ã¨<®ºã≤#∞Å =∞OîßxH˜ Jkè
Hßi}˜
abbot „H≥·ã¨Î= ã¨<®ºã¨∞Å =∞`ÍkèHßi
abbrevature xHıÇ
∆ ~¨ , z`Œ∞OÎ K° #« , ã¨~H˜Ç∆ Ψ
O°K«#
abbreviate ã¨~H˜∆ǨÎ~KıÜ«µ∞, ã¨~„QõǨÏ
ǨO°K«∞
abbreviation Hí∞¡Ç‘ÎHíO°}, ã¨~H˜∆Ç‘ÎHíO°}†
„Ǩ`ͺǨO°~
ABC XHí q+¨Ü«∂xH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#
„áå^ä°q∞Hí q+¨Ü«∂Å∞
abdicate Ǩ^°qx =^°∞Å∞HÁ#∞, Ǩ^°g
Ǩi`ͺQõ~ KıÜ«µ∞, Ǩi`Œºl~K«∞
abdication Ǩi`ͺQõ~† Ǩ^°g Ǩi`ͺQõ~
abdomen L^°O°~, Hí_«∞ѨÙ
abdominal L^°O° ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#. ~
approach L^°O°=∂O°æ~ ^®fiO® â◊G
zH˜`ûŒ . ~ reflex L^°OO° Ö’x Hí~_«O®Å∞
=∞∞_«∞K«∞Hí∞ áÈÜ˵ã≤÷u
abduce JǨǨÏO°}
abduct JǨǨÏi~K«∞HÁxáÈ=Ù, Z`Œ∞ÎHÁx
áÈ=Ù
abduction JǨǨÏO°}, |Å=~`Œ~Qå
Z`Œ∞ÎHÁx áÈ=_«~

abductor

JǨǨÏi~Kı =ºH˜Î, JǨǨÏO°Î†
Jaè=O°Îx Hí~_«O°~
abecedarian „áå^ä°q∞Hí, xiÌ+¨ì suÖ’
J=∞iÛ#
abed =∞~K«~ g∞^° L~_«∞, ǨHí¯ g∞^°
abena âÍfi™®=O’^è°~
aberrant <ˇ·uHí „Ç¨=∂}®efl Ju„Hí
q∞~z#. ~ behaviour J™®^èßO°}
„Ǩ=O°Î#
aberrate ^®i`ŒÇ¨C† qHí$u, Ç‹·Ç¨s`Œº~
aberration „Éèí~â◊#~, ^®i`ŒÇ¨Ê_«~†
ã¨Ê+¨ì`Œ ÖËHíáÈ=_«~, ™®÷#~Ö’ =∂O°∞Ê
O®=_«~
abet ѨÙiHÁÅ∞ѨÙ, Lã≤HÁÅ∞ѨÙ, „¿ÑOÕ
Ç≤~K«∞† <ËO®xfl „áÈ`ŒûÇ≤Ï~K«∞
abetment „áÈ`ÍûǨÏ~, <ËO®xH˜ „¿ÑOÕÇ}
¨ ,
<ËO°~ K‹Ü«µº@~Ö’ ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~, ^°∞„¿+ÊO°}
abetter <ËO° „¿ÑO°Hí∞_«∞, <ËO°~ K‹Ü«µº
_ÍxH˜ „¿ÑOÕÇ≤~z# =ºH˜Î
abeyance L¿ÑH˜∆~K«_«~, `Í`ͯeHí~Qå
ǨHí¯#ÃÑ@ì_«~, xO°‚Ü«µ~ K‹Ü«µºHí∞~_Í
xeÇ≤ L~K«_«~
abeyant Z@¥ `ÕÅx ã≤÷u, JxO®‚Ü«µHí
ã≤÷u
abhor Jã¨Ç≤Ϻ~K«∞HÁ#∞, U=y~K«∞HÁ#∞,
uO°ã¨¯i~K«∞, q^Õfi+≤~K«∞
abhorrence O’`Œ, U=y~ѨÙ, p^°O°,
Jã¨Ç¨Ïº~
abhorrent uO°ã¨¯ $`Œ, Jã¨~Qõ`Œ
abhorrer Jã¨Ç≤Ϻ~K« ^°y# =ºH˜Î, uO°ã¨¯
i~K« ^°y# =ºH˜Î
abide x|^°úÇ‹∞· L~_«∞, âÍâ◊fi`Œ~Qå Hí@∞ì
|_ç L~_«∞
abiding âÍâ◊fi`ŒÇ‹∞·#, ã≤÷O°Ç‹∞·#. ~ love
ã≤÷O° „¿Ñ=∞, âÍâ◊fi`Œ„¿Ñ=∞
abience `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞H’^°y#k
abductor

18

ablutomania

abnegate

abilitative ™®=∞O®úºO°÷Hí~
ability ™®=∞O°úº~, ^°Hí∆`Œ, „áåQõŃº~. ~
test ™®=∞O°úº ѨsHõ∆
ab initio Ç‹∞∞^°>˜ #∞~z, Pk #∞~z. ~
mundi Ç‹∞∞@ìÇ‹∞∞^°>˜ #∞~z, ã¨$ë®ì ºk

abnegate

#∞~z
ab intestato

=∞O°}âÍã¨#~ O®Ü«µx =ºH˜Î

#∞~z
|kb Pã≤Îx |Å=~`Œ~Qå
ѨÙK«∞ÛH’=_«~
abiogenesis JHí™®‡r˚= [##~:
abiosis r= O°Ç≤Ï`Œ ã≤÷u, JKı`Œ# ã≤÷u
abiotic r=~ ÖËx† rq~K«_ÍxH˜ J#∞
Hí∂Å~ Hßx
abiotrophy â◊sO°~ â◊∞+≤¯~záÈ=_«~,
Hí}*ÏÖÏÅ JO°∞Qõ∞^°Å
abject ^°∞O°ƒùO°, ^°∞ã¨ûǨÏ, ^°Ü«µhÜ«µ,
Ç‘Ï#, xHí$+¨ì, Qõi›~K«^°y#
abjection #¥º#`ÍÉèß=~
ab judicatio <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~ #∞~z `˘Å
y~K«_«~
abjuration „Ǩ=∂}ѨÓO°fiHí~Qå xO®Hí
i~K«_«~, `Œºl~K«_«~, =keÇıÜ«µ_«~
abjure „Ǩ=∂} ѨÓO°fiHí~Qå xO®Híi~K«∞,
`Œºl~K«∞, =^°∞Å∞HÁ#∞
ablactation |ÅÇ‘Ï#Ç‹∞·#
ablation LǨi`ŒÅHí∆Ü«µ~, Ç≤Ï=∂h
Hí∆O°}~† Ç≤Ï=∞Hí∆Ü«µ~
ablative Ǩ~K«g∞ qÉèíH˜Î
ablator L+¨‚xO’^è°Hí Hí=K«~
ablaut JK«∞ÛÅÖ’ Jã¨=∞ Ǩi}®=∞~
ablaze =∞~_Ë, L„kHíÎ~Qå, „ǨHßâ◊
=~`Œ~Qå
ablution â◊∞kú ™®fl#~, â◊∞núHíO°}~, â◊∞z
™®fl#~, fO°ú™®fl#~
ablutomania xO°~`ŒO°~ â◊sO®xfl â◊∞„Éèí
ǨO°K«∞H’ÇÍÅ<Ë H’iHí
ab invito

H’iHí#∞ =keÃÑ@∞ì, `Àã≤
ѨÙK«∞Û, `Œºl~K«∞
abnegation `ͺQõ~, P`Œ‡`ͺQõ~, ™®fiO°÷
`ͺQõ~, P`Œ‡uO°™®¯O°~, Jܵ+¨ì~Qå
=keÃÑ@ì_«~
abnormal ™®^èßO°}ã≤÷uH˜ aè#flÇ‹∞·#,
J™®=∂#ºÇ‹∞·#, Jã¨Ç¨Ï[
abnormality qHí$`Œã≤÷u, Jã¨Ç¨Ï[`Œ,
„Hí=∞qO°∞^°ú`Œ.
abnormally qHí$`Œ~Qå, J™®^èßO°}~Qå
abnormity Ç‹·Ç¨s`Œº~, J™®^èßO°}
aboard („Ǩܫ∂} ™®^è°<®ÅÖ’) ZH˜¯
Hí∂O˘Û#∞
abode PÇÍã¨~, WÅ∞¡, =ã¨u, `Í=Ù,
xÇÍã¨~, xÅÜ«µ~, <ˇÅ=Ù
aboil L_«∞Hí∞ g∞^° L~_«∞, L_«∞H≥`Œ∞Î
abolish O°^°∞ÌKıÜ«µ∞, xO°¥‡e~K«∞, `˘Å
y~K«∞, J~`Œ~KıÜ«µ∞
abolishionist ÉÏxã¨`Œfi~, =∞O°} tHí∆
=~>˜ ÇÍ>˜x O°^°∞Ì KıÜ«∂Åx H’OÕ =ºH˜Î
abolishment O°^°∞Ì
abolition O°^°∞Ì, `˘Åy~ѨÙ, xO°¥‡Å#
abomasum Ǩâ◊∞=ÙÖ’¡ <®Å∞QÀ rO®‚
â◊Ü«µ~
abominable Jã¨Ç¨ÏºHíO°Ç‹∞·#, ¿ÇÏÜ«µ
Ç‹∞·#, ^Õfi+≤~Ǩ^°y#
abominate Jã¨Ç≤Ϻ~K«∞HÁ#∞, `Œºl~K«∞
abomination f„= Jã¨Ç¨Ïº~
aborigin PkÇÍã≤, #QõOÕ`ŒO° „áå~`Œ
xÇÍã≤
aboriginal Pk=∞, PkÇÍã≤
abort QõO°ƒù„™®=~† =∞^è°ºÖ’ O°^°∞Ì
KıÜ«µ_«~, xeÇ≤ ÇıÜ«µ_«~
aborticide QõO°ƒù„™®= HÍ~°Hí~
abortifacient
QõO°ƒù„™®=Hí~, QõO°ƒù
„™®ÇÍxfl Híey~Kı

19

abreast

QõO°ƒù„™®=~, QõO°ƒùqzÛùuÎ, HßO°º
Ç‹·Ñ¶¨Åº~, „Éèí¥}ǨÏ`Œº.
spontaneous ~ `«Hí∆} QõO°ƒù„™®=~.
threatened ~ QõO°ƒù„™®=ÉèíÜ«µ~
abortionist QõO°ƒù„™®=Hí∞_«∞
abortive JHßÅ, =∞^è°ºÖ’<Ë PyáÈÜ˵
<ˇÅ `ŒHí∞¯=
abortus Ǩ_çáÈܵ# „Éèí¥}~
aboulia P`Œ‡Ãã÷ÂO°º O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
abound ǨO®ºÇ¨ÎÇ‹∞·#, x~_ç#, ã¨=∞$^°ú
Ç‹∞·#, ѨÙ+¨¯ÅÇ‹∞·#
about face Jaè„áåÜ«∂xfl =∂O°∞ÛHÁ#∞
about turn Ç‹#∞kO°∞Qõ∞
above board x+¨¯Å‡+¨, ^®Ç¨iHí~ÖËx,
^À+¨O°Ç≤Ï`Œ, x*Ïܵf =ºHíÎ=∞Ü˵@∞¡,
J#∞=∂<®xH˜ `Í=ÙÖËx
above law K«>ÏìxH˜ Jf`Œ~, <®ºÜ«∂
f`Œ~
above par =∂=∞¥Å∞ Hí~>ˇ JkèHí~,
=∞∞YqÅ∞=Hí∞ q∞~z# ^è°O°, Jkè
=∞¥Åº~
abrackish `ŒHí∞¯= LǨC™®~„^°`Œ HíÅ
hO°∞
abrade JiyáÈ=Ù, `ŒO°∞Qõ∞, JO°QõnÜ«µ∞,
`À=∞∞, K‹Hí∞¯
abrancliate Ç‹∞∞ǨÊÅ∞ÖËx, [ÅâÍfi™®
=Ü«µÇÍÅ∞ ÖËx
abrasion O®Ç≤_ç, XiÇ≤_ç, XO°∞ã¨∞Hí∞
áÈ=_«~, K«O°‡~ wã¨∞Hí∞x áÈ=_«~
abrasive Ç‹∞∞O°@∞, HíO∞° Hí∞, Híi#
î , XO°∞ã¨∞
HÁx ѨÙ~_«Qõ∞, O®K«∞HÁ#∞
abreaction =∂#ã≤H’„^ÕHí~, =∞#ã¨∞û
`ËeHí Ǩ_Ë@@∞¡ KıÜ«µ_«~
abreast ã¨iã¨=∞~Qå, ã¨=∞ =∞@ì~Qå†
q+¨Ü«µ~ ZǨÊ>˜HíǨC_«∞ `ˇÅ∞ã¨∞H’=_«~,
ã¨=∞`ŒÅ „Ǩ^Õâ◊~Ö’ ǨHí¯ Ç¨Hí¯#
L~_«@~
abortion

Éèí~Qõ~,

abridge

Hí∞¡Ç‘ÎHíi~K«∞, ã¨~H˜∆Ç‘ÎHíi~K«∞,
ã¨~„QõÇ‘ÏHíi~K«∞/ `Œyæ~K«∞, Hí∞k~K«∞
abridgement Hí∞k~ѨÙ, ã¨~H˜∆Ç‘ÎHíO°},
Hí∞¡Ç‘ÎHíO°}
abroad ^ÕâÍ~`ŒO®Ö’¡, q^ÕâÍÖ’¡† qã¨Î $`Œ
„áå~`Œ~Ö’, PO°∞|Ü«µ@
abrogable O°^°∞ÌHß^°y# âÍã¨#~
abrogate (K«>Ïìxfl) O°^°∞Ì KıÜ«µ∞, âÍã¨
<®xfl LǨã¨~ǨÏi~K«∞
abrogation O°^°∞Ì, O°^°∞Ì KıÜ«µ_«~. ~ of
law K«>Ïìxfl O°^°∞ÌKıÜ«µ_«~
abrosia LǨÇÍã¨ã≤÷u
abrupt ǨÏOîß`Œ∞Î, PHíã≤‡Hí~, J#¥Ç¨Ïº~,
JO®÷~`ŒO°~
abruption JÇÍ~`ŒO°~
abrus Qõ∞iq~^°
abscess ѨÙ~_«∞, Hí}˜u, QåÜ«µ~, „=}~
abscissa xO°¥Ç¨HßHí∆~, xO°¥Ç¨Hí~
abscission HíO°Î#~, Kèık~K«_«~, `ˇy
áÈ=_«~
abscond ǨO®O°∞ Hß=_«~, PK«¥H©
ÖËHí∞~_Í áÈ=_«~, áåiáÈ=_«~, `ŒÇ≤Ê~
K«∞HÁx áÈ=_«~† Q≥·O°∞Ǩ[O°∞ Hß=_«~
abscondence ǨO®s
absconder ǨO®O≥·# =ºH˜Î
absconding ǨO®O°∞, ǨO®s
absconsion `ŒÇÊ≤ ~K«∞Hí∞ áÈ=_«~, ǨO®s,
áåiáÈ=_«~
absence ã¨Ê $ǨÏÖËHíáÈ=_«~, =∞¥O°Ûù
O®=_«~
absense Q≥·O®›[s. in the ~ of domestic
laws ™⁄~`ŒK«>ÏìÅ∞ ÖË#ǨC_«∞
absentee Q≥·O∑Ǩ[O≥·# =ºH˜Î, Ǩ[O°∞ Hßx,
J#∞Ǩã≤÷`ŒÇ‹∞·#. ~ landlord ǨO’Hí∆
Éèí∂™®fiq∞, ~ voting J#∞Ǩã≤÷u
F>˜~Q∑
abridge

20

absonant

absorb

Q≥·O∑Ǩ[s, J#∞Ǩã≤÷u, JÅ
ÇÍ@∞Qå Ǩx ZQ˘æ@ì_«~. ~ rate xs‚`Œ
HßÅ~Ö’ ǨxKıÜ«µx O’AÅ âÍ`Œ~
absent minded J#º=∞#㨯, =∞u
=∞O°∞ѨÙQõÅ, ǨO®Hí∞
absent mindedly ǨO®Hí∞Qå
absent reo „ǨuÇÍk Ǩ[O°∞ HßHí
áÈ=_«~
absolute xO°=kèHí, ѨÓiÎQå, ã¨~ѨÓO°‚
Ç‹∞·#. ~ freedom JǨiq∞`Œ ¿ãfiK«Ûù,
J=^è°∞Å∞ÖËx ¿ãfiK«Ûù. ~ idealism Hı=Å
Éèß=ÇÍ^°~, Jkè Éè“uHíÇÍ^°~, =™®Î fi
„â◊Ü«µ Éèß=ÇÍ^°~ ~ interest Pã≤ÎÃÑ·
ѨÓiÎ Ü«∂[=∂#º~ ~ knowledge
ǨO°=∞*Ï˝#~. ~ majority ѨÓiÎ Ç‹∞*Ï
i>©, ã¨~ѨÓO°‚ PkèHíº~, xO°¿ÑHí∆ Ç‹∞*Ï
i>©. ~ monopoly Qõ∞`ÍÎkèǨ`Œº~,
ã¨~ѨÓO°‚ UHí™®fi=∞º~, xO°¿ÑHí∆ UHí
™®fi=∞º~, ~ privilege âÍã¨#HíO°ÎÅ
„Ǩ`˺Hí ǨÏHí∞¯ ~ temperature ǨO°=∞
â◊¥#º LëÈ‚„Qõ`Œ. ~ theory of
sovereignty ǨiѨÓO°‚ ™®O°fiÉè“=∞
ã≤^®ú~`Œ~. ~ truth ǨO°=∞ ã¨`Œº~ ~
zero ǨO°=∞â◊¥#º~ (–273 Ãã~>©
„QÕ_«∞Hí∞ ã¨=∂#~)
absolutely
ѨÓiÎQå, ã¨~ѨÓO°‚~Qå,
Hı=Å~
absolutism
tH˜∆~K«Hí∞~_Í =ke
ÇıÜ«µ_«~, q_«∞^°ÅKıÜ«µ∞, áåǨ q=∞∞HíÎ~
KıÜ«µ∞
absolutism xO°~Hí∞â◊`Œfi~† áåǨ q=∞∞H˜Î
absolvant qÇ‹ØK«Hí∞_«∞, =∞∞H˜Î „Ǩ^®`Œ
absolve xO’Ì+≤Qå xO°‚ܵ~K«~_«x, ^À+¨
O°Ç≤Ï`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞, `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞, q=∞∞H˜ÎKıÜ«µ∞
absonant Jã¨~Qõ`ŒÇ‹∞·#, „â◊∞uHíÅ=x,
Hí@∞=ÙQå

absorb

absenteeism

Ç‘Å∞ÛHÁ#∞, „QõÇ≤Ï~K«∞, â’+≤~K«∞,
KıO°∞ÛHÁ#∞, Híeã≤áÈ=Ù, J=K«¥+¨}
absorbant „^°= „QåǨÏHí~, J=K«¥+¨Hí~
absorber â’+¨Hí~
absorbing
PHí@∞ìHí∞<Ë, PHíi¬~Kı,
qb#~ Kıã¨∞Hí∞<Ë
absorption â’+¨}~, „QõÇÏ≤ ~K«_~
« , Ç‘Å∞Û
H’=_«~, „^°= „QåǨÏHí Ǩ^°úu, ZHí∞¯=
„â◊^°úK«¥Ç¨_«~† (q) b#~. active ~
㨄H˜Ü«∂â’+¨}~. ~ companies Hí~ÃÑ
hÅ qb#~. light ~ Hß~uâ’+¨}~. ~
of costing Jxfl YO°∞ÛÅ#∞ ǨiQõ}#
Ö’H˜ fã¨∞Hí∞~@¥ J=∞‡HíÑÙ¨ Ç‹Å xO°Ü
‚ µ~
K«_~« . selective ~ =~°}Ï`«‡Hõ â’+¨}O.
~ spectrum â’+¨} =O°‚Ǩ@~.
absquatulate ǨO®s J=Ù, aKÍ}® ZuÎ
ÇıÜ«µ∞
abstain =∂#∞HÁ#∞, Ç‹·^˘ÅQõ∞, x„Qõ
Ç≤Ï~K«∞HÁ#∞, ^°¥O°~Qå L~_«∞, F@∞
Çıܵ« Hí∞~_«∞, F>˜~Q∑ ã¨=∞Ü«µ~Ö’ ã¨ÉHíè ∞í
Q≥·O∑Ǩ[O°=Ù
abstainer =∞`Œ∞ΠǨ^®O®÷Å∞ =∂<Ëã≤#
=ºH˜Î
abstemious `ŒHí∞¯= JÅÇÍ@∞ HíÅ,
q∞`ÍǨi Jܵ#,
abstention Q≥O
· Ç∑ ¨ [O°∞, áåÖÁæ#HíáÈ=_«~†
q=∞∞Y`Œ
abstinence ã¨~Ü«µ=∞#~, LǨÇÍã¨~,
Å~Y}~
abstract J=∞¥O°~
Î , ™®O®~â◊~† J=∞¥O°,Î
<ˇ·O°¥Ç¨º† ã¨~H˜∆ǨÎO°¥Ç¨~, ã¨~„QõǨÏ~†
ã¨~„QõÇÏ≤ ~K«∞, ã¨~HıÇ∆ ~≤ K«∞, Ǩi„QõÇÏ≤ ~K«∞.
~ art <ˇ·O°¥Ç¨ºHíà◊. ~ knowledge
J=∞¥O°Î *Ï˝#~. ~ of title Pã≤ÎÃÑ·
Ü«∂[=∂#ºÑ¨Ù ǨÏHí∞¯#∞ „^è°∞gHíi~Kı
Ǩ„`Œ~. ~ painting <ˇ·O°¥Ç¨º z„`Œ~. ~

21

abuttals
relation J=∞¥O°Î ã¨~|~^è°~
abstraction J„Hí=∞~Qå fã¨∞H’=_«~†

J=∞¥sÎHíO°}, <ˇ·O°¥Ç¨º`Œ: Éèı^°#~: Hí$„u
=∞~Qå h>˜x `À_çÇıÜ«µ_«~† q+¨Ü«∂=
QåǨÏ#† #=∞¥<®#∞ O°¥á⁄~k~K«_«~
abstractionist J=∞¥O°Î / JÇÍã¨ÎqHí
^è’O°}∞Å∞ QõÅ =ºH˜Î
abstrict ¿ãfiK«ÛùQå =keÇıÜ«µ_«~† q_çz
ÃÑ@∞ì, (q`ŒÎ<®Å∞) Ç‹^°[Å∞¡
abstruse JQõ=∞º, É’^è°Ç¨_«x, ã¨∞É’^è°Hí~
Hßx, Híiî#, JO°ú~Hßx, H˜¡+¨ìÇ‹∞·#, „ǨQå_è°
Ç‹∞·#
absurd
q_«¥¤O°Ç‹∞·#, HßO°}O°Ç≤Ï`Œ,
ã¨~^°O°ƒùO°Ç≤Ï`Œ† Jã¨~|^°ú`Œ† ~ theatre
Jã¨~|^°Ì <®@Hí O°~Qõ~
absurdist Jã¨~|^°ú`Í ÇÍk
absurdity Jã¨~|^°ú`Œ, Jã¨~Qõ`Œ~, Jã¨
=∞~[ã¨~
abulia xO°‚Ü«µO®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
abundance ã¨=∞$kú, qiq, q∞‰õΩ¯@O
abundant Jq∞`ŒÇ‹∞·#, ^èßO®à◊~Qå,
JkèHíÇ‹∞·#, ã¨~ѨÓO°‚Ç‹∞·#, ѨÙ+≤ìܡµ·#,
ã¨=∞$^°ú
abundantly ^°~_çQå
abuse n. ^°∞O®ƒù+¨, x~^°, u@∞ì, ^°¥+¨},
^°∞O°∞Ǩܡ∂Qõ~, ^°∞ifixܡ∂Qõ~. ~ of
law K«>Ïìxfl ^°∞ifixܡ∂Qõ~ K‹Ü«µº_«~.
~ of power JkèHßO° ^°∞ifixܡ∂Qõ~
abuse v. u@∞ì, ^°¥+≤~K«∞, x~k~K«∞,
^°∞ifixܡ∂Qõ~ KıÜ«µ∞
abuser ^°∞ifixܡ∂Qõ~ Kı¿ã =ºH˜Î
abusion ^°∞ifixܡ∂Qõ~, Ç‹Øã¨~, `ŒÇ¨C
abusive ^°∞ifixܡ∂Qõ~Kı¿ã
abut P#∞HÁx L~_«∞, ǨHí¯<Ë L~_«∞
abutment Pã¨O®, J~_«
abuttals Éèí¥q∞ / Éèí=<®Å ã¨iǨÏ^°∞ÌÅ∞

abuttor

ã¨iǨÏ^°∞Ì^®O°∞, á⁄O°∞Qõ∞ Éèí¥q∞
Ü«µ[=∂x
abuzz ÇͺÇ≤~z#, JÅ∞=∞∞HÁ#fl, =∞∞ã¨∞
O°∞HÁ#fl
abysmal <®}º`ŒÖËx, Jã¨=∞O°úÇ‹∞·#,
K‹_«∞, JQå^ä°, Ç‘Ï#Ç‹∞·#, hK«Ç‹∞·#
abysmal sea JQå^è° ™®QõO°~
abyss JQå^è°~, Ö’Ü«µ, áå`Íà◊~, J^ä’
Ö’Hí~, #O°Hí~, ™®QõO°QõO°ƒù~
abyssal JQå^è°~, ã¨=∞∞„^®~`ŒO®ƒùQõ~
acacia `Œ∞=∞‡ Ç‹∞∞Hí¯/ á⁄^°/ K‹@∞ì† XHí
q^è°Ç‹∞·# lQõ∞O°∞
academic q^®º q+¨Ü«µHíÇ‹∞·#, áå~_ç`Œº
„Ǩ^°O°≈Hí, ã¨~â◊Ü«µÇÍ^° ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#. ~
discussion (q^®º q+¨Ü«µHí) K«O°Û,
QÀ+≤ª, ~ year q^®ºã¨~=`ŒûO°~
academical q^®º q+¨Ü«µHíÇ‹∞·#
academician q^®ºÇı`ŒÎ
academist q^®ºÇı`ŒÎ
academy JHß_«g∞, q^®ºÇ¨i+¨`∞Œ ,Î q^®º
Hı~„^°~† „Ǩ`˺Hí tHí∆}® Hı~„^°~
acalculia ÖˇH¯í Å#∞ ǨiQõ}~
˜ K« ÖËx =∂#
ã≤Híã≤÷u
acanaceous =∞∞à◊∞§QõÅ
acantha =∞∞Å∞¡
acapnia O°H~
Îí Ö’ ÉÁQõ∞æ ѨÙÅ∞ã¨∞ ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù
acaricide „H˜q∞ ã¨~Ǩi}˜
acarpellous `˘#Å∞ ÖËx
acarpous Ǩ~_«∞Ǩ~_«x
acarus K‹@¡Hí∞ Ǩ>ıì ¿Ñ#∞ |~Hí
acathisia Hí∂O’Û=_ÍxH˜ â◊H˜Î KÍÅHí
áÈ=_«~
acaudal `ÀHíÖËx
acaulescent á⁄>˜ì Hß~_«~ QõÅ
accede KıO°∞, KıiáÈ=Ù, ã¨=∞‡u~K«∞,
qb#=∞Qõ∞
abuttor

22
accelerate

accessibility

accessible

f„=ǨO°K«∞, ÇıQõ~ÃÑ~K«∞,

accessible

j„Ѷ¨∞~KıÜ«µ∞
`ŒfiO°}~, ÇıQõ=$kú OÕ@∞,
ÇıQõ~ ÃÑ~Kı ™®^è°#~ / =ºH˜Î† Ǩi
}®=∞~: rq ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å OÕ@∞. ~ due
to gravity Qõ∞O°∞`Œfi `ŒfiO°}~
accelerator ÇıQõ =O°÷Hí ǨiHíO°~/ =ºH˜Î/
Ǩ^®O°÷~
accent „áå~fܡ∂KÍÛùO°}su† q+¨Ü«µ
„áå^èß#º~, Qå_è°`Œ† f„= qÅHí∆}`Œ†
ã¨fiO°~
accentuate `Œfii`Œ~KıÜ«µ∞† ÃÑ~K«∞,
f„=~KıÜ«µ∞, <˘H˜¯K‹Ç¨C, „áå=∞∞Yº~
ÃÑ~K«∞
accept ã‘fiHíi~K«∞, J~wHíi~K«∞, XǨC
HÁ#∞, ã¨=∞‡u~K«∞, W=fiK«¥Ç≤~k/
ÉÏ^è°º`Œ fã¨∞HÁ#∞
acceptability
J~wHßO°Üˇ∂Qõº`Œ,
PÇ‹Ø^°^®Ü«µHí~
acceptable ã‘fiHíi~K«^°y#, PǨ¡^°HíO°,
PÇ‹Øk~K«^°y#, „QåǨϺ, J#∞Hí∂Å,
`Œy#, J~wHíi~K«^°y#
acceptance J~wHßO°~, XǨÊ~^°~,
#q∞‡Hí, ã‘fiHíO°}, J#∞Hí∂Å`Œ
acceptant ã‘fiHíO°Î
accepted ã‘fiHí$`Œ
accepting JOwHõiOz#. ~ bank,
house K≥e¡™êÎ=∞x "åQÍÌ#O KÕã≤#
ã¨Oã¨÷, "å}˜[º ÉϺO‰õΩ
acceptor K‹e¡~Kı~^°∞Hí∞ J~wHíi~z
ã¨~`ŒHí~Kıã≤# =ºH˜Î† „QåÇ≤φ =∂e#º~.
access ^®i, =∂O°æ~, „ǨÇıâ◊~, „ǨÇıâ◊
™œÅÉèºí ~, J=Hßâ◊~, J~^°∞ÉÏ@∞† ã¨=∂
KÍO®xfl á⁄~^°_«~ / ZH˜¯~K«_«~
accessibility ã¨∞Qõ=∞Ç‹∞·#, ã¨∞ÅÉèíÇ‹∞·#,
„ǨÇıâ◊ܡ∂QõºÇ‹∞·#, „ǨÇıâ◊/ ^°O°≈#
™œÅÉèíº~, J~^°∞ÉÏ@∞
acceleration

J~^°∞ÉÏ@∞Ö’ L~_Ë,
ã¨∞Qõ=∞, „ǨÇıâ◊ܡ∂Qõº
accessio Jã≤ÎÖ’ J#∞=$kú
accession „ǨÇıâ◊~, qb#~, KıiáÈ=_«~,
Pã≤ÎÖ’ J#∞=$kú† Qõ^≥Ì ZHí¯_«~, Ǩ^°g
ã‘fiHßO°~
accessories q_çÉèßQåÅ∞, J#∞|~kè
`ÍÅ∞, ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHßO°∞Å∞, J#∞|~^è° ™®^è°
<®Å∞
accessory ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí∞_«∞, `À_«∞^˘~Qõ,
ã¨Ç¨ǨO®kè† J„Ǩ^èß#, J#∞|~^è°, J^°
#ѨÙ. ~ food J#∞|~^è° PǨO°~. ~
gland LǨ„Qõ~kè. ~ industry J#∞
|~^è° Ç¨i„â◊=∞. ~ right J#∞|~^è°
ǨÏHí∞¯. ~ after the fact <ËO°~ [iy#
`ŒO®fi`Œ <ËO°ã¨∞Îx`À ã¨Ç¨ÏHíi~z# =ºH˜Î.
~ before the fact <ËO°~ [O°Qõ>ÏxH˜
ѨÓO°fi~ <ËO°ã¨∞Îx`À ã¨Ç¨ÏHíi~z# =ºH˜Î
accident ǨÏOîß`Œû~Ѷ∞¨ @#, ^°∞ã¨û~Ѷ∞¨ @#,
„Ǩ=∂^°~, ^°∞O°…@#. ~ prone „Ǩ=∂
^®Å∞ ZHí∞¯=Qå [iQÕ J=Hßâ◊~ L#fl
accidental
PHíã≤‡Hí, Ü«∂^°$zÛùHí,
„Ǩܫµ`Œfl~ ÖËHí∞~_Í
accidentalism Ü«µ^°$KÍÛùÇÍ^°~
accidentally JHí™®‡`Œ∞ÎQå, „Ǩ=∂^°
=âÍ`Œ∞Î, Ü«∂^°$zÛùHí~Qå
accidie n. |^°úHí~, ™È=∞i`Œ#~† xO®â◊
accipitral fHí∆}^°$+≤ì QõÅ, _ËQõ=~>˜,
„Hí∂O°
acclaim Jaè#~^°#, K«Ç¨Ê@¡ ^è°fix
acclamation á⁄Qõ_«Î, „ǨHí@#, ǨÏO°¬
^èßfi#~
acclamitize ÇÍ`Í=O°} Ǩiã≤÷`Œ∞ÅHí∞
JÅÇÍ@∞Ǩ_«∞, ã¨Ç≤Ï~K«∞
acclimation „Ǩuã¨Ê~^°#
acclimatization JÅÇÍ@∞ Ǩ__
« ~« J#∞
Hí∂Å#~

23

accordance
acclivity ZQõ∞=ÉèßQõ~, ZQõ∞_«∞ „Ǩ^Õâ◊~
accolade „Ǩâ◊~ã¨, =∞#fl#, Jaè#~^°#
accommodate ™®÷#~ HíeÊ~K«∞, (=ºH˜x
Î )

ã¨~ã≤^°∞ú}˜‚ KıÜ«µ∞, qÉèı^®xfl `˘Åy~K«∞,
Ç‹∞·„u UO°ÊO°∞K«∞, =ã¨u HíeÊ~K«∞
accommodating ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~Kı¿ã, ã¨∞Å
Éèí~Qå =~QÕ, J#∞Hí∂ņ ã¨iÃÑ@∞ìHÁ#∞,
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~ KıÜ«µ_ÍxH˜ ã≤^°ú~Qå L~_«∞.
accommodation ã¨O∞° É
Ì Ï@∞† ã¨fiÅÊHßeHí
O°∞}~. ~ address LǨܫµ∞HíÎ zO°∞
<®=∂: ~ of eye ^°$+≤ì ã¨O°∞ÌÉÏ@∞. ~
ladder <ÒHí ^°QõæO° L~_Ë xK‹Û#
accommodatum
ã¨O°∞Hí∞ |^°∞Å∞
W=fi_«~
accomodative ã¨O°∞ÌÉÏ@∞Hí∞ J#∞Ç‹·#,
ã¨O°∞ÌHí∞áÈÜ˵
accompaniment `À_ÍÊ@∞, ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO°~,
=~`Œáå@
accompany J#∞ã¨i~K«∞, ã¨Ç¨ÏHíi~K«∞,
`À_«Ê_«∞
accomplice `À_«∞ ^˘~Qõ, ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí∞_«∞,
ã¨Ç¨ÏǨO®kè
accomplish ѨÓiÎKıÜ«µ∞, ™®kè~K«∞, <ˇO°
ÇıO°∞Û, xO°fiiÎ~K«∞
accomplished x뮂`Œ, <ËO°∞ÊQõÅ, <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù
}º~Qõņ ѨÓiÎܡµ·#, <ˇO°Çıi#
accomplishment ã≤k,ú ™®kè~K«_~
« , Ǩi
ѨÓiÎ, ã¨=∂Ǩ#~
accord XǨÊ~^°~, X_«~|_çHí, J~w
HßO°~, ã¨Üˇ∂^è°º, J=QåǨÏ#† J~wHí
i~K«∞, XǨCHÁ#∞, WK«∞Û, J#∞=∞
u~K«∞. with one ~ UHí„w=~Qå,
UHßaè„áåÜ«µ~`À
accordance ã¨~|^°ú`Œ, J#∞Hí∂Å`Œ,
J#∞O°¥Ç¨`Œ, UH©Éèß=~, XǨC^°Å. in
~ with P q^è°~Qå, J#∞ã¨i~z, P
„ǨHßO°~Qå, `Œ^°#∞Qõ∞}~Qå

accordant

J~wHíi~K«^°y#, J=ã¨O°~
H’ã¨~ ^°QõæiH˜ =K«∞Û, ^è≥·O°º~Qå Z^°∞
O˘¯#∞, Öˇ·~yHí ÇÍ~Kèß ã¨¥K«#Å∞KıÜ«µ∞.
~ satisfaction ^°~_«∞ Hí>˜ì XǨÊ~^°~
#∞~z Ç‹·^˘ÅQõ_«~
accost ǨÅHíi~K«∞† JÉèíÇÍ^°~, „áåO°~
ÉèíѨ٠ǨÅ∞Hí∞
accouchement „Ǩã¨=~, Hß#∞ѨÙ
accoucheuse =∞~„`Œ™®x
account q=O°}, =$`ÍÎ~`Œ~, ã¨~Qõu†
O®=Åã≤#/ K‹e¡~K«=Åã≤# _«|∞ƒ q=
O®Å∞, ÖˇHí¯, Ǩ^°∞Ì, _«|∞ƒ ÖÏÇÍ^ÕgÅ
q=O°}, MÏ`Í. ~ book JH“~>ò
ѨÙã¨ÎHí~. bring to ~ =∞~^°e~K«∞. by
all ~ Jxfl q^èßÖÏ. capital ~ =∞¥Å
^è°#~ MÏ`Í credit ~ JO°∞=Ù MÏ`Í.
current ~ HíO~
≥ >ò JH“~\ò, ã¨fiÅÊHßeHí
MÏ`Í, =_ô¤ K‹e¡~K«x MÏ`Í. deficit ~
Ö’@∞ MÏ`Í, drawing ~ ™⁄~`Œ
ÇÍ_«HßÅ MÏ`Í. give a good ~ of
J^°∞ƒù`Œ~Qå KıÜ«µ∞, „áåg}º~ K«¥Ñ¨Ù,
O®}˜~K«∞. ~ holder MÏ`Í^®O°∞. hold
to ~ ÉÏ^è°∞º_çfl KıÜ«µ∞. on ~ off ^®x
HßO°}~Qå. on no ~ JHßO°}~Qå,
x뮯O°}~Qå. on ones own ~ ™⁄~`Œ
ÉÏ^è°º`Œ g∞^°. ~ payable J~k#
ã¨O°∞Hí∞Hí∞ K‹e¡~KÍeû# Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~, O°∞}Ǩ_ç
L#fl Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~. ~ payee ÉϺ~Hí∞
MÏ`ÍÖ’ =∂„`ŒÇı∞ [=∞ HßÇÍÅx
K‹Hí∞¯ÃÑ· O®¿ã xOÕÌâ◊~. purchases ~
HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞ MÏ`Í. ~ receivable =∞∞@ì
*ˇÇ≤Ê# ã¨O°∞Hí∞Hí∞ „ǨuQå J~^® eû#
Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~. sales ~ J=∞‡HßÅ MÏ`Í.
suspense ~ J<®=∞`Œ∞ MÏ`Í. take
into ~ ǨiQõ}˜~K«∞. take no ~ off
ǨiQõ}˜~K«Hí áÈ=_«~, xO°¡Hí∆ º~
accordant

24

accretion

KıÜ«µ_«~, ÉıMÏ`ŒO°∞ KıÜ«µ_«~. turn to
~ J#∞Hí∂Å=∞Qõ∞, „Ǩܡ∂[#
HíO°~Qå Ǩi}q∞~K«∞.
account ÖˇH˜¯~K«∞, ǨiQõ}˜~K«∞, q=
i~K«∞, HßO°}~ K«¥Ñ¨Ù, `ŒÅK«∞
accountability
[ÇÍ|∞^®s`Œ#~,
ÉÏ^è°º`Œ
accountable q=O°} WÇÍfieû#, HßO°}~
K«¥áåeû#, ã¨~*Ïܵ+‘ K‹Ç¨Ê=Åã≤ L#fl
accountancy Qõ}HíâÍG~† MÏ`Í ÖˇHí¯Å∞
K«¥¿ã=$uÎ
accountant JH“~>ˇ~>ò, Qõ}Hí∞_«∞. ~
general JH“~>ˇ~>ò [#O°Öò, „Ǩ^èß#
Qõ}Hí∞_«∞
accounterments
¿ã"å™®=∞„y,
ǨÏ~Qõ∞Å∞, J=ã¨O°Ç‹∞·# =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞
accounting ÖˇHí¯Å∞K«¥_«_«~, MÏ`ÍÅ
`Œxv. ~ period Qõ}#HßÅ~, xs‚`Œ
HßÅ =º=kè. ~ rate of return
ÇÍ}˜[º~, ÇͺáåO°~† Ǩ^ä°Hí~† J~K«<®
Hí>˜ì# xHíO°ÖÏÉèí âÍ`Œ~. ~ summary
=∞∞y~Ѩ٠MÏ`ÍÅ ã¨~H˜∆ǨΠO°¥Ç¨~, Qõ}#
HßÖÏ#~`ŒO° „^°=º xÇıkHí
accountre Ãã·xHí∞_çÖÏ ^°∞ã¨∞ÎÅ∞ ^è°i~K«∞,
Ãã·xHí ǨiHíO®Å∞
accredit PkèHßiHí~Qå Qõ∞iÎ~K«∞/ xÜ«µ
q∞~K«∞
accreditation „áåux^è°º~, PkèHßiHí
Ç‹∞·# Qõ∞iÎ~ѨÙ
accredited xÜ«µq∞`Œ, #Ç‹Ø^°∞Kıã≤#,
JkèHí$`Œ ~ journalist Qõ∞iÎ~ѨÙ
á⁄~k# Ǩ„uHß O°K«Üµ`Œ/ [O°fleã¨∞ì
accrescent ÃÑiQÕ, xO°~`ŒO®aè=$kú K‹~^Õ
accrete HíÅã≤ ÃÑO°Qõ_«~
accretion ÃÑ~ѨÙ, =$kú† [=∞† ~ of
land Éèí¥Ç‹·âÍź~ ÃÑO°Qõ_«~
good

accrimination
accrimination <ËO®O’Ǩ}
accroach JkèHßO°~ ^°∞O°∞Ǩܡ∂Qõ~
accrual ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å, „Hí=∞=$kú, „áåǨÎ~.
~ basis ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å „áåuǨkHí. ~
bonus „áåÇ≤Î~z# É’#ã¨∞. ~ costs
^è°O°Å ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å. ~ income „áåÇ≤Î~
z# =_ô¤, P^•Ü«∞O. ~ interest [`Œ
Híe¿ã =_ô¤. =_ô¤. ~ rights „áåÇ≤Î~z#

ǨÏHí∞¯Å∞
accrue =$kú J=Ù, ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞, W=fi^°y#
=_ô¤ „áåÇ≤Î~K«∞, Ѷ¨e~K«∞, [=∞ J=Ù,
Ѷ¨e`Œ~ ã≤kú~K«∞
accrued benefits Åaè~Kı LǨHßO®Å∞:
accruing „áåÇ≤Î~K«∞, ã¨~z`Œ=∞Qõ∞. ~
costs „áåÇ≤Î~Kı YO°∞ÛÅ∞. ~ debts
„áåÇ≤Î~Kı O°∞}®Å∞. ~ dividend
„áåÇ≤Î~Kı ã¨~z`Œ ÖÏÉèßÅ∞. ~ interest
ã¨~z`Œ =_ô¤
accumulate ÃÑ~ѨÙK‹~^°∞, =$kú JQõ∞,
áÈQõ∞KıÜ«µ∞, KıHí∂O°∞, Hí∂_«Éˇ@∞ì, Hí∂_«
ɡ>ì˜ ã¨~áåk~K«∞, Hí∂_«Q@
õ ∞ìHÁ#∞, ã¨~K«
ܵ~K«∞
accumulated temperature ã¨~z`Œ
LëÈ‚„Qõ`Œ
accumulation áÈQõ∞, ÃÑ~ѨÙ, =$kú,
ã¨~K«Ü«µ~. ~ dividends ÇÍ>Ï^®O°∞
ÅHí∞ K‹e¡~KÍeû L#fl ÖÏÉèß~â◊~. ~
profit ÖÏÉèß~â◊~ Ǩ~z W=fiQå
q∞ye#k
accumulative =$kú JÜ˵º, áÈQõ∞Ǩ_ç
Åaè~Kı
accumulator Hí∂_ç# Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~† Hí∂_«Éˇ>ıì
=ºH˜Î† W~^è°<®xfl xÅfiKı¿ã ǨiHíO°~
accuracy Ü«µ^äßO°÷`Œ, O°∞A=O°Î#, xiÌ+¨ì,
YzÛ`Œ. ~ test xO°fiǨÏ} HßÖÏxfl
`ˇÅ∞ã¨∞HÁ<Ë Ç¨sHí∆
accurate YzÛ`ŒÇ‹∞·#, ã¨i, ã¨iܡµ·#,

25

achille's heel

Ü«µ^äßO°÷, xiÌ+¨ì
ÃÑiy#. ~ charges Kèßs˚Å
ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å. ~ expenses YO°∞ÛÅ
ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å
accurse â◊Ç≤~K«∞, <®â◊#~ KıÜ«µ∞
accusation PO’Ǩ}, x~^°, x~^®
O’Ǩ}, <ËO®O’Ǩ}
accusative x~^°Ç‹Ø¿Ñ† kfifÜ«∂ qÉèíH˜Î
ÇÍHíº~Ö’ HíO°‡ Ǩ^®xH˜ KıOÕÛ „Ǩ`ŒºÜ«µ~
accusatory x~^®Ñ¨Ói`Œ
accuse x~k~K«∞, PO’Ç≤~K«∞, xO^®
O’Ǩ} KıÜ«µ∞, <ËO°~Ç‹ØѨÙ, `ŒÇ¨C Ǩ@∞ì
accused
<ËO®O’Ç≤`Œ. ~ person
=∞∞^®Ìܵ, x~k`Œ∞_«∞, „ǨuÇÍk
accuser x~^°Ç‹Ø¿Ñ =ºH˜Î, Ѷ≤O®ºk
accusing finger ÇıÖˇuÎK«¥Ñ¨Ù
accustom JÅÇÍ@∞Ǩ_«∞
accustomed JÅÇÍ@∞ Ǩ_ç#
ace Çı∞>˜, ã¨=∞O°÷† (¿ÑHí =∞∞Hí¯Ö’¡) Pã¨∞
acellular Hí}O°Ç≤Ï`Œ
acephalous
jO°¬O°Ç≤Ï`Œ† Hı~„nHí$`Œ
O®*ϺkèHßO°~ ÖËx
acerbic f„=, Híiî#, HíO°∞Hí∞
acerbity Hí@∞ „Ǩ=O°Î#/ ã¨fiÉèß=~, Kı^°∞
O°∞z, f„=`Œ, Híiî#`Œfi~
acerous HÁ=∞∞‡Å∞ ÖËx
acervate z#fl z#fl Qõ∞`Œ∞ÎÅ∞Qå ÃÑiQÕ
acescent ѨÙe¿ã, ѨÙÅ∞ÃÑH˜¯#
ache f„="≥∞ÿ# <˘Ñ≤Ê
acheiria Kı`Œ∞Å∞ ÖËHíáÈ=_«~
achieve ™®kè~K«∞
achievement q[Ü«µ~, [Ü«µ~, HßO°º
ã≤kú, xO®fiHí~
achille's heel |ÅÇ‘Ï#Ç‹∞·# q+¨Ü«µ~,
â◊sO°~Ö’ ^≥|ƒHí∞ ã¨∞ÅÉè~í Qå Qõ∞i JÜ˵º
ÉèßQõ~
accured

achille's tendon

Hße Ç≤H¯í Hí~_«O®Å#∞,
Hße=∞_«=∞ Z=∞∞Hí#∞ Híe¿Ñ Hí}*ÏÅ~
achilous ÃÑ^°=ÙÅ∞ ÖËx
achlorohydria J<®=∞¡`Œ
achloropsia Qõ∞_ç¤`Œ#~
achromatic O°~Qõ∞ÖËx, J=O°‚, O°~Qõ∞Å
qÉèí[# ÖËx Hß~u
achromatopsia O°~Qõ∞efl Qõ∞O°∞ΠǨ@ìÖËx
acid P=∞¡~, ѨÙÅ¡x Ǩ^®O°÷~, ã¨~™®¯O°
O°Ç≤Ï`Œ† |^°úHí~Qå L#fl =ºH˜Î. ~
alkalititration P=∞¡ H∆ÍO° J~â◊
=∂Ǩ#~. ~ catalysis P=∞¡ L„`ËÊO°}.
~ dye P=∞¡O°~[#~. ~ fast P=∞¡
ã≤÷O°`Œ, P=∞¡ „ǨÉèß=~. ~ indicators
P=∞¡ 㨥zHíÅ∞. ~ leaching P=∞¡
xH∆ßà◊#~. ~ radical P=∞¡ „áåuǨkHí.
~ rain P=∞¡=O°¬~. ~ ratio „^°=º`Ífixfl
Ǩije~Kı q^èß#~. ~ resistant P=∞¡
„ǨuO’^è°Hí~. ~ rock P=∞¡tÅ. ~ salt
P=∞¡ Å=}~. ~ soils P=∞¡ <ËÅÅ∞. ~
test Híiî# ǨsHí∆, J~u=∞ ǨsHí∆
acid base P=∂¡^èßO°. ~ equibrium
P=∞¡H∆ßO° ã¨=∞`Íã≤÷u. ~ function P=∞¡
H∆ßO° K«O°º. ~ indicators P=∞¡H∆ßO°
㨥zHíÅ∞
acidic P=∞¡
acidifiable Pg∞¡Híi~K«^°y#
acidification Pg∞¡HíO°}
acidifying agent Pg∞¡HíO°}˜
acidity P=∞¡`Œ, Hí_«∞ѨÙÖ’ ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù „ǨH’
Ç≤~K«_«~. ~ test P=∞¡`Í Ç¨sHí∆
acidosis O°HíÎ~Ö’ P=∞¡ Ǩi=∂}~ ÃÑO°
Qõ_«~
acidulate ã¨fiÅÊ P=∞¡ ^èO
° ®‡xfl Híe~æ K«_~«
acidulous ã¨fiÅÊ~Qå ѨÙÅ¡Qå L~_«_«~,
Hí@∞=ÙQå L~_«_«~
achille's tendon

26

acquire

acquired

acierate W#∞=∞∞#∞ LHí∞¯Qå =∂O°Û_«~
acknowledge Qõ∞iÎ~K«∞, O°ã‘^°∞ WK«∞Û,

acquired

J~k#^°x `ˇeÜ«µK‹Ç¨C, J~wHíi~K«∞,
ã‘fiHíi~K«∞, XǨCHÁ#∞
acknowledgement Qõ∞iÎ~ѨÙ, (uO°∞Qõ∞)
O°ã‘^°∞, ã‘fiHíO°}
acme ǨO®Hß+¨ª, z=i^°â◊, K«O°=∞^°â◊,
tYO°~, L#fl`Œ™®÷#~
acne Ç‹∞∞>˜=∞, Ç‹∞∞>˜=∞Å Çͺkè
acolasia JuÇͺNjØǨÏ~
acolyte Ǩx <ËO°∞ÛHÁ~@∞#fl =ºH˜Î, ã¨Ç¨
Ü«µHí∞_«∞, ¿ã=Hí∞_«∞, zO°∞^Àºy
acontinence ã¨~Ü«µ=∞#~
aconverse Éèß+≤~K«∞
acoumeter ^èfi° x„áåO°~ÉèßÅ#∞ xO°Ü
‚ µ~Kı
/ HÁeKı LǨHíO°}~
acoustic „â◊=} ã¨O|O^èŒ, qxH˜_ç
ã¨O|O^èŒ, ^èŒfix ã¨O|O^èŒ"≥∞ÿ# ~ nerve
„â◊=}<å_ç
acoustics â◊|Ì „â◊=} âÍG~, ^è°fixâÍG~,
â◊|Ì`ŒO°~Qå^谺ܫµ# âÍG~
acquaint ǨiK«Üµ« =∞Qõ∞, ǨiK«Üµ« ~ Kıã∞¨
HÁ#∞, `ˇÅ∞ѨÙ, `ˇeÜ«µ|O°∞K«∞, `ˇÅ∞ã¨∞
HÁ#∞
acquaintance ™®xflÇ≤Ï`Œº~, ^°QõæO°`Œ#~,
ǨiK«Ü«µ~
acquainted Ǩiz`Œ
acquest ã¨~áåk~Kı =ã¨∞Î=Ù
acquiesce ã¨=∞‡u~K«∞, UH©Éèíq~K«∞,
XHíO°∞ K‹Ç≤Ê~k XǨCH’=_«~, XuÎ_çH˜
ÖÁ~yáÈ=_«~
acquiescence XǨÊ~^°~, J~wHßO°~,
=∞∫<®~wHßO°~, `Œ$Ç≤Î
acquire HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞KıÜ«µ∞, ™⁄~`Œ~ Kıã¨∞
HÁ#∞, Pi˚~K«∞, „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~`À ™®kè~K«∞,
ã¨~áåk~K«∞

Pi˚~z#, á⁄~k#, ã¨~áåk~
z#. ~ characters Pi˚`Œ ÅHí∆}®Å∞.
~ diseases ã¨~„Híq∞`Œ Çͺ^è°∞Å∞. ~
surplus ã¨~áåk~z# q∞Qõ∞Å∞
acquirement ã¨~áå^°#, PO°˚#
acquiring ã¨~áåܵ~K«_«~
acquisition
¿ãHíO°}, ã¨=∞∞áåO°˚#,
™®finè#~, Jkè„QõǨÏ}~, ^®#~ fã¨∞
H’=_«~, J^≥ÌHí∞ fã¨∞H’=_«~, JǨC
fã¨∞H’=_«~, á⁄~^°_«~, ™®kè~K«_«~,
ã¨~áåk~K«_«~, ™⁄~`Œ~ Kıã¨∞H’=_«~.
~ of easement J#∞Éè’Qõ ǨÏHí∞¯ ã¨~áå
k~K«_«~. ~ of fixed assets ã≤÷O®ã¨∞ÎÅ
PO°˚#. ~ of gain ÖÏÉèßO°˚#. ~ of land
Éèí¥¿ãHíO°}. ~ of property Pã≤Î ã¨=∞∞
áåO°˚#
acquisitive ã¨~áåk~KÍÅ<Ë, á⁄~^®Å<Ë
H’iHí
acquit =keÃÑ@∞ì, xO’Ì+≤ Jx q_«∞^°Å
KıÜ«µ∞
acquittal q_»∞^ŒÅ KÕÜ«Ú
acquittal q_«∞^°Å, q=∞∞H˜Î
acquittance O°∞} q=∞∞H˜Î, K‹Å∞¡p>˜,
Çı`Œ<®Å q=O°~
acre ZHíO°~
acreage (ZHíO®Ö’¡) qã‘ÎO°‚~
acrid KÍÖÏ Hí@∞Ç‹·#, Ju=QõO°∞,
Ѷ¨∂>ˇ·#, P„QõÇ¨Ï Ñ¨Ói`ŒÇ‹∞·#, ǨO°∞+¨
Ç‹∞·#, ÉÏ^èßHíO°Ç‹∞·#, Híiî# ã¨fiÉèß=~ QõÅ
acrimonious ǨO°∞+¨Ç‹∞·#, Híiî#Ç‹∞·#,
`ŒQõx, XǨÊx, ^°∞óYHíO°Ç‹∞·#, Kı^≥·#
acrimony Ç‹·Ç¨s`Œº~, f„=`Œ, Hí@∞`Œfi~
acro tYO°~, tYO®„Qõ~, J`Œ∞º#fl`Œ. ~
anesthesia jO°¬ÉèßQåÅÖ’ ã¨ÊO°≈ H’Ö’Ê
=_«~
acrobatics Çͺܫ∂=∞ q^°º

27

activate
acrodont J„Qõ^°~u
acrogenous J„Qõ*Ï`Œ
acronychal #Hí∆„`À^°Ü«µ~`À

ã¨~Éèíq~Kı,
O®„uÇıà◊ ã¨~Éèíq~Kı
acronym ã¨~„QõÇ‘ÏHí$`Œ Ǩ^°~, Hí∞¡Ç¨Î
Ǩ^°~, Ǩ^®k JHí∆O®Å Ǩ^°~
acropetal J„Qåaè™®O°
acrophobia Z`Œ∞Î J~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
acroscopic J„QÀ#∞‡Y
acrosphire Ç‹∞∞ÅH≥`ËÎ q`Œ∞Î#∞~z Ç‹Å∞
=_Ë Ç‹∞∞^°>˜ Ǩ„`Œ~
across J_«~
¤ Qå, J@∞#∞~z W@∞. come
~ Z^°∞O°∞Ǩ_∞« , HíÅ∞ã¨∞HÁ#∞, ã¨=∂KÍO°~
J~k~K«∞
act n. Ѩx, K«@ìO, q^è•#O, ѨxKÕÜ«Ú,
J=∞Å∞Ѩ~°∞K«∞† JOHõO <å@HõOÖ’ XHõ
ÉèÏQÆO. ~ of god „ѨHõ$u cÉèí`«ûO.
act v. ǨxKıÜ«µ∞, J=∞Å∞ǨO°∞K«∞
acting `Í`ͯeHí ÉÏ^è°º`ŒÅ∞ ã‘fiHíi~z#†
Jaè#Ü«µ~, #@#. ~ president `Í`ͯ
eHß^è°ºHí∆∞_«∞
actinometer 㨥O°ºHß~u =∂ǨHí~
actiology O’Qõx^®#(âÍG)O
action K«O°º, Jaè#Ü«µ~, #@#,
áÈO®@~, Kı+¨ì, bÅ, „H˜Ü«µ. automatic
~ ã¨fiÜ«µ~ KÍÅHí „H˜Ü«µ. cumulative
~ ã¨~z`Œ „H˜Ü«µ. delayed ~ qÅ~a`Œ
„H˜Ü«µ. local ~ ™®÷xHí K«O°º.
mechanism of ~ K«~åº q^èß#~.
reflex ~ Jã¨~HíeÊ`Œ „ǨfHßO° K«O°º.
voluntary ~ SzÛùHí „H˜Ü«µ
actionalism =ºH˜Î „áå^èß#º`Í ÇÍ^°~
action in rem ǨÅ∞=ÙiÃÑ· fã¨∞Hí∞<Ë K«O°º
action noun ÇͺáåO° É’^è°Hí „H˜Ü«µ.
activate K‹·`Œ#º=~`Œ~/ „H˜Ü«∂`Œ‡Hí~
KıÜ«µ∞

activated

L`ËÎl`Œ. ~ charcoal L`ËÎ
l`ŒÇ‹∞·# ÉÁQõ∞æ. ~ products L`ËÎl`Œ
Ǩ^®O®÷Å∞
activation L`ËÎ[#~, „H˜Ü«µ HßO°º~
„¿ÑO°}
activators ¿ã~„nÜ«µ Ǩ^®O®÷Å K«O°ºÅ#∞
JkèHí~ Kı¿ã q∞„â◊=∞ Ǩ^®O®÷Å∞
active K«∞O°∞H≥·#, 㨄H˜Ü«µ, J=∞Å∞, K«∞O°∞
Hí∞Qå ǨxKı¿ã, „H˜Ü«∂jÅ. ~ capital
^è°# O°¥Ç¨~Ö’H˜ ã¨∞ÅÉèí~Qå =∂O°∞Û
H’QõeQÕ Pã¨∞ÎÅ∞. ~ circulation ÇÍ_«
Hí~Ö’ L#fl _«|∞ƒ. ~ instrument
Kı+≤ì`Œ ™®^è°#~, „H˜Ü«∂jŠǨiHíO°~. ~
layer ZHí∞¯=Qå Hí^°ÅQõeQÕ Éèí¥q∞Ö’
á⁄O° (<ËÅá⁄O°), ~ market J=∞‡HßÅ∞,
HÁ#∞QÀà◊∞§ K«∞O°∞Hí∞Qå ™®QÕ ã≤÷u. ~
money ÇÍ_«Hí~Ö’ L#fl _«|∞ƒ. ~
partner „H˜Ü«∂jÅ ÉèßQõ™®fiq∞. ~
trade balance J#∞Hí∂Å ÇͺáåO°
âı+¨~. ~ transport 㨄H˜Ü«µ O°ÇÍ}®.
~ volcano „H˜Ü«∂jÅ Jyfl ǨO°fi`Œ~.
activism PK«O°}`Œ`ŒÎ fi~
activist „H˜Ü«∂je, PK«O°}je, P~^À
à◊# HßO°∞_«∞
activity HßO°ºHíÖÏǨ~, „H˜Ü«µ, Ǩx, â◊H˜Î
qxܡ∂Qõ~, K«∞O°∞Hí∞^°#~, K‹·`Œ#º~,
HßO°ºjÅ`Œ. ~ system „Ǩ=O°Î# ã¨=∞∞
^®Ü«µ~
activize „H˜Ü«∂#∞Hí∂Å~ KıÜ«µ∞
actor #@∞_«∞, HíO°Î, <®@Hí áå„`Œ† HíH˜∆
^®O°∞, =H©Å∞, ÇÍk, =º=ǨÏO°Î, ã¨~O°Hí∆
Hí∞_«∞
actress #>˜, Jaè<Ë„u
actual ÇÍã¨ÎqHí, Ü«µ^äßO°÷, x[Ç‹∞·#,
Jã¨Å∞
actualist ÇÍã¨ÎqHí`Í ÇÍk
activated

28

adaptation

adaptive

ÇÍã¨Î= ã≤÷u
ÇÍã¨Î=~Qå, Ü«µ^äßO°÷~Qå,
x[~Qå, Jã¨Å∞Hí∞
actual neurosis #O®Å ÉÏ^è°
actuarial c=∂ Qõ}Hí∞_«∞ LǨܡ∂y~Kı
ã¨=∂KÍO°~/ Kı¿ã Ǩx. ~ tables c=∂
Qõ}Hí∞ŠǨ>˜ìHíÅ∞
actuary c=∂ Qõ}Hí∞_«∞, c=∂ ÖˇHí¯ÅÖ’
xѨÙ}∞_«∞
actuate „¿ÑOÕÇ≤~K«∞, „áÈ^°ƒÅ~ KıÜ«µ∞,
K«Å# â◊H˜Î Híey~K«∞
actus reus <ËO°~, K«@ì qO°∞^°úÇ‹∞·# K«O°º
acuity 㨥k PHßO°~† *Ï˝# 㨥Hí;`Œ,
^°$+≤ì f„=`Œ
acumen KÍ`Œ∞O°º~, K«`∞Œ O°`,Œ xt`Œ ^°$+≤,ì
fHí∆‚ |∞kú
acupuncture PHí∞Ǩ~HíÛO∑, 㨥ká⁄_«∞ѨÙ
Ç‹·^°º~
acute fHí∆}Ç‹∞·#, f„=Ç‹∞·#. ~ action
JkèHí ã¨fiO®Ñ¶¨∂`Œ~, LKÍÛùO°} f„=`Œ.
~ medical care J`ͺ=â◊ºHí Ç‹·^°º
ã¨~O°Hí∆}
ad verbum =∂@Hí∞ =∂@, Ǩ^®xH˜
Ǩ^°~
adage ã¨∞Éèß+≤`Œ~, ™®Ç‹∞`Œ, Ö’H’H˜Î,
<®#∞_ç
adagio <ˇ=∞‡kQå, <ˇ=∞‡kQå Hí^°Å_«~
adam's apple Hí∞uHí HßÜ«µ, Hí~Oî°=∞}˜
adamant Ç‹∞∞~_ç, Híiî#Ç‹∞·#, ÖÁ~Qõx.
~ attitude Ç‹∞∞~_ç Ç‹·Yi
adapt J#∞Hí∂Å=∞Qõ∞, J#∞Hí∂e~Ǩ
KıÜ«µ∞, O°¥áå~`ŒsHíi~K«∞
adaptability aè#fl Ǩiã¨O®ÅHí∞ J#∞
Hí∂Å~Qå XkyáÈ=_«~
adaptation LǨܡ∂[#~, ã¨O°∞ÌÉÏ@∞,
J#fiÜ«µ~, J#∞Hí∂Å ã¨=O°}, ã¨iǨO°
K«_«~, J#∞ã¨O°}, J#∞=O°Î#, Ǩi=O°Î#

adaptive

actuality
actually

J#∞Hí∂Å. ~ behaviour
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí „Ç¨=O°Î#.
adaxial Hı~„^•aè™®O°
addendum J#∞|~^è~
° , KıiÛ# qÉèßQõ~,
ã¨~|~kè`Œ ã¨=∂KÍO°~
addened =∞m§ KıO°Û_«~
addict =ºã¨x, =ºã¨<®xH˜ ÉÏxã¨
addiction =ºã¨#~
ad diem P XHí O’A#
addison's disease xã¨û`Œ∞Î=
additive ã¨~HíÅ<®`Œ‡Hí. ~ coordination ã¨~HíÅ# ã¨~ܡ∂[#~. ~
compounds ã¨~Híe`Œ Ǩ^®O®÷Å∞. ~
property ã¨~Híe`Œ ^è°~°‡~
address n. zO°∞<®=∂, ã¨OÉ’^èŒ#
address v. L^ÕÌt~K«∞, LǨ#ºã≤~K«∞
adduce (™®Hí∆ º~) Z^°∞@ ÃÑ@∞ì, „ǨÇıâ◊
ÃÑ@∞ì, ^°$ë®ì~fHíi~K«∞, O°∞A=Ù K«¥Ñ¨Ù,
L^®Ç¨ÏO°}Qå K«¥Ç≤~K«∞
adductor Hí~_»O°~
adeem LǨã¨~ǨÏi~K«∞, gÅ∞<®=∂#∞
=∂O°∞Û
ademption gÅ∞<®=∂ =∂O°Û_«~, LǨ
ã¨~ǨÏO°}
adept ã¨=∞~°úÇ‹∞·#
adequacy `Œy#~`Œ, ã¨~ѨÓO°‚`Œ, Ǩi
ѨÓO°‚`Œ
adequate `Œy#~`Œ, ã¨=∞∞z`ŒÇ‹∞·#, J=
ã¨O°Ç‹∞·#, KÍe#~`Œ, ã¨iáÈ=Ù
adeux W^°ÌiH˜ =∂„`ŒÇı∞, W^°Ìi =∞^è°º
adgean KÍÖÏ =∞∞iH≥·#, ǨO°=∞ HíŇ+¨
Ç‹∞·#
adhere J~>˜ÃÑ@∞ìHÁ#∞, Hí@∞ì|_ç L~_«∞,
J=Å~a~K«∞
adherence x|^°ú`Œ, Hí@∞ì|_ç L~_«_«~
adherent ã¨~ã¨~[Hí, J~>˜ L~_ˆ ã¨Ç¨Ï
K«O°∞_«∞, J#∞Ü«∂ܵ

29

adjourn
adhesion

ã¨~âı¡+¨}, ã¨~ã¨~[Hí~, J~>˜

L#flk
adhesive |~HíÖÏQõ L~_Ë, J~@∞HÁ<Ë.
~ forces ã¨~ã¨~[# |ÖÏÅ∞. ~ pad
J~@∞Ç‹∞`ŒÎ. ~ vescicle ã¨~ã¨~[#

H’â◊~
JuH˜~K«∞, J~>˜~K«∞, ÃÑ·#
ѨÓÜ«µ∞
adhoc `Í`ͯeHí, Ǩiq∞`Œ HßeHí, ^Õx
H≥<· ® „Ǩ`ºË H˜~z#, ~ committee `Í`ͯ
eHí ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~, ~ decission `Í`ͯeHí
xO°‚Ü«µ~.
adhocism „Ǩ`˺Hí`Í ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«µ~,
`Í`ͯeHí xO°‚Ü«µ Ǩ^°úu
adiabatic change ã≤÷O’+¨‚ „Ǩ„H˜Ü«µ,
ã≤÷O’+¨‚ Ǩi}®=∞~
adiaphorism â‹·käźÇÍ^°~
adience „¿ÑO°HßÅÇ‹·Ñ¨Ù W~„kÜ«∂Å∞
K«¥¿Ñ „Ǩ=O°Î#
adieu n. g_À¯Å∞. bid ~ g_À¯Å∞
K‹Ç¨Ê_«~
adieu v. ÃãÅ=Ù/ g_À¯Å∞ fã¨∞HÁ#∞
ad infinitum J~`Œ∞ÖËHí∞~_Í, J#~
`Œ~Qå
ad instantiam `ŒHí∆}Çı∞
adipose HÁ=ÙfiQõÅ
adiposis HÁ=Ùfi KıiHí Çͺkè
adipsia ^®Ç¨Ï~ ÖËHíáÈ=_«~
adjacent ã¨g∞Ǩ, P#∞Hí∞x L#fl, ^°Qõæi
adjective qâı+¨}~
adjectivisation qâı+¨}©HíO°}~
adjoin HíÅ∞ѨÙ, P#∞HÁx L~_«∞
adjoining P#∞Hí∞x L#fl, Híeã≤ L#fl,
^°Qõæi, ã¨g∞Ǩ
adjourn ÇÍܵ^®ÇıÜ«µ∞† ÇıkHí/ ã¨=∂
Çıâ◊ ™®÷#O =∂O°∞Û
adhibit

adjournment
adjournment ÇÍܵ^®ÇıÜ«µ_«~. ~
motion ÇÍܵ^® fO®‡#~
adjourn sine die xO°=kèH~
í Qå ÇÍܵ^®

ÇıÜ«µ_«~
xO°‚ܵ~K«∞, Ǩi+¨¯i~K«∞,
„âı+¨ª`Œ#∞ xO°‚ܵ~K«∞
adjudgement xO°‚Ü«µ~, Z~Ç≤Hí
adjudicate <®ºÜ«µ xO°‚Ü«µ~ KıÜ«µ∞,
=∞^è°º=iÎ`Œfi~ =Ç≤Ï~K«∞
adjudication <®ºÜ«µ xO°‚Ü«µ~ =∞^è°º
=iÎ`Œfi~
adjudicator <®ºÜ«µxOÕ‚`Œ, <®ºÜ«µ xO°‚
Ü«∂kèHßi
adjunct Híeã≤ L#fl, ã¨~Ü«µ∞Hí,Î ã¨q∞‡o`Œ,
ã¨~ÅQõfl
adjure ѨÙO°=∂ܵ~K«∞, P*Ï˝Ç≤~K«∞
adjust ã¨O°∞Ì, k^°∞Ì, ã¨ik^°∞Ì, Ǩi+¨¯i~K«∞
adjustment ã¨O°∞ÌÉÏ@∞, J=∞iHí
adjutant ã¨Ç¨Ü«∂kèHßi, |$ǨÏ`ͯܫµ~
QõÅ HÁ~Qõ
adjuvant ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ B+¨^è°~† `À_«=Ù, ã¨Ç¨
Ü«µÇ¨_«∞† J#∞|~^è°Ç‹∞·#
adminicle P^èßO°~, ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~, ã¨~Qõ`Œ
™®Hí∆ º~
adminicular |ÅǨO°∞K«∞, ã¨Ç¨ÏHßi
administer Ǩiáåe~K«∞, =∞~^°∞ÇıÜ«µ∞.
~ justice <®ºÜ«µ~ KıÜ«µ∞, <®ºÜ«µ
áåÅ#~ KıÜ«µ∞. ~ oath „Ǩ=∂}~/
â◊Ǩ^ä°~ Kıܵ~K«∞, ã‘fiHíi~ǨKıÜ«µ∞
administered xÜ«µ~„u~z#. ~ interest rates xÜ«µ~„u`Œ
=_ô¤OÕ@∞¡,
(„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi) „^°=º ã¨~ã¨÷Å∞ xO°‚ܵ~z#
=_ô¤OÕ@∞¡. ~ prices xÜ«µ~„u`Œ ^è°O°Å∞.
administration ǨiáåÅ#. ~ of justice <®ºÜ«µ ǨiáåÅ#
administrative ǨiáåÅ# ã¨~|~^è°. ~
reforms ǨiáåÅ# ã¨~㨯O°}Å∞
adjudge

30

adopted

ǨiáåÅ#Çı`ŒÎ, HßO°º
xO®fiǨÏHí∞_«∞, ã¨=∞Hí∂OÕÛ =ºH˜Î
admirable „Ǩâ◊~ã¨hÜ«µ, „Ǩâ◊~™®Üˇ∂Qõº
admiral <ÒHß^°à®kèǨu
admirality <ÒHß^°à◊ HßO®ºÅÜ«µ~, <ÒHß
^°à◊âÍY
admiration „Ǩâ◊~ã¨,
P^°O°~Híey
L~_«_«~, ã¨~`À+¨Ñ¨ÓO°fiHí =∞##~
admissble qKÍO°}Hí∞ ã‘fiHíi~K«^°y#,
PK«i~K«^°y#, ã‘fiHßO°Üˇ∂Qõº
admit (`ŒÇ¨C) J~wHíi~K«∞, „ǨÇıâ◊~
HíeÊ~K«∞, <ËO°∞ÛHÁ#∞, XǨCHÁ#∞, ã‘fiHí
i~K«∞
admittance „ǨÇıâÍ#∞=∞u, ã‘fiHí$u
admitted ã‘fiHí$`Œ
admixture ã¨q∞‡„â◊}~
admonish =∞~^°e~K«∞, ÃÇÏK«Ûi~K«∞,
P^Õt~K«∞, „Ǩɒkè~K«∞
admonition =∞~^°e~ѨÙ, ÃÇÏK«ÛiHí,
P^Õâ◊~, „Ǩɒ^è°~, HıHíÅ∞ ÇıÜ«µ_«~,
H’ǨÊ_«_«~
adnate Pâı¡+≤`Œ~
ad nauseam qã¨∞Qõ∞, O’`Œ
ado W|ƒ~k, Q˘_«=, O°Éèíã¨
adobe HßÅÛx W@∞Hí
adolescence H“=∂O°^°â◊, H˜â’O®=ã¨÷,
JǨiǨHífi`Œ
adolescent H˜â’O° „áåÜ«µ~, ~ offender
H“=∂O®Ç¨O®kè. ~ poetry JǨi}`Œ
Híq`Œfi~
adonize ã≤~Qåi~K«∞HÁ#∞, ZHí∞¯=Qå
JÅ~Híi~K«∞HÁ#∞
adopt P"≥Øk~K«∞, ^°``
ÎŒ fŒ ã¨∞HÁ#∞, Z#∞fl
HÁ#∞, J#∞ã¨i~K«∞
adopted P"≥Øk~z#, ^°`Œ∞Î Kıã¨∞Hí∞#fl.
~ citizen ^°`ŒÎáœO°∞_«∞. ~ son ^°`ŒÎ
Ѩل`Œ∞_«∞
administrator

adoption
adoption ^°`ŒÎ

ã‘fiHßO°~, J~wHíi~K«_«~,
HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞ KıÜ«µ_«~
adorable P^°O°}©Ü«µ"≥∞·#, Jaè=∂x~K«
^°y#, PO®^è°hÜ«µ"≥∞·#
adoration PO®^è°#Éèß=~, Jq∞`Íaè
=∂#~
adore PO®kè~K«∞, Éèíl~K«∞
adorn JÅ~Híi~K«∞
adornment JÅ~HíO°}, #Qõ
adpressed ^°QõæO°Qå X`ŒÎ_«~
ad quantum `Œ¥Hí~ g∞^°
ad referendum W~Hß Ç¨O®=∞i≈~Kı
xq∞`ŒÎ~
ad rem „Ǩã¨∞Î`Œ q+¨Ü«∂xH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z
adrenal Jkè=$Hí¯. ~ bodies Jkè=$Hí¯
xO®‡}®Å∞. ~ cortex Jkè=$Hí¯ =ůÅ~.
~ gland Jkè=$Hí¯ „Qõ~kä
adrenalin Z„_ç#e<ü
adret 㨥O°∞ºxH˜ Jaè=∞∞Y~Qå L#fl ǨO°fi
`ŒÑ¨Ù J~K«∞, Ö’Ü«µ ǨHí¯ÉèßQõ~
adrift „ǨÇÍǨÏ~Ö’ HÁ@∞ìHÁxáÈ=Ù, ^®s
`ˇ#¥fl ÖËHíáÈ=Ù
adroit Pi`Ëi#, <ËOÊ° i Jܵ#, <ˇÑ
· Ù¨ }º~
QõÅ, K«`Œ∞O°
adroitly <ËO°∞ÊQå, xѨÙ}~Qå
adroitness <ËO°∞Ê, <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~
adulation qǨs`Œ~Qå á⁄Qõ_«_«~, ZHí∞¯
=Qå =∞∞Yã¨∞Îu KıÜ«µ_«~
adult =ܡ∂[#∞_«∞, Zky# =∞x+≤,
Ü«µ∞HíÎ=Ü«µã¨∞¯_«∞, D_«∞=zÛ#k, Ǩi
}`Œrq. ~ franchise, suffrage
=ܡ∂[# F@∞ ǨÏHí∞¯
adulterate <®}º`Œ#∞ `Œyæ~K«∞, ǨÅ∞
K«#KıÜ«µ∞, HíbÎKıÜ«µ∞
adulterated HíbÎ Jܵ#. ~ food HíbÎ
PǨO°~, që®Ç¨O°~

31

adventitious

HíbÎ KıÜ«µ_«~, XHí^®xÖ’
W~HÁHí>˜ HíÅ∞ѨÙ, <®}º`Œ `Œyæ~K«∞
adulterator HíbÎKı¿ã =∞x+≤
adulterine J„Hí=∞ ã¨~`Í#~, qÇÍ
¿ÇÏ`ŒO° ã¨~|~^è°~ ^®fiO® Híey#
ã¨~`Í#~
adultery *ÏO°`Œfi~, =ºaèKÍO°~
adulthood Ü«µ∞HíÎ=Ü«µã¨¯`Œ
adumbral PKÍÛ^°# ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#, h_«
xKıÛ
adumbrate OÕMÏ=∂„`Œ~Qå K«¥Ñ¨Ù, Jã¨Ê
+¨ì~Qå K«¥Ñ¨Ù, =∞∞~^°∞Qå 㨥z~K«∞
adust Z~_ç#, 㨥O°ºO°t‡ Kı`Œ =∂_ç#,
qKÍO°Ñ¨Ói`Œ
ad valorem =ã¨∞Î=Ù qÅ∞=#∞ |>˜ì Ǩ#∞fl
ÖˇH˜¯~Kı q^èß#~
advance |Ü«∂<®, =∞∞~^°ã¨∞Î ÇÍܵ^®,
JǨC K‹e¡~Kı^®xÖ’ XHí ÉèßQõ~, Ǩx
ѨÓiÎHßHí =∞∞~^°∞ K‹e~¡ Kık† =$kúKÜ
ı µ« ∞,
=∞∞~^°_«∞Qõ∞ ÇıÜ«µ∞. ~ guard ¿ã<®
=∞∞Y~, ¿ã<®„Qõ~, Jx"≥∞∞#. ~ landing ground ¿ã<®=∞∞Y~ kQÕKÀ@∞,
O°}=∞∞Y~. ~ naval base <ÒHß^°à®„Qõ
™®÷=O°~. ~ party ¿ã<®„QõÉèßQõ~,
=∞∞~^°∞ áÈÜ˵ ^°à◊~, ѨÙO’Qåq∞ ^°à◊~.
~ ratio ÉÏ~Hí∞Å∞ WzÛ# O°∞}®ÅHí∞,
ÉÏ~Hí∞ÅÖ’ MÏ`Í^®O°∞Å∞ Kıã≤# ^è°O®
=`Œ∞Å∞, [=∞ÅHí∞ =∞^è°º ã¨~|~^è°~
advantage „Ǩܡ∂[#~, J#∞Hí∂Å~
advent PQõ=∞#~, J=`ŒO°}~
adventist „H©ã¨∞Î O≥~_«=™®i =™®ÎO°x
qâ◊fiã≤~Kı =ºH˜Î, Jã≤÷O°"≥∞·# ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å.
~ deafness QåÜ«∂Å =Å¡ HíeQÕ
K‹=∞∞_«∞
adventitious JkèHí"≥∞·#, ã¨Ç¨Ï[~Hßx,
J#∞Hí∂Å~Hßx. ~ buds J|∞ƒO°Ñ¨Ù
"≥∞∞QõæÅ∞. ~ roots J|∞ƒO°Ñ¨Ù Çıà◊∞§
adulteration

adventure
adventure ™®Ç¨Ïã¨~, ™®Ç¨Ïã¨Hí$`Œº~
adventurer ™®Ç¨Ïã≤Hí∞_«∞
adventuresome ™®Ç¨Ïã≤Hí
adventuress ™®Ç¨Ïã≤Hí∞O®Å∞
adventurous ™®Ç¨Ïã≤Hí"≥∞·#, "≥∞∞~_ç

^è≥·O°º~QõÅ
adverb „H˜Ü«∂ qâı+¨}~, ^èß`Œ∞[
qâı+¨}~
adversary „Ǩuã¨Êi÷, â◊„`Œ∞=Ù, qO’kè
adverse „ǨuHí∂Å, qO°∞^°ú=∞ܵ#, =ºu
OÕHí. ~ balance of trade „ǨuHí∂Å
=O°ÎHíâı+¨~. ~ balance K«¥¿Ñ O°∞}
"≥∞∞`ŒÎ~/ Ö’@∞. ~ publicity =ºuOÕHí
„ǨKÍO°~
adversely „ǨuHí∂Å~Qå, =ºuOÕHí~Qå
adversity „ǨuHí∂Å`Œ, =ºuOÕHí`Œ
advice n. ã¨ÅǨ, (ed`Œ) 㨥K«#,
LǨ^Õâ◊~
advise v. ã¨ÅǨ WK«∞Û, 㨥z~K«∞, LǨ^Õ
t~K«∞
advisedly PÖ’K«<® ѨÓO°fiHí~Qå, ã¨ÅǨ
„ǨHßO°~
advisor ã¨ÅǨ^®O°∞
advocacy J#∞Hí∂Å~Qå ÇÍk~K«_«~,
<®ºÜ«µÇÍ^° =$uÎ, P^°i~z =∂>Ï¡_«_«~
advocate <®ºÜ«µÇÍk† ÇÍk~K«∞, ã¨=∞
i÷~K«∞, |Ç≤ÏO°~Qõ~Qå ã≤á¶åO°∞û KıÜ«µ∞.
~ general O®R „ǨÉèí∞`ÍfixH˜ <®ºÜ«µ
âÍG ã¨ÅǨ^®O°∞, „Ǩ^èß# <®ºÜ«µÇÍk
adynamia hO°ã¨~, xã¨û`Œ∞Î=, r=â◊H˜Î
֒Ǩ~
adytum QõO°ƒùQõ∞_ç, Qõ∞_çÖ’x O°Ç¨Ï㨺"≥∞·#
„Ǩ^Õâ◊~
aegis Q˘_«∞Qõ∞h_«, Kè«„`ŒKÍÛùÜ«µ, ã¨~O°Hí∆},
Hí=K«~, (Éèık~K«ÖËx) O°Hí∆}, HßѨÙ^°Å.
under the ~ of ã¨~O°Hí∆}Ö’, Q˘_«∞Qõ∞
h_«Ö’

32

aerosol
aelotropic q+¨=∞kâÍ`Œ‡Hí
aeolian ÇÍÜ«µ∞ ã¨~|~kè
aeon #¥O°∞ H’@¡ ã¨~=`ŒûO®Å∞,

J#~`Œ
HßÅ~, qâ◊fiK«i„`ŒÖ’x XHí Ü«µ∞Qõ~
aeration ÇÍÜ«µ∞„Ǩã¨O°}~
aerial ÇÍÜ«µ∞Qõ`Œ, QåeH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#,
ÇÍ`Í=O°} ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#† "≥·=∂xHí
aerial linguistics „áå^ÕtHí ÉÏë®^è°º
Ü«µ#~
aerial ropeway J~`ŒiHí∆ O°A˚=∂O°æ~.
~ survey q=∂<®=Ö’Hí#~, qǨÏ~
Qå= Ö’Hí#~
aerobe ÇÍÜ«µ∞ã¨Ç≤Ï`Œ rq
aerobic ÇÍÜ«µ∞ã¨Ç≤Ï`Œ. ~ exercise â◊s
O°~Ö’H˜ „áå}ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù#∞ Ǩ~Ǩ_ÍxH˜
Kı¿ã JÉèߺã¨~. ~ respiration ÇÍÜ«µ∞
âÍfi㨄H˜Ü«µ
aerobics ÅÜ«µ|^°ú Çͺܫ∂=∞~
aerodrome q=∂<®„â◊Ü«µ~
aerology Qåex J^谺ܫµ#~ Kı¿ã âÍG~
aeromagnetic survey qǨÏ~QåÜ«µ
™®¯~`Œ ǨijÅ#
aeromedical unit "≥·=∂xHí "≥·^°ºâÍÅ
aeronautical "≥·=∂xHí
aeronautics PHßâ◊Ü«∂<®xH˜ ã¨~|~kè~
z# âÍG~
aeronical observation #Hí∆„`ÍÅ#∞
Qõ=∞x~K«_«~ ^®fiO® O°∞`Œ∞=ÙÅ ã¨=∞Ü«∂
Å#∞ J~K«<® ÇıÜ«µ@~
aeronomy Éè“uHí O°™®Ü«µxHí q^èß<®
^谺ܫµ# (âÍG)~
aerophagia ÇÍÜ«µ∞ÉèíHí∆}
aerophitous ÇÍ`Œ„Ç≤Ü«µ
aerophyte "å`Àkƒù[O
aeroplankton ÇÍÜ«µ∞ Ǩ¡=Hí~
aerosol UO’™ÈÖò, Qåe`Œ∞~ǨO°

33

aerostatics
aerostatics

ÇÍÜ«µ∞Ç‘_«# ã¨=∞`Œ∞ź`ŒÅ

J^谺ܫµ#~
aesrenchyma ÇÍ`ŒÜ«µ∞`Œ Hí}*ÏÅ~
aestheria O°™®™®fi^°#, J#∞Éèí¥u, ã¨~Çı

^°#
™œ~^°O’ºáåã¨Hí∞_«∞, O°ã¨A˝_«∞,
Híà®`ÍuÎ fiHí∞_«∞
aesthetic Híà®™œ~^°O®º`Œ‡Hí"≥∞·#, O°ã≤Hí
"≥∞·#
aestheticism ™œ~^°O°ºÇÍ^°~
aesthetics ™œ~^°O°º âÍG~, Híà®`Œ`ŒÎ fi
âÍG~, Híà®aèO°∞z âÍG~, O°ã¨*Ï˝#
âÍG~
aesthetic science Híà®`Œ`ŒÎ fiâÍG~, Híà®
™œ~^°O®ºk q+¨Ü«µHíâÍG~
aestho physiology *Ï˝<Ë~„kÜ«∂^谺ܫµ#
âÍG~
aestival Çıã¨qHßÅѨÙ
aestivate [_«=∂~^°º ã≤u
÷ Ö’, Çıãq¨ HßÅ~
Qõ_«∞ѨÙ
aestivation ѨÙ+¨ÊO°K«#† ѨÙ+¨ÊÉèßQåÅ
J=∞iHí, „w+¨‡HßÅ ã¨∞áåÎ=ã¨÷
afar ^°¥O°~Qå
affable „Ç≤Ü«µÉèß+≤, ¿ãflǨÏ/ =∞O®º^Œ
ѨÓO°fiHí, ™œ=∞º
affairs =º=ǨO®Å∞, q+¨Ü«∂Å∞
affect „ǨÉßè =~ K«¥Ñ¨Ù, „ǨÉßè q`Œ~ Kıܵ« ∞,
=∞#ã¨∞Q˘Å∞ѨÙ, ÉèßÇ’^ÕfiQõ~
affected „ǨÉèßq`Œ
affective Qõ∞iJÜ˵º, L^ÕfiQõ~ Híey~Kı,
~ experience ÉèßÇ’„kHíÎ`Œ
affectivity „ǨÉèß=Hí`Œ
afferent JaèÇÍÇ≤Ï
afferent nerves JaèÇÍÇ≤Ï<®_«∞Å∞
affiance xtÛ`ÍO°÷~
affidavit ÇÍ~V¥‡Å~, „Ǩ=∂} Ǩ„`Œ~
aesthete

afforestation
affiliate

J#∞|~kè~K«∞† J#∞|^°Ì† J#∞

|~^è°~
J#∞|^°Ì`Œ† *ÏO°[ tâ◊∞=Ù#∞
`Œ~„_çǨO°~ KıÜ«µ_«~
affinal kin "≥·ÇÍÇ≤ÏHí |~^è°∞=Ù
affines qÇÍǨÏ~^®fiO® UO°Ê_Ë |~^è∞° =ÙÅ∞
affinities K«∞@ìiHßÅ∞, ã¨=∞O°¥Ç¨Hí`Œ,
W+¨ì~
affinity ™®=∞º~, PHíO°¬}, ^®Ü«∂k`Œfi~,
ã¨~|~^è°~, ÉÏ~^è°=º~, áÈeHí
affirm „Ǩ=∂} ѨÓO°fiHí~Qå <˘H˜¯K‹Ç¨C,
„^è°∞gHíi~K«∞, O°¥_è˜QåK‹Ç¨C
affirmative ÉèßÇÍO°÷Hí, xâ◊ÛÜ«∂O°÷Hí
affix n. „Ǩ`ŒºÜ«µ~
affix v. J~>˜~K«∞, Hí∂O°∞Û, ã¨~`ŒHí~
KıÜ«µ∞, =∞∞„^°ÇıÜ«µ
affixation „Ǩ`ŒºÜ«µ |~^è°~, ã¨~`ŒHí~
ÃÑ@ì_«~, Çıe=∞∞„^° ÇıÜ«µ_«~
affize J~>˜~K«∞, `Œye~K«∞, KıO°∞Û,
ã¨~`ŒHí~ÃÑ@∞ì, =∞∞„^°ÇıÜ«µ∞
afflatus Jf~„kÜ«µ *Ï˝#~ ^®fiO® `ˇÅ∞
ã¨∞H’=_«~† ^≥·=„¿ÑO°} HíeQÕ PÇıâ◊~/
L„^ÕHí~
afflict ÉÏkè~K«∞, Ç‘_ç~K«∞, Çıkè~K«∞, ã¨`Í
ܵ~K«∞
affliction ^°∞óY~, ÉÏ^è°, PǨ^°, Ç‘_«,
=∂#ã≤Hí =º^è°, QÀ_«∞, Ǩi`ÍǨ~
affluence ã¨=∞$kú, Sâ◊fiO°º~
affluent ã¨=∞$^°ú, ^èßO®à◊"≥∞·#, Jq∞`Œ
"≥∞·#, Sâ◊fiO°º=~`Œ"≥∞·#, ^è°xHí† LǨ#k.
~ society ã¨~Ǩ#fl ã¨=∂[~
afflux „ǨÇÍǨÏ~, „ǨÇÍǨÏѨ٠á⁄~Qõ∞
afforce |ÅǨO°K«∞
afford Pi÷Hí~Qå Éèíi~K«∞, YO°∞ÛKıÜ«µ∞,
K‹e¡~QõeQÕ, HÁ#QõÅ∞Qõ∞
afforestation J_«=ÙÅ#∞ ÃÑ~K«_«~,
J@gHíO°}
affiliation

34

affranchise
affranchise F@∞ JkèHßO°q∞K«∞Û
affray [Qõ_«~, HÁ>Ï¡@, ^˘g∞‡
affreight ã¨O°Hí∞Å <ÒHí#∞ J^≥ÌHí∞

fã¨∞

HÁ#∞
affricate ã¨Ê $ëÈì+¨‡~
affright ÉèíÜ«µÃÑ@∞ì
affront uO°™®¯O°~, J=∞O®º^°, xO®^°O°~
afire J~@∞HÁx#, =∞~_ç#
aflame =∞~_«∞`Œ∞#fl ã≤÷u
afloat h>˜ÃÑ· `ËÅ∞, `ËÖÏ_«∞
afocal J<®cèÜ«µ
afoot J=∞Å∞Ö’ L#fl, q=O®Å∞ `ˇe

Ü«µx, Hße #_«Hí#, =∞m¡ #_«Hí „áåO°~
aè~K«_«~, Ǩx#_«∞㨥ΠL~_«_«~
afore mentioned ѨÓO’fiHíÎ, W~`ŒHí∞
=∞∞~^Õ K‹Ç≤Ê#/ ¿ÑO˘¯#fl
afortion ZHí∞¯= xâ◊ÛÜ«µ~Qå, YzÛ`Œ~Qå
afraid of own shadow `Œ# h_«#∞
K«¥ã≤ `Í<Ë ÉèíÜ«µÇ¨_«_«~
afresh HÁ`ŒÎQå, `Í*ÏQå
aft Ǩ_«= "≥#∞HíÉèßQõ~
afterbirth =∂q, =∂Ü«µ
after hours dealing ǨxQõ~@Å `ŒO°
ÇÍ`Œ ÖÏÇÍ^ÕgÅ∞
after hours price Ǩx ã¨=∞Ü«µ~ `ŒO°
ÇÍ`Œ ÇÍ>ÏÅHí∞ ǨeHı ^è°O°
after-image „¿ÑO°Hßxfl `˘Åy~z# `ŒO°∞
ÇÍ`Œ ™®QÕ W~„kÜ«∂#∞Éèí=~
aftermath J#~`ŒO° Ǩiã≤÷u
after-sales service =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ J=∞‡HßÅ
J#~`ŒO°~ J=∞‡Hí~^®O°∞ J~k~Kı
¿ã=Å∞
aftershocks ǨO®Ñ¶¨∂`ÍÅ∞
after tax Ǩ#∞flÅ∞ K‹e¡~z# J#~`ŒO°~
agalactia Ǩã≤Ç≤Å¡ÅHí∞ `Œe¡ #∞~z KÍe
#~`ŒQå áåÅ∞ O®HíáÈ=_«~
agamic Öˇ·~yHí K«O°º ÖËx

agglutination
agamogenesis JÖˇ·~yHí ѨÙ#O°∞`ŒÊuÎ
agamy ÃÑo§ ÖËHíáÈ=_«~
agar agar JQõO∑ – JQõO∑, A#∞flQõ_ç¤
agaric ѨÙ@ìQ˘_«∞Qõ∞
agate QÀÇı∞^è°~
agave HíÅ|~^°, H˜`ŒÎ<®O° ("≥∞∞Hí¯)
age =Ü«µã¨∞û, Ü«µ∞Qõ~, HßÅ~. ~ group
=ܡ∂=O°æ~. ~ limit =Ü«µóǨiq∞u. ~
of retirement L^ÀºQõ
qO°=∞}
=Ü«µã¨∞û. ~ of reason ¿ÇÏ`Œ∞ÇÍ^°

Ü«µ∞Qõ~
ageism =∞∞ã¨eÇÍà◊§#∞ Dã¨_ç~K«@~
agency „Ǩuxkè ã¨~ã¨÷, „Ǩ`˺Hí ¿ã=
Å~k~Kı ÇÍ}˜[º ã¨~ã¨÷
agenda Z*ˇ~_͆ HßO°º„Hí=∂Å K«O°Ûh
Ü«∂~âÍÅ *Ïa`Í
agenesis Jqã≤`Í=Ü«µÇÍÅ∞, J=Ü«µ
ÇÍÅ∞ UO°Ê_«Hí áÈ=_«~. cerebral ~
ѨÙ@∞ìHíÖ’ `ŒÅ ã¨iQå UO°Ê_«Hí áÈ=_«~
agent LǨHíO°}~, „Ǩuxkè, „Ǩ`˺Hí
¿ã=Å∞ J~k~Kı ã¨~ã¨÷. ~ provocateur â◊„`Œ∞ Qõ¥_è°KÍi
agentless sentence HíO°Î $O°Ç≤Ï`Œ ÇÍHíº~
agerasia =ºH˜Î K«O°=∞^°â◊Ö’x PO’Qõº ã≤÷u
age sets ™®=∂lHí Ǩϟ^®Å#∞ xO°‚ܵ~Kı
=ܡ∂Éèı^®Å∞
age stratification =Ü«µã¨∞û P^èßO°~Qå
Jã¨=∂#`ŒÅ#∞ xO°‚ܵ~Kı q^èß#~
age structure =ܡ∂ xO®‡}~
agglomerate ã¨g∞Híi~K«∞
agglomeration Ǩ@ì} Ǩikè, ã¨g∞
HíO°}~
agglutinant ã¨=∞¥Ç‘ÏHíO°}
HßO°Hí
Ǩ^®O°÷~
agglutination J`Œ∞HÁ¯x L~_«_«~, J`Œ∞
H’¯=_«~† ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~, ã¨=∞¥Ç‘ÏHí O°}~†
Éèß+¨Ö’ Ǩ^®Å „Ǩ`ŒºÜ«∂Å ã¨~ܡ∂Qõã≤÷u

agglutinative
agglutinative ã¨=∞¥Ç‘ÏHí$`Œ
agglutinin ã¨=∞¥Ç¨ÏHí~, ã¨=∞¥Ç‘ÏHßO°H~
í
agglutinogen ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï [##~
aggradation Ѷ¨∞#Ǩ^®O®÷Å KıiHí =Å¡

LǨi`ŒÅ~ Z`Œ∞Î ÃÑO°Qõ_«~
L#fl`Œ~Qå, Q˘Ç¨ÊQå HíxÊ~
Kı@∞¡ KıÜ«µ∞, =$kúKıÜ«µ∞
aggravate f„=`ŒO°~ KıÜ«µ∞
aggregate "≥O°ã≤, "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~, J~`Í HíeÇ≤,
ã¨=∞+≤ì qÅ∞=. ~ demand ã¨=∞+≤ì
_ç=∂~_ü. ~ turnover ã¨=∞+≤ì P=
O°Î#~. ~ variables "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~ K«Å
<®~HßÅ∞
aggregation "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~ KıÜ«µ_«~, O®t
KıÜ«µ_«~
aggression ^®_ç, ^°∞O®„Hí=∞}† ^°∞O®„Hí
q∞~K«∞
aggresive HõÅǨÏjÅ, f„="≥∞·#. ~ marketing K˘O°"≥·# =∂O≥¯>˜~Q∑, ^°¥ã¨∞Hí∞
áÈÜ˵ =∂O≥¯>˜~Q∑ â‹·e. ~ nationalisation f„= *ÏfÜ«µHíO°}
aggressor ^°∞O®„Hí=∞}^®O°∞
aggrieve
Hí+¨ìÃÑ@∞ì,
J}Qõ^˘Hí∞¯,
ÉÏkè~K«∞, f„=`ŒO°~ KıÜ«µ∞, [>˜Å~
KıÜ«µ∞
aggrieved ÉÏkè`†Œ ÉÏkè`∞Œ _«∞, ÉÏkè`∞Œ Å∞.
~ party Ç‘_ç`ŒÇ¨Hí∆~, #+¨ìáÈܵ# ǨHí∆~/
=ºH˜Î
aghest ÉèíÜ«µcè`Œ, K«Ç¨Å, K«~K«Å, `Œfii`Œ
agility
`Œfii`Œ`Œfi~,
K«~K«Å`Œfi~,
KÍǨź~, „H˜Ü«∂jÅ`Œ
aging =Ü«µã¨∞ ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞`Œ∞#fl =∞∞kq∞ ÅHí∆
}®Å∞#fl
agio =∂O°Hí~† `ŒO°∞Qõ∞, =@ì~
agiotage q^Õj HíO≥hûÅ#∞ HÁx JÇı∞‡
ÇͺáåO°~
aggrandise

35

agricultural

L^°ºq∞~K«∞, P~^Àà◊#KıÜ«µ∞,
P~^Àà◊#Ǩ_«∞, K«iÛ~K«∞, `Œi¯~K«∞,
xeÇ≤ L~K«∞
agitation P~^Àà◊#, L^°º=∞~
agitational approach P~^Àà◊#
=∂O°æ~/ q^èß#~
agitator P~^Àà◊#HßO°∞_«∞
agit prop Hí=∞¥ºxã¨∞ì J#∞Hí∂Å∞_«∞
agley FO°Qå, =~HíO°Qå
agitate

AGM Annual General Meeting

ÇÍi¬Hí ™®^èßO°} ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~
`Œ~„_ç"≥·Ñ¨Ù |~^è°∞`Œfi~
W~„kÜ«∂#∞ÉèíÇÍÅ#∞ JO°÷~
K‹Ç¨ÊÖËx ã≤÷u
agnostic J*˽ܫµÇÍk
agnosticism J*˽ܫµÇÍ^°~
agog Hí∞`Œ¥Ç¨ÏÅ~Qå L#fl
agonising Çı^°#Híey~Kı, ÉÏ^èßHíO°"≥∞·#
agonize z„`ŒÇ≤Ï~ã¨KıÜ«µ∞, ÉÏ^è° J#∞Éèí
q~K«∞, Ѷ¨e`Œ~ H’ã¨~ ÉÏQå Hí$+≤KıÜ«µ∞
agony P~^Àà◊#, HíÅ=O°~, =º^è°,
=∞<ÀÇı^°#
agrarian Éèí¥ã¨^°∞áåÜ«∂xH˜ ã¨~|~kè~
z#† Pã≤ΠǨ~z WÇÍfiÅ<Ë L^°º=∂xfl
ã¨=∞i÷~Kı =ºH˜Î
agrarian Çͺ=™®ÜµHí, áå_çǨ~@ÅHí∞
ã¨~|~kè~z#
agreement XǨÊ~^°~, X_«~|_çHí
agrestic Jã¨~㨯 $`Œ, *Ï#Ǩ^°, J<®QõO°Hí
agribusiness =º=™®Ü«µ Ǩi„â◊=∞
agricultural =º=™®Ü«µ ã¨~|~kè. ~
bank =º=™®Ü«µ ÉÏ~Hí∞. ~ holding
=º=™®Ü«µ Hí=∞`Œ~. ~ labour =º=
™®Ü«µ Hí∂b. ~ prices =º=™®Ü«µ
L`ŒÊ`Œ∞ÎÅ ^è°O°Å∞. ~ year =º=™®Ü«µ
ã¨~=`ŒûO°~ (E<ü <ˇÅ #∞~z Çı∞ <ˇÅ
=O°Hí∞)
agnation
agnosia

agricultural geography

Çͺ=™®ÜµHí
Éèí¥QÀà◊âÍG~
agrillaceous =∞>˜ìH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#
agro-based industries =º=™®Ü«∂^èßO°
Ǩi„â◊=∞Å∞
agrobiology "≥∞∞Hí¯Å rq`Œ~, "≥∞∞Hí¯Ö’¡x
áÈ+¨Hí Ǩ^®O®÷Å J^谺ܫµ#~
agroforestry =º=™®Ü«µHí J@gHíO°}
agrology Ǩ~@Å L`ŒÊuÎx J^谺ܫµ#~
Kı¿ã =º=™®Ü«µâÍG qÉèßQõ~
agronomic =º=™®Ü«µâÍG ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
agronomist =º=™®Ü«µ âÍGÇı`ŒÎ
agronomy =º=™®Ü«µâÍG~, Éèí¥Hı∆„`Œ
âÍG~
agrophobia ÉÏǨϺ„Ǩ^Õâ◊ ÉèíÜ«µ~
agrostologist `Œ$} âÍGÇı`ŒÎ
agrostology `Œ$}âÍG~, Qõ_ç¤"≥∞∞Hí¯Å#∞
J^谺ܫµ#~ Kı¿ã âÍG~
aground Hí^°Åxã≤÷u, xâ◊ÛÅã≤÷u, kQõ
|_ç#
ague K«e[fiO°~, HíѶ¨[fiO°~
ahead =∞∞~^°∞, "≥∞∞^°@
ahistorical JKÍi„`ŒHí,
K«i„`Œ`À
ã¨~|~^è°~ ÖËx
ahorse JâÍfiO°¥_è°
aid ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~, =∞^°Ì`Œ∞, ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~ KıÜ«µ∞,
=∞^°Ì`Œ∞ WK«∞Û
aides ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~ Kı¿ã, =∞^°ÌuKıÛÇÍO°∞,
ã¨ÅǨ WKÕÛÇÍO°∞
aid memoire *Ï˝Ç¨Hí^Ò`Œº~ ã¨~|~^è°
=º=ǨO®Ö’¡ D =∂@ ÇÍ_«`ÍO°∞
AIDS Zܵ_üûÇͺkè: Acquired Immuno
Deficiency Syndrome O’Qõ xO’^è°Hí
=º=ã¨÷ H©∆}˜~z „Hí=∞~Qå =∞O°}®xH˜
^®if¿ã "≥·Ç¨s`Œº~
aiguille "≥∞∞#QõÅ, "≥∞∞#^Õi#† HÁ~_«
H’O°∞, "≥∞∞#^Õi# HÁ~_«
agricultural geography

36

air

airing

O°∞Qõ‡`Œ
Qõ∞iÃÑ@∞ì,
Qõ∞iÃÑ>˜ì K«¥_«_«~, ÅHí∆ º~Qå ÃÑ@∞ìHÁ#∞
aimless ÅHí∆ ºâ◊∞kú ÖËx, kâÍO°Ç≤Ï`Œ
aimlessness ÅHí∆ ºâ◊∞kú ÖËHíáÈ=_«~, kâÍ
O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
aimmodest xO°¡[˚
aims and objects ÅH∆ߺÅ∞, ^èıºÜ«∂Å∞
air Qåe, ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù. ~ ambulance
O’Qõ∞Å#∞ fã¨∞H≥à˧ q=∂#~. ~ bare
"≥·=∂xHí ™®÷=O°~. ~ bladder Qåe
uuÎ. ~ borne ÇÍÜ«µ∞ ÇÍÇ≤Ï`Œ, Qåe
^®fiO® ÇͺÇ≤~Kı ~ bubble Qåe|∞_«Qõ.
~ burst QåeÖ’ ¿ÑÅ_«~. ~ bus ÃÑ^°Ì
*ˇ>ò q=∂#~. ~ compression
ÇÍÜ«µ∞ ã¨~Ç‘_«#~. ~ compressor
ÇÍÜ«µ∞ã¨~Ç‘_«Hí~. ~ conditioned
ÇÍ`Í=O°}®#∞Hí∂Å. ~ conditioning
j`À+¨‚xÜ«µ~„`Œ}, ÇÍ`Í#∞Hí∂Å#~. ~
cover q=∂<®Å O°Hí∆}. ~ defences
"≥·=∂xHí O°Hí∆}Å∞. ~ drop q=∂<®Å
^®fiO® *ÏO°q_«=_«~. ~ field q=∂#
™®÷=O°~. ~ force "≥·=∂xHí ^°à◊~,
ÇÍÜ«µ∞¿ã#. ~ lift q=∂<®Å ^®fiO®
O°ÇÍ}®. ~ line q=∂<®Å∞ #_ç¿Ñ
ÇͺáåO° ã¨~ã¨÷. ~ mail q=∂<®Å
^®fiO® L`ŒÎO®Å O°ÇÍ}®. ~ marshall
"≥·=∂xHí ^°à®^è°ºHí∆∞_«∞. ~ mass ÇÍÜ«µ∞
™®~„^°`Œ. ~ navigation q=∂#
Ü«∂#~. ~ pressure ÇÍÜ«µ∞Ç‘_«#~.
~ raid q=∂# ^®_ç. ~ reconnaisance "≥=
· ∂xHí ǨijÅ#. ~ ship Qåe
F_«. ~ space ÇÍÜ«µ∞ „Ǩ^Õâ◊~. ~
task force „Ǩ`˺Hí "≥·=∂xHí ^°à◊~. ~
tight ÇÍÜ«µ∞ xO’^è°Hí, Qåe K˘O°x. ~
time xiú+¨ì ã¨=∞Ü«µ~. ~ ways PHßâ◊
=∂O°æ~, ÇÍÜ«µ∞=∂O°æ~

airing

ailment J<®O’Qõº~, [|∞ƒ,
aim ^èıºÜ«µ~, ÅHí∆ º~, Qõ∞i†

|Ç≤ÏO°æ`Œ"≥∞∞#O°∞Û, ÉèßÇÍÅ∞ "≥Å¡
_ç~K«∞
airles xÇÍ`Œ, QåeÖËx
air-sea interaction ÇÍÜ«µ∞ - ã¨=∞∞„^°
áåO°ã¨ÊO°`Œ
airy Qåe`À x~_ç#, `ËeH≥·#, 㨥Hí;
aisle #_«ÇÍ, #_«=Hí∞ K‹~`Œ#∞#fl ã‘@∞,
ǨHí¯Qõk
ajar HíO°¯â◊~Qå, JǨã¨fiO°~Qå
ajuncture Qõ_«∞¤ã¨=∞Ü«µ~, `ŒO°∞}~
alacrity ã¨~ã≤^°ú`Œ, ã¨r=`Œ, „Ǩã¨#fl`Œ,
Ǩïë®O°∞
alallia =∂>Ï¡_Ë â◊H˜Î H’Ö’ÊHíáÈ=_«~
alarm n. ÃÇÏK«ÛiHí, ÉèíÜ«µã¨¥K«#
alarm v. ÉèíÜ«µÃÑ@∞ì, ÃÇÏK«Ûi~K«∞
alarming P~^Àà◊# Híey~K«∞, ÃÇÏK«Û
i~K«∞, ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°
alarmist ÉèíÜ«µÇͺǨHí∞_«∞
alate O≥Hí¯Å∞QõÅ/ O≥Hí¯Å =~>˜ =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞
QõÅ
albedo ǨO®=O°Î#~ K‹~k# Hß~u âÍ`Œ~/
ÉèßQõ~
albescent „Hí=∞~Qå `ˇÅ¡|_«∞`Œ∞#fl
albinism ÉÁe¡, =O°‚Ç‘Ï#`Œ, =O°‚O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
albino =O°‚O°Ç≤Ï`Œ, `ˇÅ¡x
album ^è°=à◊~, H’_çQõ∞_«∞¤Ö’x `ˇÅ¡™⁄#
albumen âıfi`ŒHí~. ~ gland âıfi`ŒHí
„Qõ~kä. ~ layer âıfi`ŒHí ã¨ÎO°~
albumin `ˇÅ¡™⁄#
alchemist O°ã¨ÇÍk
alchemy O°ã¨ÇÍ^°~
alcoholics anonymous =∞^®ºxfl
=keÇıã≤# ÇÍiH˜ `À_«Ê_Ë ã¨~ã¨÷
alcoholism `ÍQõ∞É’`Œ∞^°#~,
=∞^°º
=ºã¨#~, =∞^®ºã¨H˜Î
alcove Çıã¨q Hí∞>©O°~, =™®O®

37

alight

#QõO° =$^°∞ú_«∞, =$^°ú áœO°∞_«∞
^≥·ÇÍnè#"≥∞·#, J^°$ë®ìxfl
#q∞‡#† J^°$+¨ìHßÅ~
alert J„Ǩ=∞`ŒÎ`Œ, *ÏQõO°¥Hí`Œ, K«∞O°∞Hí∞
^°#~† K«∞O°∞H≥·#
alga â‹·=Å~, <®K«∞
algae â‹·=ÖÏÅ∞
algal bloom â‹·=ÖÏÅ ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å
algebra c[Qõ}˜`Œ~
algedonic XHí Éèß=~=Å¡ UO°Ê_Ë PǨ^
¡ ~°
algesia ÉÏ^èß#∞Éèí¥u
algethesia <˘Ç≤Êx J#∞Éèíq~Kı ã≤÷u
algicide â‹·=Å<®â◊x, <®K«∞x xO°¥‡
e~Kık
algorism JO°|∞ƒÅ ã¨~MϺq^èß#~
algorithm „Hí=∞㨥„`Œ Ǩ^°úu, Ü«∂~„uHí
Ǩ^°úu† #¥`Œ# Ǩi=O°ÎHßÅ xO®‡}
„Ǩ„H˜Ü«µ
alias =∂O°∞¿ÑO°∞, LO°Ñ¶π
alibi ™®Hí∞, q∞+¨, <ËO°~ [iy# ã¨=∞
Ü«µ~Ö’ x~k`Œ∞_«∞ =∞O˘HíKÀ@ L#fl@∞ì
<®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~Ö’ xO°¥Ç≤~K«_«~
alien „QõǨ~`ŒO°ÇÍã≤, (áœO°ã¨`Œfi ǨÏHí∞¯
fã¨∞Hí∞#fl) q^ÕjÜ«µ∞_«∞, ǨO®Üµ
alienable J<®º„Hß~`Œ~ KıÜ«µ^°y#,
|kb KıÜ«µ^°y#, ÇıO°∞ KıÜ«µ^°y#
alienage ǨO°^ÕjÜ«µ`Œ
alienate J<®º„Hß~`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞, ǨO®nè#~
KıÜ«µ∞
alienation J<®º„Hß~`Œ~ K‹Ü«µº_«~,
ǨO®nè#~ K‹Ü«µº_«~, ǨO®Ü∂HíO°},
|kb KıÜ«µ_«~, "≥·=∞#㨺`Œ
aliform O≥Hí¯ PHßO°~Ö’x
alignment ã¨=∞OÕY#~, =O°∞㨆 O®[
H©Ü«∂ÅÖ’ XHí =O®æxH˜ =∞^°Ìu=fi_«~
alight kQõ_«~, ã≤÷O°Ç¨_«_«~† =∞~_«∞`Œ∞#fl,
xǨÊ~>˜~z#
alderman
aleatory

alike
alike XHı q^è°~Qå L~_«_«~, ™®O°¥Ç¨º~
aliment PǨO°~, P^èßO°~
alimentary PǨO° ã¨~|~kè`Œ. ~ canal J#flÇÍÇ≤ÏHí
alimony ÉèíO°}~, =∞<À=iÎ, Éèí$u
aliphatic â◊$~YÅ ÃÇÏ·„_ÀHßO°ƒ#∞¡, á¶å>˜

Hß=∂¡xH˜ K‹~k#
aliquant âı+¨~ =KÕÛ ã¨~Yº
aliquot xâı≈+¨~Qå Éèßy~Kı ã¨~Yº
aliter J#º^èß, W`ŒO°„`Í
alium Le¡*Ïu
aliund =∞O’ P^èßO°~/ K«@ì~ #∞~z
alive ã¨r=, K‹·`Œ#º=~`Œ"≥∞·#. ~ and
kicking Ǩïë®O°∞Qå L~_Ë, L`ÍûǨÏ
ѨÓi`Œ. to be ~ to `ˇÅ∞ã¨∞HÁ#∞,

`ˇÅ∞ã¨∞HÁx L~_«∞
alkali H∆ßO°~. ~ metal H∆ßO°Ö’ǨÏ~
alkaline H∆ßO°. ~ earth H∆ßO°=∞$uÎHß
֒ǨÅ PH≥· û_üÅ∞. ~ earth metal H∆ßO°
=∞$uÎHß Ö’Ç¨Ï~. ~ liquid H∆ßO°
„^®=}~. ~ soil H∆ßO° =∞$uÎHí
alkalinity H∆ßO°`Œfi~
alkaliser H∆ßO°Hí~
alkaloid H∆ßO°Hí~
alkaloid =$Hí∆ ã¨~|~^è° O°™®Ü«µ#~. ~
narcotics =$Hí∆ã¨~|~kè`Œ
=∂^°Hí

„^°ÇͺÅ∞
alkaly H∆ßO°~
all J~^°O°∞, J~`Í, ã¨O°fi~, JdÅ, ã¨HíÅ,
ã¨=∞ã¨Î. ~ along "≥∞∞^°>˜ #∞~z, ZÅ¡
Çıà◊ÖÏ. ~ abd only Jhfl, Jq
=∂„`ŒÇı∞. ~ and sundry J~^°O°¥,

q_çq_çQå#¥, "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~Qå#¥, =º+¨ìQå
ã¨=∞+≤ìQå. ~ around Jxfl"≥·Ñ¨ÙÖÏ. ~
at once XHí¯™®iQå, XHí¯>˜Qå. ~ but
^®^®Ñ¨ÙQå. ~ clear xiflO’^è°~Qå,

38

allied

allies

J_«∞¤ÖËHí∞~_Í, J#∞Hí∂Å~Qå. ~ in all
J~`Í, ã¨O°fi„`Í, ã¨=∞ã¨Î. ~ embracing ã¨=∞„Qõ. ~ out Ü«∂=K«ÛH
ù ,Θ „H˜H>≥ òÖ’
J~^°O°¥ B>ò Hß=_«~. ~ over
J~`Œ>Ï. ~ purpose ã¨HíÖÏO°÷™®^è°Hí.
~ risk policy #+¨ì~ ã¨~Éèíq~Kı Jxfl
ã¨~^°O®ƒùÅÖ’ K‹e¡~Ѩ٠[i¿Ñ c=∂
™œHíO°º~. ~ round ã¨O°fi ã¨=∞O°÷. ~
rounder ã¨O°fiã¨=∞O°∞÷_«∞, x뮂`Œ∞_«∞. ~
the people Ü«∂=#‡~k. ~ the same
J^Õ. ~ time light J`ŒºkèHí, Qõi+¨ª. ~
time record ™®O°fiHßeHí „Ç¨=∂}~
allay `ËeHíǨO°K«∞, `Œyæ~K«∞, `˘Åy~K«∞,
âÍ~u~Ǩ*ËÜ«µ∞, =∞~^°y~Ǩ*ËÜ«µ∞, J}˜
zÇıÜ«µ∞
allegation PO’Ǩ}
allege (<ËO°~) PO’Ç≤~K«∞, <ËO°~ Kıã≤#@∞¡
Éèßq~K«∞
allegiance q^èıÜ«µ`Œ, ™®fiq∞ÉèíH˜Î
allegory ^°$ë®ì~`Œ~:
J#ºq+¨Ü«µ
㨥K«#, J<®ºO°÷ O°K«#
allele Ü«ÚQƇ qHõÅÊO
allergy „ǨuHí∂Å`Œ, Jã¨Ç¨ÏhÜ«µ`Œ, â◊s
O®xH˜ Ǩ_«HíáÈ=_«~
alleviate LǨâ◊q∞~ǨKıÜ«µ∞, `Œyæ~K«∞
alleviation LǨâ◊=∞#~, áåO°^ÀÅ@~,
ÖËHí∞~_Í KıÜ«µ_«~, `Œyæ~K«_«~
alley gkè, ^À=, ã¨~^°∞, `À@Ö’ #_«Hí
alliaceous "≥Å∞¡e¡ =~>˜
alliance qÇÍÇ¨Ï ã¨~|~^è°~, |~^è°∞`Œfi~,
Éèß=~, O®*ϺŠHí∂@q∞. ~ theory
|~^è°∞`Œfi „áå^èß#º`ÍÇÍ^°~
allied J#∞|~kè`Œ, q∞„`Œ. ~ forces
q∞„`ŒO®*ϺÅ∞. ~ phenomenon J#∞
|~^è° ^°$yfi+¨Ü«µ~

allies

q∞„`ŒO®*ϺÅ∞, ¿ãflÇ≤Ï`Œ∞Å∞, ã¨~|~
kèHí∞Å∞
alligator "≥∞∞ã¨e =~>˜ LÉèíÜ«µK«O°~
allision F_«Å∞ _è©HÁ#_«~
alliteration J#∞„áåã¨
alliterative P#∞„áåã≤Hí. ~ metre
J#∞„áåã¨`À =zÛ# Ǩ^°º~
allocate Hı>Ïܵ~K«∞, xܡ∂y~K«∞
allocation Hı>Ïܵ~ѨÙ, Hı>Ïܵ~z#
xkè
allocentric `Œ#Hí∞ |Ü«µ@, ÉÏǨϺ~
allodium Ǩ#∞flÖËx, =∂#ºÑ¨Ù<ËÅ
allograph XHí JHí∆O®xHí∞#fl =∞O’O°¥Ç¨~
allometry J=Ü«µÇÍÅ <ˇ·+¨ÊuÎHßaè=$kú
allomorph ã¨Ç¨^®~â◊~
allonge J#∞|~^è° p>˜
allopath W~w¡+¨∞ "≥·^°∞º_«∞
allopathy W~w¡+¨∞ "≥·^°º~, J֒Ǩu
allopatric Éè“QÀoHí~Qå xÇÍ™®Å∞ UO°Ê
O°∞K«∞Hí∞#fl *Ï`Œ∞ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
allophone ã¨=O°‚~
allot Hı>Ïܵ~K«∞, ÉèßQõq∞K«∞Û
allotee ÇÍ>Ï Åaè~z#, Hı>Ïܵ~ѨÙ
á⁄~k# =ºH˜Î
allotheism qz„`Œ ^Õ=`ÍO®^è°#
allotment Hı>Ïܵ~ѨÙ. ~ letter Hı>Ï
ܵ~Ѩ٠ÖËY. ~ money K‹e¡~KÍeû#
_«|∞ƒ. ~ of shares ÇÍ>ÏÅ Hı>Ï
ܵ~ѨÙ
allotropic |ǨïO°¥Ç¨
allotropic form aè#flO°¥áåHí$u
allotropism aè#flO°¥Ç¨`Œ
allotropy O°¥áå~`ŒO°`Œ, aè#flO°¥Ç¨~
alloverish âÍâ◊fi`Œ J<®O’Qõº Éèß=#
allow J#∞=∞u~K«∞
allowance Éèí`Œº~: XHí =ã¨∞Î=ÙÃÑ· „Ǩ`˺
H˜~z WKıÛ `Œyæ~ѨÙ. compensatory

39

alogical

~ ǨiǨO° |`ˇÎ~. conveyance ~
ÇÍǨÏ# |`ˇÎ~. dearness ~ HíO°∞=Ù
|`ˇÎ~
allowed ÇÍkH˜ J#∞Hí∂Å~Qå H’O°∞ì fO°∞Ê
K‹Ç¨Ê_«~. ~ with costs ÇÍkH˜ Jܵ#
YO°∞ÛÅ#∞ „ǨuÇÍk K‹e¡~KÍÅx H’O°∞ì
fO°∞Ê K‹Ç¨Ê_«~
alloy q∞„â◊^èß`Œ∞=Ù, q∞„â◊֒ǨÏ~, ֒ǨÏ
q∞„â◊}~
allude
㨥K«#„áåÜ«µ~Qå
K‹Ç¨C,
㨥z~K«∞, „Ǩ™®Îq~K«∞
alluding 㨥z~K«_«~, `ˇeÜ«µ*ËÜ«µ_«~,
L^ÕÌt~K«_«~
allure „Ǩ֒ÉèíÃÑ@∞ì
allurement Pâ◊K¥
« Ç≤~K«_~« , „Ǩ֒Éè#í ~,
„Ǩ֒Éèí~
allusion ã¨~^°O°ƒù㨥K«#, ǨO’Hí∆ 㨥K«#,
ѨÙO®ã¨¥ÊùiÎ
allusive ǨO’Hí∆~Qå „Ç¨™®Îq~z#
alluvial X~„_«∞. ~ soil X~„_«∞=∞>˜ì <ËÅ,
[ÖÏǨh`ÍÅ∞. ~ deposits #n
„ǨÇÍǨÏ~ =Å¡ =zÛ# X~„_«∞
alluvium X~„_«∞=∞>˜ì
ally q∞„`Œ∞_«∞, |~^è°∞=Ù, ã¨~|~kè, ¿ãflÇ≤Ï
`Œ∞_«∞, q∞„`Œ O®[º~, ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí∞_«∞†
[`ŒHí@∞ì
alma mater áåOî°âÍÅ, q^®ºã¨~ã¨÷
almanac Ǩ~KÍ~Qõ~
almighty ÉèíQõ=~`Œ∞_«∞, ã¨O°fiâ◊H˜Î=∞~`Œ∞_«∞
almond ÉÏ^°~
alms uiÃÑ~, =∞∞+≤ª, aK«Û~, ^è°O°‡~,
aèHí∆~.~house Ü«∂K«Hí∞Å =ã¨u Qõ$ǨÏ~
aloe HíÅ|~^°. american ~ H˜`ŒÎ<®O°
aloft ÃÑ·#, TO°úfi, LǨi`ŒÅ~Ö’
alogia =∂@ Ǩ_çáÈ=_«~
alogical `ŒO°¯O°Ç≤Ï`Œ, `ŒO®¯f`Œ

alone
alone X~@iQå, UHß~`Œ~Qå
aloof ^°¥O°~Qå L~_«∞
alopcia |@ì`ŒÅ. ~ areata

J~@∞
O’QåÅ =Å¡ HíeQÕ |@ì`ŒÅ
alopea |@ì`ŒÅ
aloud aQõæO°Qå, |Ç≤ÏO°~Qõ~Qå
alpha „wHí∞ =O°‚=∂ÅÖ’ "≥∞∞^°>˜ JHí∆O°~,
#Hí∆„`ŒO®tÖ’ „ǨHßâ◊=~`Œ"≥∞·# #Hí∆„`Œ~.
~ and-omega P^°º~`ÍÅ∞
alphabet JHí∆O°~, =O°‚=∂Å, JHí∆O° ã¨=∂
=∂flÜ«µ~, =O°‚ ã¨=∂=∂flÜ«µ~, „áå^ä°q∞
Hß~â◊~
alphabetical =O°‚=∂ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#.
~ order =O°‚„Hí=∞~
alphabetise JHí∆O° „Hí=∞~Ö’ J=∞O°Û_«~
alphabitic writing =O°‚ÖËY#~
alphamale <®Ü«µHí∞_«∞, ÃÑ`ŒÎ#~^®O°∞
alpha numeric JHí∆O®Å¥ ã¨~YºÅ¥
O≥~_«¥ L~_Ë q^è°~
alpha particle PÖÏÊù â◊HíÅ~
alpha rays PÖÏÊù H˜O°}®Å∞
alpha stocks ÃÑ^°Ì Hí~ÃÑhÅ ÇÍ>ÏÅ∞
alpine L#fl`Œ tYO®ÅHí∞/ PÖòÊùû ǨO°fi`Í
ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
alt LK‹·Ûã¨fiO°~
alter |eÇ‘Oî°~, ^≥·=Ç‘Oî°~
altar poem |~^è° Híq`Œfi~
altarwise ^≥·=Ç‘Oî°~ =Öˇ
altar =∂O°∞Ê
alteration ã¨fiÉèß=~, ã≤÷u "≥∞∞^°ÅQõ∞
ÇÍ>˜Ö’¡ =∂O°∞Ê `Ë=_«~. ~ of share
capital Hí~ÃÑh ÇÍ>Ï^è°#~ ÃÑ~K«∞Hí∞<Ë,
`Œyæ~K«∞Hí∞<Ë "≥ã¨∞Å∞ÉÏ@∞
altercation HÁ>Ï¡@, Ѷ¨∞O°¬}, `ŒQõ=Ù,
ÇÍ^°∞ÖÏ@, ÇÍHí¯ÅǨÏ~, `ŒQå^®,
ÇÍQõ∞º^°ú~, qÇÍ^°~, `ŒHíO®O°∞

40

alynergia

alzheimers

alternate UHß~`Œ~† XHí>˜ q_çz XHí>˜
alternant ǨO®ºÜ«µ O°¥Ç¨~
alternating personality kfi=∞¥iÎ

alzheimers

=∞`Œfi~
alternation ǨO®ºÜ«µ`Œ, ǨO®ºÜ«µO°¥Ç¨`Œ
alternative „Ǩ`ͺ=∂flÜ«µ~, ǨH∆ß~`ŒO°~.
~ current Ǩ^Õ Ç¨^Õ kâ◊=∂OÕÛ q^°∞º`ü
„ǨÇÍǨÏ~. ~ energy „Ǩ`ͺ=∂flÜ«µ
W~^è°#~. ~ host „Ǩ`ͺ=∂flÜ«µ Pu
^äı~Ú. ~ literature ã¨=∂~`ŒO°

™®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
alternism `ͺQõ~
alter sensation J#∞Éèí= ǨO°~ǨO°
altimeter L#flu =∂ѨHí~/ Z`Œ∞Î#∞

HÁeKı ǨiHíO°~
altimetry Z`Œ∞ÎÅ#∞ HÁeKı q^èß#~
altinaut ǨO°fi`ÍO’ǨÏHí∞_«∞
altitude Z`Œ∞Î, ™®=∞O°÷º ™®÷ܵ
altogether ѨÓiÎQå
altrical H©∆O°^®ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
altruism ǨO°Ç≤Ï`Œ`Œfi~, x™®fiO°÷¿ã=
altruist ǨO°Ç≤Ï`ŒHßi
altruistic ǨO°Ç≤Ï`Í`Œ‡Hí, ǨO°Ç≤Ï`Œ „Ǩ^èß#
alum Ǩ>˜ìHí, ÇÍÜ«µ∞H’â◊~
alumni ѨÓO°fi q^®ºO°∞÷Å∞
alumnus áÈ+≤`Œ Ѩل`Œ∞_«∞, ã¨~O°H˜∆`Œ∞_«∞,
™®fl`ŒHí∞_«∞, ѨÓO°fiq^®ºi÷, Ǩ@ìÉèí„^°∞_«∞,
Pe˚=∞O∑û, *Ï˝Ç¨Híâ◊H˜Î áÈÜ˵ Çͺkè
alvar `Œ=fiHßÖ’¡ |Ü«µÅÊ_«¤ Z=∞∞HíÅ#∞
Qõ>˜ìǨiKı~^°∞Hí∞ LǨܡ∂y~Kı O°™®Ü«µ
xHí Ǩ^®O®÷Å q∞„â◊=∞~
alveolar arch ÇÍÜ«µ∞KÍǨ~
alveolate (`Ë<ˇÇ¨@∞ìÖ’ ÖÏQå) z#fl z#fl
Qõ^°∞Å∞ QõÅ
alynergia KÍÖÏǨ#∞Å∞ XHı ã¨=∞Ü«µ~Ö’
KıÜ«µÖËHíáÈ=_«~

Jb˚=∞O∑û, *Ï˝Ç¨Hí â◊H˜Îx
ѨÓiÎQå H’Ö’Ê=_«~, PǨO°~ fã¨∞H’Hí
áÈ=_«~, =∂@Å∞ JO°÷~ Kıã¨∞H’ÖËHí
áÈ=_«~, #_«=ÖËHí áÈ=_«~ =Q≥·O®Å∞#fl
Çͺkè
amabile HÁkÌáå>˜ fÇ≤QõÅ „^®Hí∆O°ã¨~
amalgam O°ã¨q∞„â◊=∞~
amalgamate HíeÜ«µ∞,
UHí"≥∞·áÈ=Ù,
ã¨~b#=∞QÆ∞
amalgamated qb#"≥∞·#† ã¨~ã¨÷Å qbh
HíO°}~, UH©HíO°}~
amalgamation qbhHíO°}~. ~ of
companies Hí~ÃÑhÅ qb#`Œ
amalgamator qbhHíO°Î, Qõ}Hí∞_«∞
amanous Kı`Œ∞Å∞ ÖËx
amaranth HÁÜ«µº `À@Hí∂O°
amaranthus `À@Hí∂O° *Ïu ("≥∞∞Hí¯Å∞)
amass ã¨~áåk~K«∞, á⁄~^°∞, ã¨=∂KÍO°~
á⁄~^°∞
amastia ã¨Î# O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
amateur B`ÍûÇ≤ÏHí „H©_ÍHßO°∞_«∞, „H©_Í
Hßi}˜
amathophobia ^°∞=∞∞‡, ^è°¥o J~>ı
ÉèíÜ«µ~
amative q+¨Ü«∂ã¨H˜Î QõÅ
amativeness q+¨Ü«∂ã¨H˜Î
amaurosis J~^è°`Œfi~
amazement xifi}‚`Œ
amazing Pâ◊ÛO°ºHíO°"≥∞·#, LÖÏ¡ã¨HíO°"≥∞·#,
„Ç‘u^®Ü«µHí"≥∞·#, P#~^À`ÍûǨÅ∞ Híe
y~Kı
amazonis planitia J~QåO°Hí „QõǨÏ~
Ö’x ÖË`ŒO°~Qõ∞ „Ǩ^Õâ◊~
ambada seed QÀQõ∞ q`ŒÎ<®Å∞
ambalam t=Hıâ◊=Ùe^°Ìsfl
ѨÓl~Kı
Ç≤Ï~^°¥ ^ÕÇÍÅÜ«µ~

41

ameliorate
ambassador O®Ü«µÉÏi, ^Ò`ͺkèHßi
amber Hßë®Ü«µO°~Qõ∞† ã‘=∞ Qõ∞yæÅ~
ambidextrous ã¨=º™®z: O≥~_«∞ Kı`Œ∞
Å`À ǨxKı¿ã. ~ perosn ã¨=º™®z
ambience ÇÍ`Í=O°}~, Ǩiã¨O° „ǨÉßè =~
ambient K«∞@¥ì ÇͺÇ≤~z L#fl
ambiguity ã¨~kQõú`Œ, _ÀÖÏÜ«µ=∂#`Œ

Jxiú+¨ì`Œ, Jã¨Ê+¨ì`Œ, |Ǩïà®O°÷ É’^è°Hí`Œ
Jã¨Ê+¨ì, ã¨~kQõú, JxtÛ`Œ,
ã¨~^ÕǨã¨Ê^°"≥∞·#, qâ◊^°~ Hßx, J#∞
=∂<®ã¨Ê^°, J<ËHßO°÷Hí
ambit Ǩikè, ÇͺÇ≤Î, ã¨iǨÏ^°∞Ì, Ǩiq∞u,
=ÅÜ«µ~† *Ïa`Í, z>Ïì, Hı∆„`Œ~
ambition Qå_è°ÇÍ~Kè«, J`ͺâ◊, ÖÏÅ#,
ÃÑ^°ÌH’iHí
ambitious Qå_è°ÇÍ~Kè«QõÅ, J`ͺâ◊QõÅ
ambiuert LÉèíÜ«µ=O°Î#∞_«∞
ambivalence JxtÛHíu, ^°fi~^°fi„Ǩ=$uÎ
ambivalent JxtÛu, ^°fi~^°fi „Ǩ=$uÎQÅ
õ ,
qO°∞^°ú
amblyaphia ã¨ÊO°≈ H’Ö’Ê=_«~
amblygeustia O°∞z H’Ö’Ê=_«~
amblyopia ^°$+≤ì=∂~^°º~, `Œyæ# Hí~>˜
K«¥Ñ¨Ù
ambolism rѨÙÖ’¡ xO®‡}„H˜Ü«µ
ambrosia J=∞$`Œ~, ^Õ=`ŒÅ PǨO°~,
O°∞zQõŠǨ^®O°÷~
ambrosiac ÇÍã¨#QõÅ
ambrosial ^Õ=`Í ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#, k=º
Ǩi=∞à◊~ QõÅ
ambulant K«Å# ã¨=∞O°÷`Œ
ambush n. "≥∞O°∞ѨÙ^®_ç, ^˘~Qõ^≥|ƒ
ambush v. ^˘~Qõ^≥|ƒfÜ«µ∞, PHíã≤‡Hí~Qå
^®_çKıÜ«µ∞
amelia J~QõÇ‘Ï#`Œ
ameliorate Jaè=$kúKıÜ«µ∞, ÉÏQõ∞KıÜ«µ∞,
ÉÏ^è° xÇÍi~K«∞
ambiguous

amelioration

ã¨ik^°Ì_«~,
Çı∞Å∞
KıÜ«µ_«~, (ÉÏ^è°) ^°¥O°~KıÜ«µ_«~, LǨ
â◊=∞#~
amenable J#∞Hí∂Å, =∂O°Ê^°y#
amend ã¨=i~K«∞, ã¨ik^°∞Ì, =∂O°∞Ê
amendment ã¨=O°}, =∂O°∞Ê, k^°∞ÌÉÏ@∞
amenity =ã¨u, ™œHíO°º~, ã¨^°∞áåÜ«µ~
amenorrhea O°∞`Œ∞„Hí=∞~ O®HíáÈ=_«~
ament *Ï˝Ç¨Híâ◊H˜Î ÖËx =ºH˜Î
amerce AÖχ<® ÇıÜ«µ∞, tH˜∆~K«∞
ametropia Hí~>˜ K«¥Ñ¨Ù ֒Ǩ~
amiability ¿ãflÇ¨Ï ã¨fiÉèß=~
amiable ¿ãflǨÏѨÓO°fiHí, ¿ãflǨτǨ^°
amicable ™®ufiHí, ǨÏ$^°º"≥∞·#, ã¨=∞O°ã¨,
™®=∞O°ãº¨ ѨÓO°fiHí, ¿ãflǨÏѨÓ~°fiHí, ǨO㰠ʨ O°
ã¨=∞‡`Œ. ~ solution P"≥Ø^°Üˇ∂Qõº"≥∞·#
Ǩi뮯O°~
amicus curiae ™®fiO°÷O°Ç≤Ï`Œ∞_≥·# ã¨ÅǨ
^®O°∞, H’O°∞ì P^Õâ◊~ Çı∞O°Hí∞ `Œ# Jaè
„áåÜ«µ~ q=i~Kı <®ºÜ«µxѨÙ}∞_«∞
amid =∞^è°º, ã¨=∞Hí∆~Ö’
amile ^°∞O°ƒùÅ"≥∞·#, =∞∞ã¨Å=∞‡=~>˜
amimia ã¨~[˝Å ^®fiO® ã¨~Éèß+≤~K« ÖËHí
áÈ=_«~
amine Z"≥∞<
· ,ü #„`Œ[x ã¨~ܡ∂Qõ Ǩ^®O°~÷
amino Z"≥∞·<üHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#. ~ compound Z"≥∞·<À ã¨Çı∞‡à◊#~
amino acid Z"≥∞·<À P=∞¡~
amiss `ŒÇ¨C, ã¨iHßx, `ŒÇ¨CQå, ^À+¨~Qå
amitate Ç≤`Œ$™®kèHßO°~
amitosis J"≥∞·>Ïã≤ãπ, Jã¨=∞qÉèí[#
amity "≥∞·„u, ã¨"≥Ø^è°º
ammeter Jg∞‡@O∑: q^°∞º`ü „ǨÇÍǨxfl
P~Ç≤Ü«µO∑ „Ǩ=∂}®Ö’¡ HÁeKı ǨiHíO°~
ammonia J"≥؇xÜ«∂ ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù
ammoniaification J"≥ØxÜ∂HíO°}~
amelioration

42

amphibia
ammonolysis J"≥ØxÜ«∂ qâı¡+¨}K«O°º
ammunition =∞~^°∞Qõ∞~_«∞ ™®=∞„y
amnesia =∞u=∞O°∞ѨÙ, q㨇O°}, q㨇 $u,

㨇 $u֒Ǩ~, *Ï˝Ç¨Híâ◊H˜Îx H’Ö’Ê=_«~
amnesty Hí∆=∞, Hí∆=∂aèHí∆, Hí∆=∂^®#~,
Hí∆=∂aèHí∆ÃÑ@∞ì, `ŒÇ¨CHßÜ«µ∞, Hí∆q∞~K«∞
amnion LŃ~, L=∞‡
amniota LŃ r=ÙÅ∞
amniotic cavity LŃHí∞ǨÏO°~
amnotic fluid L=∞‡hO°∞
amoeba Jg∞ÉÏ, „áå^ä°q∞Hí UHíHí} rq
amoebiasis Jg∞ÉÏ=Å¡ HíeQÕ J~@∞
Çͺkè
amoebic dysentery lQõ@ qOÕK«<®Å∞
amoeboid Jg∞ÉÏ=~>˜
amok ^°∞_«∞Híܵ#, L<®‡^°~`À Hí∂_ç#
amoral huÉÏǨϺ
amorality huÉÏǨϺ`Œ, ã¨^®KÍO°~ HÁO°
=_«_«~
amorous Hß=∞„Ǩ=$uÎQõÅ, „¿Ñq∞Hí∞_≥·#,
„¿Ñ=∞Hí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
amorphous O°¥Ç¨O°Ç≤Ï`Œ, PHßO°~ÖËx,
㨄Hí=∞~Hßx, Ѷ¨∞hÉèíq~K«x, J=º=ã≤÷`Œ
"≥∞·#
amortization O°∞}q"≥ØK«#, Jã¨Å∞ =_ô¤
HíeÇ≤ ÇÍܵ^®Å∞Qå JǨC K‹e¡~Kı
q^èß#~, O°∞} q"≥ØK«#Hí∞ ^®#~
amortize ÇÍܵ^®Å∞Qå JǨC K‹e¡~K«∞
amount "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~, Ǩi=∂}~.~ realised
=ã¨¥Öˇ·# "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~. ~ secured `ÍHí@∞ì
O°∞} "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~
amour „¿Ñ=∞ HíÖÏǨ~, Hí∞„@
ampere P~Ç≤Ü«µO∑: q^°∞ºK«ÛùH˜Îx HÁeKı
„Ǩ=∂}~
amphibia LÉèíÜ«µK«O®Å∞:
<ËÅÃÑ·#,
h>˜Ö’ Hí∂_Í rq~Kı r=ÙÅ∞

amphibiology
amphibiology LÉèíÜ«µK«O®^谺ܫµ#~
amphibious LÉèíÜ«µK«O°"≥∞·#
amphibrach [Qõ}~
ampholyte LÉèíÜ«µ^è°i‡
amphoteric kfiã¨fiÉèß=Ü«µ∞`Œ
amphoterism kfiã¨fiÉèß=`Œ
ample q™®ÎO°"≥∞·#, ZHí∞¯=, ѨÙ+¨¯Å, Hß=

Åã≤#~`Œ, qѨÙÅ
amplifier =O°úHí~, â◊|ú=$kú ǨiHíO°~
amplify qã¨Î $`ŒÇ¨O°K«∞, qѨÙbHíi~K«∞†

^è°fix ÃÑ~K«∞
q™®ÎO°~, ÃÑ^°Ì ã≤÷u† _ÀÅ#
Ǩiq∞u
ampulliform ã‘™®ÖÏQõ∞~_Ë
amputate J=Ü«µ=~
amputation J~QõKıÛù^°~
amuse LÖÏ¡ã¨Ç¨O°∞Û, #=ÙfiHí∞<Ë@∞ì KıÜ«µ∞,
q<À^°Ç¨O°K«∞
amusement LÖÏ¡ã¨~,
ã¨~`À+¨~,
q<À^°~
amylaceous Ç≤~_ç Ǩ^®O°÷~QõÅ
amyli Z~_ç# z~`ŒÇ¨~_«∞
amyloplast Ç≤~_ç Ǩ^®O°÷ OÕ}∞=ÙÅ∞
amylose Jq∞Ö’*ò, F O°Hí~ K«H≥¯O°
amyotonia Hí~_«O®Å ay ã¨_«Å_«~
anabasis „Hí=∂#∞Qõ`Œ~Qå Z^°Qõ_«~,
Ǩ`ÍHí™®÷ܵH˜ KıO°_«~
anabolic â◊sO®Hí$ux ÃÑ~Kı
anachoresis ÉÁiÜ«µÖ’¡ ^®H’¯=_«~
anachronism HßÅ =º`ŒºÜ«µ~, HßÅ~
K‹e¡#, áå`Œ, =∞¥ã¨Ç¨^°úu
anachrony HßÅ=ºu„Hí=∞~
anacusia „|Ǩχ*ˇ=∞∞_«∞
anaemia O°HíÎÇ‘Ï#`Œ, áå~_«∞O’Qõ~, áåe
áÈ=_«~. haemolytic ~ O°HíÎ Hí}
qzÛù#fl`Œ iron deficiency ~ ֒ǨÏÅ∞ǨÎ
O°HíÎÇ‘Ï#`Œ. nutritional ~ áÈ+¨HßǨO°
amplitude

43

analytical

Å∞ǨÎO°HíÎÇ‘Ï#`Œ. secondary ~ J#∞
|~kè`Œ O°HíÎÇ‘Ï#`Œ
anaerobe ÇÍÜ«µ∞ xO°¿ÑH˜∆
anaerobic ÇÍÜ«µ∞ O°Ç≤Ï`Œ"≥∞·#
anaesthesia K‹·`Œ#ºO®Ç≤Ï`Œº~, =∞`Œ∞Î
Híey~K«_«~. general ~ ѨÓiÎ =∞`Œ∞Î.
local ~ HÁxfl J~QåÅHı Híey~Kı
=∞`Œ∞Î. regional ~ Ǩiq∞`Œ „áå~`Í
xH˜ Híey~Kı =∞`Œ∞Î
anaesthetic xâıÛ`ŒHí, =∞`Œ∞Î =∞~^°∞
anaesthetist =∞`Œ∞Î =∞~^°∞ WKıÛ =ºH˜Î,
K‹·`Œ#ºÇ¨ÏO°} âÍG xѨÙ}∞_«∞
anagogical JO’ú#flf HíO°}~
anal Pã¨# ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
analgesic ÉÏ^èßxÇÍO°Hí
analogical creation ™®=∂º^èßi`Œ
O°¥Ç¨ã¨$+≤ì
analogous áÈe#, ã¨^°$â◊, ã¨=∂#"≥∞·#,
`Œ∞ź"≥∞·#, J#∞O°¥Ç¨
analogue ™®^°$â◊º~. ~ model ™®^°$â◊º
#=∞¥<®
analogy áÈeHí, ™®=∞º~, ã¨~|~^è°~,
^°$ë®ì~`Œ~, ™®^°$â◊º~, q^è°∞Å ™®O°¥
Ǩº`Œ
analysand P`Œ‡qâı¡+¨} Kıã¨∞Hí∞<Ë =ºH˜Î
analyse qâı¡+≤~K«∞, q=i~K«∞
analyser qâı¡+¨Hí~, qâı¡+¨Hí∞_«∞, qâı¡+¨Hí∞
O®Å∞
analysis qâı¡+¨}
analyst qâı¡+¨Hí∞_«∞/ qâı¡+¨Hí∞O®Å∞
analytic qâı¡+¨}®`Œ‡Hí. ~ language
qâı¡+¨}®`Œ‡Hí Éèß+¨
analytical qâı¡+¨}®`Œ‡Hí. ~ balance
qâı¡+¨} ã¨=∞`“ź~. ~ economics
"≥·âı¡+≤Hí JO°÷âÍG~. ~ method qâı¡+¨}
q^èß#~. ~ proof qâı¡+¨Hí LǨǨuÎ. ~
reagent qâı¡+¨} HßO°Hí~

44

anamalous
anamalous Jã¨~Qõ`Œ,
anamenesis *Ï˝Ç¨Hí~,

=º`Œºã¨Î, qǨs`Œ
㨇 $uѨÓO°fi [#‡

㨇O°}~
=º`ͺã¨~, ÃÇÏK«∞Û`ŒQõ∞æÅ∞,
Jã¨~Qõ``Œ fiŒ ~, "≥Ç· s¨ `Œº~, JO°O÷ Ç° Ï≤ `Œ Ǩ^°
„Ǩܡ∂Qõ~
anamophily ǨO®Qõã¨~ǨO°¯~ [iy#
anandria ѨÙO°∞+¨ ÅHí∆}®Å∞ ÖËHíáÈ=_«~
anaphase K«Å#^°â◊
anaphia ã¨ÊO°≈ ÖËHíáÈ=_«~/ ã¨ÊO°≈ â◊H˜Î
`ŒyæáÈ=_«~
anaphora ѨÙ#O°∞H˜Î, Ǩ^° ѨÙ#„O°æǨÏ}~
anaphrodisia Hß=∞ÇÍ~Kè« ÖËHíáÈ=_«~/
`ŒyæáÈ=_«~
anaphylaxis f„= „Ǩ„H˜Ü«µ
anaplasta JqHíã¨#`Œfi~
anaptyxis ã¨fiO°ÉèíH˜Î
anarchism JO®[HíÇÍ^°~
anarchist JO®[HíÇÍk
anarchy Jã¨Î=ºã¨Î`Œ, Jã≤÷O°`Œ, JO®[
Hí`Œfi~, âÍ~uÉèí„^°`ŒÅ H©∆}`Œ, „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi
Ü«µ~„`Í~Qõ "≥·Ñ¶¨Åº~
anasarca #~A, L|∞ƒ, [Ö’^°O°~
anastomosis #káåÜ«µÅ∞Qå q_çáÈ=_«~
anathema y@ìx, XÅ¡x† |Ç≤Ï+¨¯O°},
P~Hí∆
anatomical â◊sO° xO®‡} ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
anatomist =∞$`Œ â◊sO° qâı¡+¨Hí∞_«∞
anatomy J~`ŒiflO®‡} âÍG~, â◊sO°
xO®‡} âÍG~, ã¨=∞„Qõ ǨijÅ#
ancestor ѨÓifiHí∞_«∞
ancestral ѨÓifiHí, ѨÓifiHí∞Å, `Í`Œ
=∞∞`ÍÎ`ŒÅ <®>˜. ~ property Ç≤„`Íi˚`Œ
Pã≤Î.
ancestry =~â◊áåO°~ǨO°º
anchor Å~QõO°∞, HßO°º„Hí=∞ xO®fiǨÏ
anamoly

angel

ã¨~^èß#HíO°Î† ^°$_è°~Qå |~kè~z L~K«∞,
Hí^°ÅHí∞~_Í L~_«∞
anchorage Å~QõO°∞ ã¨∞~Hí~† Å~QõO°∞
Çı¿ã KÀ@∞, ÅwflHíO°}~
ancillary J#∞|~^è°, ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí
andocracy ѨÙO°∞ë®kèHßO°~ QõÅ ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~
androcyte ѨÙO°∞+¨ c[ =∂`Œ$Hí}~
androecious c*ÏÅ∞ =∂„`ŒÇı∞ L#fl
"≥∞∞Hí¯
androecium Hıã¨O®=o
androgen ѨÙO°∞+¨∞Ö’¡x Öˇ·~yHí ǨO’‡<ü,
J@∞=~>˜ Hí$„u=∞ ã¨~ܡ∂[Hí Ǩ^®O°÷~
andrographis <ËÅÇı=∞∞
androgynous ѨÙO°∞+¨, ¢ã‘Î ÅHí∆}®Å∞
O≥~_«¥ XHı =ºH˜ÎÖ’ L~_«_«~. ~
flower kfie~Qõ ѨÙ+¨Ê~
androgyny kfie~Qõ`Œ
android =∂#∞+¨O°¥Ç¨~Ö’ L~_Ë
andrology ѨÙO°∞+¨∞Å Çͺ^è°∞Å#∞ J^è°º
Ü«µ#~ Kı¿ã „Ǩ`˺Hí âÍG~
androspore ѨÙO°∞+¨ ã≤^°ú c[~
androsterone ѨÙO°∞+¨ Öˇ·~yHí ǨO’‡<ü
anecdote Ç≤@ìHí^ä°, q+¨Ü«∂~`ŒO° 㨥ÊùiÎ,
JÇÍ~`ŒO° q+¨Ü«µ~, ã¨=∂~`ŒO° q+¨Ü«µ
„Ǩ™®Î=#
anemometer Qåe ÇıQåxfl HÁeKı
™®^è°#~
anemophilous ÇÍÜ«µ∞ǨO®Qõ ã¨~ǨO°¯~
anemophily ǨO®Qõ ã¨~ǨO°¯~ [iy#
anepigraphon =∞∞Yz„`Œ~ÖËx „ǨK«∞O°}
anergasia ǨxKı¿ã â◊H˜Î ÖËHíáÈ=_«~
anergia â◊H˜Î֒Ǩ~
aneroid J<®„O°Ì
aneurysm (of brain) ("≥∞^°_«∞Ö’) O°HíÎ
<®à®Å L|∞ƒ Çͺkè, ÇÍѨÙÇͺkè
angel ^Õ=`Œ, JǨûO°ã¨

45

angina
angina TÇ≤O®_«x ã≤÷u
angina of effort „â◊=∞=Å¡

=KıÛ

Qõ∞~_≥áÈ@∞
angina pectoris KèßuÖ’ <˘Ç≤Ê
angiogenesis O°HíÎ Hıâ◊<®oHíÅ Jaè=$kú
angioplasty ÉˇÅ¥<ü ^®fiO® Kı¿ã Qõ∞~_≥

zH˜`Œû
P=$`Œ c[Ѩ٠"≥∞∞Hí¯,
q`ŒÎ<®Å∞ Ѷ¨Å^°à®ÅÖ’ P=$`Œ"≥∞· L~_Ë
"≥∞∞Hí¯
angle n. H’}~. ~ grancing J#∞
ã¨Ê $â◊ºH’}~. ~ of contact ã¨ÊO°≈H’}~
angle v. KıǨÅ∞ Ǩ@∞ì, QåÅ~ ÇıÜ«µ∞
angling KıǨÅ∞ Ǩ@ì_«~, QåÅ~ ÇıÜ«µ_«~†
HßK«∞Hí∞ Hí∂O’Û=_«~
anglomania qǨs`Œ"≥∞·# P~Qå¡aè=∂#~
angoranimi Pã¨#fl=∞O°}*Ï˝#~
angry outbursts P„QõǨO®ÇÍÅ∞
angry youngmen „Hí∞^°úÜ«µ∞=Hí∞Å∞
angstrom P~Q∑„™®ì"£∞ „Ǩ=∂}~: g∞@
O∑Ö’ ǨkÇıÅ H’@¡ =~`Œ∞
anguine áå=∞∞=~>˜
anguish Qõ∞~*Ï@#, f„="≥∞·# âÍsO°Hí/
=∂#ã≤Hí ÉÏ^è°, H∆’Éèí
anguished ÉÏ^èßHíO°"≥∞·#
angular H’}©Ü«µ
angular stomatitis <ÀO°∞ z=i ÉèßQåÖ’¡
UO°Ê_Ë Ç¨Qõ∞à◊∞§
angular velocity H’}©Ü«µÇıQõ~, =O°∞ÎÅ
ÇıQõ~
angustate J~Qõ∞mO°¥Ç≤
anhydrous J<®„O°Ì, `Œ_çÖËx, xO°˚Å. ~
alcohol xO°˚Å =∞^°º™®O°~
animal cule 㨥Hí;rq, 㨥Hí;„H˜q∞
animal electricity âÍsO°Hí q^°∞º`Œ∞Î
animal husbandry Ǩâ◊∞áÈ+¨}
angio sperm

ankylo stomiasis
animal manures ÃÑ~@ ZO°∞=ÙÅ∞
animal psychology [~`Œ∞ =∞#ã¨Î`Œfi

âÍG~
animal starch [~`Œ∞=ÙÅ Ç≤~_ç Ǩ^®O°÷~
animate ã¨r=, ã¨Kı`Œ#, K‹·`Œ#º=~`Œ

"≥∞·#, L`ÍûǨÏHíO°"≥∞·#
animation ã¨Kı`Œ#`Œfi~, HíkÖË ÉÁ=∞‡Å
Híà◊
animation drawings HíkÖË ÉÁ=∞‡Å∞
wÜ«µ_«~
animation film HíkÖË ÉÁ=∞‡Å z„`Œ~
animatism =∞∞Qõú`ŒfiÇÍ^°~, J™®^èßO°}
â◊Hí∞ÎÅ∞ HíÅ=<Ë #q∞‡Hí
animator PxÇı∞+¨<ü z„`ÍÅ∞ Çı¿ã =ºH˜Î
animism ã¨O®fi`Œ‡ÇÍ^°~, r=`ÍfiO’Ǩ}~
animo L^ÕÌâ◊~`À, Qå_è°"≥∞·# qâÍfiã¨~`À
animosity qO’^è°~, qÉèı^°~, á⁄O°
á⁄KÍÛÅ∞, "≥·O°Éèß=~, ǨQõ, "≥·O°~,
"≥·+¨=∞º~
animus ^°∞O°∞^ÕÌâ◊~† â◊„`Œ∞Éèß=~, ^Õfi+¨
Éèß=~
aninmism P`Œ‡ÃÑ· #=∞‡Hí~ L~_«_«~.
P`Œ‡ [~`Œ∞=Ùefl, =∂#=Ùefl, K«∞@¥ì
L#fl W`ŒO° Ǩiã¨O®Å#∞ „ǨÉèßq`Œ~
Kıã¨∞Î~^°<Ë ÇÍ^°~
anion O°∞}®`Œ‡Hí q^°∞º^®Çıâ◊~ QõÅ (O°∞}®
Çıâ◊~ QõÅ) JÜ«∂<ü
aniso gamete Jã¨=∞ ã¨~ܡ∂Qõ c[~
aniso gamous Jã¨=∞ ã¨~ܡ∂Qõ
anisogamy Jã¨=∞ ã¨~ܡ∂Qõ`Œfi~
anisophyllous Jã¨=∂# Ǩ„`Œ~
anisotropic q+¨=∞ kâÍ`Œ‡Hí
ankle pÅ=∞~_«
ankolostoma HÁ~H˜Ñ¨ÙO°∞Qõ∞
ankylosis H©à◊§Ö’ K«Å#O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
ankylo stomiasis HÁ~H˜Ñ¨ÙO°∞QÆ∞ Çͺkè

anneal
anneal JhÅ#~
annealing Çı_çKıã≤

Hß=Åã≤# PHßO°~
Ö’H˜ =∂iÛ K«Å¡|O°K«_«~
annectent Híe¿Ñ, KıOÕÛ, *’_ç~Kı
annelida J<ˇe_Í =O°æ r=ÙÅ∞, ÇÍ#
áå=∞∞Å∞, [ÅQõÅ∞ =Q≥·O®
annex v. J#∞|~kè~K«∞, HíÅ∞ѨÙ, KıO°∞Û,
P„Híq∞~K«∞HÁ#∞
annex (e) n. J#∞|~^è°~, J^°#ѨÙ
q+¨Ü«µ~, xÇıkHí ÖË^® Ǩ„`ÍxH˜ J#∞
|~^è°~Qå WKıÛ qÉèßQõ~
annexation J#∞|~kè~K«_«~, HíÅ∞ѨÙ
H’=_«~, KıO°∞ÛH’=_«~, |Å=~`ŒÑ¨Ù
qbhHíO°}
annexed ã¨~ܡ∂l`Œ
annexure J#∞|~^è°~, [`ŒÇ¨iz#k
annihalation xO°¥‡Å#, ^è°fi~ã¨~, ã¨O°fi
<®â◊#~, ÅÜ«µ~
annihialate xO°¥‡e~K«∞, O°¥Ñ¨Ù=∂ѨÙ,
^è°fi~ã¨~KıÜ«µ∞, <®=∞O°¥áåÅ∞ ÖËHí∞~_Í
KıÜ«µ∞, <®â◊#~KıÜ«µ∞
annihilator ÅÜ«µHßi
annon j„Ѷ¨∞~Qå, WǨC_Ë
annona ã‘`ÍѶ¨Å~
annotate q=i~K«∞,
ÇͺMϺx~K«∞,
>©HíO®Ü«µ∞
annotation ÇͺYº, >˜Ç¨Ê}˜
announce „ǨHí>˜~K«∞
annoy qã≤y~K«∞, zHßHí∞ǨO°K«∞, P~^À
à◊# K‹~^°∞, H’Ǩ~ `ˇÇ≤Ê~K«∞
annoyance pHßHí∞, P~^Àà◊#, O˘+¨∞ì
annoyer PǨ¡^°HíO°~ Hßx ÇÍ>˜x
J~k~Kı „¿ÑO°Hí~
annual UHíÇÍi¬Hí~, UHíÇÍi¬HíѨ٠"≥∞∞Hí¯.
~ general meeting ÇÍi¬Hí ã¨O°fiã¨Éèíº
ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~. ~ leave ÇÍi¬Hí ÃãÅ=Ù. ~
percentage
rate
ã¨~=`ŒûO®xH˜

46

anonymous

XHí™®iQå ÖˇH˜¯~Kı =_ô¤ ÖË^® Híg∞+¨<ü
OÕ@∞. ~ plan ÇÍi¬Hí „Ç¨}®oHí. ~
report ÇÍi¬Hí xÇıkHí. ~ rings ÇÍi¬Hí
=ÅÜ«∂Å∞
annuitant xÜ«µ`Œ HßeHí~Qå xs‚`Œ
"≥∞∞`ÍÎÅ#∞ fã¨∞Hí∞<Ë =ºH˜Î
annuities ÇÍi¬HßÅ∞
annuity ÇÍi¬Hí~, „Ǩu ã¨~=`ŒûO°~
K‹e¡~Kı xs‚`Œ "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~
annul O°^°∞ÌKıÜ«µ∞, K‹Å¡Hí∞~_Í KıÜ«µ∞,
K‹Å∞¡ÉÏ@∞ HßHí∞~_Í KıÜ«µ∞, HÁ>˜ìÇıÜ«µ∞
annular Hí~Hí}, Hí~Hí}®HßO°, =O°∞ÎÖÏ
HßO°, J~Qõ∞mÜ«∂HßO°, L~QõO°Ñ¨Ù ÇıÅ∞.
~ shape =ÅÜ«∂HßO°~
annulment O°^°∞Ì (KıÜ«µ_«~), K‹Å¡Hí∞~_Í
KıÜ«µ_«~, HÁ>˜ìÇıÜ«µ_«~
annulus =$`ÍÎHßO° xO®‡}~
annuniation „ǨHí@#, ÃѶ∞Ï+¨}
annus horibilus Qõ_«∞¤ ã¨~=`ŒûO°~
anode ^è°# „^è°∞=~
anodyne ÉÏ^èßxÇÍi}˜
anoint =∞O°Ì#KıÜ«µ∞, Jaè¿+H˜~K«∞
anointing PÖËǨ#~
anointment =∞O°Ì#KıÜ«µ_«~, Jaè¿+H˜~
K«_«~, âÍ~u~Ǩ KıÜ«µ_«~
anomalous Jã¨~Qõ`Œ, XHí fO°∞ÖËx,
qǨs`Œ, „Hí=∞O°Ç≤Ï`Œ
anomaly xÜ«µ=∞qO°∞^°ú~, J™®^èßO°}~,
qǨs`Œ~, „Hí=∞~ÖËx #_«Hí, =º`ͺã¨~,
`Ë_Í, qHí$u, qO°¥Ç¨~
anomic JxÜ«µu
anomie ™®=∂lHí xÜ«µ=∂Å qzÛù#fl`Œ
anonymity J#aè[˝`Œ, O°Ç¨Ï㨺 QÀǨ#~
anonymous J<®=∞Hí, TO°∞ ¿ÑO°∞ ÖËx,
¿ÑO°∞ `ˇeÜ«µx, Qõ∞O°∞Î `ˇeÜ«µx, J„ǨHí
>˜`Œ† JHíO°Î $Hí~. ~ letters PHßâ◊
O®=∞#fl L`ŒÎO®Å∞

47

anorectic
anorectic PHíe H’Ö’Ê=_«~
anorexia PHíe ÖËHíáÈ=_«~
anorgasmia Öˇ·~yHßã¨=∞O°÷`Œ
anosmia ÇÍã¨#ÖËq∞, „Ѷ¨∂}â◊H˜Îx

anthropometry
antenatus qÇÍǨÏѨÓO°fi ã¨~`Í#~
antenna P~>ˇ<®fl, ã¨ÊO®≈~QåÅ [~@,

ã¨~Hı`Œ „QåǨÏHí~
H’Ö’Ê

=_«~
anourous `ÀHíÖËx, ÇÍq_ç
anoxia „áå}ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù ÖËq∞
anoxic „áå} ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù ÖËx ã≤÷u
ansering |∞kúÖËx† ÉÏ`Œ∞=~>˜
answer back uÇ≤ÊHÁ@∞ì
antacid P=∞¡Ç¨ÏO°~
antagonise H’Ǩ~ `ˇÇ≤Ê~K«∞, qO’^è°~

`ˇK«∞ÛHÁ#∞, ã¨ÊO°úÅ∞ `ˇK«∞Û
antagoniser K«O®º =ºuOÕH˜
antagonism =ºuOÕHí`Œ, â◊„`Œ∞`Œfi~, uO°
™®¯O°~, "≥·O°∞^è°º~, qO’^è°Éèß=~
antagonistic qO°∞^°ú, =ºuOÕHí, =ºuiHíÎ.
~ cooperation qO°∞^°ú ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO°~
antaphrodisiac Hß=∞ÇÍ~Kèß xO’^è°Hí
antarctic circle J~>Ïi¯>˜H±/ ^°H˜∆}
„^è°∞= =ÅÜ«µ~
ante prandial Éè’[<®xH˜ =∞∞~^°∞
ante room Çız L~_Ë Qõk, ǨHí¯Qõk
ante ѨÓO°fi, "≥#∞Hí>˜, =∞∞~^°∞
antecedent ѨÓO°fiǨ^°~, Qõ`Œ~Ö’ [iy
#k. W~`ŒHí∞ =∞∞~^Õ =zÛ#k, =∞∞#∞
Ǩ>˜, Qõ`Œ K«i„`Œ. ~ debt ѨÓO°fiO°∞}~.
~ river ѨÓO°fi=iÎ #k
ante date Qõ_z
« # "≥#∞Hí>˜ `Ën Çıܵ« _«~†
^°™®ÎÇıA O®ã≤# `ËnH˜ =∞∞~^°∞ `Ën
ante diluvian [ńǨà◊Ü«∂xH˜ =∞∞~^°e,
P HßÖÏxH˜ J#∞Qõ∞}"≥∞·#† ѨÙO®`Œ#
"≥∞·#, ÇÍ_«∞HíÖ’ ÖËx, |¥AǨ>˜ì#
antelope ÖË_ç =~>˜ [~`Œ∞=Ù
ante mortem =∞O°}®xH˜ ѨÓO°fi~
antenatal „Ǩã¨=/ „Ǩ㨥u ѨÓO°fi

antenuptial qÇÍǨÏѨÓO°fi
anteriad á⁄_«∞K«∞HÁx =zÛ#
anterior =∞∞~^°>˜, ѨÓO°fi
anthelminitic rO®‚â◊Ü«µ „H˜q∞ã¨~ǨO°Hí
anthem *ÏfÜ«µw`Œ~, ã¨~Ѷ‘∞Éèß= w`Œ~,

™®=∞¥Ç≤ÏHí w`Œ~
antheridium ѨÙO°∞+¨ c*Ïâ◊Ü«µ~
antherozoid K«Å# ѨÙO°∞+¨ c[~
anthesis „ǨѶ¨ÙÅ¡#~†
ѨÓÅ∞qHíã≤~Kı
ã¨=∞Ü«µ~
anthill (K‹^°) ѨÙ@ì
anthocarp ã¨~Ü«µ∞HíΠѶ¨Å~
anthology ã¨~HíÅ#~ („Qõ~^ä°) ã¨~K«Ü«µ~
anthology/ ontology =∞~„`Œ ã¨~HíÅ#~
anthophilous Hí∞ã¨∞=∞„Ç≤Ü«µ, ѨÙë®ÊÅ
g∞^° |uHı
anthozoa „áå^ä°q∞Hí [Årq =O°æ~
anthracnose ÉÁQõ∞æ `ˇQõ∞Å∞
anthrax P~„^äßH±û, Ǩâ∞◊ =ÙÅ ^®fiO® =∞#∞
+¨∞ÅHí∞ ™ÈHı J~@∞Çͺkè
anthropocentrism =∂#= Hı~„^°Hí
ÇÍ^°~
anthropoda ã¨~kèáå^° r=ÙÅ∞
anthropogeography Éè“QÀoHí Ǩiã¨O®
Å`À =∂#=Ù_çH˜ QõÅ ã¨~|~^èßÅ J^è°º
Ü«µ#~
anthropolatry [~`Œ∞=ÙÅHí∞ `Œ=∞ Ü«µ[
=∂#∞ÅÃÑ· QõÅ J~H˜`Œ Éèß=~
anthropologist =∂#=âÍGA˝_«∞
anthropology =∂#= Ǩi}®=∞ âÍG~,
#$âÍG~, =∂#= âÍG~
anthropometry =∂#= â◊sO° =∂Ǩ#~,
=∂#=q∞u

anthropomorphism

=∂#=`ÍfiO’Ǩ},
=∞#∞+¨º ÉèßÇÍO’Ǩ}
anthropophagi #O°=∂~㨠ÉèíHí∆Hí∞Å∞
anthrose J„QÀ#∞‡Y
antivenom áå=∞∞ që®xH˜ qO°∞Qõ∞_«∞,
ã¨O°Êq+¨ qO’kè
anti-abortionist QõO°ƒù„™®= =ºuOÕH˜
antibacterial „Ǩu㨥Hí;rq† 㨥Hí;rq
<®â◊Hí
antibilious ÃÑ·`ͺ~`ŒHí
antibiosis ã¨Ç¨Ï=ã≤~Kı r=ÙÅ =∞^è°º
qO’^è°~
antibiotic 㨥Hí;r=<®â◊Hí~
antibiotics q+¨„H˜q∞ q<®â◊HßÅ∞, Çͺkè
[#Hí „H˜q∞ <®â◊HßÅ∞
antibody „ǨuO°Hí∆Hí Ǩ^®O°÷~. ~ protein „ǨuO°Hí∆Hí „áÈ>©<ü
antibrachium =∞∞~*Ëܵ
antic Ǩ㨺HßO°Hí/ q^°¥+¨Hí „Ç¨=O°Î#
anticipate =∞∞~^°∞Qå
„QõÇ≤Ï~K«∞,
TÇ≤Ï~K«∞
anticipated
demand
Pt~z#
_ç=∂~_ü
anticipation Pt~z#† Éèíq+¨º^°¥Ç¨Ï
anticipatory =∞∞~^°∞Qå<Ë TÇ≤Ï~K«∞. ~
bail =∞∞~^°ã¨∞Î *Ïg∞#∞. ~ socialization ã¨fi ã¨~㨯 $fHíO°}~
anticlastic Jã¨^°$â◊, =∞∞Hí¯Å∞Hßx
anticlericalism =∞`ÍkèHßO° =ºuOÕHí`Œ
anticlimax qÖ’=∞ ǨO®Hß+¨ª
anticline QÀѨÙO°~ÖÏQõ∞~_Ë ÉèßQõ~, H˜~^°
ZHí∞¯=, ÃÑ·# `ŒHí∞¯= "≥_«Å∞ÊQõÅ Hí@ì,
(ǨO°fi`Œ) tYO°~
anti-clockwise JǨã¨=ºkâ◊
anticoagulant Qõ_«¤Hí@ì_Íxfl xO’kè~Kık,
„Ǩu㨯~^°Hí~
anthropomorphism

48

anti-malarial
anticonvulsant =∞¥O°ÛùxO’^è°Hí~
anticyclone „Ǩu K«„HíÇÍ`Œ~
antidepressant P~^Àà◊#/ ÇͺHí∞Å`Í

xÇÍi}˜
antidote qO°∞Qõ∞_«∞, „Ǩu„H˜Ü«µ
anti dumping duty kQõ∞=∞u

xO’^è°Hí

ã¨∞~Hí~
anti-establishment =º=™®÷ qO°∞^°ú
antifertility =~^è°º`Œfi HßO°Hí, Ѷ¨Å#

™®=∞O®÷ºxfl `Œyæ~Kı
antifreeze Ѷ¨∞hÉèí=# xO’^è°Hí~
antifriction „ǨuѶ¨∞i¬}˜
antigen „Ǩu [#Hí~
anti-haemophilic factor „ǨuO°Hí΄™®=

HßO°Hí~
anti-hemorrhagic O°HíÎ „™®=xO’^è°Hí
anti-hero qÖ’=∞ <®Ü«µHí∞_«∞
anti-heroine qÖ’=∞ <®ÜµHí
anti-histamine JÖˇs˚H˜ HßO°}"≥∞·# Ç≤Ïã¨ì

"≥∞·#¡#∞ xO’kè~Kı B+¨^è°~
anti-human serum =∂#= „ǨuO°Hí∆Hí
O°ã≤
anti-infective ã¨~„Hí=∞} xO’^è°Hí
anti-inflammatory â’^èx
° O’^èH° ,í <˘Ç≤Ê/
ÇÍѨ٠`Œyæ~Kık
anti-knock q™ÈÊù@# =ºuHíO°}˜
anti-language „Ǩu Éèß+¨
anti-literature ™®Ç≤Ï`Œº~, ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«µ
qO°∞^°ú
anti-logarithm „Ǩu ã¨~=O°æ=∂#~
antilogy Jã¨~Qõ`Œ Ǩ^°*ÏÅ~
anti-lymphocyte serum e~á¶ÈÃã·>ò,
xO’^è°Hí O°ã≤
antilysin qzÛù#fl`Í xO’^è°Hí
antilysis qzÛù#fl`Í xO’^è°~
anti-malarial =∞ÖËiÜ«∂ xO’^è°Hí

antimatter
antimatter „Ǩu„^°=º~, =ºuOÕHí Ǩ^®O°÷~
antimetabolia r=„H˜Ü«∂xO’kè
antimetabolite r=„H˜Ü«∂ xO’^è°Hí~
antimetropia <Ë„`ÍÅ =„H©Éèí=# â◊H˜ÎÖ’

HíÅ `Ë_Í, L^®: XHí Hí~>˜H˜ ^°¥O°^°$+≤ì
֒Ǩ~ O≥~_«= Hí~>˜H˜ „ǨÏã¨fi^°$+≤ì ֒Ǩ~
L~_«_«~
antimicrobial 㨥Hí;r=<®â◊Hí, 㨥Hí;
r= xO’^è°Hí
antinephric =∞¥„`ŒÇ≤~_« Çͺkè xO’^è°Hí
antineuritic <®_ôÉÏ^èßxO’^è°Hí
antinomianism K«>ÏìÅ #∞~_ç q∞#Ǩ
ܵ~ѨÙÅ∞ H’O°_«~
antinomy ǨO°ã¨ÊO°qO°∞^°ú~
anti-novel qÖ’=∞ #=Å: ™®~„Ǩ^®Ü«µHí
xO®‡}®~âÍÅ#∞ xO®Híi~z# „Ǩܡ∂
Qå`Œ‡Hí #=Å
anti-oxident „Ǩu PH©ûHíO°}˜, PH©ûHíO°}
xO’^è°Hí~
antiparallel „Ǩuã¨=∂~`ŒO°
antiparasitic ǨO®#flrq xO’^èH
° /í <®â◊Hí
antipartical „Ǩuâ◊HíÅ~, qO°∞^°úHí}~
antipathetic Jx+¨ì"≥∞·#, =ºuOÕHí"≥∞·#
antipathy "≥·O°~, qO°∞^°ú Éèß=~
antipersonnel „Ǩ`˺H˜~z HßŃÖÏxfl
<®â◊#~Kı¿ã
antiperspirant ¿ãfi^° xO’^è°Hí
anti phlogistic ÇÍѨÙ#∞ `Œyæ~Kı
antiphon XHíi "≥~@ XHíO°∞ áå_«_«~
antiphonic ǨO°ã¨ÊO°~ „Ǩuã¨Ê~k~Kı
antiplay qÖ’=∞ <®@Hí~† ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«µ
Ǩ^°ú`Œ∞Å#∞ qHí$fHíi~Kı <®@Hí~
anti proton „Ǩu„áÈ>Ï<ü
antiprotozoal UHíHí}r=<®â◊Hí, „áÈ>’
*ÏÇÍ r=*ÏÅ<®â◊Hí
antipruritic ^°∞O°^° áÈQ˘>ıì, Hí~_«¥u
xO’^è°Hí

49

antitrust
antipyrates [fiO°xO’^è°HßÅ∞
antipyretic [fiO°xO’^è°Hí
antiquarcy ѨÙO®`Œ# =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ#∞

¿ãHí
i~Kı/ J^谺ܫµ#~ Kı¿ã/ q„Híܵ~Kı
=ºH˜Î
antiquarian ѨÙO®`Œ#
=ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ#∞,
J~âÍÅ#∞ J^谺ܫµ#~ Kı¿ã â◊H˜Î
antiquated HßÅ^À+¨~ Ǩ>˜ì#
antique „áåp# HßÅ~<®>˜
antiquities ѨÙO®=ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞
antiquity ѨÙO®`Œ#`Œfi~
antirabis Hí∞Hí¯Hß@∞ Çͺkè xO’^è°Hí~
anti reheumatic H©à◊§ <˘Ç¨CÅ xÇÍi}˜
anti scorbutic #~AÇͺkè xO’kè
antisepsis ÉÏH©ìiÜ«∂
xO’^è°Hí`Œfi~/
<®â◊Hí~
antiseptic p=∞∞, =∂e#º xO’^è°
HßO°Hí~, „H˜q∞<®â◊Hí~
antisepticise „H˜q∞<®â◊#~ KıÜ«µ∞
antiserum „Ǩu^ÕǨÅ∞ QõÅ O°HíÎO°ã≤
antisocial ã¨~Ѷ¨∞ =ºuOÕHí, ã¨~Ѷ¨∞ q„^À
ǨÏHí
antispasmodic Hí~_«O° ã¨~H’K«/ =∞∞Hí∞
à◊# xO’kè
antisterility =~^è°º`Œfi xO’^è°Hí`Œ
antistress „Ǩ`Œºaè|Å~† XuÎ_ç #∞~z
LǨâ◊=∞#~ Híey~Kı
antitank â◊`ŒÑ¶≤∞fl q^è°fi~ã¨Hí
antithesis „ǨuÇÍ^°~,
qO°∞^®ú~â◊~,
"≥·O°∞^è°º~
antitoxin q+¨Ç¨i
antitradewind L`ŒÎO®O°úQÀà◊~Ö’ <ˇ·O°∞u
#∞~z, ^°H˜∆}®O°ú QÀà◊~Ö’ ÇÍÜ«µ=º~
#∞~z gKı Ǩ=<®Å∞
antitrust |Ǩïà◊*Ïu ã¨~ã¨÷Å =Å¡ HíeQÕ
^°∞„+¨Êܡ∂[<®ÅHí∞ =ºuOÕHí"≥∞·# K«@ì~

50

antitussive
antitussive ^°Qõ∞æ, Hßã¨xO’kè
antiurbanism #QõsHíO°}

=ºuOÕHí`Í

ÇÍ^°~
antivenene

áå=∞∞ q+¨~ qO°∞Qõ∞_«∞

=∞~^°∞
antonym =ºuOÕHíǨ^°~
antrum â◊sO°~Ö’x MÏmã¨÷Å~/ Hí∞ǨÏO°~
anuria =∞¥„`Œ~ xezáÈ=_«~, =∞¥„`Œ

|~^è°#~† ÇͺHí∞Å`Œ
anvil ^®Qõe. on the ~ PÖ’K«#Ö’
#Å∞Qõ∞`Œ∞#fl J~â◊~
anxiety ɡ~Qõ, P`Œ∞O°`Œ, `˘~^°O°,
PO®@~. ~ neurosis P`Œ$`Œ`À Hí∂_ç#
=∞<ÀÇͺkè, ÇͺHí∞Å`Œ`À Hí∂_ç# O°∞Qõ‡`Œ
anxious P`Œ∞O°, ÇͺHí∞Å
anxiousness P`Œ∞O°`Œ, ÇͺHí∞Å`Œ, P~^À
à◊#
anywise U^À XHí q^è°~Qå/ XHí fO°∞Qå
aorta =∞Ǩ^è°=∞x
apace j„Ѷ¨∞~Qå, `˘~^°O°Qå, `Œfii`Œ~Qå
apanthropy ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~ / =∂#= ã¨=∞
r=#~ J~>ı qO°H˜Î
apareunia ã¨~Éè’y~K«ÖËx ã≤÷u
apart <ËO°∞Qå, q_çQå, „Ǩ`˺Hí~Qå. take
~ =∞~^°e~K«∞, Qõ>˜ì~K«∞. tell ~
ÇıO°∞Kıã≤ K«¥_«∞
apartheid *Ïu/ =O°‚qK«Hí∆}
apathy L^®ã‘#`Œ, xO°¡Hí∆ º~, JÅã¨`Œfi~,
„â◊^°úÖËx, J<®ã¨H˜Î
ape n. `ÀHíÖËx H’u, ÇÍe_ç
ape v. J#∞Híi~K«∞, "≥H˜¯i~K«∞
apeiron ã¨=∞ã¨Î qâÍfixH˜ =∞¥Å"≥∞·# XHí
J*Ï˝`Œ Ǩ^®O°÷~
apepsy <ËO∞° Qå, q_çQå, „Ǩ`ºË Hí~Qå, rO°~

HßHíáÈ=_«~
apercu ã¨~„QõǨÏ~(Qå q=i~K«_«~)

apish
aperient qOÕK«#Hßi
aperture O°~„^è°~
apery "≥H˜¯i~`Œ, J#∞HíO°}~†

aplacental
aplacental [O®Ü«µ∞=ÙÖËx, =∂qÖËx
aplasia â◊sO°~Ö’ XHí J~Qõ~ ã¨iQå Jaè

ÇÍ#O°

Qõ$ǨÏ~
apex Hı~„^°, J„Qõ, J„QõQåq∞, tYO°,
tYO®„Qõ, jO°¬, L#fl`Œ, J`Œ∞º#fl`Œ. ~
juris âÍã¨#~Ö’x „Ǩ^èß# q+¨Ü«µ~,
㨥H∆߇~â◊~. ~ bank Hı~„^° ÉϺ~Hí∞.
~ court J`Œ∞º#fl`Œ <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~
(ÉèßO°`Œ^Õâ◊~Ö’ ã¨∞„Ç‘~H’O°∞ì)
aphagia q∞~QõÖËHíáÈ=_«~
aphagosis u#ÖËHí áÈ=_«~
apharia PÖ’K«#Å#∞ =∂@Ö’¡ =ºH©ÎHí
i~K«ÖËHíáÈ=_«~, ÉèßÇÍaè=ºH˜Î HÁO°=_Ë
Çͺkè
aphasia "≥∞^°_«∞ Çͺkè=Å¡ =∂@ áÈ=_«~
aphelion JѨ¿ÇÏo
aphid ǨK«Û^À=∞, PHí∞¿Ñ#∞
aphonia Ç≤Ïã‘ìiÜ«∂ =Å¡ =∂@ Ǩ_ç
áÈ=_«~
aphordite terra â◊∞„Hí „QõÇ¨Ï LǨi
`ŒÅ~Ö’x Z`ˇ·Î# ÉèßQõ~
aphoresis â◊H˜ÎÇ‘Ï#`Œ, hO°ã¨~
aphorism 㨥H˜Î, hu=K«#~, z„`ÀH˜Î,
㨥„`ÀH˜Î, Hí∞¡áÈÎH˜Î, xO°∞H’ÎH˜Î
aphotic Hß~u O°Ç≤Ï`Œ
aphraisa Ǩ^®Å#∞ HíeÇ≤ ǨÅHíÖËx ã≤÷u
aphrodisiac Hß"≥ØnÌǨHí"≥∞·#
aphyllous PHí∞Å∞ÖËx
apiary honey z#fl DQõÅ `Ë<ˇ
apical tYO®xH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#
apical dominance J„QåkèHíº~
apiculture `Ë<ˇ>©QõÅ ÃÑ~ǨHí~
apiology `Ë<ˇ>©QõÅ Qõ∞i~z J^谺ܫµ#~
Kı¿ã âÍG~
apish H’uã¨fiÉèß=~, H’uKı+¨ìÅ∞ Kı¿ã
zeÇ≤

=$kú K‹~^°HíáÈ=_«~/ Ö’Ç≤~K«_«~
aplentifully ^èßO®à◊~Qå
aplenty |Ǩïà◊~, ѨÙ+¨¯Å~
aplicabilty =O°ÎhÜ«µ`Œ, J#∞=O°ÎhÜ«µ`Œ
aplomb JHí∞~iî`Œ qâÍfiã¨~
aplontic xâ◊ÛÅ
apnea TÇ≤iÖËq∞
apnoea âÍfi㨠xO’^è~
° , TÇ≤i aQõ|@ì_~«
apocalypsc q<®â◊#~, J~`Œ~
apochloratic xO°›i`Œ, ǨÏi`Œ Ǩ^®O°÷~

ÖËx
apocope =O°‚֒Ǩ~
apocrypha O°Ç¨Ï㨺q+¨Ü«∂Å∞
apocryphal J<®=∞Hí „Qõ~^ä°HíO°Î $`Œfi~,

`ˇeÜ«µx „Qõ~^ä°HíO°Î $`Œfi~, J#∞=∂<®
ã¨Ê^°"≥∞·# HíO°Î $`Œfi xO°¥Ç¨}
apodal Jáå^°, áå^°O°Ç≤Ï`Œ
apodictic ÇıOÕ O°∞A=Ù J=ã¨O°~ÖËx,
ã¨Ê+¨ì"≥∞·#
apodous Hßà◊∞§ÖËx
apogamy Jã¨~ܡ∂Qõ~
apogee Éèí¥q∞ #∞~z L~_Ë J`ŒºkèHí
^°¥O°~
apograph =∞∞=∞¥‡O°∞ÎÖÏ áÈe L~_Ë
#HíÅ∞
apolar J„^è°∞=
apolaustic =ºã¨#ǨO°∞_≥·#, Éè’QõÖÏÅã¨
`Œ`À Hí∂_ç#
apolitical attitude JO®[H©Ü«µ, O®[
H©Ü«µ K‹·`Œ#º~ÖËx.
apollo „wHí∞Š㨥O°º^Õ=Ù_«∞
apologist ã¨=∞O°÷Hí∞_«∞. XHí L^°º=∂xfl
Qåx ã¨=∞i÷~Kı =ºH˜Î, W`ŒO°∞ŠǨ#∞Å#∞,
Hí$`Œ∞Å#∞, #=∞‡HßÅ#∞ ã¨=∞i÷~Kı =ºH˜Î

51

apparel
apology Hí∆=∂Ǩ}
apomia =∂>Ï¡_«ÖËHíáÈ=_«~
apomixis Jã¨~ܡ∂Qõ [##~
apophyses „ǨO’ǨÅ∞, ÉÏǨϺ=$kú
apoplex O°HíÎѶ¨∂`Œ~
apoplexy =∞¥O°Ûù, ǨÏOîß`Œ∞ÎQå ã¨ÊO°≈,

K«Å#~ H’Ö’Ê=_«~
aporia ã¨~kQõú`Œ
aport OÕѨÙ"≥·Ñ¨Ù
apositia PǨO°~

J~>ı U=y~ѨÙ, =ºu

OÕHí`Œ
apospory ã≤^°úc[ O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
apostacy =∞`Œ/ ^è°O°‡ `ͺQõ~,

=∞`Œ qâÍfi
™®xfl =^°∞Å∞H’=_«~, =∂O°∞ÛH’=_«~
a posteriori J#∞ÉèíÇÍ#~`ŒO° *Ï˝#~
apostle LǨ^Õâ◊Hí∞_«∞, „Ǩ=HíÎ, HÁ`ŒÎ ã≤^®ú~
`Íxfl „áåO°~aè~KıÇÍ_«∞, (ã¨~㨯O°}’
^°º=∞) <®Ü«µHí∞_«∞
apostlerio J#∞Éèí=~ „áåuǨkHíQå
apostlerio J#∞Éèí=~ „áåuǨkHíQå
apothecary O’Qõ ÅHí∆}®Å#∞ |>˜ì "≥·^°º~
Kı¿ã =ºH˜Î
apothem Å~K«~† |ǨïÉèí∞lÖ’ Hı~„^°~
#∞~z U^≥·<® Éèí∞*ÏxH˜ wã≤# Å~|OÕY
apotheosis á⁄Qõ_«Î, H©O°Î#
appal ÉèíÜ«µÃÑ@∞ì, ÇͺHí∞ÅǨO°K«∞
appalling ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°"≥∞·#
appanage O®[ÉèíO°}~
apparat Hí=∞¥ºxã¨∞ì áåsì O®[H©Ü«µ
ÅHí∆ º~/ ^°à◊~
apparaticks (ã¨~ã¨÷) K«¥O°∞Ǩ@∞ìHí∞x
ÇıÖÏ_ËÇÍO°∞, ã¨∞nO°…HßÅ~Qå „H˜Ü«∂
jÅ~Qå L#flÇÍO°∞
apparatus LǨHíO°}~, Ǩx=∞∞@∞ì
apparel ^°∞ã¨∞ÎÅ∞, Çı+¨Éèß+¨Å∞

apparent

ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå, „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆~Qå ÃÑ·H˜ Híx
Ç≤~Kı, ^°$â◊º=∂#, PÉèß㨄áåÜ«µ"≥∞#· . ~
cause ÃÑ·H˜ HíxÇ≤~Kı HßO°}~. ~ heir
„Ǩ`ŒºHí∆ ÇÍO°ã¨∞_«∞. ~ owner „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆
Ü«∞[=∂x ~ reason „Ѩ`«ºHõ∆ HßO°}~.
~ result „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆ Ѷ¨e`Œ~. ~ weight
^°$â◊º ÉèßO°~
apparently ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå
apparition k=º^°O°≈#~, PqO®ƒù=~†
^°Ü«µº~, Éèí¥`Œ~, Ç≤âÍK«~
appeal JÇ‘ÊÅ∞, H’O°∞ìH˜ Kı¿ã JÉèíºO°÷#.
~ court L#fl`Œ <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~
appealing ™®#∞Éèí¥ux/ ^°Ü«µ#∞ PHß~
H˜∆~Kı
appearance LǨã≤÷u,
Çı+¨Éèß+¨Å∞,
PHßO°~, ™®H∆ß`ͯO°~. keep up ~ ÃÑ·H˜
Hí#|_Ë/ ÇÍã¨Î=~ HíÇ≤Ê Ñ¨ÙKıÛ #@#.
put in an ~ Ǩ[O°Qõ∞
appease `Œ$Ç≤ÎǨO°K«∞, ã¨=∂^èß# ǨO°K«∞
appeasement `Œ$Ç≤ÎǨO°K«_«~. ~ policy
|∞[˚y~Ѩ٠q^èß#~
appeasing `Œ$Ç≤ÎǨiKı
appei ^°#∞fl, =∞^°Ì`Œ∞
appellant ÃÑ· H’O°∞ìHí∞ JÉèíºO°÷# ^®YÅ∞
Kıã≤# HíH˜∆^®O°∞
appellate qKÍO°} Qåx, ѨÙ#ifiKÍO°}
Qåx [i¿Ñ JkèHßO°~ QõÅ, ѨÙ#ifi
KÍO°} ã¨~|~kè. ~ authority ѨÙ#ifi
KÍO°}®kè HßO°~, ѨÙ#ifiKÍO°}®kèHßi.
~ court ѨÙ#ifiKÍO°} Kı¿ã <®ºÜ«µ
™®÷#~. ~ descision ѨÙ#ifiKÍO°}
<®ºÜ«µ™®÷# xO°‚Ü«µ~. ~ jurisdiction
ѨÙ#ifiKÍO°}®kèHßO° Ǩikè. ~ tribunal XHí „Ç¨`˺Hí q+¨Ü«∂xH˜ ã¨~|~
kè~z ѨÙ#ifiKÍO°} [i¿Ñ <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~
appellation <®=∞~, Ǩ^°q
apparent

52

appointed

appointment

KıO°∞Û, [`ŒÇ¨O°∞Û, J#∞
|~^è°~Qå KıO°∞Û
appendage Láå~Qõ~, HÁ~_«<®Å∞Hí
appendicectomy JÃÑ~_çH±û `˘Åy~Kı
â◊GzH˜`Œû
appendicular J#∞|^°ú
appendix J#∞|~^è°~Qå KıiÛ# ÉèßQõ~,
ǨO°t+¨ì~
appertain ã¨~|~^è°Ç¨_«∞
appetence Qå_è°ÇÍ~Kè«, |~^è°∞Éèß=~,
™®*Ï`Œº~
appetent `ŒÇ¨Ï`ŒÇ¨ÏÖÏ_Ë
appetite P`Œ∞O°`Œ, PHíe
appetizer PHíe ѨÙ>˜ì~Kık, Hí∆∞^®=O°úHí~
applaud â͡Ѷ≤∞~K«∞, K«Ç¨Ê@∞¡HÁ@∞ì
applause ǨÏO°¬^èßfi#~, „Ǩã¨∞Îu
appliance ™®^è°#~, LǨHíO°}~, Ǩx
=∞∞@∞ì
applicant ^°O°MÏã¨∞Î^®O°∞, JÉèíºi÷
application ^°O°MÏã¨∞Î, JÉèíºO°÷#, J#∞
=O°Î#~. ~ form ^°O°MÏã¨∞ΠǨ„`Œ~. ~
for quotation J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ ™®ìH±
ZH±ûKèı~l *Ïa`ÍÖ’ KıO°Û=∞x (U^Õx
XHí) Ǩa¡H± eq∞>ˇ_ü Hí~ÃÑh Kı¿ã JÉèíº
O°÷#. ~ money ^°O°MÏã¨∞Î Kı㨥ΠK‹e¡~Kı
_«|∞ƒ. ~ of funds x^è°∞Å =iÎ~ѨÙ
applied J#∞=iÎ`Œ. ~ cost J#∞=iÎ`Œ
=ºÜ«µ~. ~ science J#∞=iÎ`Œ q*Ï˝#
âÍG~
applied linguistics J#∞=iÎ`Œ Éèßë®
âÍG~
applied psychology J#∞=iÎ`Œ =∂#
ã≤Hí âÍG~
applique ÖËã¨∞Å Je¡Hí
appoint xÜ«µq∞~K«∞,
xܡ∂y~K«∞,
UO°ÊO°K«∞, xO°‚ܵ~K«∞
appointed xÜ«µq∞`Œ

appointment

append *’_ç~K«∞,

xÜ«∂=∞Hí~, XHíix
Híe¿ã~^°∞Hí∞ xs‚`Œ"≥∞·# ã¨=∞Ü«µ~
appollyon Ãã·`Í#∞, ^°∞+¨∞ì_«∞, q<®â◊Hí∞_«∞
appollyon Ãã·`Í#∞, ^°∞+¨∞ì_«∞, q<®â◊Hí∞_«∞
apportion Hı>Ïܵ~K«∞, Ǩ~K«∞, qÉèí
l~K«∞, qÉèßQõ~ KıÜ«µ∞
apportionment Ǩ~Ç≤}©, Hı>Ïܵ~ѨÙ
apposite Lz`Œ"≥∞·#, `Œy#, á⁄~kH≥·#
appraisal ^è°O°Hí@∞ì, ã¨g∞Hí∆, =∞k~Ѩن
L^ÀºyH© ã¨~ã¨÷ xO®fiǨÏHí∞_çH˜ =∞^è°º
[iQÕ ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~† „áå*ˇHí∞ì J~K«<®
appraiser qÅ∞= xO®úO°Hí∞_«∞, =∞¥Åº
xOÕ‚`Œ
appraisment qÅ∞= Hí@ì_«~
appreciate „Ǩâ◊~ã≤~K«∞, "≥∞K«∞ÛHÁ#∞,
â͡Ѷ≤∞~K«∞, Z~K«∞† <®ºÜ«µ~Qå qKÍ
i~K«∞† XHí^®x qÅ∞= `ˇeã≤Ü«µ∞~_«∞
appreciation qÅ∞= ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å
appreciative „Ǩâ◊~ã≤~K«^°y#. ~ audience ã¨Ç¨Ï$^°Ü«µ „¿ÑHí∆Hí∞Å∞
apprehend â◊~H˜~K«∞, ÉèíÜ«µÇ¨_«∞† K«@ì
„ǨHßO°~ x~k`Œ∞x ÃÑ@∞ìHÁ#∞, xO°ƒ~
kè~K«∞, JO≥ã¨∞ì KıÜ«µ∞
apprehension xO°ƒ~kè~K«_«~ ÖË^®
J^°∞ѨÙÖ’H˜ fã¨∞H’=_«~, Ǩ@∞ìH’=_«~,
ÉèíÜ«µ~, „QõÇ≤Ï~K«_«~, P~^Àà◊#
apprehensive ÉèíÜ«µÇ‘_ç`Œ, P~^Àà◊#HíO°
apprentice Ǩxx JÉèíºã≤~Kı =ºH˜Î, XHí
xѨÙ}∞_ç =^°Ì ǨxKı㨥Î, P <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}®ºxfl
<ËO°∞ÛHÁ<Ë =ºH˜Î. ~ ship xѨÙ}∞_ç =^°Ì
ǨxKı㨥Î, <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~ Qõ_ç~Kı~^°∞Hí∞
B`ÍûÇ≤ÏHí∞_çH˜ J#∞=∞u~Kı xs‚`Œ HßÅ~
appressed ÅQõfl"≥∞·#, J`Œ∞Hí∞¯#fl
apprise qKÍi~K«∞, `ˇeÜ«µ*ËÜ«µ∞, Ǩi
*Ï˝#~ Híey L~_«∞, Ziy L~_«∞
approach J~^°∞ÉÏ@∞, KıiHí, ã¨g∞Ǩ
=∂O°æ~, ^®i. ~ paper q=O°} Ǩ„`Œ~

53

approve

(q^èß# 㨥K«<® Ǩ„`Œ~) KıO°∞, ã¨g∞
Ç≤~K«∞, ^°QõæO°Ç¨_«∞
approaches Hí~^°HßÅ∞
approbate (JkèHßO°Ñ¨ÓO°fiHí~Qå) J~wHí
i~K«∞
approbation ã¨=∞‡u, P"≥Ø^°~, J#∞
=∞u, "≥∞ǨC =∞~Ei
appropriate ã¨=∞∞z`Œ"≥∞·#, `Œy#, Hı>Ï
ܵ~ѨÙ, xiÌ+¨ì"≥∞·# ǨxH’ã¨~ x^è°∞Å#∞
Hı>Ïܵ~K«∞ ÖË^® _«|∞ƒ „ǨHí¯# ÃÑ@∞ì†
qxܡ∂y~K«∞. ~ technologies Hßi‡Hí
„áå^èß#º L`ŒÊuÎ q^èß<®Å∞: `Œ$fÜ«µ
„ǨǨ~K« ^ÕâÍÅÖ’ xO°~`ŒO°~ ÃÑiQÕ
Hßi‡Hí [<®Éèß#∞ ^°$+≤ìÖ’ L~K«∞HÁx,
P^è°∞xHí ™®~HıuHí q*Ï˝# q^èß<®ÅHí∞
|^°∞Å∞ Hßi‡Hí â◊H˜Îx „áå^èß#º~ WzÛ
L`ŒÊuÎ ™®kè~KÍÅx HÁ~^°O°∞ ™®=∂lHí
âÍGÇı`ŒÎÅ∞ Kıã≤# „Ǩuáå^°#
appropriation qxܡ∂Qõ~, Hí~ÃÑh
MÏ`ÍÅÖ’ xiÌ+¨ì"≥∞·# ǨxH’ã¨~ L^ÕÌ
t~z# _«|∞ƒ, xiú+¨ì HßO®ºxH≥· L^ÕÌ
t~z# _«|∞ƒ† Ü«∂[=∂#º ǨÏHí∞¯Å∞
H’O°x Pã≤Îx, ^è°<®xfl ™®finè#~ Kıã¨∞
H’=_«~. ~ account ÖÏÉèí#ë®ìÅ
MÏ`ÍÖ’ ÖÏÉèßÅ#∞ qxܡ∂y~z# ÖË^®
LǨܡ∂y~z# q^èßxfl `ˇe¿Ñ qÉèßQõ~.
~ bill „^°=º qxܡ∂Qõ aÅ∞¡† ã¨Éíè P"≥Ø
k~z# |_≥˚>ò Ǩ^°∞ÌÅ Çı∞O°Hí∞ „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi
x^è°∞Å#∞ qxܡ∂y~Kı~^°∞Hí∞ J#∞=∞
u~Kı aÅ∞¡. ~ ledger qxܡ∂QõѨÙ
P=O®˚
approval J#∞=∞u, P"≥Ø^°~, P"≥Øk~
K«_«~, J~wHíi~K«_«~
approve P"≥Øk~K«∞, J#∞=∞u~K«∞,
J~wHíi~K«∞, ^è°$=ǨO°∞Û, ^°$_è°Ç¨O°∞Û,
ã¨~`Œ$Ç≤Îx `ˇeÜ«µÇ¨O°∞Û, "≥∞K«∞ÛHÁ#∞

approved account

ã¨~ã¨÷Hí∞ uiy
K‹e¡~K«QõÅ_«x #=∞‡Hí=∞∞#fl MÏ`Í
^®O°∞_ç JO°∞=Ù MÏ`Í
approver ™®H˜∆Qå =∂i# x~k`Œ∞_«∞,
JǨO®kè
approximate ã¨∞=∂O°∞, W~K«∞q∞~K«∞
approximately L*Ï˚ܵ~ѨÙQå, ã¨∞=∂
O°∞Qå, ^®^®Ñ¨ÙQå, W~K«∞q∞~K«∞Qå,
O°=∂O°q∞
approximation J~K«<®, L*Ï˚ܵ~ѨÙ,
ã¨∞=∂O°∞
approximity ^®^®Ñ¨Ù
appurtenance 㨥„`Œ~, Láå~Qõ~, J#∞
|~^è°~
aprendre J#∞Éè’QõǨÏHí∞¯: Éèí¥q∞#∞~z
ÖÏÉèí~ á⁄~^Õ Ç¨ÏHí∞¯
apriori J#∞ÉèíÇÍ`Œ¥ÊO°fi *Ï˝#~† HßO°}~,
Ѷ¨e`Œ~† Pk#∞~z
apron ^°∞ã¨∞ÎÅÃÑ· ^è°i~Kı =G~
apropos ã¨~^°O’ƒùz`Œ, ã¨=∞ܡ∂z`Œ,
ã¨~|~kè~z#
apt `Œy#, ã¨O≥·#, ܡ∂Qõº"≥∞·#. ~ word
ã¨=∞∞z`Œ Ǩ^°~
apterous O≥Hí¯Å∞ ÖËx
aptitude ã¨Ç¨Ï[ ™®=∞O°÷º~, JaèO°∞z,
ܡ∂Qõº`Œ. ~ test ™®=∞O°÷º ǨsHí∆, Jaè
O°∞z ǨsHí∆
aptly ã¨iQå, ã¨=∞∞z`Œ~Qå
aqua [Å~. ~ culture KıǨÅ∞/ O˘Ü«µºÅ
ÃÑ~ǨHí~. ~ regia „^°=O®[~
aquaphobia [ÅÉèíÜ«µ~
aquarelle =∂=∞¥Å∞ O°~Qõ∞Å`À Çıã≤#
z„`Œ~
aquarium =∞`Œûº „Ǩ^°O°≈#âÍÅ
aquarius Hí∞~ÉèíO®t
aquatic [Åã¨~|~^è°, [ÅK«O°. ~ aniapproved account

54

arbori culture

[ÅK«O° [~`Œ∞=Ù. ~ centre [Å
„H©_Í Hı~„^°~. ~ championships D`Œ
áÈ>©Å∞. ~ mammal [ÅH©∆O°^°~ ~
sports [Å „H©_«Å∞
aqueduct [ÅÇÍÇ¨Ï =∂O°æ~
aqueous [Å ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#, ã¨[Å. ~
chamber <Ë„`À^°HíHí∆ º. ~ humour
<Ë„`À^°Hí~. ~ solution [Å „^®=}~.
aquifer [ÖÏâ◊Ü«µ~
aquifer [Å=∞Ü«µ ã¨ÎO°~
aquifuge Hß=Åã≤#~`Œ hO°∞ ÖËx „Ǩ^Õâ◊~
aquiline =„Hí, Qõ^°Ì=∞∞Hí∞¯ÖÏ =~ѨÙ^Õi#
aquiper [Å=∞Ü«µã¨ÎO°~† h>˜x Ç‘Å∞ÛHÁ<Ë
O®Üµ, L^®II ã¨∞^°Ì
arable =º=™®Ü«µ ܡ∂Qõº"≥∞·#, ™®Qõ∞|_ç
KıÜ«µ_ÍxH˜ J#∞"≥·#
arachnida `Ëà◊§, ™®bà◊§ =O°æ~
arbiter fO°Êi, =∞^è°º=iÎ
arbitrage ã¨>ÏìÉıO°~
arbitrager ã¨>ÏìÉıO°Qå_«∞/ Çͺáåi
arbitrament =∞^è°º=iÎ fO°∞Ê
arbitrariness J¿ÇÏ`Œ∞Hí"≥∞·#, ã¨iܡµ·#
HßO°}~ ÖËHíáÈ=_«~
arbitrary xOÕ›`Œ∞Hí, xO°~Hí∞â◊"≥∞·#, UHí
ǨHí∆. ~ decision UHíǨHí∆ xO°‚Ü«µ~,
J<®Ö’z`Œ xO°‚Ü«µ~, ã¨~|~^è°
O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
arbitrate =∞^è°º=iÎ`Œfi~ KÕÜ«Ú/ Ǩ~KÍ
Ü«µf
arbitration =∞^è°º=iÎ`Œfi~
arbitrator `ŒQõ=i, =∞^è°º=iÎ
arboraceous K‹@∞ìÖÏ L#fl, K‹@¡`À ^°@ì
"≥∞·#
arboreal K‹@¡Hí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#, K‹@¡g∞^°
|uHı =$Hí∆ÇÍã≤
arbori culture `ŒO°∞Hí$+≤, `ŒO°∞áÈ+¨},
mal

arborist
arborist =$Hí∆âÍGÇı`ŒÎ
arbour K‹@¡ =∞^è°º h_«xKıÛ

„Ǩ^Õâ◊~, XHí
K«„@~ÃÑ· fQõÅ#∞ áåH˜~K«∞ h_« =KıÛ@∞ì
KıÜ«µ_«~
arc =$`ŒÎKÍǨ~
arcade `ÀO°}®Å =O°ã¨, ^°∞Hß}ÏÅ =O°
ã¨Å =∞^è°º L~_Ë ^®i
arcane O°Ç¨Ï㨺~
arch JѨÙO°¥Ç¨"≥∞·# JǨûO°ã¨, KÍǨ~†
Hí=∂#∞† JiHßÅ∞† HíǨ>˜, ^è°¥O°Î†
„Ǩ^èß#. ~ bishop #QõO°~Ö’ L~_Ë
„H≥·ã¨Î= =∞`ŒÃÑ^°Ì. ~ enemy PQõO°ƒù
â◊„`Œ∞=Ù, ǨO°=∞ â◊„`Œ∞=Ù. ~ priest
„Ǩ^èß# ѨÓ*Ïi
archaic „áåp#, ѨÙO®`Œ#, ѨÙO®}. ~
mammals „áåp# H©∆O°^®Å∞
archaic language ѨÙO®`Œ#/ ÇÍ_«∞HíÖ’
ÖËx Éèß+¨
archaism áå`Œ=∂@, =º=ǨO° „Éèí+¨ì"≥∞·#
Ǩ^°~
archeological ѨÙO®=ã¨∞Î ã¨~|~kè. ~
museum „áåK«ºed`Œ Ǩ„`ŒÉèß~_ÍQåO°~,
ѨÙO®=ã¨∞ÎâÍÅ
archeologist ѨÙO®=ã¨∞Î `Œ`ŒÎ fiâÍGA˝_«∞
archeology ѨÙO®=ã¨∞ΠǨiâ’^è°#, ѨÙO®
`Œ# =ã¨∞Î âÍG~, ѨÙO®`Œ`ŒÎ fi âÍG~
archeozoic Pkr= =∞ǨÜ«µ∞Qõ~
archer qÅ∞Hß_«∞, qÅ∞q^®º „H©_ÍHßi}˜
archesporial „Ǩ^ä°=∞ c*Ï~Hí∞O°
archesporium „Ǩ^ä°=∞ c*Ï~Hí∞O°~
archetypal criticism ѨÙO®O°¥áå`Œ‡Hí
q=∞O°≈#
archetype ѨÙO®O°¥Ç¨~
archid plantation Pi¯_üÅ<Ë PHíO¬° }Ü
© µ«
ѨÙë®ÊÅ ™®Qõ∞
archipelago J<ËHí nfiáåÅ ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~

55

argil
architect ÇÍã¨∞ÎteÊ
architecture ÇÍã¨∞Î

teÊ âÍG~, Éèí=#

xO®‡} âÍG~
archives „áåp#

Ǩ„`Œ Éèß~_ÍQåO°~, áå`Œ
^°™®ÎÇıAÅ∞, HíqÖˇ Hí@ìÅ∞
archiphoneme Jkè=O°‚~
arc lamp ֒ǨÅ#∞ J`ŒHí_ÍxH˜ LǨ
ܡ∂y~Kı ǨiHíO°~
arctic L`ŒÎO° „^è°∞= ã¨~|~kè
arcuate KÍáåHßO°, qÅ∞¡ÖÏ =~y#,
X~ѨÙQõÅ
arc welding HßO°ƒ<ü ZÅ„H’ì_üÅ#∞ LǨ
ܡ∂y~z ֒ǨÅ#∞ J`ŒHí_«~
ardent L`Œ∞ûHí, |Å"≥∞·# (ÉèßÇÍÅ∞QõÅ)
f„="≥∞·#, O°Qõ∞Å∞HÁ#fl, [fie~Kı,
(ã¨∞ÅÉèí~Qå) =∞~_Ë
ardour P`Œ∞O°`Œ, L`Œ∞ûHí`Œ
arduous Híiî#"≥∞·#, „Ǩܫ∂ã¨`À Hí∂_ç#
area "≥·âÍź~, qã‘ÎO°‚~
area comb Hı∆„`Œâ’^è°#
areal velocity Hı∆„fÜ«µÇıQõ~
areca áÈHíK‹Hí¯/ K‹@∞ì
areic #^°∞Å∞, ÇÍQõ∞Å∞ ÖËx, O®u „Ǩ^Õâ◊~
arena O°~Qõ~, Hı∆„`Œ~. political ~
O®[H©Ü«µO°~Qõ~
arenaceous Wã¨∞HíÖÏ~>˜,
Wã¨∞Hí`À
Hí∂_ç#
areola ã¨Î# ǨiÇı+¨~† K«#∞"≥∞∞# Ǩiã¨O°~
areolate ǨQ∞õ à◊§/ w`ŒÅ =Å¡ qÉèH
í =Îí ∞=_«~
areology „QõǨϟǨi`ŒÅ~Ö’x á⁄O°Å#∞,
ÇÍ>˜ ã¨~|~^èßÅ#∞ J^谺ܫµ#~ Kı¿ã
âÍG~
argent "≥~_ç, "≥~_ç=Öˇ `ˇÅ¡x
argentine "≥~_çH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#† JO≥˚~
>©<® ^ÕâÍxH˜ K‹~k#
argil Hí∞=∞‡i=∞#∞fl† JÅ¥ºq∞x~ Yx[~

56

argon
argon PO®æ<ü, XHí [_«ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù
argot „Qå=∞º~
arguably xã¨û~^ÕǨÏ~Qå,

Ãã·xHí ™®=∞„y, q„QõǨÅ/
tÖÏÊÅ `ŒÜ«∂sH˜ ÇÍ_Ë =∞¥ã¨
armed ™®Ü«µ∞^è°. ~ insurrection
™®Ü«µ∞^è° uO°∞Qõ∞ÉÏ@∞
armistice Ü«µ∞^°ú qO°=∞}, â◊„`Œ∞|ÅQåÅ
=∞^è°º "≥·O°~ =∂#Ê_«~
armlet ^°~_«Hí_çÜ«µ~
armour Hí=K«~
armoury PÜ«µ∞^èßQåO°~. lay down ~
JGã¨<®ºã¨~
arms PÜ«µ∞^èßÅ∞. ~ control PÜ«µ∞^è°
xÜ«µ~„`Œ}. in ~ ™®Ü«µ∞^è°~Qå. ~
race PÜ«µ∞^è°áÈ>©. under ~ ™®Ü«µ∞
^è°~Qå. up in ~ „ǨuѶ¨∞>˜~K«∞, uO°Qõ
|_«∞
army Ãã·#º~. ~ corps Ǩ>ÏÅ~, Ãã·xHí
^°à◊~
aroma ã¨∞Qõ~^è°~, ã¨∞ÇÍã¨#, Ǩi=∞à◊~
aromatic ã¨∞Qõ~^è°Éèíi`Œ"≥∞·#. ~ chemistry P=$`Œ â◊$~YÅ HíO°ƒ# O°™®Ü«µ#
âÍG~. ~ plant ã¨∞Qõ~^è° „^°ÇͺŠ"≥∞∞Hí¯
arrack ™®O®Üµ, =∞^°º~
arraign x~k~K«_~
« † <ËO~° PO’Ç≤~K«_~«
arraigner <ËO®O’ǨH∞í _«∞, x~^®O’ǨH∞í _«∞
arraignment <ËO®O’Ǩ}, x~^°
arrangement q<®ºã¨~, =º=ã¨÷
arrant ^°∞O®‡O°æ~
array n. =ӺǨÏ~, q<®ºã¨~, "≥ØǨÏ
i~ѨÙ, J=∞iHí
array v. =ӺǨÏ~ Ǩ#∞fl, "≥ØǨÏi~K«∞,
"≥∞∞#Qõ@∞ì, Ǩ^ä°Hí~ÇıÜ«µ∞, „Hí=∞Ǩ^°úuÖ’
J=∞O°∞Û
arrears áå`Œ |Hßܵ, KıÜ∂
« eû# q∞Qõ`Í
Ǩx, K‹e¡~KÍeû L~_ç#k
arrest n. PѨÙ^°Å, xO°ƒ~^è°~
arrest v. PѨÙ, xÅ∞ѨÙ, xO°ƒ~kè~K«∞
armature

ÇÍ^°~

„ǨHßO°~
`Œi¯~K«∞, „Ǩtfl~K«∞, ÇÍk~K«∞,
q=i~K«∞
argument ÇÍ^°~, `ŒO°¯~
argute a. fHí∆}"≥∞·#, ã¨∞xt`Œ"≥∞·#,
H©K«∞Qå L~_Ë
arhar dal Hí~kǨǨC
arhythmia ǨÏ$^°Ü«µã¨Ê~^°# „Hí=∞suÖ’
ÖËHíáÈ=_«~
arid "≥∞@ìÉèí¥q∞, h>˜ =#O°∞Å∞ ÖËx
Éèí¥q∞
aridity â◊∞+¨¯`Œ
aries Çı∞+¨~, Çı∞+¨O®t
aright ã¨iQå, ã¨=∞~[ã¨"≥∞·#, ã¨=º"≥∞·#
aril c[ѨÙ+¨Ê~
aristate #¥Qõ∞, =∞∞à◊∞§ L#fl
aristo Hí∞b#∞_«∞
aristocracy L#fl`Œ=O®æÅ∞, L#fl`Œ=~j
Ü«µ∞Å áåÅ#, Hí∞b#áåÅ#
aristocrat Hí∞b#∞_«∞, L#fl`Œ =~â◊A_«∞
aristology Éè’[# Ǩ^°úu, q^èß#~
arithmetic ™®=∂#º Qõ}˜`Œ~, J~Hí
Qõ}˜`Œ~. ~ average J~HßÅ ã¨Qõ@∞/
=∞^è°º=∞~. ~ mean J~Hí =∞^è°º=∞~ :
O≥~_«∞ O®ã¨∞Å "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~Ö’ ã¨Qõ~. ~ progression J~HíQõ}˜`Œ „âı}˜, ã¨~HíÅ#
=$kú
ark Éè’ë®}~
armada Ü«µ∞^°ú <ÒHíÅ ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~
armageddon J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ =∞ǨÜ«µ∞^°~
ú
(O°~QõÉèí¥q∞)† J~u=∞ Ü«µ∞^°ú~, „Ǩ^èß#
Ü«µ∞^°ú~
armaments Ü«µ∞^°ú™®=∞„y,
Ü«µ∞^°ú
ã¨<®flǨÏ~, Ãã·#º~
argue

arrest

arrest point
arrest point Hí+¨ì"≥∞·# ã≤÷u
arret fO°∞Ê, tHí∆, _ç„H©
arretted x~k`Œ
arrival O®Hí, PQõ=∞#~.

~ notice
PQõ=∞# =O°Î=∂#~
arrogance JǨÏ~HßO°~, QõO°fi~, _Í|∞,
^°O°Ê~
arrogant JǨÏ~Hßi, Qõifi+¨ª, á⁄QõO°∞
É’`Œ∞, ^°iÊ
arrogate P_«~|O°~, ÖËx JkèHßO°~ „Ǩ^°
i≈~Kı, J#O°›~Qå Pt~Kı
arsenal PÜ«µ∞^èßQåO°~, â◊GâÍÅ, PÜ«µ∞
^èßÅ y_«¤~y
arsenic áåë®}~
arson ^°Ç¨Ï#Hß~_«, Qõ$ǨÏ^°Ç¨Ï#~
art Híà◊, tÅÊ~, =$uÎ, Ǩx. ~ form Híà®
O°¥Ç¨~. ~ gallery Híà®=∞~kO°~, z„`Œ
âÍÅ. ~ silk Hí$„u=∞ Ǩ@∞ì
artefacts =∂#= xi‡`Œ"≥∞·# =ã¨∞Î=Ù,
=∞x+≤ ã¨$+≤ì~z# Híà®Y~_«~
arterial system ^è°=∞x=º=ã¨÷
arteriogram ^è°=∞x z„`Œ~
arteriography ^è°=∞x z„`Œ}~
arteriole ^è°=∞xHí
arteriosclerosis ^è°=∞xHßiî#º~
arteriovenous ^è°=∞x–ã≤O° ã¨~|~kè
artery ^è°=∞x. coronary ~ ǨÏ$^°ú =∞x
artesial well h>˜ |∞Qõæ
artesian springs Psìã≤Ü«µ<ü ÉÏ=ÙÅ∞
artfulness *Ï}`Œ#~
arthalgia H©à◊¡ <˘Ç¨CÅ∞
arthopeadics Jã≤÷ "≥·^°ºâÍG~
arthoscopy H©à◊¡ J~`ŒO°ÌO°≈#~, Z~_À
™È¯Ñπ`À H©à◊¡ ã≤÷ux Ǩije~K«_«~
arthritis H©à◊§ÇÍ`Œ~, H©à◊§<˘Ç¨CÅ∞
arthropod P„O’÷áå_ü (H©à◊∞§QõÅ JHíâıO°∞
HßÅ) =O®æxH˜ K‹~k# r=ÙÅ∞

57

asafoetida

=ã¨∞Î=Ù, ÉèßQõ~, JkèHíO°}~, „ǨHí
O°}~, x|~^è°#. ~ of association
ã¨~Ѷ¨∞) xÜ«µ=∂=o. ~ partnership
ÉèßQõ™®fi=∞º xÜ«µ=∂=o
articular H©à◊§Hí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
articulate ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå K‹Ç¨C, =ºH©ÎHíi~K«∞†
H©à◊∞§Híey#
articulation ã¨Ê+¨ì`Œ† H©à◊¡ã¨~kè
articulator LKÍÛO°} ™®^è°#~, HíO°}~
articulatory phonetics ^è°fi#∞ºKÍÛO°}
âÍG~
artifacts Híà®Y~_ÍÅ∞, Híà®Hí$`Œ∞Å∞,
q∞^䕺xO®‡}~
artifice ã¨=∞O°÷`Œ, <ËO°∞Ê, Ü«µ∞H˜Î
artificer <ËO°Êi, HíÅÊ#HíO°Î
artificial Hí$„u=∞. ~ insemination
Hí$„u=∞QõO’ƒù`ŒÊuÎ. ~ intelligence
Hí$„u=∞Çı∞^è°, Ü«µ~„`ŒÇı∞^è°. ~ limb
centre Hí$„u=∞ J=Ü«µÇÍÅ `ŒÜ«∂s
Hı~„^°~. ~ radio activity Hí$„u=∞
OÕ_çܡ∂ ^èßi‡Hí`Œ
artificial feeding Hí$„u=∞áÈ+¨}
artificiality Hí$`ŒHí`Œfi~, Hí$„u=∞`Œfi~
artificial language Hí$„u=∞Éèß+¨
artillery â◊`ŒÑ¶≤∞fl^°à◊~, Ѷ≤O°~y^°à◊~
artisan <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~HíŠǨxÇÍO°∞, Kıu
=$`Œ∞ÎÅ ÇÍO°∞, xѨÙ} Hßi‡Hí∞Å∞
artist Híà®HßO°∞_«∞, z„`ŒHßO°∞_«∞, <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~
QõÅ =ºH˜Î
artistic Híà®`Œ‡Hí, O°ã¨=~`Œ"≥∞·#, O°™®`Œ‡Hí
artistically Híà®`Œ‡Hí~Qå
artless ™®^èßO°}, xO®_«~|O°, ™®^®ã‘^®,
<ËO°∞ÊÖËx
art Híà◊. ~ pieces Híà®Y~_ÍÅ∞
asafoetida W~Qõ∞=
article

58

asbestos
asbestos O®u<®O°
ascaris ZeHíáå=∞∞Å∞
ascend PO’Ç≤Ï~K«∞, JkèO’Ç≤Ï~K«∞,

ZHí∞¯,

ÃÑ·H˜áÈ=Ù
ascendants ѨÓifiHí∞Å∞
ascendence PO’ǨÏ}~
ascendency „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~†

asphyxia
ash gourd |¥_ç^° Qõ∞=∞‡_çHßÜ«µ
ashore X_«∞¤Hí∞, X_«∞¤ÃÑ·
aside [<®~uHí~† ÇıO°∞Qå, ǨHí¯#
asinine =∞¥O°öѨن Qå_ç^°ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~

z#
„áå^èß#º~,

askance J#∞=∂#~`À, JǨ#=∞‡Hí~`À
askew JǨã¨=º, qǨs`Œ, qѨs`Œ H’}®

~ order PO’ǨÏ}
„Hí=∞~, „Hí=∞~Qå ÃÑO°Qõ_»~
ascension PO’Ç≤Ï~K«_«~, ZHí¯_«~
ascent PO’ǨÏ}, ѨÓO°∞fiŠǨO°~ǨO°. ~
of sap "≥∞∞Hí¯Ö’¡ Yx[ Å=}®ÅÖ’
Hí∂_ç# „^°=~ Ǩ„`ÍÅ#∞ KıOÕ „Ǩ„H˜Ü«µ
asceptate á⁄O°ÖËx
ascertain O°¥_è˜Ç¨O°∞K«∞HÁ#∞, xâ◊ÛÜ«µ~Qå
`ˇÅ∞ã¨∞HÁ#∞
ascesis ã¨fiÜ«µ~ „Hí=∞tHí∆}q^èß#~
ascetic ã¨<®ºã≤, `ŒÇ¨ã≤fi, `ŒÇ¨ã≤fix
asceticism `ŒÇ¨ã≤fi`Œ, ã¨<®ºã≤`Œ
ascitis [Ö’^°O°~
ascribe Páåk~K«∞, PO’Ç≤~K«∞, HßO°}~
Wk Jx `΁Kǰ
ascription Páå^°#
aseity ã¨$+≤ìH˜ ѨÓO°fiã≤÷u, J#∞`ŒÊ#flã≤÷u
aseptic =∞e# O°Ç≤Ï`Œ"≥∞·#, 㨥Hí;r=ÙÅ∞/
H©@HßÅ∞ ™ÈHíx
asexual JÖˇ·~yHí, e~Qõ qÉèí[# ÖËx
ashamed ã≤Qõ∞æǨ_Ë, `ŒÅ=~ѨÙÅ∞ `ˇKıÛ
ashare ™®^èßO°} ÇÍ>Ï
asharites W™®¡"£∞Ö’x XHí ã¨<®`Œ#
=O®æxH˜ K‹~k# ÇÍO°∞
ashen ã≤Qõ∞æ`À "≥∞∞ǨÏ~ =∂_çáÈ=_«~
ashes #∞ã≤, W~Qå¡~_«∞, P„¿ãìeÜ«∂ „H˜H≥>ò
[@¡ =∞^è°º [iQÕ „H˜H≥>ò >ˇãπìŠǨO°~ǨO°
ash fall Éèí㨇=O°¬~, |¥_ç^°[Å∞¡

xH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#, =~HíO°Qå
asking price J=∞‡Hí~^è°O°
aslant gÅ∞Qå
asligarchy =∞∞Oîß O®[º~
asmus L|ƒã¨ [|∞ƒ
asp O°HíÎÇ≤~[O°
asparagus Ç≤e¡fQõÅ∞
aspect J=ã¨÷, ^°â◊† ǨHí∆~, ^°$+≤ìH’}~,
O°¥Ç¨~, PHí$u, J~â◊~, H’}~, „H˜Ü«µ
[iQÕ Ç¨^°úu.
asper "≥∞∞O°@∞, Híiî#
asperage K«Å∞¡
aspergill „H≥·ã¨Î= =∞`Œã¨ÉèíÖ’¡ Ǩq„`Œ
[ÖÏxfl K«ÖË¡ =ºH˜Î
aspergillus |¥A, PǨO°Ç^
¨ ®O®÷Å g∞^°,
Hí∞à◊∞§`Œ∞#fl Ǩ^®O®÷Å g∞^° ÃÑiQÕ
tb~„^è°~
asperity "≥∞∞O°@∞`Œ#~,
HíO°Hí∞^°#~,
fHí∆ `‚ ,Œ x+¨µOª `° fiŒ ~, qǨs`Œâ`·‹ ºŒ ~, Hí~u
aspermia gO°ºHí}O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
asperse JǨÇÍ^°∞ ÇıÜ«µ_«~, x~^°
ÇıÜ«µ_«~
aspersion |∞O°^°K«Å¡_«~, x~^°, JǨ
ÇÍ^°~, hÖÏǨx~^°, Híà◊~Hí~, `ŒÇ¨C_«∞
PO’Ǩ}, ^°∞O°∞^ÕÌâÍáå^°#~, x~^°ÅHí∞
Qõ∞iK‹Ü«µº_«~
asphalt _Í~|O°∞, `ÍO°∞, a@¥q∞#ãπ
O®Üµ
asphyxia âÍfi™®=O’^è°~, âÍfi㨠ã¨Î~Éèí#~

Q“O°=~
ascending PO’ǨÏHí.

aspirant
aspirant JaèÖÏ+≤
aspiration „Ǩ|ÅHß~Hí∆,

PHß~Hí∆, Jaè
ÖÏ+¨† â◊sO°ÉèßQõ~ #∞~z hO°∞ „^°q~
K«_«~
aspirator ÇÍÜ«µ∞OÕK«Hí~, â◊sO°ÉèßQåÅ
#∞~z „^°ÇÍÅ∞ f¿ã ǨiHíO°~
aspiratory âÍfiã¨Hí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
aspire Pt~K«∞, H’O°∞, PHß~H˜∆~K«∞
aspiring PHß~H˜∆~Kı, JaèÅ+≤~Kı
assail ÃÑ·|_«∞, „ǨuǨÏ`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞, `ŒÇ¨C
Ǩ@∞ì, ^°∞Ü«µº|@∞ì, Ö’áåxflK«¥Ñ¨Ù, ^è°fi[
"≥∞`Œ∞Î, q=∞i≈~K«∞
assailant ^°∞~_«Qõ∞_«∞, ^ÒO°˚#º~ Kıã≤#
=ºH˜Î, ^®_çKıã≤#=ºH˜Î, ǨÏ~`ŒHí∞_«∞
assart Éèí¥q∞x
=º=™®Ü«µÜˇ∂Qõº~
KıÜ«µ_«~
assassin ǨÏ~`ŒHí∞_«∞
assassination (O®[H©Ü«µ) ǨÏ`Œº
assault n. ^®_ç, ^ÒO°˚#º~, HÁ>Ï¡@, =^è°
assault v. ^®_çKıÜ«µ∞, HÁ@∞ì, ^ÒO°˚#º~
KıÜ«µ∞. criminal ~ ÃѶ∞ÏO°^ÒO°˚#º~
assay n. ǨsHí^
∆ ®fiO® â’kè~K«_~« † xO®úO}
°
=∂Ǩ#~
assay v. ǨsH˜∆~K«∞, ǨsHí∆KıÜ«µ∞, ^°∞뮯
O®ºefl ™®kè~K«∞
assemblage XHíKÀ@ KıOÛ° _«~, Hí∂O°Û_«~,
ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~, tkäÖÏÅ ã¨=∞∞^®Ü«µ~,
*’_ç~ѨÙ
assemble Qõ∞~Ѩ٠KıÜ«µ∞, Hí∂O°∞Û, KıO°∞Ê
assembly âÍã¨#ã¨Éèí, q^èß#ã¨Éèí, ã¨=∂
Çıâ◊~† „Ǩ`˺Hí L^ÕÌâ◊~`À XHíKÀ@ ã¨=∂
Çıâ◊=∞Qõ∞† q_çÉèßQåÅ#∞ XHí¯>˜Qå KıOÕÛ
HíO®‡QåO°~, `ŒÜ«∂O≥·# =ã¨∞Ι®=∞„yx
XHíKÀ@ L~Kık. ~ line XHÁ¯Hí¯ Hßi‡
Hí∞_«∞ XHÁ¯Hí¯ q_çÉèßQåxfl KıOÕÛ„Hí=∞~.
~ plant Ü«µ~„`Œ ǨiHíO®Å HíO®‡QåO°~

59

assiduous

XuÎ K‹Ç¨Ê_«~, ã¨Ê+‘ìHíO°}† ã¨=∞‡u,
J~wHßO°~, J#∞=∞u, P"≥Ø^°~,
P"≥Ø^°=∞∞„^°, J#∞"≥Ø^°~, Pã≤ΠǨÏHí∞¯
Å#∞ |kbKı㨥ΠO®ã≤zÛ# JkèHßO°
Ǩ„`Œ~
assentation XǨC^°Å, q#Ü«µÑ¨ÓO°fiHí
P"≥Ø^°~
assert <˘H˜¯K‹ÇC
¨ , xtÛ`Œ~Qå K‹ÇC¨ , „Ǩ`ºŒ
Ü«µ~`À „ǨHí>˜~K«∞
assertion ǨÏHí∞¯Å H’ã¨~ Ǩ@∞ì|@ì_«~,
<˘H˜¯K‹Ç¨Ê_«~, xtÛ`Œ~Qå K‹Ç¨Ê_«~/ „ǨHí
>˜~K«_«~
assess qÅ∞=Hí@∞ì, xO®úi~K«∞, =∞k~ѨÙ
KıÜ«µ∞, J~K«<®ÇıÜ«µ∞
assessee Ǩ#∞fl K‹e¡~Kı =ºH˜Î
assessment qÅ∞=Hí@ì_«~, xO®úi~K«_«~,
=∞k~Ѩ٠KıÜ«µ_«~, J~K«<® ÇıÜ«µ_«~,
Ǩ#∞fl ÖˇH˜¯~K«_«~, Ǩ#∞fl Qõ}˜~z K«¥¿Ñ
Ǩ„`Œ~
assessor ^è°O°/ Ǩ#∞fl =∞k~Ѩ٠Kı¿ã
JkèHßi
asset ã¨~Ǩ^°, ™⁄`Œ∞Î, Pã≤Î. ~ backing
*ÏsKıã≤# ™®^èßO°} ÇÍ>ÏÅ ã¨~Yº`À
Hí~ÃÑh Pã¨∞ÎÅ "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~ qÅ∞=#∞ Éèßy~
K«Qå =KıÛ Å|ú~
assets Pã¨∞ÎÅ∞. ~ and liabilities P^®
Ü«∂Å∞ JǨCÅ∞, O®|_«∞Å∞ O°∞}®Å∞.
~ tripping Hí~ÃÑhx HÁx, ^®xfl
"≥∞∞`ŒÎ~Qå Hßx, Pã¨∞ÎÅ∞ HÁxfl~>˜x Hßx
Jq∞‡ÇıÜ«µ_«~
asseverate „Ǩ=∂}~Kıã≤ K‹Ç¨C
asseveration „Ǩ=∂}’H˜Î,
„Ǩ=∂}
=K«#~, „Ǩ=∂}ѨÓO°fiHí „Ç¨Hí@#
assibilitate TëȇKÍÛùO°}KıÜ«µ∞
assiduous xO°~`ŒO°, ã≤÷O°, „â◊^®úѨÓO°fiHí,
=∞~z ÅHí∆}®Å∞ HíÅ, Hí∞â◊Å"≥∞·#, Ǩ@∞ì
^°Å`À Kı¿ã
assent

assign

J#∞^Õt~K«∞, JǨÊy~K«∞, „Ǩ`˺
H˜~K«∞, Z~Ç≤HíKıÜ«µ∞, Pã≤Îx/ K«@ì|^°ú
ǨÏHí∞¯Å#∞ ^èßO®^°`ŒÎ~ KıÜ«µ∞
assignable JǨÊy~K«^°y#, =∞~EO°∞
KıÜ«µ^°y#
assigned xÜ«µ∞HíÎ, xiú+¨ì, PO’Ç≤`Œ
assignee HßO°ºxÜ«µ∞Hí∞_
Î ∞« , ǨÏHí∞¯^®O°∞. ~
in bankruptcy kÇÍÖÏ fã≤# ÇÍi
Pã¨∞ÎÅ#∞ `ˇQõ#q∞‡ JǨCÅ∞ Hí>ıì~^°∞Hí∞
<®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~ xÜ«µq∞~z# =ºH˜Î
assignment (JǨÊy~z#) Ǩx, ÉÏ^è°º`Œ,
ÅHí∆ º~, K«@ì|^°ú ǨÏHí∞¯Å#∞ =∞O˘HíiH˜
|kbKıÜ«µ_«~, H“Å∞ XǨÊ~^°~Ö’x
HÁ~`Œ ÉèßQõ~
assignor JǨÊy~Kı =ºH˜Î
assimilate HíÅ∞ѨÙHÁ#∞, ri‚~K«∞HÁ#∞,
W=∞∞_«∞ÛHÁ#∞
assimilated ã¨g∞Hí$`Œ. ~ loan `Œ^°ƒù=~
assimilation W=∞_«_«~, Pf‡Ü∂HíO°}~,
ã¨=∂hHíO°}~, ã¨g∞HíO°}, qbhHíO°}
assimilative ™®fi~wHßO°Hí
assimilator ™®fi~wHßO°}®~Qõ~
assimilatory ™®fi~wHßO°Hí
assistance ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~, `À_ÍÊ@∞, ã¨Ç¨Ï
HßO°~† LǨâ◊=∞#~
assistant ã¨Ç¨ÏHßi, ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí∞_«∞
associate n. ã¨~|~kè`Œ, ã¨Ç¨ÏKÍi, ã¨Ç¨Ï
ܡ∂y, ã¨Ç¨ÏK«O°∞_«∞. ~ company ã¨Ç¨Ï
ã¨~|~kè`Œ Hí~ÃÑh. ~ element ã¨Ç¨Ï
K«O° =∞¥ÅHí~. ~ residue ã¨Ç¨ÏK«O°
J=âı+¨~
associate v. ã¨Ç¨ÏHíi~K«∞, `À_«Ê_«∞
associated HíeÇ≤#, KıiÛ#, ã¨Ç¨ÏKÍi ~
liquid ã¨Ç¨ÏK«i`Œ„^°=~. ~ molecule
ã¨Ç¨ÏK«i`Í}∞=Ù
associates ÉèßQõ™®fi=∞∞Å∞
assign

60

asteroid

ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~, ã¨~ã¨÷, ã¨Ç¨ÏÇÍã¨~,
™®Ç¨ÏK«O°º~, J#∞ã¨~^èß#~, ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~†
ã¨∞ÊùO°}, 㨥ÊùiÎ ã¨~|~^è°~. ~ coefficient ™®Ç¨ÏK«O°º Qõ}®~Hí~. ~ complete ѨÓO°‚™®Ç¨ÏK«O°º~. degree of ~
™®Ç¨ÏK«O°º™®÷ܵ. ~ of attributes Qõ∞}
™®Ç¨ÏK«O°º~. partial ~ áåH˜∆Hí ™®Ç¨Ï
K«O°º~
associes ã¨Ç¨ÏÇÍã¨HßÅ∞, ã¨Ç¨ÏÇÍã¨Hí~
assonance JHí∆O°ã¨=∞`Œ, ã¨fiO°ã¨=∞`Œ:
XHıO°HíѨ٠JK«∞ÛÅ∞ ѨÙ#O°∞HíÎ~ Hß=_«~
assort „Hí=∞|^°ú~ KıÜ«µ∞, ÇıO°∞KıÜ«µ∞
assortment O°Hí~ÇÍs =ӺǨÏ~
assuage LǨâ◊=∞#~á⁄~^°∞,
âÍ~u
<˘~^°∞, L^ÕfiQõ~ `ŒQõ∞æ, ^°∞óY~ `ŒQõ∞æ,
ã¨=∂^èß#Ǩ_«∞, H’Ǩ~ `Œyæ~K«∞, `Œ$Ç≤Î
Híey~K«∞, ã¨~^ÕǨÏ~ fO°∞Û
assume Éèßq~K«∞, TÇ≤Ï~K«∞, `ŒÅ~K«∞†
PO’Ç≤~K«∞HÁ#∞, ÉÏ^è°º`Œ=Ç≤Ï~K«∞
assumption „ǨÇı∞Ü«µ~, ã≤^®ú~fHíO°}
H’ã¨~ Kı¿ã TǨÏ
assurance Ǩg∞, #q∞‡Hí, c=∂ (Kıã≤#
HßÖÏ=kè), xiú+¨ìHßÖÏ=kè =O°Hí∞ K‹Å∞¡
ÉÏ@Ü˵º c=∂
assurances Ǩg∞Ǩ„`ÍÅ∞
assure Ǩg∞ WK«∞Û
assuredly #=∞‡Hí~Qå
assylum P„â◊Ü«µ~
assymmetric Jã¨∞+¨∞ª. ~ atom Jã¨∞+¨∞ª
ǨO°=∂}∞=Ù. ~ class Jã¨∞+¨∞ª =O°æ~
~ distribution Jã¨∞+¨∞ª q`ŒO°}~,
Jã¨=∞q`ŒO°}~. ~ synthesis Jã¨∞+¨∞ª
ã¨~âı¡+¨}~
asterisk #Hí∆„`ŒÑ¨Ù Qõ∞O°∞Î
asterism HÍOu H˜O°}®Å LxH˜
asteroid „QõǨÏâ◊HíÅ~, XHí O°Hí"≥∞·# ÉÏ}®
ã¨~KÍ
association

asthenia
asthenia x„™®Î}, ^°∞O°ƒÅ`Œ
asthenic x„™®Î}"≥∞·#, ^°∞O°ƒÅ"≥∞·#
asthma L|ƒã¨~, âÍfi㨠ã¨~|~kè`Œ Çͺkè,

TÇ≤O®_«Hí∞~_Í =KıÛ ^°Qõ∞æ
astigmatism Jã¨=∞^°$+≤ì, xiƒ~^°∞Hí`Œ
astir Hí^°Å∞`Œ∞#fl, L„^ÕHí~`À Hí∂_ç# ã¨Kı
`Œ#, *ÏQõ$`Œ, QõujÅ, Jã≤÷O°, ^°∞O°ƒÅ
"≥∞·#
astomatous <ÀO°∞ÖËx
astonished Pâ◊ÛO°ºÇ¨_ç#, K«H˜`Œ
astral world *’ºu„+¨ÊѨOK«O
astraphobia LO°∞=∞∞Å∞
"≥∞O°∞ѨÙÅ∞
J~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
astringent ã¨~Hí∞z`Œ, ã¨~H’K«jÅ: Hí}
*ÏÖÏxfl, Hí~_«O®Å#∞ Hí∞~z~Ǩ*Ë¿ã
B+¨^è°~, Híë®Ü«µ~, =QõO°∞ B+¨^è°~
astrolithology LÖϯâÍG~
astrologer *’ºuâÍ≈GA˝_«∞, *’ã¨∞º_«∞,
*’ºu+¨∞¯_«∞
astrological *’ºu+¨ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
astrology *’ºuâÍ≈G~
astronaut Ç’º=∞Qåq∞, O’^°ã‘ Ü«∂„u
Hí∞_«∞, J~`ŒiHí∆ Ü«∂„uHí∞_«∞
astronautics Ç’º=∞Ü«∂# âÍG~
astronomical YQÀà◊ ã¨~|~^è°=∞ܵ#.
~ unit YQÀà◊„Ǩ=∂}~: Éèí¥q∞#∞~_ç
㨥O°∞ºxH˜ ^°¥O®xfl (9,28,00,000
"≥∞·à◊∞§) J„ã¨ì<®q∞HíÖò Ü«µ¥x>òQå ǨiQõ
}˜™®ÎO°∞
astronomy YQÀà◊ âÍG~, J~`ŒiH∆ß^è°º
Ü«µ#~
astrophysicist YQÀà◊ Éè“uHí q*Ï˝x
astrophysics YQÀà◊ Éè“uHí âÍG~
astute K«`Œ∞O°, ^è°¥O°Î, xѨÙ}† HßO°º^°Hí∆`Œ,
|∞kú㨥Hí;`Œ QõÅ, `Œ~„`Œ~QõÅ, qÇıHí~
QõÅ, 㨥Hí;|∞kúQõÅ

61

atmometer
asylum â◊O°}®ÅÜ«µ~, P„â◊Ü«µ~
asymbiotic Jã¨Ç¨Ïr=#
asymmetrical Jã¨=∂#,
J™œ+¨ª=,
J=Ü«µÇÍ#∞ O°¥Ç¨`Œfi~ÖËx. ~ relation J##∞O°¥Ç¨ ã¨~|~^è°~
asymmetry J™œ+¨=
ª ~, ™œ+¨=ª O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
asymptote J#~`Œã¨ÊO°≈OÕY
asynchronous Jã¨=∞HßeHí, HßÅ qO°∞^°ú

"≥∞·#
xi¡Ç¨Î`Œ, L^®ã‘#`Œ, Un Ǩ>˜ì~
K«∞H’HíáÈ=_«~
atavism KÍÖÏ `ŒO®Å `ŒO®fi`Œ uiy Hí#
|_Ë [#∞º ÅHí∆}~
ataxia Jã≤÷O°`Œ
ataxy âÍsO°Hí „Ç¨=$`Œ∞ÎÅ∞ „Hí=∞~ `ŒÇ¨Ê_«~
at call J_çy# "≥~@<Ë
at cost L`ÍÊ^°<® =ºÜ«∂xH˜, >’Hí∞
^è°O°Hí∞
at date xOÕÌt~z# <®>˜H˜
atelectasis =∞∞_«∞K«∞HÁx áÈ=_«~
atheism xsâ◊fiO°ÇÍ^°~, <®ã≤ÎHí`Œfi~
atheistic <®ã≤ÎHí, xsâ◊fiO°ÇÍ^°
athermanous J#∞+¨‚ÇÍÇ≤ÏHí
atherosclerosis ^è°=∞#∞Å∞, ÃÑà◊∞ã¨∞
ÉÏO°@~, O°HíÎ<®à®Å∞ Qõ>˜ìǨ_«@~
at home ™®fiQõ`Œã¨`ͯO°~
athwart
J_«¤~Qå,
U@ÇÍÅ∞Qå,
=∞¥O°ö~Qå, qO°∞^°ú~Qå
atlas „ǨÇ~
¨ K« Ǩ@~, Éè¥í q∞x "≥Ø¿ã „wHí∞
^Õ=`Œ
at last z=iH˜, PYiH˜
at loose end Ug∞ `ÀK«x, qã¨∞Qõ∞
Híey~Kı
ataraxy

ATM Automated Teller Machine

#Qõ^°∞ |>Ïfi_Í Ü«µ~„`Œ~
Pqi OÕ@∞#∞
™®^è°#~

atmometer

HÁeKı

62

atmosphere
atmosphere ÇÍ`Í=O°}~
atmospheric pressure

ÇÍ`Í=O°}

Ç‘_«#~
atoll ǨQ_
õ ÍÅ k|ƒ, nq, LǨCh>˜ áåÜ«µ
K«∞@¥ì L#fl =ÅÜ«∂HßO° Éèí¥ÉèßQõ~
atom ǨO°=∂}∞=Ù ~ bomb J}∞ÉÏO|∞
atomic ǨO°=∂}∞Hí. ~ clock ǨO°=∂}∞
Qõ_çÜ«∂O°~. ~ core ǨO°=∂}∞ QõO°ƒù~.
~ diameter ǨO°=∂}∞ Çͺã¨~. ~
disintegration ǨO°=∂}∞ qKıÛù^°#~.
~ energy ǨO°=∂}∞â◊H˜Î. ~ heat ǨO°
=∂}¥+¨‚~. ~ hypothesis ǨO°=∂}∞
ǨiHíÅÊ#. ~ lattice ǨO°=∂}∞
*ÏÅHí~. ~ level ǨO°=∂}∞™®÷ܵ. ~
mass unit (A.M.U) ǨO°=∂}∞
„^°=ºO®t „Ǩ=∂}~. ~ model ǨO°
=∂}∞ #=∞¥<®. ~ nucleus ǨO°
=∂}∞ Hı~„^°Hí~. ~ orbital ǨO°=∂}∞
LǨHíHí∆ º. ~ parameter ǨO°=∂}∞
ǨO®q∞u. ~ pile ǨO°=∂}∞ iÜ«∂HíìO∑.
~ power house J}∞q^°∞º`ü Hı~„^°~.
~ radius ǨO°=∂}∞ Çͺ™®O°÷~. ~
state ǨO°=∂}∞ ã≤÷u. ~ spectrum
ǨO°=∂}∞ =O°‚Ǩ@~. ~ structure ǨO°
=∂}∞ xO®‡}~. ~ test ǨO°=∂}∞
ǨsHí∆. ~ theory ǨO°=∂}∞ ã≤^®ú~`Œ~.
~ volume ǨO°=∂}∞ Ѷ¨∞#Ǩi=∂}~.
~ weight ǨO°=∂}∞ÉèßO°~
atomicity ǨO°=∂}∞Hí`Œ
atomism J}∞ÇÍ^°~
atomistic ǨO°=∂}∞ ã¨~|~kè
atomization ǨO°=∂}¥HíO°}~
atomize ǨO°=∂}¥Híi~K«∞
atomizer ǨO°=∂}¥Híi}˜
atone „áåÜ«µtÛ`ŒÎ~KıÜ«µ∞, ã¨=i~K«∞HÁ#∞
atonement x+¨¯ $u, „áåÜ«µtÛ`ŒÎ~, ǨâÍÛ
`ÍÎǨ~, áåǨ x=$uÎ/ ǨiǨO°~

atonia aQõ∞=ÙÖËx
ATP Z_ç<Àã≤<ü „>ˇ·á¶å¿ãÊù>ò

attainder

attainment

J<Ë |$ǨÏ

attainment ™®kè~K«_«~, ã≤kú~K«_«~
attendent ǨiKÍiHí, ǨiK«O°∞_«∞, LǨ

^°}∞=Ù
at par ã¨=∂#~Qå, ã¨=∞=∞¥Åº~ÃÑ·, J^Õ
^è°O°Hí∞, =∞∞Y qÅ∞=Hí∞
atrabilious qKÍO°Ñ¨Ói`Œ"≥∞·#, f„= ÅHí∆
}®Å∞ HíÅ
at random JHí¯_«Hí¯_«, Ü«∂^°$zÛùHí~Qå
atresia qHíã≤~K«x O°~„^è°~
at right ã¨=∞iÊ~z# "≥<ˇfi~@<Ë K‹e¡~KÍ
Åx aÅ∞¡ÃÑ· O®¿ãk
at risk „Ǩ=∂^°~Ö’/ #+¨ì~Ö’/ L#fl,
„Ǩ=∂^°Ñ¨Ù J~K«∞# L#fl, „Ǩ=∂^°~
á⁄~z L#fl
atrium Híi‚Hí
atrocious „Hí∂O°, ÃѶ∞ÏO°, H˜O®`ŒHí, áåâ◊
qHí, ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°
atrocity JѶ¨∂ܵ`Œº~, H˜O®`ŒHí~, J`ͺ
KÍO°~, ^°∞â◊ÛO°º, ^°∞O®Qõ`Œ~
atrophic H©∆}˜~z#
atrophy H©∆}`Œ, Hí∆Ü«µO’Qõ~, |Hí¯zHí¯_«~,
Hí$t~K«_«~. muscular ~ Hí~_«O®Å
H©∆}`Œ. optic ~ ^°$+≤ìH©∆}`Œ
attach [ѨÙÎKıÜ«µ∞, `Œye~K«∞, J#∞
|~kè~K«∞, KıO°∞Û, XHí^®x`À XHí>˜
*’_ç~K«∞, XHí =ºH˜Î`À *’_ç~K«∞
attache ã¨Ç¨kèHßi. cultural ~
™®~㨯 $uHí ã¨Ç¨kèHßi
attachment "≥ØǨÏ~, J#∞|~^è°~. ~
of property [ѨÙÎ
attack ^®_ç, Ѷ¨∂`Œ~, `ŒQõÅ_«~, q=∞O°≈.
cerebral ~ =∞ã≤Î+¨¯Ñ¶¨∂`Œ~. heart ~
Qõ∞~_≥áÈ@∞
attactiveness q∞>ÏO°~
attainable ǨiÅ|ú
attainder (=∞O°}tHí∆ Ǩ_ç# =ºH˜ÎH˜ ã¨~„Hí
q∞~Kı) Híà◊~Hí~

KÍiHí
attention ™®=^èß#`Œ
attenuate |ÅÇ‘Ï#ǨO°K«∞,

qÅ∞=
`Œyæ~K«∞, ^°∞O°ƒÅ ǨO°K«∞
attenuation `Œyæ~K«_«~, H©∆}˜~Ǩ*ËÜ«µ_«~
atterberg =∞>˜ì ™®~„^°`Œ/ Ǩ@∞`Œfi
Ǩiq∞u
attest „^è∞° gHíi~K«∞, ™®H˜∆ ã¨~`ŒH~
í Kıܵ« ∞,
x[=∞x xO®úi~K«∞
attestation ™®H˜∆ ã¨~`ŒHí~, „^è°∞gHíO°}
ã¨~`ŒHí~
attested copy „^è°∞gHí$`Œ „Ǩu
attestor ™®H˜∆ ã¨~`ŒHí~^®O°∞, „^è°∞gHíO°Î
at times JǨC_«Ç¨C_«∞
attitude ^°$HíÊ^ä°~, fO°∞, ^è’O°}˜, "≥·Yi,
su, Éèß=~, Jaè„áåÜ«µ~. ~ research
Jaè„áåÜ«µ ¿ãHíO°}
attitude-type ã¨Ê~^°# ™®÷ܵ =sæHíO°}
attorn =∂iÊ_ç KıÜ«µ∞
attorney <®ºÜ«µÇÍk. ~ general Hı~„^°
„ǨÉ∞íè `Œfi <®ºÜ«µÇÍk, <®ºÜ«µã¨ÅǨ^®O°∞.
~ power =º=ǨO° xO°fiǨÏ}Hí∞ Jkè
HßO°~ W=fi_«~. ~ ship =HßÅ`Œ∞
attraction PHíO°¬}
attractive PHíO°¬}©Ü«µ, PHíO°¬Hí
attributable profit PO’Ǩ}©Ü«µ ÖÏÉèí~
attribute n. Qõ∞}qâı+¨~, aO°∞^°∞, Páå
k~K«_«~, PO’Ç≤~K«_«~, J~@Qõ@ì_«~
attribute v. Páåk~K«∞, PO’Ç≤~K«∞,
J~@Qõ@∞ì
attribution theory „Ǩ=O°Î# HßO°}®Å#∞
J<Ëfi+≤~Kı ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
attrition Ѷ¨∞O°¬}, tHí∆Hí∞ ÉèíÜ«µÇ¨_ç "≥#H˜¯
`ŒQõæ_«~† ^ÕǨÏ~Ö’ ѨÙ~_«∞ Ǩ_«_«~

63

auditor
attrophy Hí}*ÏÅ~ #t~z áÈ=_«~
at tune JÅÇÍ@∞Ǩ_«∞
at warehouse price y_«¤~y ^è°O°
at worst =∞Ǩ Jܵ`Ë, Ç‘Ï# ǨHí∆~
atypical =∂kiH˜ ã¨iáÈx
auburn ZO°∞Ѩ٠O°~Qõ∞ ^Õe# QÀ^è°∞=∞

=O°‚~
ÇıÅ~ (áå@). open ~ |Ç≤Ï
O°~Qõ ÇıÅ~. ~ purchase ÇıÅ~ HÁ#∞
QÀÅ∞
auctionariae ÇıÅ~ Ǩ>©ì
auctioneer ÇıÅ~ Çı¿ã/ [i¿Ñ =ºH˜Î
audacious ™®Ç¨Ï™È¿Ñ`Œ"≥∞·#, ÖˇHí¯KıÜ«µx
audacity ^è≥·O°º~, ™®Ç¨Ïã¨~, á⁄QõO°∞É’`Œ∞
`Œ#~, xO°¡Hí∆ º~, hÅ∞Qõ∞, `ˇ~Ǩi`Œ#~
audibility „â◊=º`Œ, „â◊=}©Ü«µ`Œ, „â◊∞u
„QåǨϺ`Œ, q#|_«_«~
audible „â◊=º, „â◊=}©Ü«µ"≥∞·#, „â◊∞u
„QåǨϺ"≥∞·#, q#|_«∞`Œ∞#fl
audience „¿ÑHí∆Hí∞Å∞, „â’`ŒÅ∞, ã¨Éèí∞ºÅ∞†
^°O°≈#~
audio „â◊=º. ~ conference ^°¥O°Éèß+¨}
ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~. ~ frequency „â◊=º`Íáœ#ó
ѨÙ#º~. ~ visual education ^°$â◊º
„â◊=} q^°º/ q^®ºq^èß#~. ~ visuals
^°$â◊º „â◊=}’ǨHíO°}®Å∞
audiogram „â◊=}OÕY
audiologist qxH˜_ç ã¨=∞㨺ŠxѨÙ}∞_«∞,
„â◊=} ֒Ǩ xO®úO°Hí∞_«∞
audiometer „â◊=º`Í=∂ǨHí~
audiometry „â◊=º`Í=∂ǨHõ~
audiotypist q~@¥ >ˇ·Ñ¨ÙKı¿ã =ºH˜Î
audit (ÖˇHí¯Å) `Œxv, `ŒxvKıÜ«µ∞. ~ report `Œxv xÇıkHí. ~ year `Œxv
ã¨~=`ŒûO°~
audition Qå„`Œ ǨijÅ#
auditor P_ç@O∑, ÖˇHí¯Å `Œxv^®O°∞
auction

auditorium

64

authorized

auditorium ã¨=∂Çıâ◊ =∞~kO°~
auditory „â◊=} ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#, qxH˜_çH˜

authentic

JkèHßiHí=∞ܵ#, „áå=∂}˜Hí

ã¨~|~kè~z#
augment n. PQõ=∞~, J#∞|~^è°~
augment v. ÃÇÏzÛ~K«∞, ÃÑ~K«∞, ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞,
JkèHí~Qå KıO°∞Û, ÇıQõ=~`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞
augmentation =$kúKıÜ«µ_«~, ÃÇÏK«Û
ÇıÜ«µ_«~, KıO°Û_«~
augur â◊Hí∞#~, ѨÓO°fi㨥K«#, Éèßq
㨥K«#† â◊Hí∞#~ K‹Ç¨C, =∞∞~^°∞Qå
㨥z~K«∞
augural *’ã¨∞ºÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
augury 㨥K«#, â◊Hí∞#~, ÅHí∆}~, Éèíq
+¨º`Œ∞Î K‹Ç¨Ê_«~, ™Èk
august Q˘Ç¨Ê, Ѷ¨∞#=∞ܵ#
aura Hß~u =∞~_«Å~† „ǨHßâ◊~, „Ǩ`˺Hí
ÇÍ`Í=O°}~/ Ǩiã≤÷u
aural „â◊=} ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
aureloe „ǨÉèß=∞~_«Å~
aureate |~QåO°∞ =<ˇflQõÅ, `ŒO°à◊"≥∞·#
auricle K‹qÃÑ· ÉèßQõ~, Híi‚Hí
auriferous ã¨fiO°‚^®Ü«µHí"≥∞·#
aurora australis ^°H˜∆} „^è°∞= „ǨÉèí
aurora borealis L`ŒÎO° „^è°∞=„ǨÉèí
auspicate "≥∞∞^°Å∞ÃÑ@∞ì, „áåO°~aè~K«∞
auspices áÈ+¨}, P„â◊Ü«µ~† P^è°fiO°º~
auspicious =∞~Qõà◊„Ǩ^°, â◊∞Éèí„Ǩ^°"≥∞·#,
„Ǩ`˺Hí"≥∞·#, J#∞Hí∂Å"≥∞·#
austere q∞`Œ=ºÜµ, P_«~|O°â◊¥#º
austerity á⁄^°∞ѨÙ, q∞`Œ=ºÜ«µ~, Híiî#`Œ,
x+¨¥ªO°`Œ, x+¨ª. ~ measures á⁄^°∞ѨÙ
K«O°ºÅ∞, xO®_«~|O° K«O°ºÅ∞
austral ^°H˜∆} „áå~`Œ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
austronaut Ç’º=∞Qåq∞
autarchy ã¨~ѨÓO°‚ ™®O°fiÉè“=∂kèHßO°~
autecology ǨO°ã¨ÊO° ã¨~|~^èßÅ#∞/ ǨO°
ã¨ÊO° K«O°ºefl Ǩije~Kı âÍG~

authenticate x[=∞x

=∞ܵ#
xO°¥Ç≤~K«∞, „^è∞° =
ǨO°K«∞, K‹Å∞¡ÉÏ@∞KıÜ«µ∞, „Ǩ=∂}©Hí
i~K«∞, JkèHßO°q∞K«∞Û
authenticated „Ǩ=∂}©Hí$`Œ
authentication „Ǩ=∂}©HíO°}, „^è°∞g
HíO°}
authenticity „áå=∂}˜Hí`Œ, Ü«µ^äßO°÷`Œ,
ÇÍã¨ÎqHí`Œ
authentification x*Ïxfl xO°¥Ç≤~Kı
P^èßO°~, x*Ïxfl xO°¥Ç≤~Kı P^èßO®xfl
K«¥Ç¨_«~
author „Qõ~^ä°HíO°Î, O°K«Üµ`Œ
authorised JkèHí$`Œ. ~ agent Jkè
Hí$`Œ∞_≥·# U*ˇ~>ò. ~ capital JkèHí$`Œ
=∞¥Å^è°#~. ~ dealer JkèHí$`Œ
Çͺáåi. ~ expenditure JkèHí$`Œ
=ºÜ«µ~. ~ version PkèHßiHí áåOî°~/
Hí^ä°#~/ q=O°}
authoritarianism xO°~Hí∞âÍkèHßi`Œ
authoritarian personality xO°~Hí∞â◊
=ºH˜Î`Œfi~
authoritative ™®kèHßO°, JkèHßO° ѨÓO°fiHí
authority ÃÑ`ŒÎ#~, xO°‚Ü«∂kèHßO°~, P*Ï˝
Ç≤~Kı, xÜ«µ~„u~Kı, „ǨÉèßq`Œ~ Kı¿ã
â◊H˜Î, xÜ«µ=∞ x|~^è°#Å∞ `ˇKıÛ â◊H˜ÎQõÅ
ã¨~ã¨÷/ „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~
authorization JkèHßO°q∞=fi_«~, ã¨~„Hí
q∞~z# JkèHßO°~, J#∞=∞u~K«_«~†
JkèHßO®efl `ˇe¿Ñ Ǩ„`Œ~
authorize J#∞=∞u~K«∞, JkèHßO°q∞K«∞Û
authorized J#∞=∞u~z, JkèHí$`Œ"≥∞·#,
„áå=∂}˜H"í ∞≥ #· . ~ fund JkèH$í `Œ ^è#° ~.
~ share capital JkèHí$`Œ ÇÍ>Ï
=∞¥Å^è°#~. ~ version JkèHßO°
áåOî°~, „áå=∂}˜Hí áåOî°~

autobiography
autobiography P`Œ‡Hí^ä°, ã‘fiÜ«µK«i„`Œ
autocracy xO°¿ÑH∆ßkèHßO°~, ǨÏ^°∞ÌÅ∞ ÖËx

JkèHßO°~, UHí =ºH˜Î áåÅ#
autocratic xO°~Hí∞â◊"≥∞·#, Z^°∞O°∞ÖËx
auto-erotism `Œ# â◊sO®xfl K«¥ã¨∞HÁx

`Í<Ë Öˇ·~yH’„^ÕHí~ á⁄~^°_«~
auto-financing ã¨fiÜ«µ~ ^è°#ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~
autogancy P`Œ‡ã¨~ǨO°¯~
autogenic succession „áå}˜, ÇÍ`Í
=O°}®Å ǨO°ã¨ÊO° „ǨÉèß=~
autograph Kı„ÇÍÅ∞, ã¨~`ŒHí~
autohypnosis `Œ=∞#∞ `ÍÇı∞ Ç≤ÏǨfl>ˇ·A
Kıã¨∞H’=_«~
autolysis P`Œ‡qâı¡+¨}, ã¨fiÜ«µ~H©∆}`Œ
automate Ü«µ~„`Œ, ™®~HıuHí Ǩi*Ï˝<®xfl
LǨܡ∂y~K«∞, ǨxÖ’ <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}®ºhfl,
ÇıQåhfl ÃÑ~á⁄~k~K«∞
automatic ã¨fiÜ«µ~KÍÅHí, ã¨fiK«e`Œ. ~
pilot ã¨fiÜ«µ~ KÍÅHí, q=∂#~/ <ÒHí
automatic alternation J<®„t`Œ O°¥Ç¨
Ǩi=O°Î#
automation Ü«∂~„uH©HíO°}~
automicity ǨO°=∂}∞Hí`Œ
automyxis P`Œ‡Ñ¶¨ÅnHíO°}~
autonomic =ºH˜ÎÖ’ HíeQÕ „Ǩu K«O°ºÅ∞
autonomous ã¨fiÜ«µ~áåe`Œ, ã¨fi`Œ~„`Œ,
ã¨fiÜ«µ~ „ǨuǨuÎ QõÅ
autonomous phonology ã¨fi`Œ~„`Œ =O°‚
xO®‡}âÍG~
autonomy ã¨fi`Œ~„`Œ`Œ, ã¨fiÜ«µ~ „ǨuǨuÎ,
xO°‚Ü«∂kèHßO°~
autonym O°K«Üµ`Œ Jã¨Å∞¿ÑO°∞
autopsy â◊=ǨsHí∆
autopsychois =∂#ã≤Hí
ã¨=∞㨺Å∞
ã¨fiÜ«µ~Qå Qõ∞iÎ~K«∞H’=_«~
autosuggestion ã¨fiÜ«µ~ 㨥K«#

65

averaging in
autotrophic ã¨fiÜ«µ~áÈ+≤`Œ
autotroph ã¨fiÜ«µ~áÈ+≤`Œ~
autumn â◊O°`ͯÅ~, PHí∞O®Å∞ HßÅ~
auxilary J#∞|~^è°, ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí, Q“}. ~
duties ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ ã¨∞~HßÅ∞. ~ industry J#∞|~^è° Ç¨i„â◊=∞. ~ service
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí ¿ãÇÍHßO°º~. ~ verb ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ

„H˜Ü«µ
â◊sO° áÈ+¨Hí Ǩ^®O°÷~
LǨܡ∂QõÃÑ@∞ìHÁ#∞, „Ǩܡ∂[#~
á⁄~^°∞. of no ~ x+¨ÊÅ~ =ºO°÷~
availability ^˘O°Hí_«~, „áåÇ≤Î, „áåǨº`Œ
available ^˘iHı, ÅÉèíº
avalanche =∞~K«∞#k, Ç≤Ï=∞áå`Œ~
avant-garde ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«µ qO°∞^°ú O°K«
ܵ`ŒÅ |$~^°~
avarice ^è°#^®Ç¨Ï~, ¿ÑO®â◊, ÖÏÉèí~
avaricious Å∞|ú
avast PQõ∞, P=Ù
avenge ǨQõnO°∞ÛHÁ#∞, HíHí∆ ™®kè~K«∞
avenue Ǩ^ä°~, ^®i, =∂O°æ~, ÉÏ@,
Hí∂_«e, â◊$~Qå@Hí~, LáåÜ«µ~, Ǩ^°úu,
™®^è°#~
aver x[=∞xK‹Ç¨C, <˘H˜¯K‹Ç¨C, ã¨`Œº
„Ǩ=∂}~ KıÜ«µ∞, ^°$_è°~QåK‹Ç¨C
average ã¨Qõ@∞, ã¨O®ã¨i, ™®^èßO°}~,
„áå=∂}˜H~í , =ã¨∞OÎ H° }
∆í â◊∞ů~. ~ cost
ã¨Qõ@∞ =ºÜ«µ~. ~ fixed cost ã¨Qõ@∞
ã≤÷O°=ºÜ«µ~. ~ revenue ã¨Qõ@∞ O®|_ç.
~ variable cost ã¨Qõ@∞ K«O°=ºÜ«µ~
averaging XHı Hí~ÃÑhH˜ K‹~k# ÇÍ>Ï
Å#∞ XHı ã¨=∞Ü«µ~Ö’ ÇıOÕfiO°∞ ^è°O°Å`À
J=∞‡_«~
averaging down ÇÍ>ÏÅ ã¨O®ã¨i
#ë®ìxfl `Œyæ~K«∞H’=_«~
averaging in ™®÷Ü«µ∞Ö’¡ ÇÍ>ÏÅ#∞ HÁkÌ
HÁkÌQå HÁ#_«~
auxin
avail

averaging out
averaging out ^è°O°Å∞

ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞`Œ∞#flǨC_«∞
ÇÍ>ÏÅ#∞ J=∞‡_«~
averaging up ^è°O°Å∞ ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞`Œ∞#flǨC_«∞
KÍÖÏ ÇÍ>ÏÅ∞ HÁ#_«~
averment ^°$_è°=K«#~
averse q=∞∞Y, „ǨuHí∂Å, q=∞∞Y
aversion qO°H˜Î, "≥·=∞∞Yº~, „áåuHí∂ź~,
"≥Qõ@∞, AQõ∞Ǩû, Jã¨Ç¨Ïº`Œ
avert xÇÍi~K«∞, `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞, [O°QõHí∞~_Í
KıÜ«µ∞
aves ǨHí∆∞Å∞, ǨH˜∆O®[º~
avian qǨÏ~Qõã¨~|~kè, ǨHí∆∞ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~
kè~z#
aviary ǨHí∆∞Å#∞ L~Kı „Ǩ^Õâ◊~
aviation q=∂#Ü«∂#~. ~ policy
ÇÍÜ«µ∞ q^èß#~, q=∂# O°¥Ç¨HíÅÊ#/
O°ÇÍ}® q^èß#~
avid P„`Œ~QõÅ, L`ÍûǨÏ~ QõÅ, Pã¨H˜ÎQõÅ.
~ collecor ã¨g∞HíO°}®ã¨Hí∞Î_«∞. ~
reader ǨOî°<®ã¨Hí∞Î_«∞
avidity f„="≥∞·# PHß~Hí∆
avirulent f„=~Hßx, L„Qõ~Hßx
aviso @áå<ÒHí
avitaminosis q@q∞<ü ֒Ǩ~
avocation ÇͺǨHí~, Çͺã¨~Qõ~, =$uÎ
avoid
`ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞(HÁ#∞),
`˘ÅQõ∞,
Oî°ÖÏܵ~K«∞
avoidance Oî°ÖÏܵ~K«∞
avouch O°¥_è˜Qå, K‹Ç¨C, XǨCHÁ#∞
avow „ǨHí>˜~K«∞, #=∞‡Hí~QåK‹Ç¨C
avowal XǨC^°Å
avowedly ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå, „Ǩã¨∞Êù@~Qå, ÉÏǨ
@~Qå
AWACS Qõã‘Î Ü«µ∞^°úq=∂#~
await Çız L~_«∞, „ǨfH˜∆~K«∞, xsH˜∆~K«∞
awakening *ÏQõ$u, "Õ∞Å∞H˘Å∞Ê

66

axis

JÇÍO°∞¤, fO°∞Ê, |Ǩï=∞u: Jkè
xO°‚Ü«µ~† ™®kèHßO° xO°‚Ü«µ~, <®ºÜ«µ
™®÷#~ fO°∞Ê. ~ a sentence tHí∆
qkè~ѨÙ. ~ recipient |Ǩï=∞u
„QõÇ‘Ï`Œ
aware `ˇeã≤#, *ÏQõ$`Œ"≥∞·#
awareness *ÏQõ$u. ~ context ǨO°ã¨ÊO°
J~K«<®
awash (JÅÅHí∞) HÁ@∞ìHÁxáÈ=Ù
awe n. q㨇ܫµ~. ã¨~„Éèí=∞~, ÉèíH˜ÎѨÓO°fiHí
ÉèíÜ«µ~, ÉèíÜ«µcèu
awe v. ÉèíÜ«µ~HÁÅ∞Ê, ÉèíÜ«µÃÑ@∞ì
awful ÉèíÜ«∂#Hí, cèuQ˘Å∞ѨÙ, cè+¨},
P"≥Ø^°O°Ç≤Ï`Œ, f„=
awhile HÁ~K‹~ ¿ãѨÙ, HÁkÌHßÅ~
awkward qHßO°, qHí$`Œ
awkwardly qHßO°~Qå
awl â◊¥Å~, PO≥
awn Hí~H˜
awned Hí~Hí∞Å∞QõÅ
awnless â◊¥HíO°Ç≤Ï`Œ
awry =~HíO°, =„Hí"≥∞·#, J_«¤k_«¤"≥∞·#,
`ŒÇ¨C^À=#áÈÜ˵
axe `˘Åy~K«∞, Çı@∞ÇıÜ«µ∞, `Œyæ~K«∞
axenic xO°~wHßO°Hí
axial JH©∆Ü«µ. ~ skeleton JHí∆ Hí~Hßà◊~,
ѨلO≥ "≥<ˇfl=∞∞Hí
axilla K«~Hí, ÉÏǨï=∞¥Å~
axiology qÅ∞=Å Qõ∞i~z K«iÛ~Kı `Œ`ŒÎ fi
âÍG qÉèßQõ~
axiom ã¨fiÜ«µ~Qå `ˇeã≤# ã¨`Œº~, „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆
„Ǩ=∂}~, ã≤^®ú~`Œ~, ™®O°fi[h#
ã¨`Œº~, ã¨fi`Œ ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
axiomatical ã≤^®ú~`ÍÅ`À Hí∂_ç#
axis JHí∆~, WO°∞ã¨∞
award

67

axis powers
axis powers JHí∆O®*ϺÅ∞
axis vertebra JHí∆H©Híã¨~,

"≥<ˇfl=∞∞HíÖ’x

O≥~_«= ѨÓã¨
axiom „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆㨥„`Œ~
axle WO°∞ã¨∞Hí„O°, JHí∆^°~_«~
axon JHí∆`Œ~`Œ∞=Ù
ayes J~wHíOÅ
ΰ ∞, B#<ËÇÍO°∞,

back
azimuth kQõ~â◊~, kH’¯}~
azoic r= zǨÏfl~ÖËx, xs˚="≥∞·#
azonal O®à◊§ÃÑ· =∞>˜ì ¿ÑO°∞H’=_«~
azoo spermia gO°ºHí}®Å∞ xs˚==∞Ü˵º

ã≤÷u
J~wHíi~Kı

ÇÍO°∞

azure hÅ=O°‚~, PHßâ◊hÅ~† hÅ
azygospore Jã¨~Ü«µ∞HíÎ ã≤^°úc[~
azygote Jã¨~Ü«µ∞HíÎc[~

Bb
ѨÙ#O°∞`ŒÊuÎH˜ ZHí∞¯= „áå^èß#º
q∞KıÛ XHí „Ç¨Hí$u =∞`Œ~
babble =ºO°÷ „Ǩã~
¨ Qõ~, K‹ÇÊ≤ ~^Õ K‹Çʨ _«~,
hO°∞ „Ǩ=Ç≤Ï~Kı^è°fix, J=ºHíÎѨ٠=∂@Å∞,
Jã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå =∂>Ï¡_«∞, Q˘}∞Qõ∞, QõÅQõÅ
=∞#∞, O°Ç¨Ï㨺~ "≥e QõHí∞¯. ~ stage
â‹·â◊= ^°â◊ (O≥~_«∞ <ˇÅÅ =Ü«µã¨∞û)
babbler =^°O°∞É’`Œ∞, <À@ =∂@^®Qõx
=ºH˜Î
babe K«~>˜a_«¤, tâ◊∞=Ù
babel Qõ~^°O°QÀà◊~
babism k=º r=# ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
baboon ÃÑ^°ÌH’u, HÁ~_«=∞∞K«∞Û
babul #Å¡`Œ∞=∞‡ K‹@∞ì
babyhood #_«Hí =KıÛ ^°â◊
baccate Hí~_«QõÅ
bacchanal `ÍQõ∞É’`Œ∞
bacillar ^°~_ÍHßO°
bacillary dysentery O°HíÎ qOÕK«<®Å∞
bacillophobia Ju㨥Hí; r=ÙÅ~>ı
HíeQÕ ÉèíÜ«µ~
bacillus ^°~_ÍHßO° ÉÏH©ìiÜ«∂. ~ acid
fast P=∞¡ xO’^è°Hí ^°~_Í}∞=Ù. lepen
~ Hí∞+¨∞ª Çͺkèx Híey~Kı ^°~_Í HßO°
ÉÏH©ìiÜ«∂. typhosus ~ >ˇ·á¶åܵ_ü
Çͺkèx
Híey~Kı
^°~_ÍHßO°Ñ¨Ù

baalism

ÉÏH©ìiÜ«∂
=∞^°ÌuK«∞Û, ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~KıÜ«µ∞† Pi÷Hí
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~ KıÜ«µ∞† ã¨~[˝KıÜ«µ∞. ~ and
belly Hí∂_»∞ Qõ∞_«¤, |>Ïì u~_ç. ~
benchers ã¨Éèß HßO°ºHíÖÏáåÖ’¡ K«~°ÛÖ’¡
J~°∞^Œ∞QÍ áêÖÁæ<Õ ã¨Éèí∞ºÅ∞. ~ bite
ǨO’Hí∆~Ö’ q=∞i≈~K«_«~/ x~k~K«_«~/
^°¥+≤~K«_«~/ KÍ_ôÅ∞ K‹Ç¨Ê_«~. ~
biter KÍ_ôH’O°∞, ~ biting KÍ_ôÅ∞
K‹Ç¨Ê@~. ~ bonding uO°ºH± |~^è°~.
~ bone =∞¥ÖÏ^èßO°~, "≥#∞flѨÓã¨, "≥<flˇ
=∞∞Hí. ~ copy áå`ŒHßÇ‘/ ¿ÑǨO°∞/
Ǩ„uHí. ~ cross [~`Œ∞=ÙÅ#∞ ÇÍ>˜
ã¨~`Í#~`À<Ë ã¨~ܡ∂Qõ~ K‹~k~z ѨÙ#
O°∞`ŒÊuÎ K‹Ü«µº_«~. ~ date =∞∞~^°∞ `Ën
ÇıÜ«µ_«~† =∞∞~^°∞ `Ën #∞~z K‹Å∞¡
ÉÏ@Ü˵º@@∞¡ KıÜ«µ∞. ~ door ^˘_ç¤
^®i, J„Hí=∞"≥∞·#. ~ drop J=O’^è°~,
P@~Hí~. ~ flow uO’Qõu. ~ ground
ÃÑO°_«∞, <ËǨ^ä°º~. ~ office ™®ìH±
„É’Híi~Qõ∞ ã¨~ã¨÷. ~ of the wall H˜¡+¨ì
Ǩiã≤÷u #∞~_ç |Ü«µ@Ǩ_Ë =∂O°æ~ÖËx.
~ orders L`ŒÊuÎ/ ã¨O°Ñ¶¨O® KıÜ«µHí∞~_Í
L#fl PO°¤O°∞. ~ out =∂@ `ŒÇ¨C, LǨ
ã¨~ǨÏi~K«∞HÁ#∞. ~ pay ѨÓO°fiѨÙ
`ËnÅ #∞~z ÖˇHí¯Hí>˜ì W=fi_«~. ~

back

backer

ѨÙO’Qõ=∞<®xfl xO’kè~K«∞, K«O°º
O°^°∞ÌKıã¨∞HÁ#∞. ~ pollination ǨâÍÛ`ü
ǨO®Qõ ã¨~ǨO°¯~. ~ reflection „Ǩu
=O®=O°Î#~. ~ rest P#∞_«∞ (|Å¡). ~
slide "≥#∞HíHí∞ *ÏO°∞. ~ stabbers
"≥#∞fláÈ@∞^®O°∞Å∞. ~ stabbing "≥#∞fl
áÈ@∞. ~ stage `ˇO°"≥#∞Hí. ~ stich
Hí∞@∞ì g∞^° Hí∞@∞ìÇıÜ«µ∞. ~ suction
uO°ºH± K«¥+¨}~. ~ swamp |∞O°^°
<ËÅ. ~ titration uO°ºH± J~â◊=∂Ǩ#~
backer =∞^°Ì`Œ∞ WKıÛ =ºH˜Î
backing =∞^°Ì`Œ∞, ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~† Pi÷Hí
„áÈ^°ƒÅ~, Qåe kâ◊Ö’ =∂O°∞Ê
backlash „Ǩu„H˜Ü«µ
backloading O°∞}~ K‹e¡~Ѩ٠q^èß#~:
Qõ_«∞=Ù ^°QõæO° Ǩ_«∞`Œ∞#flѨÙ_«∞ K‹e¡~ѨÙ
Qõi+¨ª~Qå L~_«_«~
backlog |Hßܵ֡Hí¯, q∞ye L#fl
L^ÀºQõ MÏm
back to back loan XHı ^Õâ◊ HíO≥hûÖ’
=∞~EO≥·# O°∞}®xH˜ |^°∞Å∞Qå =∞O˘Hí
^Õâ◊ HíO≥hûÖ’ O°∞}~ W=fi_«~
backtrack "≥#∞Hí~[/
"≥#∞Hí_«∞Qõ∞
(ÇıÜ«µ∞), uO’Qõ=∞# kâ◊ (Ǩ@∞ì)† `ÀHí
=Ú_«∞K«∞
backup „Ǩ`ͺ=∂flÜ«µ „Ǩ}®oHí/ ™®=∞„y
backward "≥#∞Hí|_ç L#fl, K‹_«∞ ã≤÷uÖ’
L#fl, Jã¨=∞‡`Œ"≥∞·#. ~ child ã¨iQåæ
=∂>Ï¡_«ÖËx JÉσܵ/ J=∂‡Üµ. ~
integration =∞∞_çã¨O°∞Hí∞Å#∞ ã¨O°Ñ¶¨O®
Kı¿ã Hí~ÃÑhÅ#∞ `Œ# Pnè#~Ö’H˜ `ˇK«∞Û
H’=_«~. ~ sloping supply curve
áåi`À+≤Hí~ ÃÑiy# HÁnÌ q„âÍ~u
HßÅ~ ÃÑO°QåÅ<ËÇÍ^°~
backwardation HÁ#∞QÀà◊§ ^è°O°Å∞ `ŒHí∞¯
=Qå L~_Ë ã≤÷u
backwardness "≥#∞HíÉÏ@∞
`Œ#~.
pedal

68

bag
mental ~
backwaters

|∞kú=∂~^°º~
LǨCh>˜

HíÜ«µºÅ∞,

=$+¨ì[ÖÏÅ∞
bacon Ǩ~k =∂~ã¨~
bacteraemia rÇÍ}∞ „H˜q∞ O°HíÎ`Œ
bacteria ÉÏH©ìiÜ«∂, Ju 㨥Hí;rq/
„H˜q∞
bacterial ÉÏH©ìiÜ«∂Hí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#,
ÉÏH©ìiÜ«∂ =Å¡ HíeQÕ. ~ culture ÉÏH©ì
iÜ«∂ ÃÑiQÕ =∂^è°º=∞~
bactericidal rÇÍ}∞„H˜q∞/ ÉÏH©ìiÜ«∂
ã¨~ǨO°Hí
bactericide ÉÏH©ìiÜ«∂/ rÇÍ}∞„H˜q∞
ã¨~Ǩi}˜
bacteriologist rÇÍ}∞ „H˜q∞ q*Ï˝x
bacteriology rÇÍ}∞ „H˜q∞ âÍG~
bacteriophage „H˜q∞ ã¨~ǨO°Hí rÇÍ
}∞=Ù
bacteriostatic rÇÍ}∞ „H˜q∞ xO’^è°Hí
bad conductor J^è°=∞ ÇÍǨÏHí~
badellium Qõ∞yæÅ~
badge ÉÏ_ç˚, zǨÏfl~, Qõ∞O°∞Î
badger h>˜Hí∞Hí¯† g^è°∞Ö’¡ PǨO° Ǩ^®
O®÷Å#∞ JÇı∞‡ =ºH˜Î
bad in law âÍã¨#/ K«@ì qO°∞^°ú~
badinage ZQõ`Ío, ǨiǨã¨~
badluck ^°∞O°^°$+¨ì~. ~ debt "≥∞∞~_ç
Ǩ^°∞Ì. ÉÏH©. ~ debt =㨥Å∞ Hßx
|Hßܵ. ~ faith <®ºÜ«µ~ ÖËx, =~K«#
QõÅ, hu=∂e#
baffle Éèí~QõǨO°K«∞, F_«Q˘@∞ì† pHßHí∞
ǨO°K«∞
bag n. ã¨~áåk~K«∞, á⁄~^°∞, Q≥Å∞ÛHÁ#∞
bag v. ÉϺQ∑, ã¨~z, =∞¥@. ~ and
baggage =∞¥>Ï=∞∞Öˇ¡. ~ ofbones
|Hí¯Ç¨ÅK«>˜ =∞x+≤. ~ of membranes
L=∞‡h>˜ ã¨~z

bagasse
bagasse K‹O°∞Hí∞ Ç≤Ç≤Ê
bagassosis K‹O°Hí∞ ^è°¥oÇͺkè
bagman =∞¥@"≥Ø¿ã =ºH˜Î
bagnio =ºaèKÍO°Qõ$ǨÏ~
bail ɡܵÅ∞, [=∂#`Œ∞, *Ïg∞#∞
bailable *Ïg∞#∞ W=fi^°y#. ~ warrant *Ïg∞#∞ W=fi>ÏxH˜ J=Hßâ◊~

W㨥ΠxO°ƒ~kè~KÍÅ#fl H’O°∞ì P^Õâ◊~
bail out P^°∞Hí∞<Ë~^°∞Hí∞ Pi÷Hí ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO°~
J~k~K«∞
bailsman *Ïg∞#∞ WzÛ# =ºH˜Î
bait ZO°
baize Q˘~Qõo Qõ∞_«¤† =∞∞`ŒHí ã¨O°∞Hí∞
bajra ã¨[˚Å∞, Qõ~>˜, *Á#fl
back HßÅ∞Û, ÇıѨÙ_«∞KıÜ«µ∞, ǨHífi~KıÜ«µ∞
baking soda =~@™È_Í
balaam JHí¯O°Hí∞O®x q∞„`Œ∞_«∞, PâÍ
Éèí~Qõ~ Híey~Kı =ºH˜Î
balance ã¨=∞`Œ∞ź`Œ, ã¨~`Œ∞Å#~, `Œ∞Å,
„`Íã¨∞, `Œ¥xHí, P^®Ü«µ =ºÜ«∂Å#∞
ÖˇHí¯Qõ>˜ì ã¨=∞`Œ¥HíǨO°∞Û. acid base ~
P=∞¡, H∆ßO° ã¨~`Œ∞Å#~. chemical ~
O°™®Ü«µxHí „`Íã¨∞. ~ of payments
q^Õj K‹e¡~ѨÙÅ ã¨=∞`Œ¥Hí~. ~ of
power „áå|ź ã¨=∞`“ź~. ~ of
trade ÇÍ}˜[º ã¨=∞`Œ¥Hí~. sensitive
~ ã¨∞xfl`ŒÑ¨Ù „`Íã¨∞. ~ sheet Pã≤Î
JǨCÅ∞ Ǩ>©ì. ~ theory ã¨~`Œ∞Å#
ÇÍ^°~. water ~ [Å ã¨~`Œ∞Å#~
balanced `Œ∞ź, ã¨~`Œ∞e`Œ. ~ budget
ã¨~`Œ∞e`Œ |_≥˚>ò. ~ constitution
ã¨~`Œ∞e`Œ O®*Ϻ~Qõ~. ~ design
ã¨~`Œ∞e`Œ O°K«#. ~ diet ã¨~`Œ∞e`Í
ǨO°~. ~ economy ã¨~`Œ∞e`Íi÷Hí
=º=ã¨÷. ~ reaction ã¨~`Œ∞e`Œ K«O°º,
„Ǩu„H˜Ü«µ

69

balm
balanitis tâÍfl„Qõ ÇÍѨÙ
balckmould #Å¡|¥A
baldness |@ì`ŒÅ
balefire ã¨~Hı`Œ*ÏfiÅ
baleful ǨxHíO°
balk n. ^°∞#flx <ËÅ, ^°¥Å~,

PâÍÉè~í Qõ~†
Éèí~QõǨO°K«∞, xO°∞`ÍûǨÏǨO°K«∞
balk v. Jܵ+¨ìOQåKıÜ«µ∞
balkanisation XHí ^Õâ◊~ =∞∞Hí¯Å∞Qå
q_çáÈ=_«~. emotional ~ UHí`ÍÉèß
ÇÍxH˜ Éèí~Qõ~ HíÅQõ_«~
ballad *Ï#Ǩ^° QÕÜ«µ Qå^ä°
balladeer *Ï#Ǩ^° Hí^äß QåÜ«µHí∞_«∞
ballads gO°Qå^ä°Å∞
ball and socket joint |~u y<ˇfl H©Å∞
ballast n. HõOHõO `«∂HõѨ٠|~°∞=Ù, F_»#∞
xÅHõ_»QÍ LOKÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ ^•xÖ’ LOKÕ
ÉèÏ~°O
ballast v. |O°∞=Ù Z`Œ∞Î, ã¨O°∞Hí∞ x~ѨÙ
ballerina #O°ÎH˜
ballet #$`Œº<®>˜Hí, ÉÏÖË
ballies DÅ Hí„O°Å∞
ballism J=Ü«µÇÍÅ Hí^°eHí ֒Ǩ~
ballistic Qõ`ŒjÅ, Hı∆ǨHí. ~ missile
LǨi`ŒÅ H˜∆Ǩ}˜
ballistics H˜∆Ǩ}˜ âÍG~, „áåHı∆ǨHßÅ∞
ballistophobia ÃÑ#
· ∞~zǨ_Ë =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ~>ı
ÉèíÜ«µ~
balloon Qõ∞=∞‡@~
ballot ZxflHíŠǨ„`Œ~
ballpark figure ã¨∞=∂O°∞(Qå), O°=∂
O°q∞, W~K«∞q∞~K«∞
ball tampering „H˜H>
≥ òÖ’ |~u O°¥áåxfl
áå_«∞Kıã≤ É“ÅO°∞¡ Åaúá⁄~^°_«~
balm ã¨∞Qõ~^è° `ˇ·Å~, LǨâ◊=∞#~, LǨ
â◊=∞#Hßi, ã¨∞ÇÍã¨# „^°Çͺxfl WKÕÛ
=$Hí∆~

70

balneology
balneology n. B+¨nè[ÖÏ^谺ܫµ#~
balooning Qåe|∞_«Qõ zH˜`Œû
baltic exchange ã¨O°∞Hí∞ O°ÇÍ}®

Kı¿ã

J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ <ÒHßHı~„^°~
á⁄_«=Ù<® KıuǨ@∞ìHí∞
P^èßO°~Qå L~_Õ ã¨ÎOÉèí~
bamboo "≥^°∞O°∞
ban x¿+^è°~, x¿+^è°K«@ì~, x¿+kè~K«∞
banal ™®^èßO°}"≥∞·#, ZÖÏ~>˜ qâı+¨=∞¥
ÖËx
banality ã¨O°fi™®^èßO°}`Œ, O°ã¨Ç‘Ï#`Œ
banco ÉÏ~Hí∞Å∞ `Œ=∞ MÏ`ÍÅÖ’ HíO≥hûx
ÖˇH˜¯~Kı „Ǩ=∂}~
band Ǩ>˜ìHí. ~ curve Ǩ>˜ìHß =„Hí~. ~
head Ǩ>˜ìHß jO°¬~. ~ rate "≥Ø_≥"£∞
ǨxKı¿ã ÇıQõ~. ~ spectrum =O°‚Ǩ@~.
~ structure Ǩ>˜ìHßO°K«#. ~ system
Ǩ>˜ìHß =º=ã¨÷. ~ wagon O®[H©Ü«∂
ÅÖ’ Q≥eKı ǨHí∆~`À Kıi L~_«_ÍxH˜
„Ǩܵ« ufl~K«_~« . ~ width Ǩ>Hì˜ í "≥_Å« ∞Ê
bandage Hí@∞ì, Ǩ>©ì. suspendory ~
ÇıÖÏ_Ë Hí@∞ì
bandit |~káÈ@∞, ^®i^ÀÇ≤_ç^˘~Qõ
bandy n. ^˘_ç¤Hßà◊∞§Qõņ ǨH© P@ Hí„O°,
XHí P@
bandy v. =∞∞~^°∞Hí∞ "≥#∞HíHí∞ HÁ@∞ì/
`ÀÜ«µ∞, ^≥|ƒÅ∞HÁ@∞ì/ u#∞, q`Œi¯~K«∞
bane q<®â◊¿ÇÏ`Œ∞=Ù, <®â◊#~
bang Qõ>˜ìQå HÁ@∞ì, =∞¥Ü«µ∞, ÉÏ^°∞† ÃÑ^°Ì
^è°fix
banian =∞„i
banian days =∂~ã¨~ =_ç¤~K«x O’AÅ∞
banish "≥e, (™®~Ѷ≤∞Hí/ ^Õâ◊) |Ç≤Ï+¨¯O°}†
^ÕâÍ~`ŒO° ÇÍ㨠tHí∆ qkè~K«∞, `Œiq∞
ÇıÜ«µ∞
banishment ^ÕâÍ~`ŒO°ÇÍ㨠tHí∆, `Œiq∞
Çı`Œ
baluster Çı∞_«"≥∞@¡

bankrupt

bankruptcy

bank X_«∞¤, fO°~, ÉÏ~Hí∞ ~ acceptance ÉÏ~Hí∞Ö’ J~wHíi~Kı aÅ∞¡. ~
account ÉÏ~Hí∞ MÏ`Í: ~ loan ÉÏ~Hí∞
WKıÛ O°∞}~. blood ~ O°HíÎxkè. ~
certificate ÉÏ~Hí∞ WKıÛ „^è°∞gHíO°}
Ǩ„`Œ~. ~ credit ÉÏ~Hí∞ "≥zÛ~K«QõÅ
"≥∞∞`ŒÎ~. ~ deposit ÉÏ~Hí∞Ö’ xÅ∞=
Kıã≤# "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~ (_«|∞ƒ). ~ draft Ǩg∞

bankruptcy

Ǩ_«¤ "≥∞∞`ÍÎxfl K‹e¡~K«QõÅ#x ÉÏ~Hí∞
WKıÛ K‹Hí∞¯. eye ~ <Ë„`Œxkè. ~ for
international settlements Hı~„nÜ«µ
ÉÏ~Hí∞Å =∞^躰 ã¨ÇϨ HßO° Hı~„^°~Qå =º=
ǨÏi~Kı J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ ÉÏ~Hí∞ ~ holiday ÉÏ~Hí∞ ÃãÅ=Ù ~ money ÉÏ~Hí∞
„^°=º~. ~ note ÉÏ~Hí∞ *ÏsKı¿ã _«|∞ƒ.
~ of issue <À@∞¡ *ÏsKı¿ã ÉÏ~Hí∞. ~
rate ÉÏ~Hí∞ OÕ@∞. ~ rate policy
ÉÏ~Hí∞ OÕ@∞ q^èß#~. ~ rebate
ÉÏ~Hí∞ iÉı@∞. ~ reconciliation
statement ÉÏ~Hí∞ xÅfiÅ ã¨=∞#fiÜ«µ
xÇıkHí. ~ roll Pi÷Hí =#O°∞Å∞. ~
transfer XHí ÉÏ~Hí∞ #∞~z =∞O’
ÉÏ~Hí∞Hí∞ _«|∞ƒ |kb KıÜ«µ_«~
bankable ÉÏ~Hí∞ J#∞=∞u~Kı. ~ asset ѨÓp ÃÑ>ıì~^°∞Hí∞ J~wHßO° ܡ∂Qõº
"≥∞·# Pã≤Î
banker =_ô¤ Çͺáåi, +¨O®|∞† `ÍÇ‘
Qõ∞O°∞Ά O®u ɡ~z† Çı@ Qõ∞„O°~
banking =_ô¤ ÇͺáåO°~, Qõ@∞ìHí@ì_«~. ~
ombudusman ÉÏ~H˜~Q∑ P~|∞_üû=∞<ü:
ÉÏ~Hí∞ ÖÏÇÍ^ÕgŠǨi뮯O°~ H’ã¨~
i[O∑fi ÉÏ~H± PѶπ W~_çÜ«∂ xÜ«µ
q∞~z# JkèHßi (ÉÏ~Hí∞Å∞ =∂„`Œ~
P~|∞_üû=∞<ü fO°∞ÊHí∞ Hí@∞ì|_ç L~_Íe)
bankrupt kÇÍÖÏnÜ«µ∞,
JǨCÅ∞
K‹e¡~K«ÖË=∞x „ǨHí>˜~K«∞, kÇÍÖÏH’O°∞,
O°∞}®Å∞ K‹e¡~K«x =ºH˜Î/ ã¨~ã¨÷

kÇÍÖÏ (H’O°∞`Œ#~),
JǨCÅ∞ fO°ÛÖËx ã≤÷u
banksman ÉÁQõ∞æQõx Qõ@∞ìg∞k #∞~z
ǨO°ºÇıH˜∆~Kı =ºH˜Î
banner Ǩ`ÍHí~, *ˇ~_Í, P^°O°≈~`À/
qâÍfiã¨~`À Kıã≤# Ǩx/ PK«O°}† z„`Œ
xO®‡} ã¨~ã¨÷† Ǩ„uHíÖ’¡ Ǩ`ÍHí ji¬Hí,
ã¨~ã¨÷ ¿ÑO°∞† ã¨=∂ÇıâÍÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~
z# ã¨=∂KÍO®xfl/ x<®^®Å#∞ O®ã≤#
á⁄_«∞Qå>˜ Qõ∞_«¤=∞∞Hí¯
bannerol J~u=∞ Ü«∂„`ŒÖ’ fã¨∞HÁx
áÈܵ ã¨=∂kèÃÑ· L~Kı *ˇ~_Í
banns (H≥·ã¨Î= ã¨~II) qÇÍÇ¨Ï „ǨHí@#
banquet (Éèßs) q~^°∞† q~^°∞ W=fi_«~
banter "≥H˜¯i~`Œ, ǨiǨã¨~, QÕeKıÜ«µ∞
baptism „H≥·ã¨Î=ÙÅ *Ï˝#™®fl#~
bar xO’kè~K«∞† Hí_ô¤† <®ºÜ«µÇÍ^° =$uΆ
<®ºÜ«µÇÍ^°∞Å∞ Pã‘#∞ÅÜ˵º „Ǩ^âÕ ~◊ . ~
association <®ºÜ«µÇÍ^°∞Å ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~. ~
pendulum ^°~_«Ö’ÅHí~
barb =∞∞Å∞¡, Hí~@Hí~, ÉÏ}ѨÙHÁã¨,
QåÅ~† ZuÎá⁄_«∞ѨÙ, JO°÷~ÖËx q=∞O°≈
barbaric P@qHí, J<®QõiHí, „Hí∂O°
barbarism J<®QõO°Hí`Œ, "≥∞∞O°@∞`Œ#~
barbarity J<®QõO°Hí Ǩ^°úu, „H“O°º~
barbarous J<®QõO°Hí, „Hí∂O°
barbate *ÏÅ∞QõÅ, Ç‘K«∞QõÅ
barbed =º~Qåº`Œ‡Hí† =∞∞à◊∞§QõÅ
barbicell 㨥Hí; Hí~@Hí H©e`Œ~
barbola =ã¨∞=
Î ÙÅÃÑ#· O°~Qõ∞ O°~Qõ∞Å K‹H¯í
_«Ñ¨Ù Ǩx, JÅ~HßO°~
barbule 㨥Hí;Hí~@Hí~† 㨥Hí; Hí~@Hí
H©e`Œ~
bar chart qq^è° O®â◊∞Å#∞ xÅ∞=Ù
^˘~`ŒO°∞Å∞QåK«¥¿Ñ OÕMÏz„`Œ~
barcode =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ ^è°O°#∞Qåx, PK«¥H©

71

barometric

ã¨~Yº#∞ Qåx 㨥z㨥Π=∞∞„k~Kı
xÅ∞=Ù w`ŒÅ z„`Œ~
bard Qõ∞„O°~ Z^°Hí=K«~
bare =GqÇ‘Ï#~KıÜ«µ∞, `ˇO°zÇıÜ«µ∞†
=GqÇ‘Ï#, L`ŒÎ, =>˜ì, zH˜¯#, O°Hí∆}ÖËx
barefaced ã≤Q∞õ =
æ ∂e#, Å*Ï˚OÇ° Ï≤ `Œ, ^®Ç¨
iHí~ÖËx
barefacedness ã≤Qõ∞æ=∂e#`Œ#~
barely ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå, KÍb KÍÅHí∞~_Í
bareness kQõ~|O°`Œfi~
barest minimum Híx+¨ª~
bargain K«=Hí, JQõ=
æ , HÁã¨O∞° , ™®ìH∞í ZH±û
Kèı~lÖ’ XHí Hí~ÃÑh ÇÍ>ÏÅÃÑ· [iQÕ
ÖÏÇÍ^Õg, ÉıO°~KıÜ«µ∞, K«iÛ~K«∞,
ã¨=∂^èß#Ǩ_«∞
bargaining power ÉıO°=∂_Ë â◊H˜Î,
ã¨~„Ǩk~ѨÙÅ ™®=∞O°÷º~
bargaining theory ã¨~„Ǩk~ѨÙŠǨ^°úu
barge K˘K«∞ÛHÁxáÈ=Ù,
^ÒO°˚#º~Qå
K˘O°|_«∞
baricade J_«∞¤Hí@ì
baritone =∞~„^° ã¨fiO®xH˜ LK«Û ã¨fiO®xH©
=∞^è°º#∞~_Ë ã¨fiO°~, JÖÏ~>˜ Hí~Oî°ã¨fiO°~
QõÅ QåÜ«µHí∞Å∞
barium meal q∞~QÕ ÉıiÜ«µ~ ã¨ÖËÊù>ò
q∞„â◊=∞~
bark ɡO°_«∞, Hí∞Hí¯ "≥∞∞O°∞Qõ∞_«∞, z#fl
Ǩ_«=, "≥∞∞O°∞Qõ∞, JO°∞K«∞
barking up the wrong tree =$^äß
„Ǩܫ∂㨠Ǩ_«∞
barn ^èß<®ºQåO°~
barnacle Ǩ_«=Å, F_«Å J_«∞Qõ∞Hí∞
J~@∞Hí∞<Ë #`ŒÎQõ∞Å¡
baroreceptor ÉèßO°q∞u „QåǨÏHí~
barometer ÉèßO°q∞u
barometric ÉèßO°q∞fÜ«µ

barometry
barometry ÉèßO°q∞u q*Ï˝#~
baron [g∞~^®O°∞
baronage „ǨÉèí∞/ Hí∞b#=O°æ~
baroness [g∞~^®i}˜
baronet [g∞~^®O°∞ aO°∞^°∞, JÖÏ~>˜

aO°∞^°∞ QõÅ =ºH˜Î
barophilic ZHí∞¯= XuÎ_ç QõŠǨiã¨O®Ö’¡
x=ã≤~Kı
baroscope ÇÍÜ«µ∞ ™®~„^°`Í ã¨¥K«Hí
ǨiHíO°~
barracks ÉÏO°Hßã¨∞Å∞, |~nÅ/ Ãã·xHí∞Å
PÇÍã¨~
barrage P#Hí@ì, ¿ã`Œ∞=Ù
barratrous "≥Øã¨"≥∞·#
barrel Ç‘áå. ~ shaped Ç‘áå ÖÏQõ∞~_Ë
barren |~[O°∞, Ѷ¨e~K«x, â◊¥#º"≥∞·#
barrier J_«∞¤, ^°_ç, ã¨iǨÏ^°∞Ì, J_«¤~H˜,
J=O’^è°~, „Ǩu|~^è°~, P@~Hí~. placental ~ =∂q J_«¤~H˜, [O®Ü«µ∞
J=O’^è°~
barrier reef ǨQõ_ÍÅ k|ƒ
barrister <®ºÜ«µÇÍk
barter system =ã¨∞Î=∂iÊ_ç Ǩ^°úu, =ã¨∞Î
qx=∞Ü«µ Ǩ^°úu
baryecoia qxH˜_ç ֒Ǩ~
baryglossia LKÍÛO°}
Jã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå
L~_«_«~
barylalia ã¨iQå =∂@ÖÏ_«ÖËHí áÈ=_«~,
Éèß==ºH©ÎHíO°} ã¨iQå ÖËHíáÈ=_«~
baryphonia J~>ı ã¨iQå LK«Ûi~K«ÖËHí
áÈ=_«~
baryte =∞∞Qõ∞æO®Üµ
basal P^èßO°Éèí¥`Œ"≥∞·#. ~ bodies P^èßO°
xO®‡}®Å∞. ~ disc P^èßO°Ç‘Oî°~. ~
metabolic rate (b.m.r) =읏 r=
„H˜Ü«∂ 㨥z. ~ metabolism r=

72

basin

basiphobia

„H˜Ü«µ. ~ plate P^èßO° Ѷ¨ÅHí~
ѨÙ<®k, J_«∞Qõ∞ (á⁄O°), P^èßO°~,
=∞¥Å~, H∆ßO°~. ~ coins =∞¥Å
<®}ıÅ∞. ~ component P^èßO°
xO®‡}~. ~ level K«O°=∞ ã¨=∞`ŒÅ~,
#k H’Ü«µQõey# Qõi+¨ªÖ’`Œ∞. ~ line
P^èßO° OÕY. ~ metal ™®=∂#º ֒ǨÏ~.
~ structure „áå^ä°q∞Hí xO®‡}~. ~
year „áåuǨkHí ã¨~=`ŒûO°~
baseborn hK« [#‡QõÅ
baseless xO®^èßO°"≥∞·#, P^èßO°O°Ç≤Ï`Œ
basement membrane P^èßO°`ŒfiK«~
baseness <ˇ·K«º~, ÃÇÏ·#º~
base rate Éèí¥q∞Hí, Éèí¥q∞HíQå fã¨∞Hí∞<Ë
=_ô¤OÕ@∞
bash z`ŒHÁ¯@∞ì, |Å~Qå HÁ@∞ì
bashful ã≤Qõ∞æǨ_Ë, a_çÜ«µ~QõÅ, Ç≤iH˜,
ã¨~H’z~Kı
basic =∞∫eHí, P^èßO°Éèí¥`Œ"≥∞·#, =∞¥Å
"≥∞·#, „Ǩ^èß#"≥∞·#† =∞¥ÅÇı`Œ#~. ~
alternant „Ǩ^èß# O°¥Ç¨Éèı^°~. ~ concept =∞∫eHí Éèß=#. ~ conflict „áå^ä°
q∞Hí ã¨~Ѷ¨∞O°¬}. ~ education =∞∫eHí
q^°º. ~ industry =∞∫eHí Ǩi„â◊=∞. ~
needs „áå^ä°q∞Hß=ã¨O®Å∞. ~ personality „áå^ä°q∞Hí =ºH˜Î`Œfi~. ~ plan
„áå^ä°q∞Hí #=∞¥<®. ~ sciences
=∞∫eHí q*Ï˝# âÍ„™®ÎÅ∞. ~ stains H∆ßO°
O°~[HßÅ∞. ~ wage =∞¥ÅÇı`Œ#~
basically „áå^ä°q∞Hí~Qå, =∞∫eHí~Qå,
„Ǩ^èß#~Qå
basil `Œ∞Åã≤K‹@∞ì
basin #n ǨsÇÍǨÏHí „áå~`Œ~, ǨÏi
ÇÍ}~, Éèí¥Hí∆Ü«µ~ =Å¡ UO°Ê_ç# ǨšѨÙ
„áå~`Œ~† Ç¨à‹§~† Ö’`Œ∞ ÖËx "≥_«Å∞Ê
áå„`Œ

basiphobia

base

x>ÏO°∞Qå xÅ|_«ÖËHí
áÈ=_«~, #_«ÇÍÅ~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
basipodite P^èßO° áå^®~Qõ~
basis „áåuǨkHí, P^èßO°~, =∞¥Å~,
¿ÇÏ`Œ∞=Ù, XHí ÇÍ^®xH˜/ K«O°ºHí∞/ K«O°ÛHí∞
=∞¥Å"≥∞·# ¿ÇÏ`Œ∞|^°ú Éèß=#
bask Z~_«HßK«∞HÁ#∞† K«e HßK«∞HÁ#∞,
P#~k~K«∞
basophilic H∆ßO°HíO°¬Hí~
basset Çı@Hí∞Hí¯
bassia latifolia WǨÊK‹@∞ì
bast Qõ∞A˚
baste HíeÇ≤Hí∞@∞ì, =∂_«Hí∞~_Í #¥<ˇ`À
x~Ѩن ÉÏ^°∞, Hí„O°`À HÁ@∞ì
bastinado Hße =∞_«=∞ÅÃÑ· HÁ>˜ì tH˜∆~Kı
Ǩ^°úu
bastion |∞O°∞A
batch A@∞ì, ^°à◊~, XHí xiÌ+¨ì HßÅ~Ö’
`ŒÜ«∂O°∞ Kıã≤# XHıO°Hí"≥∞·# =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ
ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~, XHíKÀ@ KıO°ÛQõeQÕ XˆH O°Hí
"≥∞·# =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~
bathetic Bz`ŒºO°Ç≤Ï`Œ"≥∞·#, ã¨=∞Ü«µ[˝`Œ
ÖËx
bathyestehsia Juã¨∞xfl`Œ`Œfi~
bathymetric surveying ã¨=∞∞„^°Ñ¨Ù
Ö’`Œ∞efl, <ËÅefl ǨsH˜∆~K«_«~
bathymetry h>˜Ö’`Œ∞ HÁeKı Ǩ^°úu
baton ÖÏsî, JkèHßO° Ǩ„`Œ~, ÖÏsî`ÀHÁ@∞ì
batryoidal Qõ∞KÍÛùHßO°
batta |`ÍÎ, <®`Œ~
battalion Ǩ>ÏÅ~ (500–1000 =∞~k
Ãã·xHí∞Å∞)
batter ǨÅ∞=∂O°∞¡HÁ@∞ì, KÍ=Ù^≥|ƒÅ∞
HÁ@∞ì, Hí∞=∞∞‡† #O°∞Hí∞, (Ѷ≤O°~Qõ∞Å`À)
Ǩ_«Q˘@∞ì
battering KÍ=Ù^≥|ƒÅ∞
HÁ@ì_«~,
Hí∞=∞‡_«~

73

bearing
battery HÁ@ì_«~,

Ѷ≤O°~Qõ∞Å∞~Kı |∞O°∞A,
q^°∞º^°∞`ŒÊuÎ Kı¿ã ™®^è°#~, =O°ã¨
battle Ü«µ∞^°ú~. ~ array Ü«µ∞^°úã¨#fl^°ú
"≥∞·# ¿ã<®=ӺǨÏ~. ~ field Ü«µ∞^°ú
Hı∆„`Œ~. ~ ground Ü«µ∞^°úO°~Qõ~
battlement H’@HÁ=∞∞‡, Çı∞Å∞QÀ_«
batty Ç≤K‹ÛuÎáÈܵ#, "≥„O≥uÎáÈܵ#
bawdy Jj¡Å"≥∞·#
bawl JO°∞ѨÙ, JO°∞K«∞, ÉÁ|ƒÅ∞ÃÑ@∞ì,
Q˘_«= Q˘_«=Qå =∂>Ï¡_«∞, Qõ>˜ìQå K‹Ç¨C
bayonet `Œ∞áåH˜ HÁ#Ö’ J=∞OÕÛ ã¨hfl
bayou <ˇ=∞‡kQå „Ç¨=Ç≤Ï~Kı ÃãÅÜ˵O°∞†
Éèí¥q∞ ֒Ǩe h>˜Qõ∞~@
BCG VACCINE (Bascillus Calmate
Gurine Vaccine) Hí∆Ü«µHí∞ >©Hß =∞~^°∞
beacon „^è°∞=`ÍO°, ^®iK«¥Ñ¨Ù Qõ∞O°∞Î. ~
light ѨÙ~rÉèí¥`ŒHß~u
bead [Ǩ=∂ÅÖ’x ѨÓã¨
beadsman áÈ+≤~Kı ÇÍ}˜‚ á⁄Qõ∞_«∞`Œ¥

|`ŒHí=Åã≤# =$^°∞ú_«∞, aèHí∆Hí∞_«∞
beam "≥Å∞Qõ∞, „ǨHßt~K«∞† H˜O°}~
(ѨÙ~[~)
bear (¿+O°¡) ^è°O° `Œyæ~K«∞, ÇͺáåO°~
=∞∞y~K«∞† JǨC_«∞ ^è°O°ÅH˜ JÇı∞‡ =ºH˜Î,
^è°O°#∞ `Œyæ~K« Ü«µufl~Kı Çͺáåi.
bring to ~ J=∞Å∞ǨO°K«∞. ~ down
J}zÇıÜ«µ∞. ~ the brunt ÉèßO°~
=Ç≤Ï~K«∞. ~ market ^è°O°Å∞ `ŒQõ∞æ
=∞∞Y~ Ǩ>˜ì# =∂O≥¯@∞ì, `ŒHí∞¯= "≥ÅHí∞,
^˘O°∞Hí∞`ÍÜ«µx Z^°∞O°∞K«¥¿ã ã≤÷u. ~
out ÃÑ~K«∞, ã¨=∞i÷~K«∞, O°∞A=ÙKıÜ«µ∞
bearable Éèíi~K«^°Qõæ
bearer `ˇKıÛ=ºH˜Î, ÇÍǨÏHí∞_«∞
bearing „Ǩ=O°Î#, su, kHí∞¯, ^°â◊†
(K‹@∞ì) HßѨÙ, PHí$u

74

bears play
bears play "≥Ø@∞ ã¨O°ã¨~
beast "≥∞Hí~, =∞$Qõ~
beastiality [~`Œ∞=ÙÅ`À

Ǩ_«∞HÁ#∞, <®@∞† Ǩ_«Hí, ǨO°∞ѨÙ,
á⁄Å~Ö’x =∞_ç, áå^°∞, #n „ǨÇÍǨÏ~
P„Híq∞~Kı „Ǩ^Õâ◊~. ~ and breakfasting Ǩ#∞fl ZQõÇı`Œ. ~ wetting
x„^°Ö’ =∞¥„`Œqã¨O°˚#
bedabble K«Å∞¡, =∞∞iH˜KıÜ«µ∞
bedaub ѨÓÜ«µ∞, JÅ∞Hí∞
bedbug #e¡
bedchamber Ǩ_«HíQõk
bedding Ǩ_«Hí, J_«∞Qõ∞=O°ã¨
bedeck JÅ~Híi~K«∞
bedeviled ã¨~kQõú~Ö’
Ǩ_«ÇıÜ«µ∞,
ÉÏkè~K«∞, Ç≤Ï~ã≤~K«∞, Çı^°#Hí∞ Qõ∞i
KıÜ«µ∞, z„`Œ=^è°KıÜ«µ∞, <®â◊~KıÜ«µ∞,
áå_«∞KıÜ«µ∞, #+¨ì~ Híey~K«∞
bedew =∞~K«∞`À `Œ_«∞ѨÙ
bedim =∞ã¨HíKıÜ«µ∞
bedlam QõÅÉèß, HíÖ’¡Å~, Qõ~^°O°QÀà◊~,
„Ǩu+¨ì~Éèí#
bedouin ^Õâ◊k=∞‡i
bedpan Ǩ_«∞Hí∞x =∞Åqã¨O°˚# Kı¿ã áå„`Œ
bedraggle =O°¬~`À/ |∞O°^°`À =∞∞iH˜
Jܵ#
bedridden =∞~K«~ Ǩ>˜ì#
bedsore Ǩ_«HíѨÙ~_«∞
bedstead =∞~K«~
bee `Ë<ˇ>©Qõ
beef up ZHí∞¯=KıÜ«µ∞
beehive `Ë<ˇ Ǩ@∞ì/ `Œ∞>ˇì
beeling (`Ë<ˇ>©QõÅ ÖÏQå) =O°ã¨Hí@ì_«~
beesting A#∞fláåÅ∞, =∞∞„O°∞áåÅ∞
beetle Hí∞=∞‡iѨÙO°∞Qõ∞, ¿Ñ_« ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞
"≥∞∞^°ÅQõ∞#q† kq∞‡ã¨ (<ËÅ#∞ K«^°∞#∞
Kı¿ã ™®^è°#~)
befall [O°∞Qõ∞, =zÛǨ_«∞
befit ã¨iáÈ=Ù, `ŒQõ∞
bed

Öˇ·~yHí

ã¨~|~^è°~
beastliness =∞$Qõ„áåÜ«µ`Œ,

befit

"≥∞∞O°@∞^°#~,
ǨO°∞+¨`Œfi~† u~_çáÈ`Œ∞`Œ#~
beastly =∞$Qõ„áåÜ«µ"≥∞·#, „Hí∂O°"≥∞·#
beat HÁ@∞ì, ÇÍܵ~K«∞, ^°~K«∞. ~ about
the bush _˘~HíuO°∞Qõ∞_«∞Qå =º=ǨÏ
i~K«∞. ~ black and blue z`ŒHíÉÏ^°∞.
~ the air =ºO°÷ „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~ KıÜ«µ∞
beaten #ey#, O°ã¨Ç‘Ï#"≥∞·#, qâı+¨Çı∞g∞
ÖËx† â◊H˜Î L_çy#, xã¨Ê $Ç¨Ï K‹~k#. ~
rice J@∞Hí∞Å∞
beatify P#~k~ǨKıÜ«µ_«~
beatitude =∞∞H˜Î, n"≥#, ǨO°=∂#~^°~
beau J~^°Qå_«∞, ã¨∞~^°O°∞_«∞, „Ç≤Ü«µ∞_«∞,
„¿Ñq∞Hí∞_«∞, JÅ~HßO°„Ç≤Ü«µ∞_«∞
beauteous J~^°"≥∞·#
beautician ™œ~^°O°º =$kúH˜ ã¨ÅǨeKıÛ/
zH˜`Œû Kı¿ã =ºH˜Î
beautiful J~^°"∞≥ #
· , *Ï#∞, ã¨∞~^°O"° ∞≥ #· ,
™⁄QõÃã·#, ™⁄~ÃÑ·#
beautify JÅ~Híi~K«∞
beauty ™œ~^°O°º~, J~^°~, K«Hí¯^°#~.
~ sleep =∞^è°ºO®„uH˜ =∞∞~^°∞ x„^°. ~
spot ÉÁ@∞ì, uÅHí~. ~ pageant
J~^®Å áÈ>©
beaux arts Åe`Œ Híà◊Å∞
beaver c=O∑, ZÅ∞Hí =~>˜ LÉèíÜ«µK«O°
rq
beck `ŒÅ`À/ Kı`Œ∞Å`À Kı¿ã Ãã·Qõ
beckon Ãã·QõKıÜ«µ∞, Ãã·QõKıã≤ Ç≤Å=_«~
becloud =∞|∞ƒHí=∞∞‡, =∞O°∞Qõ∞ ǨO°∞K«∞
becoming `Œy#
becomingly `Œy#@∞ìQå

befitting
befitting `Œy#. ~ reply `Œy# [ÇÍ|∞
befool "≥Øã¨y~K«∞, Ç≤zÛÇÍxx Kıã≤

P_ç~K«∞, ZQõ`ÍoKıÜ«µ∞
beforehand =∞∞~^°∞Qå<Ë
befoul áå_«∞KıÜ«µ∞,

=∞∞iH˜KıÜ«µ∞,
=∞e#~ KıÜ«µ∞
befriend ¿ãflǨÏ~HíÅ∞ѨÙ, ¿ãflǨÏ~KıÜ«µ∞,
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µÇ¨_«∞, =∞^°ÌuK«∞Û
befuddle Jܡ∂=∞Ü«µ~ Híey~K«∞
beget Hí#∞, ѨÙ>˜ì~K«∞
begging bowl aèH∆ßáå„`Œ
begird K«∞@∞ìHÁ#∞
begrudge Jã¨~`Œ$Ç≤K
Î ~‹ ^°∞, J㨥ܫµÇ¨_∞«
beguile U=∞O°∞áå@∞ HíÅ∞QõKıÜ«µ∞
beguilement "≥Øã¨~, U=∞iÇ≤~K«_«~
behalf ǨHí∆~. on his ~ ÇÍx ǨH∆ß#
behaviour #_«=_çHí, „Ǩ=O°Î#, #_«`Œ. ~
therapy „Ǩ=O°Î#, xÜ«µ=∂Å∞ P^èß
O°~Qå =∂#ã≤Hí ã≤÷uQõ`Œ∞Å#∞ K«Hí¯
|O°K«_«~
behavioural „Ǩ=O°Î<® ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#. ~
conformity =O°Î=∂# xÜ«µ=∂ÅHí∞
Hí@∞ì|_ç L~_«_«~. ~ disorder "≥·^°º
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~`À á⁄~^Õ „Hí=∞O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~. ~
ecology ã¨Ç¨Ï[ xÇÍ™®Ö’¡ r=ÙÅ
„Ǩ=O°Î##∞ J^谺ܫµ#~ Kı¿ã âÍG~. ~
pattern „Ǩ=O°Î<® Ǩ^°úu. ~ science
„Ǩ=O°Î<® âÍG~
behaviourism „Ǩ=O°Î#ÇÍ^°~, „Ǩ=$uÎ
ÇÍ^°~
behaviourist „Ǩ=O°Î#ÇÍk, „Ǩ=$uÎÇÍk
behead `ŒÅ#iH˜ K«~ѨÙ
beheading tO°âıÛù^°~
behest P[˝, P^Õâ◊~, L`ŒÎO°∞=Ù
behold uÅH˜~K«∞, K«¥K«∞
behove `ŒQõ∞, Lz`Œ=∞Qõ∞, ܡ∂Qõº=∞Qõ∞

75

benefaction
being ã¨`ÍÎ, Jã≤Î`Œfi~
belated qÅ~a`Œ,

PÅ㨺"≥∞·#, PÅ

ã≤~z#
belching `ËѨÙÅ∞, `Ë#Û_«~
beleaguer =∞∞@ì_ç~K«∞,

P„Híq∞~K«∞,
Hí∂O°∞Hí∞áÈ=Ù
belfry Qõ~@ L~_Ë Qõ¥_«∞
belie J|^°ú~ KıÜ«µ∞, ==∞∞‡KıÜ«µ∞, x[
=∞xÇ≤~K«HíáÈ=Ù, ã¨=∞i÷~K«ÖËHíáÈ=Ù
believer #Çı∞‡ =ºH˜Î
belittle z#fl|∞K«∞Û, J==∂x~K«∞
belles letters Híà®`Œ‡Hí O°K«#
bellicose [Qõ_ÍÅ=∂i, Q˘_«=ÃÑ@∞ìHÁ<Ë,
Ü«µ∞^®úã¨H˜Î QõÅ
belligerency qO’^è°Éèß=~, Ü«µ∞^°ú Ǩi
ã≤÷u
belligerent Ü«µ∞^°ú
ã¨#fl^°∞ú_«Üµ#,
Ü«µ∞^°ú~Ö’ x=∞Qõfl"≥∞·#
belligerent states Ü«µ∞^Àú<®‡k O®*ϺÅ∞
bell metal Hí~K«∞
bellow O°~H≥ÇıÜ«µ∞, ÉÁ|ƒi~K«∞
bellows HÁeq∞uuÎ, TÇ≤iu`Œ∞ÎÅ∞
beloved „Ç≤Ü«µ∞O®Å∞
below par `ŒHí∞¯=Qå ("≥ÅHí∞)
belt tightening á⁄^°∞ѨÙ, q∞`Œ=ºÜ«µ~
bemire =∞∞iH˜KıÜ«µ∞
bemoan ^°∞ód~K«∞, ^°∞óY~ "≥e|∞K«∞Û
bemuse Qõ~^°O°QÀà◊~Ö’ Ǩ_«ÇıÜ«µ∞
bench |Å¡, ^è°O®‡ã¨#~
benchmark „Ǩ=∂}~, xiÌë®ì~â◊~
bend =~ѨÙ, =~y#ÉèßQõ~, =~K«∞,
=∞_«K«∞, ÇÍÅ∞Û, ÖÁ~QõnÜ«µ∞, =~Qõ∞,
ÇÍÅ∞, ÖÁ~Qõ∞, W+¨ìǨ_«∞
benediction n"≥#, PjO®fi^°~, ã¨fiã≤Î
ÇÍK«Hí~, =∞~Qõà◊„Ǩ^°"≥∞·#
benefaction Çı∞Å∞, ^®#~, LǨHßO°~

benefactor

LǨHßi, ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~ Kıã≤#
=ºH˜Î, Çı∞Å∞ Kıã≤# =ºH˜Î, áÈ+¨Hí∞_«∞,
^®`Œ, Ç≤Ï`ˇ·+≤
benefit ^°Ü«µQå, HíxHíO°~`À
beneficial ÖÏÉèí^®Ü«µHí"≥∞·#
beneficiary Åaú^®O°∞, ÖÏaèHí∞_«∞
beneficiate (Yx*ÏÅ#∞) â◊∞kúKıÜ«µ_«~,
=∂e#º~ `˘Åy~K«_«~
benefit of doubt ã¨~â◊Ü«µ ÖÏÉèí~
benevolence *Ïe, HíxHíO°~, ^°Ü«∂„O°Ì`Œ,
ã¨Ç¨Ï#~, ^è°O°‡|∞kú
benevolent HíxHíO°~ QõÅ, ^°Ü«µQõÅ,
ã¨Ç¨Ï#je, ^è°O°‡|∞kúQõÅ
bengalgram Ãã#QõÅ∞
benign xO°áåÜ«µ"≥∞#
· , ^°Üµ« QõÅ, Hí$ǨQÅõ ,
Ç≤Ï`ŒHíO°"≥∞·#
benignant ^°Ü«∂„O°Ì
benignity HíxHíO°~, ^°Ü«µ
benthose ã¨=∞∞„^°QõO°ƒù~Ö’x, r=*ÏÅ~
benumb "≥∞∞^°∞ÌÉÏO°*ËÜ«µ∞
benzoin ™®~„ÉÏ}˜
bequeath (gÅ∞<®=∂ ^®fiO®) Pã≤Î ã¨~„Hí
q∞~Ǩ *ˇÜ«µº_«~
bequest (=∞O°} âÍã¨#~ ^®fiO®) W+¨ì
ѨÓO°fiHí~Qå =∞O˘HíiH˜ WKıÛ Pã≤Î
berate ^°¥+≤~K«∞, Qõ>˜ìQå =∞~^°e~K«∞
bereave Z_«ÉÏ@∞, |~^è∞° =ÙÅ#∞ áÈQ˘@∞ì
HÁ#∞, qܡ∂Qõ ^°∞óY~, (PHíã≤‡Hí)
=∞O°}~
bereavement |~^è°∞qܡ∂Qõ~
bereft xO®^èßO°~Qå
beriberi #~A Çͺkè
berry =∞$^°∞Ѷ¨Å~
berserk H’áÈ„kHíÎ, JxÜ«µ~„u`Œ
berth Ǩ^°q, ™®÷#~, qO®=∞ ã¨÷Å~,
KÀ@∞, J=Hßâ◊~
benefactor

76

betrayal

betrayer

besan Ãã#QõÇ≤~_ç
beseech |uq∞ÖÏ_«∞, „áå^èıÜ«µÇ¨_«∞
beseechingly ÖÏÅ#Qå
beset K«∞@∞ì=∞∞@∞ì, P=i~K«∞
besiege P„Híq∞~K«∞,
=∞∞@ì_ç~K«∞,

betrayer

Ç‘_ç~K«∞, áÈO°∞ÃÑ>˜ì J_«∞Qõ∞
besmear ѨÓÜ«µ∞, ѨÙÅ∞=∞∞
besom JÅ∞Hí∞Qõ∞_«¤
besot `ˇeq `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞, 㨇 $uáÈQ˘@∞ì
bespatter =∞e#~KıÜ«µ∞, ^°¥+≤~K«∞
bespeak 㨥z~K«∞,
=∞∞~^°∞Qå<Ë
=∂>Ï¡_ç L~K«∞, (™®=∂#∞ÅHí∞) L`ŒÎ
O°∞=Ù WK«∞Û
besprinkle "≥^°[Å∞¡, ÃÑ·#[Å∞¡
bestial =∞$Qõ„áåÜ«µ"≥∞·#, áåâ◊qHí"≥∞·#
bestiality [~`Œ∞=ÙÅ`À ã¨~Éè’y~K«_«~
bestir Híke~K«∞, Çı∞Å∞HÁÅ∞Ê, ã¨#fl^°ú~
KıÜ«µ∞
bestow WK«∞Û, JiÊ~K«∞, J#∞„QõÇ≤Ï~K«∞,
„Ǩ™®k~K«∞, |Ǩ˙Híi~K«∞
best price Híx+¨ª^è°O°
bestride Hßà◊∞§ ÉÏO°*ÏѨÙHÁx Hí∂O’Û
=_«~
beta blocker ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ ã¨Ê~^°# ÇıQõ
xO’^è°Hí~
beta carotine XHí áÈ+¨Hí Ǩ^®O°÷~
betadecay OÕ_çܡ∂
qH˜O°}’^®æO°~,
OÕ_çܡ∂ ^èßi‡Hí qzÛùuÎ
betaint =∞K«ÛǨ_«∞
betake J=Å~a~K«∞, P„â◊ܵ~K«∞
betel leaves `Œ=∞ÅáåHí∞Å∞
bethink PÖ’z~K«∞HÁ#∞, *Ï˝Ç¨Hí~ Kıã¨∞
HÁ#∞
betimer ã¨=∞Ü«∂xH˜, ÃÑ~^°ÅHí_«<Ë
betray "≥Øã¨~, =~K«#, ^°Qå
betrayal #=∞‡Hí „^ÀǨÏ~, qâÍfi㨠Ѷ¨∂`Œ∞
Hí`Œfi~, ™®fiq∞„^ÀǨÏ~

#=∞‡Hí„^ÀÇ≤Ï, (™®fiq∞) „^ÀÇ≤Ï,
qâÍfi㨠Ѷ¨∂`Œ∞Hí∞_«∞
betroth qÇÍǨ ÇÍQåÌ#~Kıܵ« ∞, „Ǩ^®#~
KıÜ«µ∞
betting Ǩ~^≥~, HßÜ«µ_«~
bevel =∞¥Å=∞@ì~
beverage áåhÜ«µ~
bevoid K‹Å¡x
bevy Qõ∞~ѨÙ, A@∞ì
bewail qKÍi~K«∞, ÉÏ^è°Ç¨_«∞, ^°∞ód~K«∞
bewilder `Œaƒ|∞ƒ KıÜ«µ∞, QåÉèíO®ÃÑ@∞ì,
uHí=∞HíÃÑ@∞ì, q„Éèß~u HíÅ∞Qõ*ËÜ«µ∞
bewilderment QåÉèíO®, `Œaƒ|∞ƒ
bewitch =â◊~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞, "≥ØÇ≤Ï~Ǩ
KıÜ«µ∞, =∞~„`Œ„Ǩܡ∂Qõ~ KıÜ«µ∞
bewitchment =jHíO°}~, "≥ØÇ≤Ï~Ǩ
KıÜ«µ_«~
bezoar QÀO’[#~
bianary opposition kfi^èß qÉèíHíÎ`Œ
biannual ^≥· fiÇÍi¬Hí
bias ǨHí∆áå`Œ~, áåH˜∆Hí=∞ܵ#
biassed ǨHí∆áå`Œ~QõÅ
bibber `ÍQõ∞É’`Œ∞
bibliogenesis ѨÙã¨ÎHßÅ `ŒÜ«∂s
bibliography „Qõ~^ä° Ç¨>˜ìHí, „Qõ~^ä° q=
O®Å 㨥zHí
bibliomaniac ѨÙã¨ÎHí ¿ãHíO°} =ºã¨x
bibliophil (e) ѨÙã¨ÎHí „Ç≤Ü«µ∞_«∞, ѨÙã¨ÎHßÅ
ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞
bibliophilism ѨÙã¨ÎHí„Ç≤Ü«µ`Œfi~
bibliophobia ѨÙã¨ÎHßÅ~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
bibliopolist ѨÙã¨ÎHíq„Hı`Œ
bibliothecar „Qõ~^äßÅÜ«∂kèHßi, „Qõ~^ä°
áåÅHí∞_«∞
bibulous Ç‘Å∞ÛHÁ<Ë, `ÍQõ∞_«∞Hí∞ JÅÇÍ@∞
Ǩ_ç#

77

bifurcated
bicameral O≥~_«∞ ã¨ÉèíÅ∞#fl, kfiã¨Éèí
bicameralism âÍã¨# xO®‡} =º=ã¨÷Ö’

O≥~_«∞ ã¨ÉèíÅ q^èß#~
bicameral legislature

O≥~_«∞ ã¨ÉèíÅ

âÍã¨# xO®‡} =º=ã¨÷
Hí~_«O°~, O≥~_«∞ jO®¬Å∞
L~_Ë Hí~_«O°~ ~ brachie kfitO°ã¨¯
ÉÏǨï Hí~_«O°~
bicker HíÅÇ≤Ï~K«∞, [Qõ_«=∂_«∞
bickering HíÅǨÏ~, [Qõ_«~
biconvex kfiHí∞~ÉèßHßO°. ~ lens kfiHí∞~
ÉèßHßO° Hí@Hí~
bicuspid O≥~_«∞ ^°~`Í„QåÅ∞#fl Ǩ#∞fl†
L^®: ǨHí¯Ç¨#∞fl. ~ volve kfiǨ„`Œ
HíÇÍ@~
bid P*Ï˝Ç≤~K«∞, PǨfix~K«∞, ÇızL~_«∞,
ÇıÅ~Ö’ áå_ç# áå@, XHí^®xx HÁ<Ë~
^°∞Hí∞ W=fiEÇ≤# "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~
bid adiew g_À¯Å∞ K‹ÇC
¨ , =ke"≥oá¡ È=Ù,
ÃãÅ=Ù fã¨∞HÁ#∞
bidder ÇıÅ~áå@ áå_Ë =ºH˜Î, áå@^®O°∞
bidding ÇıÅ~áå@, =∞∞Yº~Qå ÇıÅ~áå@
™⁄=∞∞‡, P^Õâ◊~
bide Çız L~_«∞, ã¨Ç≤Ï~K«∞
bidemensional kfiǨi=∂}®`Œ‡Hí
biennial ^≥· fiÇÍi¬Hí
bier â◊=¿Ñ>˜Hí#∞~Kı ÇıkHí
biff =∞∞+≤ìѶ¨∂`Œ~, HÁ@∞ì, Qõ∞^°∞Ì
bifid O≥~_«∞Qå pe#, kfiÉèßl`Œ~
bifocal (s) kfi<®aè, K«`ÍfiO°Ñ¨Ù Híà◊§*’à◊∞§
bifold O≥~_ç~`ŒÖˇ·#, O≥~_«∞ q^èßÖˇ·#
bifurcate O≥~_«∞ =∞∞Hí¯Å∞ KıÜ«µ∞,
O≥~_«∞Qå qÉèíl~K«∞, kfi^èßHíO°}~, ÇıO°∞
KıÜ«µ∞
bifurcated O≥~_«∞ áåÜ«µÖˇ·#, O≥~_«∞
=∞∞Hí¯Öˇ·#
biceps kfitO°ã¨¯

bifurcation

O≥~_«∞Qå qÉèíl~K«_«~,
ã¨=∞kfi Y~_«#~
bifuricate O≥~_«∞ á⁄O°Å∞#fl
big five J"≥∞iHß, O°ë®º, W~Qå¡~_ü,
„á¶å<üû, K‹·<®
big four J"≥∞iHß, O°ë®º, W~Qå¡~_ü,
„á¶å<üû ^ÕâÍÅ∞
bigamist W^°ÌO°∞ ÉèßO°ºÅ∞, ÉèíO°ÎÅ∞ QõÅ
=ºH˜Î, kfiÉèíO°Î $Hí, kfiǨfflHõ =ºH˜Î
bigamy O≥~_À ÃÑo§
bigbang =∞Ǩq™ÈÊù@~ ~ theory =∞Ǩ
q™ÈÊù@HíÇÍ^°~, =∞Ǩ„Ǩà◊Ü«µ ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
bight pe# ã¨=∞∞„^°âÍY, `Í>˜ LK«∞Û
bigot =∞`À<®‡k, HíO’¯@Hí∞_«∞
bigoted =∞¥_è°=∞`Íaè=∂#~
QõÅ,
=∞¥O°öѨ٠Ǩ@∞ì^°Å QõÅ
bigotry =∞`Œ^°∞O®aè=∂#~, ã¨fiǨHí∆^°∞O°aè
=∂#~, ã¨fiqâÍfi㨠ǨHí∆áå`Œ~
bigwigs ÃÑ^°ÌÅ∞,
ÃÑ^°Ì`ŒÅHßÜ«µÅ∞,
Ѷ¨∞O®<® =ºHí∞ÎÅ∞
bilateral kfiáåO°≈fiHí, ^≥· fiáåH˜∆Hí. ~
agreement ^≥· fiáåH˜∆Hí XǨÊ~^°~. ~
credit O≥~_«∞ ǨH∆ßÅ =∞^è°º QõÅ J=
QåǨÏ#. ~ monopoly JÇı∞‡ÇÍO°¥
HÁ<ËÇÍO°¥ XHí¯OÕ L#fl =∂O≥¯>ò ã≤÷u.
~ symmetry kfiáåO°≈fi ™œ+¨ª=~. ~
trade ^≥· fiáåH˜∆Hí =O°ÎHí~
bilaterality kfiáåO°≈fi`Œ
bilateria kfiáåO°≈ ™œ+¨ª= r=ÙÅ∞
bilbo Y_»æ~, HíuÎ
bile Ç≤`ŒÎ~, ÃÑ·`Œº~, zO®Hí∞. ~ acid
Ç≤`ÍÎ=∞¡~. ~ canaliculi ÃÑ·`Œº ÅѶ¨∞∞
<®oHíÅ∞. ~ duct ÃÑ·`ŒºO°ã¨ <®à◊~. ~
pigment Ç≤`ŒÎ=O°‚~. ~ salt Ç≤`ŒÎÅ=}~
biliary Ç≤`ŒÎ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
bilingual kfiÉèß+≤. ~ speaker O≥~_«∞
bifurcation

78

binary

Éèß+¨Å∞ =∂>Ï¡_Q« eõ y# =ºH˜.Î ~ writer
O≥~_«∞ Éèß+¨Ö’¡ O®Ü«µQõey# =ºH˜Î
bilingualism kfiÉèÏ+‘Ü«µ`Œ
biliousuess ÃÑ·`ŒºO’Qõ~
bilirubin ɡ·eO°∞a<ü, ÃÑ·`ŒºO°ã¨ =O°‚„^°=~
biliverdin ɡ·e"≥i¤<ü, ÃÑ·`ŒºO°ã¨ =O°‚„^°=~
bilk ^®@ÇıÜ«µ∞, Oî°ÖÏܵ~K«∞
bill ǨH˜∆=∞∞Hí∞¯† aÅ∞¡, âÍã¨# ã¨Éèí K«O°ÛHí∞
ÃÑ>˜ì#/ P"≥Øk~z# =∞∞™®Üµ^®, z`Œ∞Î
„Ǩu† HíO°Ç¨„`Œ~. ~ board „ǨHí@#Å∞
L~_Ë ÃÑ^°Ì É’O°∞¤. ~ brokers aÅ∞¡
„É’HíO°∞¡. ~ buying aÅ∞¡ HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞.
~ debt O°∞}~ aÅ∞¡. ~ of credit
ǨO°Ç¨u aÅ∞¡. ~ of entry „ǨÇıâ◊ aÅ∞¡.
~ of exchange Ǩï~_ô, |O®`Œ~,
=∂O°HíѨ٠aÅ∞¡. ~ of landing <ÒHß
ÉèßO° Ǩ„`Œ~. ~ of rights ǨÏHí∞¯Å
Ǩ„`Œ~. ~ of sale J=∞‡HíѨ٠aÅ∞¡. ~
of sight HíxÇ≤~Kı =ã¨∞Î *Ïa`Í
billet =~@K‹OH
° ∞í , p>˜, k=∞‡, z#fl*Ï|∞,
Qõ=∞º™®÷#~, L^ÀºQõ~
bill hook ÃÑ^°Ì=~Hí HíuÎ
billion =~^°H’@∞¡, "≥ܵº q∞eÜ«µ#∞¡
billow n. `Œ∞_çzÃÑ>ıìk, ÃÑ^°Ì`ŒÅ, ÃÑ^°Ì
H≥O°@~
billow v. H≥O°@~ =Öˇ ÖËK«∞
bilobed kfiÅ~aHí
bilocular kfiaÅ
bimerous kfiÉèßQõÜ«µ∞`Œ
bimetal kfi֒ǨÏ~
bimetalic kfi֒Ǩ`Œ‡Hí
bimirror kfi^°O°Ê}Hí
bimonthly ^≥· fi=∂ã≤Hí
bin Qå^≥, áå`ŒO°, _«Éσ
binary kfiÉèßQõjÅ, Ü«µ∞Qõ‡. ~ alloy
kfiѶ¨∞@Hí, q∞„â◊=∞֒ǨÏ~. ~ com-

bind

Ü«µ∞Qõ‡ã¨Çı∞‡à◊#~. ~ fission
kfi^èßqzÛùuÎ. ~ opposition ^°fi~^®fi
`Œ‡Hí "≥·O°∞^è°º~. ~ stars [~@#Hí∆„`ÍÅ∞.
~ symmetry kfi^èß ™œ+¨ª=~. ~ system ÖˇHí¯Hí@ì_«~Ö’ ã¨~Hı`ÍÅ∞Qå LǨ
ܡ∂y~z JHí∆O®Å#∞ xO°fiz~Kı q^èß#~
bind Hí@∞ì, J~>˜~K«∞, |~nKıܵ« ∞, xO°ƒ~
kè~K«∞, ÉÏ^è°∞ºxKıÜ«µ∞
binding
qkèQå
áå>˜~K«=Åã≤#,
|~^è°#~, ÉÏ^è°º`Œ, ѨÙã¨ÎHßÅHí∞ J@ì
Å~>˜~z Hí∞>ıì Ǩx. ~ energy |~^è°#
â◊H˜Î. ~ force |~^è°# |Å~, HíeÇ≤
L~KÕ â◊H˜Î
bindover |^°∞ú}˜fl KıÜ«µ_«~, ѨÓp
fã¨∞HÁ#∞
bineural fusion XHí ã¨=∞Ü«µ~Ö’ O≥~_«∞
K‹=ÙÅ¥ ã¨Ê~k~Kı q^èß#~
binge q~^°∞, Jq∞`Œ~Qå u#_«~
binnacle F_« ÃÑ·ÉèßQõ~Ö’ kHí∂ûz L~_Ë
ÃÑ>ˇì
binocular *’_«∞ ^°∞iƒù}˜, ^°¥O°^°i≈x
ǨiHíO°~† kfiK«Hí∆∞ ~ vision kfi<Ë„`Œ
^°$+≤ì, O≥~_«∞ Híà◊§`À K«¥¿ã ^°$+≤ì, kfiHı~
„^°Hí
bio r= ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
bioassay r==∂ǨHí~
biocatalyst rÇ’„`ËÊO°Hí~
biochemical r=O°™®Ü«µ#. ~ genetics r= O°™®Ü«µ# [#∞ºâÍG~. ~ mutation r=O°™®Ü«µ<À`ŒÊi=O°Î#~
biochemistry r= O°™®Ü«µ#âÍG~
bioclast tÖÏ=âı+¨~
bioclimatology r=ÙÅÃÑ· ÇÍ`Í=O°}
„ǨÉèßÇÍÅ J^谺ܫµ# (âÍG)~
biocomponents r= "≥·q^è°ºQõ`Í~âÍÅ∞
biodegradability r=qzÛù#fljÅ`Œ
pound

79

bioluminescence
biodegradation r=Hí$`Œ Ǩ~K«`Œfi~
biodeterioration r=ÙÅ =Å¡ Ǩ^®O®÷Å∞

áå_≥·áÈ=_«~
biodiversity r= "≥·q^è°º~
bioelectrical r=q^°∞º`ü
bioelectromagnetics r=

q^°∞º^°Ü«µ

™®¯~`Œ „ǨÉèßÇÍ^谺ܫµ#~
bioenergetics r=â◊H˜Î âÍG~
bioenergy r=â◊H˜Î
bioethics "≥·^°º huâÍG~
biofertilizers ¿ã~„nÜ«µ ZO°∞=ÙÅ∞
biogas r=ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù
biogenesis rÇ’`ŒÊuÎ („Hí=∞~)
biogenetic law rÇ’`ŒÊuÎ ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
biogeochemistry
r=Éèí¥O°™®Ü«µ#

âÍG~
biogeography r=Éèí¥QÀà◊âÍG~
biographer rq`Œ K«i„`Œ O°K«Üµ`Œ
biographical rq`Œ K«i„`Œ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
biography rq`ŒK«i„`Œ
biolinguistics r= Éèßë®âÍG~
biological r=ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#. ~ clock
r=# Ѷ¨∞~>˜Hí. ~ control r=xÜ«µ~
„`Œ}. ~ cycle r=# K«O®º=$uÎ. ~
determinism [#∞º xO®‚Ü«µHí/ r=
xO®‚Ü«µHí ÇÍ^°~. ~ reductionism
r=âÍ¢ã‘ÎÜ«µ qâı¡+¨}ÇÍ^°~. ~ system
r==º=ã¨÷. ~ warfare „H˜q∞ Ü«µ∞^°ú~
biological control *ˇ·qHí xÜ«µ~„`Œ}
biological diversity r="≥·q^è°º~
biological oxygen demand rq~K«

_ÍxH˜ J=ã¨O°=∞Ü˵º PH˜û[<ü
qâı¡+¨} Ǩ^°úu

biologism r=âÍG
biology r=âÍG~
bioluminescence

„ǨHßâ◊~

r= ã¨~nÇ≤Î, r=

biomass
biomass r=„^°=º~
biomedicl scientist r="≥·^°º âÍGÇı`ŒÎ
biometric r=Ǩi=∂} ã¨~|~kè
biometry r=Ǩi=∂}q∞u
biomutation r= „Ǩ„H˜Ü«µ L`ŒÊi=O°Î#~
bionic Hí$„u=∂=Ü«µ= qt+¨ì
bionomial kfiǨ^°, kfi<®=∞Hí. ~ classification kfi<®=∞ =sæHíO°}~. ~ coefficient kfiǨ^° Qõ∞}Hí~. ~ nomenclature kfi<®=∞HíO°} Ǩ^°úu
bionomics r=Ǩiã¨O° âÍG~
biopathway r= O°™®Ü«µ# K«O®º„Hí=∞~
biophysical r= Éè“uHí
biophysics r= Éè“uHíâÍG~
biopiracy r= („^°=º) K“O°º~
biopoesis rÇ’`ŒÊuÎ
biopsy rÇÍ}∞ ǨsHí∆
biopsychic rq=∂#ã≤Hí
biosafety r= ǨiO°Hí∆}
biosciences r= q*Ï˝# âÍ„™®ÎÅ∞
biosocial r= ™®=∂lHí
biosphere rÇÍ=O°}~
biostatistics r=Qõ}®~Hí âÍG~
biosynthesis r= ã¨~âı¡+¨}
biotechnique r=âÍG „Ǩܡ∂Qõ q*Ï˝#~
biotechnological r=™®~HıuHí
biotechnology r=™®~HıuHí q*Ï˝#~
biotic r=ã¨~|~kè. ~ balance r=ã¨=∞
`“ź~. ~ isolation r=Ǩ$^ä°Hí¯O°}.
~ system r==º=ã¨÷
biotic association r=™®Ç¨ÏK«O°º~
biotype r=O°¥Ç¨~
biparental [#h [#Hí ÅHí∆}®Å∞ QõÅ
biparons kfiâÍd
bipartisn LÉèíÜ«µÇ¨Hí∆
bipartite ^≥· fiáåH˜∆Hí, kfi^èßqÉèíHíÎ. ~ sentence kfi^°à◊ÇÍHíº~

80

black
biped kfiáå^°, O≥~_«∞ áå^®Å∞ QõÅ
bipolar kfi„^è°∞=, kfi„^è°∞gÜ«µ, O≥~_«∞
„^è°∞ÇÍÅ∞ QõÅ. ~ system approach
kfiHı~„nÜ«µ Ǩ^°úu. ~ world kfi„^è°∞=

„ǨǨ~K«~
bipolarity kfi„^è°∞=`Œfi~
biprism kfiǨ@ìHí~. ~ planar

kfiã¨=∞

`΁
biramons kfiâÍvÜ«µ~
bird ǨH˜∆
birds eye view qǨÏ~Qõ gHí∆}~
birefringence kfi=„H©Éèí=#~
birth ѨÙ@∞ìHí, [##~, „Ǩã¨=~, Hß#∞Ê.
live ~ ã¨r= [##~. ~ rate [#<åÅ
OÕ@∞. still ~ xs˚= [##~
birthmark ѨÙ@∞ì=∞K«Û
bisect O≥~_«∞Qå pÅ∞Û
bisector ã¨=∞kfiY~_«# OÕY
biserial ǨHí¯Ç¨Hí¯#
biseriate kfi„âı}©Ü«µ
bisexual kfie~Qå`Œ‡Hí
bishop „H≥·ã¨Î= =∞`Œ „Ǩ^èß# Qõ∞O°∞=Ù, K«^°

O°~Qõ~Ö’ â◊Hí@∞
bishop's weed ÇÍ=∞∞K‹@∞ì
bitter gourd HßHíO°HßÜ«µ
bitumen =∞>˜ì`ˇ·Å~
bivalent kfiã¨~ܡ∂[Hí, kfi|~^è°Hí. ~
chromosome kfiã¨~ܡ∂[Hí „H’"≥Ø

*’=∞∞
bivalve kfiHíÇÍ@Ü«µ∞`Œ
bivariant kfiK«O°
bizarre "≥„iÇıë®Å∞ Çı¿ã,

Jã¨Ç¨Ïº, J<®
QõO°Hí, qHßO°, qǨs`Œ
black #Å∞ѨÙ, #Å¡x. ~ and blue
f„=~Qå. ~ cotton soil #Å¡OÕQõ_ç <ËÅ.
~ damp ÉÁQõ∞æQõ#∞ÅÖ’ L~_Ë HßO°ƒ<ü

blackish

_≥· PH≥· û_ü ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù. ~ dwarf =∞O°∞
Qõ∞A˚ #Hí∆„`Œ~. ~ economy J„Hí=∞
ÇÍ}˜[º~/ O°ÇÍ}®. ~ flag #Å¡*ˇ~_Í.
~ gram q∞#∞=∞∞Å∞, LÅ=Å∞. ~
guard hK«∞_«∞, „^ÀÇ≤Ï. ~ hole #Å¡
aÅ~. ~ lead #Å¡ã‘ã¨~, „QåÃѶ·>ò. ~
leg xO°ã¨#, J#~wHßO°~, uO°™®¯O°~,
ã¨"≥∞‡ Kıã¨∞Î#fl ÇÍi ™®÷#~Ö’ Ǩx Kı¿ã
=ºH˜Î. ~ list #Å¡*Ïa`Í, x+≤^°ú Ǩ>˜ìHí,
x¿+kè~K«∞. ~ magic ǨxHíO° W~„^°
*ÏÅ~. ~ market #Å¡|*ÏO°∞. ^˘~Qõ
ÇͺáåO°~/ ^˘~Qõ O°ÇÍ}®. ~ monday
„ǨǨ~K« ÇͺǨÎ~Qå ™®ìH± =∂O≥¯>’¡
ÇÍ>ÏÅ ^è°O°Å∞ J#¥Ç¨Ïº~Qå Ǩ`Œ#"≥∞·#
O’A. ~ money #Å¡^è°#~, ^˘~Qõ
™⁄=∞∞‡. ~ power #Å¡*Ïu JkèHßO°~.
~ quarter [|ƒÇÍѨÙ. ~ radiation
Hí$+¨‚ qH˜O°}~. ~ rot #Å¡Hí∞à◊∞§. ~
sheep qâÍfiã¨Ç‘Ï#∞_«∞
blackish #Å¡x. ~ blue Hí$+¨‚hÅ~. ~
brown Hí$+¨‚HíÇ≤Å~. ~ green Hí$+¨‚ǨÏ
i`Œ~
blackmail ɡki~z ã¨~áåk~K«∞
blackmailer ɡki~z _«|∞ƒ ã¨~áåk~Kı
=ºH˜Î
blackout `Í`ͯeHí~Qå ã¨Ê $Ç¨Ï H’Ö’Ê
=_«~
bladder =∞¥„`ŒH’â◊~
blain ÉÁ|ƒ, á⁄Hí∞¯, Hí∞O°∞ѨÙ
blame Dã¨_ç~K«∞, ^°¥+≤~K«∞
blanching ^è°=mHíO°}~
bland =∞O®º^°QõÅ, âÍ~`Œ"≥∞·#. ~ diet
K«Ç≤Ê_ç u~_ç
blandish WK«ÛHßÖÏ_«∞, =∞∞Yã¨∞Îu KıÜ«µ∞,
|∞[˚y~K«∞, á⁄Qõ_«∞, á⁄Qõ_«Î, =∞∞Yã¨∞Îu
blandishment ÖÏÅ#, WK«ÛHßÖÏ_«_«~

81

bleeding

MÏm, LuÎ. ~ cheque q=O®Å∞
O®Ü«µHí∞~_Í ã¨~`ŒHí~ Kıã≤ WKıÛ K‹Hí∞¯.
~ credit ã¨O°∞ÌÉÏ@∞ ǨO°Ç¨u. ~ transfer ¿ÑO˘¯#x |kb Ǩ„`Œ~, ÇÍ>ÏÅ
Ü«∂[=∂#º~ |kbx „^è°∞gHíi㨥Î
Ǩ„`ÍÅÃÑ· ã¨~`ŒHßÅ∞ KıÜ«µ_«~. ~
verse =∞∞HíÎǨ^°º~
blare Qõ>˜ìQåK‹Ç¨C
blarney |∞[˚y~Ѩ٠=∂@Å∞
blasphemous ^≥·=^°¥+¨Hí, x~^®`Œ‡Hí
blasphemy ^≥·=x~^°, ^≥·=^°¥+¨}
blast ¿ÑÅ∞Û, =_«Qåe, Jyæ`ˇQõ∞Å∞. ~
mine z#fl =∞~^°∞áå`ŒO°
blastoderm Ç≤~_«á⁄O°
blastogenic ÇÍO°ã¨`Œfi ÅHí∆}®ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~
kè~z#
blastula Ç≤~_Íaè=$kú kfifÜ«µ ^°â◊
blatant ã¨~^°_çQå, aQõæO≥·#, ÉÏǨ@"≥∞·#,
^®Ç¨iHí~ÖËx, |@ì|Ü«µÖˇ·#, |Ç≤ÏO°~Qõ
"≥∞·#, J#=ã¨O°~Qå *’Híº~ Kıã¨∞HÁ<Ë,
ÃѶ∞ÏO°"≥∞·#, 㨄Hí=∞~Hß^°x `ˇÅ∞ã¨∞Î#fl. ~
partisanship ÃѶ∞ÏO° ǨHí∆áå`Œ~
blaze ÃÑ^°Ì =∞~@, "≥Å∞Qõ∞, Hß~u („Ǩ^°
O°≈#), Z^°∞Ì/ Qõ∞„O°~/ "≥∞∞ǨÏ~ÃÑ· QõÅ
`ˇÅ¡x =∞K«Û
bleak "≥Åã≤áÈܵ#, =∞$Qõº, Juã¨fiÅÊ,
x¿ãÎ[, xO®^èßO°"≥∞·#, K«Å¡^°#~. ~ future Qõ_«∞¤O’AÅ∞,
xO®âÍ=∞Ü«µ
Éèíq+¨º`Œ∞Î
bleat Çı∞Hí/ Q˘„O≥/ ^°¥_« JO°∞ѨÙ, Ç‘Ï#
ã¨fiO°~`À JqÇıHí~Qå =∂>Ï¡_«_«~
bleb (K‹=∞@) á⁄Hí∞¯, ÉÁ|ƒ
bleeding O°Hí΄™®=~. accidental ~
„Ǩ=∂kHí O°Hí΄™®=~. menopausal ~
O°*’x=$uÎHßÅ O°Hí΄™®=~. ~ menstrual O°∞`Œ∞„™®=~. ~ uterine QõO®ƒù
â◊Ü«µ O°Hí΄™®=~
blank

82

blemish
blemish n. Híà◊~Hí~
blemish v. Híà◊~H˜`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞,
blench ÉèíÜ«µÇ¨_«∞, ^°¥O°~Qå

K‹_«Q˘@∞ì
`˘ÅQõ∞,

"≥#∞nÜ«µ∞, ã¨~H’z~K«∞
blend HíÅ∞ѨÙ, q∞„â◊=∞~KıÜ«µ∞, SHíº~
KıÜ«µ∞, SHíº=∞Qõ∞
blending Ǩ^° ã¨~ܡ∂[#~/ q∞„â◊}~
blepharitis Hí~>˜ O≥ǨÊÅ <˘Ç≤Ê
blessed ^≥·=Hí$Ǩ Híey#, ÉèíQõ=^°iÊ`Œ
"≥∞·#, ǨO°=∂#~^° „Ǩ^°"≥∞·#
blessedness ™œYº~, =∞∞H˜Î, Ǩiâ◊∞^°ú`Œ,
^è°#º`Œ
blight n. Jyæ`ˇQõ∞Å∞
blight v. ǨxHíey~K«∞
blind spot O≥>©<®Ö’ ^°$+≤ì Hí}®Å∞ ÖËx
„Ǩ^Õâ◊~
blind alley PyáÈÜ˵ `À=, |~^£Qõb
blind analysis J~^è° qâı¡+¨}
blinding Híà◊∞§ K‹kOÕ
blindness J~^è°`Œfi~. colour ~ =O®‚~
^è°`Œfi~. night ~ OÕpHí>˜
blink Híà◊∞§ q∞@Híi~K«∞† ZO°Qõ#@∞¡ ^®@
ÇıÜ«µ∞† Hí∆}=∂„`ŒÑ¨Ù `Œà◊∞Hí∞
blinker Qõ~`Œ
bliss ǨO°=∂#~^°~, „|Ǩ‡#~^°~
blissful P#~^°„Ǩ^°"≥∞·#
blister ^°^°∞ÌO°∞, á⁄Hí∞¯, ÉÁ|ƒ
blithely zkfiÖÏã¨~Qå
blitzkerieg "≥∞O°∞ѨÙ^®_ç
blizzard =∞~K«∞ `Œ∞á¶å#∞
bloat ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞, ÇÍK«∞, L|∞ƒ, |e+¨ì=∞Qõ∞
bloc Hí∂@q∞, O®[H©Ü«µ áåsìÅ ÖË^®
^ÕâÍÅ Hí∂@q∞
block J_«¤~H˜, J=O’^è°~, ^°∞~Qõ, "≥∞∞^°∞Ì,
JK«∞Ûk=∞‡, O®u|~_«, Qõ$Ç¨Ï ã¨=∞∞
^®Ü«µ~. ~ accounts kQõƒ~^è°~ Kıã≤#

blot out

MÏ`ÍÅ∞. ~ captial zHí∞¯|_ç# =∞¥Å
^è°#~. ~ release L^Àºyx tHí∆}
H’ã¨~ Ǩ~Ç≤~K«∞
blockade kQõƒ~^è°~, K«∞@∞ì=∞∞@∞ì, =∞∞@ì
_ç~K«∞
blockdeal J„Hí=∞ XǨÊ~^°~
blocked xO°∞^°Ì, PÇ≤Çıã≤#, J=∞Å∞
HßHí∞~_Í Kıã≤#
blockhead =∞~^°|∞kú, [_«∞_«∞
blondism =O°‚֒Ǩ~
blood <ˇ`Œ∞ÎO°∞, O°HíÎ~, O°∞kèO°~. ~ antigens O°HíÎ „Ǩu[#HßÅ∞. arteral ~
^è°=∞x (O°HíÎÇ‘_«#~). ~ bank O°HíÎxkè.
~ capillaries O°HíÎHıâ◊<®oHíÅ∞. ~
carpuscle O°HíÎHí}~. ~ charcoal
O°HßÎ~QåO°~. ~ circulation O°Hí΄Ǩã¨
O°}~. ~ clotting O°HíÎ㨯~^°#~. cross
matching of ~ O°HíÎÇı∞à◊#. ~ letting
O°HíÎáå`Œ~. menstrual ~ O°∞`Œ∞„™®=~.
~ plasma O°HíÎr=„^°=~, <ˇ`Œ∞ÎO°∞ ™⁄#.
~ platelets O°HíÎ~Ö’x 㨥Hí;Ѷ¨ÅHßÅ∞.
~ pressure O°HíÎÇ‘_«#~, O°HíÎáÈ@∞. ~
serum <ˇ`Œ∞ÎO°∞ O°ã≤. ~ shed O°HíÎáå`Œ~.
~ transfusion <ˇ`Œ∞ÎO°∞ =∂iÊ_ç, O°HíÎ~
ZH˜¯~K«_«~. ~ type O°HíÎ =sæHíO°}. ~
venus ã≤O° O°HíÎ~
blood money ǨÏ`Œº KıÜ«µ_ÍxH˜ K‹e¡~Kı
_«|∞ƒ
bloom n. ѨÙ+¨Ê~, ѨÓ`Œ, qHíã¨#~,
„ǨHßâ◊~, #=º`Œ
bloom v. qHíã≤~K«∞, ѨÙ+≤Ê~K«∞, ѨÓÜ«µ∞
bloomer ÃÑ^°Ì á⁄O°áå@∞
blossom n. ѨÙ+¨Ê~ qHíã≤~K«∞. ~ end
rot ѨÙ=ÙfiÅHí∞ `ˇQõ∞Å∞
blossom v. qHíã≤~K«∞, Jaè=$kúK‹~^°∞
blot out Ç‘eÛÇıÜ«µ∞, `Œ∞_çzÇıÜ«µ∞

83

blotch
blotch ÃÑ>˜#
ì

=∞K«Û† Hí∞O°∞Ѩن ã≤O®/ O°~Qõ∞

=∞O°Hí
blotter J^°∞Ì_«∞
blow ^≥|ƒ, Ѷ¨∂`Œ~,

PǨ^°, ѨÙ+≤Ê~K«_«~,
TO°_«~, gK«∞, â◊Ç≤~K«∞. ~ down
J}∞ iÜ«∂HíìO∑Ö’ „ǨÇÍǨÏ~. ~ hole
uq∞~QõÅ~ =∞∞Hí∞¯, ÇÍ`ŒzÛù„^°~. ~ hot
and cold XHíǨC_«∞ J#∞Hí∂Å~Qå#¥,
=∞O˘HíǨC_«∞ J##∞Hí∂Å~Qå#∞ L~_«∞.
~ in =∂=∞¥Å∞Qå L~_«∞. ~ off
`ËeáÈ=Ù, Çı_ç`ŒyæáÈ=Ù. ~ one's top
P„QõǨÇıâÍÅ∞ "≥à◊§QõHí∞¯. ~ out
=∞~@Å∞ ZQõ^°#fl_«~, Wã¨∞Hí k|ƒÖ’¡
Wã¨∞Hí `ŒyæáÈ=_«~. ~ over Qõ_çzáÈ=Ù,
`ËeáÈ=Ù, ã¨=∞ã≤áÈ=Ù
blowing one's own trumpet ™⁄~`Œ
_«Éσ ÇÍܵ~K«∞H’=_«~, P`Œ‡ã¨∞Îu
blub Hí~@`Œ_çÃÑ@∞ì
blubber "≥H˜¯ "≥H˜¯ U_«fi_«~, uq∞~y
Å~Ö’ HÁ=Ùfi á⁄O°
bludgeon ÖÏsî, ^°∞_«∞H
¤ „í O°, Ç≤_Hç „í O°, ^°∞_«∞¤
Hí„O°`À HÁ@ì_«~
blue hÅ=O°‚~, hÅ"≥∞·#, he=∞~^°∞,
PHßâ◊~, ã¨=∞∞„^°~
blue baby [#∞ºO’y
blue book JkèHßiHí xÇıkHí, âÍã¨#ã¨Éèí/
Ö’H±ã¨Éèí xÇıkHí† „ǨMϺ`Œ =ºHí∞ÎÅ ¿ÑO°¡
*Ïa`Í, K“HíÉÏO°∞ O°K«#
blue chip „Ǩ^èß# ÖÏÉèí™®>˜ ¿+O°∞. ~
companies ÖÏÉèßÅ Hí~ÃÑhÅ∞
blue collar worker Hßi‡Hí∞_«∞, „âÍq∞
Hí∞_«∞
blue film hez„`Œ~, |¥`Œ∞ã≤x=∂
blueprint q=O°}®`Œ‡Hí Ǩ^ä°Hí~, #=∞¥<®
z„`Œ~
bluetongue =∞¥uÇÍѨ٠Çͺkè

boast
bluff |∞Hßܵ~K«∞
bluing hbHíO°}~,

|@ìÅHí∞ heO°~Qõ∞
ÃÑ@ì_«~
bluish hÅѨÙ. ~ grey he^è°¥ã¨O°=O°‚~
blunder ÃÑ^°Ì `ŒÇ¨C, á⁄O°áå@∞† `ŒÇ¨C
KıÜ«µ∞, á⁄O°áå@∞Ǩ_«∞, Qõ∞_ç¤Qå „Ç¨=
iÎ~K«∞, K‹_«Q˘@∞ì
blunder head `ˇeqÖËx =ºH˜Î
blunt "≥∞∞^°∞Ì|O°K«∞, "≥∞∞# Ǩ^°∞#∞
ÖËHí∞~_Í KıÜ«µ∞† "≥∞∞^°∞ÌÉÏi#, "≥∞∞#
Ǩ^°∞#∞ÖËx† x+¨¯Ç¨@"≥∞·#
bluntly "≥∞∞O°@∞Qå xO°Ìfi~^°fi~Qå, xO˘‡Ç¨Ï
=∂@~Qå
bluntness "≥∞∞O°@∞`Œ#~, x뮯Ǩ@º~
blur Jã¨Ê+¨ì~ KıÜ«µ_«~, K‹iÇ≤ÇıÜ«µ_«~,
Jã¨Ê+¨ì`Œ, =∞O°Hí
blurb „Qõ~^ä° Ç¨iK«Ü«µ~, ã¨∞Îu ÇÍHíº~
blurt J#∞H’Hí∞~_Í |Ü«µ@ÃÑ@∞ì, Jã¨~^°
O°ƒù~Qå K‹Ç¨C
blush n. ã≤Qõ∞æ, "≥∞∞ǨÏ~Ö’ HíxÇ≤~Kı JO°∞
}˜=∞
blush v. ã≤Qõ∞æǨ_«∞, ã≤Qõ∞æ`À |∞QõæÅ∞ Z„O°
ÉÏO°∞
bluster n. |_Íܵ, P`Œ‡ã¨∞Îu
bluster v. QõO°fi~`À K‹Ç¨C, _Í|∞Å∞
K‹Ç¨C, H’Ǩ~Qå/ ǨO°∞+¨~Qå =∂>Ï¡_«∞,
u@∞ì, `Œ¥Å<®_«∞
bluster ÉÏůh ã¨Î~Éèí~, Çı∞Å∞ Hí@∞ì
ã¨Î~Éèí~
boar =∞Qõ Ǩ~k† áÈ`Œ∞Ǩ~k =∂~ã¨~
board ZHí∞¯ Jkè+≤ª~K«∞† ǨÅHí, |Å¡,
Éè’[# =ã¨u, J@ì, ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~† „Ǩ`˺H’^ÕÌ
â◊~`À `ŒO°K«∞Qå ã¨=∂Çıâ◊=∞Ü˵º „Ǩ*Ï
ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~. ~ of directors xO®fiǨÏHí
ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~. ~ of trade ÇÍ}˜[º=∞~_«e
boast n. _«~|~, |_Íܵ, „ǨQõŃù~,
P`Œ‡ã¨∞Îu

84

boast
boast v.

Q˘Ç¨ÊK‹Ç¨CHÁ#∞, „ǨQõÖσùÅ∞

ǨÅ∞Hí∞
|_ÍܵH’O°∞, _Í|∞ÅH’O°∞
_Í|∞Å∞K‹¿ÑÊ, P`Œ‡ã¨∞Îu Kıã¨∞
HÁ<Ë. ~ person _«~ÉÏKÍi
bob n. Qõ∞~_«∞, QÀà◊~, tY, HíuÎi~z#
Qõ∞„O°Ñ¨Ù`ÀHí
bob v. Hí∞^°∞ѨÙ, ÃÑ·H˜ H˜~kH˜ Hí^°∞Å∞,
HíuÎi~K«∞. ~ up ǨÏOîß`Œ∞ÎQå HíxÇ≤~K«∞
bobbery JÅ¡i, [Qõ_«~
bobbin ^®O°~K«∞>ıì Hí~_≥
bobby O°Hí∆HíÉèí@∞_«∞
bob cack test áåÅÖ’ HÁ=Ùfi âÍ`Œ~
HÁeKı ǨsHí∆
bobtail HõuÎiOz# `ÀHõ
bode H©_«∞ 㨥z~K«∞, O®É’=Ù J#O®÷xfl
=∞∞~^Õ ã¨¥z~K«∞
bodeful Jâ◊∞Éèí㨥K«Hí"≥∞·#
bodies â◊sO®Å∞, =∞$`Œ^ÕǨÅ∞. carotid
~ HíO’>˜_ü Ǩ^®O®÷Å∞. foreign ~
J#ºÇ¨^®O®÷Å∞. ketone ~ H©>’<ü Ǩ^®
O®÷Å∞
bodily heirs BO°ã¨ ã¨~`Í#~
bodkin z#fl HíuÎ
body â◊sO°~, =∞x+≤ (=∞$`Œ)^ÕǨÏ~,
â◊sO°~Ö’x =∞∞YºÉèßQõ~. ~ cavity
â◊sO° Hí∞ǨÏO°~. ~ guard J~QõO°Hí∆
Hí∞_«∞. ~ language âÍsO°Hí Éèß+¨. ~
politic ^Õâ◊ „Ǩ[Å∞, XHí*Ïu [#∞Å∞†
ã¨~Ѷ¨∞>˜`Œ =º=ã¨÷, ã¨=∞+≤ì áœO°=º=ã¨÷†
O®[º~. ~ shopper Hßi‡Hí∞Å#∞/ xѨÙ
}∞Å#∞ ã¨O°Ñ¶¨O® Kı¿ã =∞^è°º=iÎ. ~
wall â◊sO°Hí∞_«º~
bog |∞O°^°Ö’ =∞∞~K«∞† Ta, |∞O°^°<ËÅ,
ÉÏ_«= Éèí¥q∞
bog(e)y Qõ∞O°∞`
Î eˇ Ü«µx q=∂#~, Éè¥í `Œ~†
Ç‘_ç~Kı, PÇıt~Kı
boaseter
boastful

bombard

ÉèíÜ«µÇ¨_«∞† ã¨~^ÕÇ≤Ï~K«∞† K‹_«
Q˘@∞ì† =}˜H˜áÈ=Ù
boggy |∞O°^°Qå L#fl
bogie É’w, O≥·Å∞ÃÑ>ˇì
bogus #H˜b, |¥@HíѨÙ. ~ elections
|¥@HíѨ٠ZxflHíÅ∞
bohemian ™®~Ѷ≤∞Hí/ <ˇ·uHí xÜ«µ=∂Å#∞
áå>˜~K«x
boil HßQõ∞, ÃãQõQõ_«¤, á⁄Hí∞¯, Hí∞O°∞Ѩن
P~^Àà◊# K‹~^°∞, L_«Híɡ@∞ì, =∞O°Qõ
ɡ@∞ì. come to the ~ =∞iQÕ^°â◊Hí∞
=K«∞Û† H©ÅHí ^°â◊Hí∞ KıO°∞HÁ#∞. ~
down ™®O°~fÜ«µ∞, =∞O°Qõɡ>˜ì Ǩi
=∂}~ `Œyæ~K«∞. ~ down to ™®O®~
â◊~Qå, q∞ye# =∞∞MϺ~âÍÅ∞
boiled rice LǨC_«∞ aÜ«µº~
boiling point ÉÏ+‘ÊÉèí=# ™®÷#~, ÉÏ+‘Êù
Éèí=#/ hO°∞ =∞iQÕ LëÈ‚„Qõ`Œ
boisterous J@ìǨã¨~Qå L#fl, H’ÖÏǨÏÅ
bold ™êǨϙȿÑ`«, ^è≥·~°ºO QÆÅ
boldness `ˇQõ∞=, ™®Ç¨Ïã¨~, ^è≥·O°º~
bole „ǨHß~_«~, "≥∞∞^°Å∞
bolster ã¨_«ÅHí∞~_Í K«¥_«∞, ǨkÅǨO°K«∞
HÁ#∞, z#fl k~_«∞ÃÑ· "≥ØÇ≤ ÃÑ@∞ì† ÃÑ^°Ì
k~_«∞
bolt n. Qõ_çÜ«µ, Q≥_«† Ç≤_«∞Qõ∞
bolt v. Qõ_çÜ«µÃÑ@∞ì, Q≥_«ÇıÜ«µ∞† #=∞Å
Hí∞~_Í q∞~Qõ∞† ǨiQ≥uÎáÈ=Ù, áåiáÈ=Ù†
[e¡~K«∞, Ǩiâ’kè~K«∞. ~ from the
blue J#∞H’x ^°∞O°…@#, Ç≤_«∞Qõ∞áå@∞
bolter n. áåiáÈÜ˵ =ºH˜Î† ^˘~Qõ Qõ∞„O°~†
[e¡~Kı Ü«µ~„`Œ~, [Öˇ¡_«
bolus =∞∞^°Ì† ÃÑ^°Ì=∂„`Œ
bombard ǨÏ_«ÖˇuÎ~K«∞† Ѷ≤O°~y Qõ∞~_«¡`À
=∞∞@ì_ç~K«∞† u@¡`À/ Hí∞`ŒO°¯~`À ^®_ç
KıÜ«µ∞. ~ ing electron `Í_«Hí ZÅ
„Hßì<ü. ~ ing energy `Í_«Hí â◊H˜Î
boggle

85

bombardment
bombardment n.

Ѷ≤O°~y HßÅ∞ÊÅ∞,

=∞∞@ì_ç
bombast â◊ÉÏÌ_«~|O°~
bombastic â◊|ÌQå~cèO°º~ QõÅ,
bonafide ã¨^°∞^ÕÌâ◊~, x*Ïܵf†

xO°O°úHí
x["≥∞·#,
qâ◊fiã¨hÜ«µ, `Œy#, Ü«µ^ä’z`Œ, #=∞‡
^°y#, qâ◊fiã¨hÜ«µ"≥∞·#, Ü«µ^®O°÷"≥∞·#. ~
dispute x["≥∞·# qÇÍ^°~. ~ mistake
`ˇeÜ«µx/ `ŒÇC¨ . ~ payment ã¨^∞° ^ÕâÌ ~◊
QõÅ K‹e¡~ѨÙ
bonanza ã¨~Ǩ^°Ö’ PHíã≤‡Hßaè=$kú, ÖÏÉèí
^®ÜµHí`Œ† q[Ü«µ~
bond |~^è°#~, ѨÓpǨ„`Œ~. ~ energy
O°™®Ü«µ# |~^è°â◊H˜Î. ~ goods kQõ∞=∞
uH˜ =∞∞~^Õ ã¨∞~Hí~ K‹e¡~KÍeû# =ã¨∞Î
=ÙÅ∞. ~ labour "≥>˜ì Hßi‡Hí∞Å∞, Hí@∞ì
ÉÏxã¨Å∞† "≥>˜ìKÍH˜s. ~ length |~^è°
^≥·O°…º~. ~ property `ÍHí@∞ì Pã≤Î. ~
strength |~^è° ™®=∞O°÷º~. ~ warehouse ã¨∞~Hí~ K‹e¡~Kı =O°Hí∞ ã¨O°Hí∞#∞
Éèí„^°Ç¨OÕÛ y_«¤~y
bondage ÉÏxã¨`Œfi~, Mˇ·^°∞
bonding J#∞|~^è°~
bondmaid ÉÏxã¨
bondman ÉÏxã¨, ÉÏxã‘_«∞
bonduc nut QõK«ÛHßÜ«µ
bone Z=∞∞Hí, Jã≤÷. ~ ash Jã≤÷Éèí㨇~.
hip ~ `Œ∞~>˜ Z=∞∞Hí. ~ marrow
=∞¥Å∞Qõ, Jã≤÷=∞[˚. ~ meal ^®}®Qå
ÇÍ_Ë Z=∞∞Híá⁄_ç. ~ of contention
qÇÍ^®ã¨Ê^®~â◊~. shaft ~ Z=∞∞Hí Hí_ô¤
bonfire <ˇQõ_«∞
bonhomie LÖÏ¡ã¨~, ã¨O°ã¨`Œ
bonitarian ^è°O°‡ã¨=∞‡`Œ"≥∞·#
bonnet Hí∞஧, >’Ñ‘, >’Ç‘ÃÑ@∞ì
bonny ™⁄QõÃã·#, PO’QõºHíO°"≥∞·#, `Œ$Ç≤ÎHíO°
"≥∞·#

bootlegger
bonsai ÇÍ=∞#=$H∆ßÅ∞
bonus É’#ãπ, J^°#Ѩ٠K‹e¡~ѨÙ. ~
shares J^°#Ѩ٠ÇÍ>ÏÅ∞
bony Z=∞∞Hí ѨÙ+≤ìQõÅ
boo HıHíÅ∞ ÇıÜ«µ∞, pèHÁ@∞ì
boob áå_«∞KıÜ«µ∞† =Hí∆ã¨÷Å~
booby "≥∞∞^°∞Ì =∞x+≤, [_«∞_«∞, =∞¥_è°∞_«∞
booby trap =∞~^°∞áå`ŒO°, PHí`ÍܵKı+¨ì
booing ǨǨHßO°~
book n. ѨÙã¨ÎHí~, „Qõ~^ä°~
book v. *Ïa`ÍÖ’ ZH˜¯~K«∞, O≥·Å∞/ |ã¨∞û/

q=∂#~ >˜H≥>ò fã¨∞HÁ#∞/ WK«∞Û,
#"≥Ø^°∞ KıÜ«µ∞, =∞∞~^°∞Qå Hí∞^°∞O°∞Û
HÁ#∞† |~nQå Ǩ@∞ìHÁ#∞
bookie Ǩ~^≥Qå_«∞
booklet z#flѨÙã¨ÎHí~
bookworm ѨÙã¨ÎHߊѨÙO°∞Qõ∞
boom J#¥Ç¨Ïº"≥∞·# ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å, ÇͺáåO°
q[$~Éèí}, Híe™⁄zÛ# HßÅ~, Ѷ≤O°~y
"≥Ø`Œ =~>˜ ^èfi° x, O°≠~HßO° ^èfi° x, HíÅǨ
`ˇÇ¨Ê
boomerang ɡ_çã≤HÁ@∞ì, uÇ≤ÊHÁ@∞ì, Hí^ä°
J_«¤~ uO°∞Qõ∞, XHí O°Hõ"≥∞·# PÜ«µ∞^è°~
boon =O°~† „Ǩܡ∂[#~
boor Ǩ֡¡@¥iÇÍ_«∞, "≥Ø@∞=∞x+≤
boost ÇıyO°Ç¨O°K«∞, |Å~ÃÑ~K«∞, qÅ∞=
ÃÑ~á⁄~k~K«∞, =$kúKıÜ«µ∞, ^ÀǨÏ^°~
Kı¿ã, `À_«Ê_Ë, ÃÑ~á⁄~k~Kı, „áÈ`Œû
Ç≤Ï~Kı
booster |~ux ÃÑ·H˜ÖË¿Ñ P@Qå_«∞
booster rocket =∞e J~K‹ O®H≥>ò
boot n. Hße*’_«∞, „Ǩܡ∂[#~, ÖÏÉèí~,
Çı∞Å∞KıÜ«µ∞
booth Ǩ~ki/ áåHí, Hı~„^°~
bootlegger K«@ì=ºuOÕHí
Ǩ^®O®÷Å
`ŒÜ«∂s^®O°∞/ q„Hı`Œ

boot legging

^˘~Qõ™®O® J=∞‡Hí~,
^˘~Qõ`Œ#~Qå ™®O®Üµ ÇͺáåO°~
KıÜ«µ_«~
bootless „Ǩܡ∂[#~ ÖËx
bootout Ǩ^°q/ ǨxÖ’ #∞~_ç fã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞
booty ^ÀÇ≤_ô ™⁄`Œ∞Î
bopeep ^®Qõ∞_«∞=∞¥`ŒÖÏ@
boraze "≥eQåO°~
border ZÅ¡, J~K«∞Hí@∞ì† ã¨iǨÏ^°ÌQõ∞,
J~K«∞# L~_«∞/ L~K«∞
borderline ã¨iǨÏ^°∞Ì OÕY
bore ɡ[˚~, `Œ∞áåH© Q˘@ìѨ٠O°~„^è°~,
qã¨∞Qõ∞ ѨÙ>˜ì~Kı =ºH˜Î, Jã¨Ç¨ÏºHíO°"≥∞·#,
Ç‘_«=~>˜, O°~„^è°~ KıÜ«µ∞, `˘ÅK«∞,
qã¨∞Qõ∞ѨÙ>˜ì~K«∞
boredom qã¨∞Qõ∞
borer Hß~_«~ `˘eKı ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞
borough Ǩ@ì}~, ÃÑ^°Ì¿Ñ@, áåO°¡"≥∞~@s
xܡ∂[Hí=O°æ~
borrow JǨC ѨÙK«∞ÛHÁ#∞
bosh ǨxH˜=∂e#/ xO°O°÷Hí „Ç¨ã¨~Qõ~
bosom =Hí∆ã¨÷Å~, ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ~† PÖ’K«#†
H’iHí† =∞^è°º„Ǩ^Õâ◊~† K‹O°∞=Ù ÃÑ·ÉèßQõ~†
P~`ŒO°~yHí∞_«∞. ~ friend „áå}¿ãflÇ≤Ï
`ΰ_ǰ
BOT (build operate transfer) xi‡~z,
xO°fiÇ≤Ï~z, |^°ÖÏܵ~K«∞
botany =$Hí∆âÍG~
botch J`Œ∞Hí∞† Jã¨=∞~[ã¨~Qå JuH˜~K«∞
bother `ÍǨ„`ŒÜ«µ~, Qõ_«a_«, `˘~^°O°
ÃÑ@∞ì, `˘~^°O°Ç¨_«∞, ÉÏkè~K«∞, ã¨`Í
ܵ~K«∞, qã≤y~K«∞
bottle gourd ™⁄O°HßÜ«µ/ P#ǨHßÜ«µ
bottleneck WO°Hß@~, „Ǩu|~^è°Hí~,
J=O’^è°~, J_«¤~H˜, P@~Hí~, WHí¯@∞ì
bottom J_«∞Qõ∞ÉèßQõ~Ö’ J=∞O°∞Û, J@ì_«∞
boot legging

86

bourgeoisie

bout

Qõ∞Hí∞ KıO°∞, H˜~k ÉèßQõ~, ѨÙ<®k,
ǨO°∞Ѩن h>˜ J_«∞Qõ∞ <Ëņ x[ã≤÷u†
P^èßO°~† „Ǩ^èß<®~â◊~
bottom line ÖÏÉèßÅ ã≤÷u
botulism PǨO°~ q+¨`Œ∞ź~ Hß=_«~
bought book HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞ ѨÙã¨ÎHí~. ~
journal HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞ z>Ïì. ~ ledger
HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞ P=O®˚
boulder |~_«O®Üµ
boulevard qâÍÅ=∂O°æ~
bounce ZyiǨ_«∞, ^°∞=∞∞Hí∞, PHíã≤‡Hí~Qå
qiy=K«∞Û/ =zÛǨ_«∞, _Í|∞Qå
=∂>Ï¡_«∞, ÇÍ>ÏÅ ^è°O° ÃÑ·H˜áÈ=Ù† JHí
™®‡`Œ∞ÎQå HíxÊ~Kı ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å, Qõ~`Œ∞,
_«~|~
bound ã‘=∞, ǨÏ^°∞Ì, á⁄eÇı∞O°, Ǩiq∞`Œ~
KıÜ«µ∞, ã‘=∂|^°ú~ KıÜ«µ∞, ǨÏ^°∞Ì
ÖËO°ÊO°K«∞† PѨÙ, ^°¥Hí∞, ZQõ∞O°∞. ~ by
ã‘q∞`Œ, ǨÏ^°∞ÌÅ∞QõÅ, ~ for =∂O°æ~Ö’,
=∞^è°ºÖ’ „Ǩܫ∂}®xH˜ ã≤^°ú"≥∞·#. ~ to
Hí@∞ì|_ç#, „Ǩܫ∂}˜~K«^°Åz#
boundary ZÅ¡, Ǩikè, J=kè, Ǩiq∞u,
(ã¨i) ǨÏ^°∞Ì, ã¨iǨÏ^°∞Ì OÕY
bounden ÉÏ^è°º"≥∞·#, q^è°∞ºHíÎ"≥∞·#
bound form Jã¨fi`Œ~„`ŒO°¥Ç¨~
boundless J=^è°∞ÖË¡x, Çı∞O°g∞i#, xO°
=kèHí
bounteous LǨHßO° |∞kúQõÅ, ^®`Œ$`Œfi~
QõÅ
bounteousness LǨHßO°|∞kú, ^®`Œ$`Œfi~
bountiful ^®`Œ$`Œfi~ QõÅ, q™®ÎO°"≥∞·#
bountry L^®O°~Qå WKıÛ Hß#∞Hí, ^®#~,
|Ǩï=∂#~, „áÈ`ŒûÇ≤Ï~K«_ÍxH˜ WKıÛ
_«|∞ƒ
bouquet ѨÓÅQõ∞uΆ „^®Hí∆O°ã¨ Ǩi=∞à◊~
bourgeoisie L#fl`Œ=O°æ~

bout

ǨxÖ’=~`Œ∞, |ÅǨsHí∆, „H©_Í~âÍ
ÅÖ’ áÈ>©ã=¨ ∞Ü«µ~, áÈ>© Ѷ∞¨ @ì~, Çͺkè
f„==∞Ü˵º =º=kè
bovine xâ◊ÛÅ, "≥∞∞^°∞Ì=~>˜, Ǩâ◊∞ ã¨~|~
^è°"≥∞·#
bow qÅ∞¡† Hí=∂#∞, W~„^°^è°#∞ã¨∞û,
=~^°#~ KıÜ«µ_ÍxH˜ =~Qõ_«~† F_«
=∞∞~^°i ÉèßQõ~† =~K«∞, =~Qõ∞, ÖÁ~y
áÈ=Ù† #=∞™®¯O°~ Kıܵ« _ÍxH˜ `ŒÅ=~K«∞
bowel ¿ÑQõ∞† Hí_«∞Ѩن HíxHíO°~
bower Å`ÍQõ$ǨÏ~, xÇÍã¨~
bowknot ^°¥=∞∞_ç
bowleg ^˘_ç¤HßÅ∞
bowstring q~>˜`Í_«∞
boycott |Ç≤Ï+¨¯O°}, "≥e, |Ç≤Ï+¨¯i~K«∞,
"≥eÇıÜ«µ∞
brabble z#fl ÇÍHí¯ÅǨÏ~
brace [~@HíÅ∞ѨÙ, Hí@∞ì, |~^è°~, [`Œ,
[~@, O≥~_«∞ (ǨO°∞Qõ∞Å∞, áåܵ~@∞¡,
Ǩ`ŒHßÅ∞), Qõ>˜ìQå ay~K«∞, ay~z
Hí@∞ì, [~@ HíÅ∞ѨÙ
brachial Kıu ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
brachium ÉÏǨï=Ù, [|ƒ
bracing aQõ∞=Ù/ a~Hí~† ѨÙ+≤ìHíO°"≥∞·#
brackish LǨÊx
brackish water LǨC hO°∞
bract ѨÙ+¨ÊQõ∞K«Ûù~
bradyesthesia |~_«ÉÏiáÈ=_«~† ã¨∞xfl
`Œ`Œfi~ H’Ö’Ê=_«~
bradyphagia KÍÖÏ <ˇ=∞‡kQå u#_«~
brag _«~|~ K‹Ç¨CHÁ#∞, _«áåÊÅ∞ HÁ@∞ì†
_«~|~, |_Íܵ
braggart _«~ÉÏÅH’O°∞, „Ǩ[˝Å∞ K‹¿ÑÊ
=ºH˜Î
bragging |_Íܵ, ™Èfi`Œ¯O°¬
braid JÅ∞¡† [_«ÇıÜ«µ∞† [_«Je¡Hí, [_«,
Je¡# |^≥Ì

87

brawl
braille n. J~^è°∞ÅHí∞ LǨHíi~Kı eÇ≤
brain |∞kú|Å~, "≥∞^°_«∞. ~ child =∞#
t≈â◊∞=Ù, ã¨iHÁ`ŒÎ PÖ’K«#. ~ death

"≥∞^°_«∞Ö’x 㨥÷ŠǨ^®O®÷Å∞ ǨxKıÜ«µHí
áÈ=_«~. ~ drain Çı∞^èß=ÙÅ =Åã¨. ~
fag |∞kú=∂~^°º~. ~ storming "≥∞^°
_«∞‰õΩ ѨxK≥¿ÑÊ. ~ sick "≥„i, `ŒÅ
uO°∞Qõ∞`Œ∞#fl. ~ trust q^°fi#‡~_«e,
ã¨ÅǨ^®O°∞¡. ~ washing |∞kú
=∂O°Û@~. ~ wave PHíã≤‡HßÖ’K«#
brainpan ѨلO≥, HíáåÅ~
brainy `ˇeqQõÅ
bran `Œ=Ù_«∞, THí
branch HÁ=∞‡, âÍY, ÉèßQõ~. ~ office
J#∞|~^è° HßO®ºÅÜ«µ~. ~ manager
™®÷xHí HßO®ºÅÜ«µ xO®fiǨÏHí∞_«∞. ~ library âÍMÏ „Qõ~^äßÅÜ«µ~
branchial [ÖÏâÍfi㨠xO®‡}®Å∞. ~ arteries [ÅâÍfi㨠^è°=∞#∞Å∞. ~ cavity
[ÅâÍfi㨠Hí∞ǨÏO°~
branching HÁ=∞‡Å∞Çı¿ã Ǩ^°úu, âÍv
Éèí=#~, qÉèíl~K«_«~
branchout qã¨Îi~K«∞, ÇͺÇ≤~K«∞
brand ÇͺáåO° <®=∞~, HÁO°q† ÇÍ`Œ†
HßÅѨÙQõ∞O°∞Ά =∞K«Û, x~^°† XHí =∂ki
`ˇQõ∞Å∞† HíuÎ, z„`Œ~. ~ monopoly
xiú+¨ì L`ŒÊuÎ Qõ∞`ÍÎkèǨ`Œº~
branding =∞∞„^°ÇıÜ«µ_«~
brandish [oÇ≤~K«∞
brassica PÇÍÅ∞
brat a_«¤, PHí`Íܵ
bravado ^è≥·O°º~ #>˜~K«_«~, ɡki~K«_«~
brave nèO°, ™®Ç¨Ïã≤
bravo â‹Éèß+π† Éèím, H˜O®Üµ ǨÏ~`ŒHí∞_«∞†
|~káÈ@∞ ^˘~Qõ
brawl [Qõ_«~† [Qõ_«=∂_«∞, Ѷ¨∞O°¬}Ǩ_«∞

88

brawler
brawler [Qõ_ÍÅ=∂i
brawn Hí~_«O°~† TO°Éˇ>˜ì#

bridge

X_«∞¤Hí∞ Kıi qiQÕ H≥O°@~,
Qõ∞„O®xH˜ `ŒsÊù^°∞ WKıÛ =ºH˜Î
breast cancer O˘=∞∞‡ ѨÙ@ìHí∞O°∞ѨÙ. ~
plate =Hí∆ã¨÷Å Hí=K«~
breath analyser âÍfi㨠qâı¡+¨Hí~
breeding ÃÑ~ǨHí~, ѨÙ@∞ìHí, „Ǩ[##~,
`ŒsÊù^°∞. ~ in captivity =∂#= ǨO°º
ÇıHí∆}Ö’ ã¨~`Œu =$kú. ~ ground
ÃÑ~Kı/ ÃÑiQÕ KÀ@∞
breeze Ç≤Å¡Qåe, PǨ¡^°HíO°"≥∞·# Qåe†
ÇÍQõ∞º^°ú~
brethren ™®>˜ÇÍO°∞, ^ÕjÜ«µ∞Å∞† XHı
=∞`ÍxH˜/ `ˇQõHí∞ K‹~k# ÇÍO°∞
brevet Ѷ¨O®‡<®, Q“O°Ç’^ÀºQõ~
brevity Hí∞¡Ç¨Î`Œ, ã¨~H˜∆ǨÎ`Œ
brew ™®O®Üµ (=~@) `ŒÜ«∂O°Qõ∞/
`ŒÜ«∂O°∞KıÜ«µ∞, ã¨~H∆’Éèí~ O®AHÁ#∞
brewery ™®O®Üµ |>©ì
bribe „Ǩ֒Éèí~, Å~K«~† =∞∞_«∞ѨÙÅ∞,
Å~K«q∞K«∞Û, _«|∞ƒK«¥Ç≤ „Ǩ֒ÉèíǨO°∞Û/
J„Hí=∞=O°Î#Hí∞ ѨÙiHÁÅ∞Ê. ~ back
hander ^è°# =ã¨∞Î ÇÍǨÏ<®Å#∞ Pâ◊
K«¥Ç¨_«~
bribery Å~K«Q˘~_ç`Œ#~:
Å~K«~
W=fi_«~/ fã¨∞H’=_«~
brick W@∞Hí
bridal qÇÍÇ¨Ï ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
bridesmaid `À_çÃÑo§Hí∂`Œ∞O°∞
bridesman `À_çÃÑo§HÁ_«∞Hí∞
bridge =~`ˇ# Hí@∞ì† HíÅ∞ѨÙ, ѨÓ_«∞Û†
=~`ˇ#, ¿ã`Œ∞=Ù† „a_ç˚ P@. boat ~
Ǩ_«=Å =~`ˇ#, <ÒHß ¿ã`Œ∞=Ù. ~
compound ¿ã`Œ∞ ã¨Çı∞‡à◊#~. ~ elements ¿ã`Œ∞=∞¥ÅHßÅ∞. ~ head
`Í`ͯeHí ™®÷=O°~. ~ loan ã¨fiÅÊHßeHí
O°∞}~. ~ over *’_ç~K«∞, HíÅ∞ѨÙ,
breaker

Ǩ~k

=∂~ã¨~
brawny Hí~_«Ñ¨Ù+≤ìQõÅ, |Å"≥∞·#
bray ^°~K«∞† Qå_ç^° JO°∞ѨÙ
brazen ã≤Qõ∞æÖËHí∞~_Í K‹¿ÑÊ/ Kı¿ã† W`ŒÎ
_ç`À Kıã≤#, HíOî’O° ^è°fixKı¿ã. ~ out
#O°‡QõO°ƒù~Qå =º=ǨÏi~K«_«~† "≥∞∞~_çQå
xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«∞
brazing =∂@∞ÇıÜ«µ_«~
breach ǨQõ∞Å∞, ã¨~^°∞, `˘„i, Qõ~_ç†
Éèí~Qõ~, LÅ¡~Ѷ¨∞#, Ju„Hí=∞}†
HíÅǨÏ~, Z_«ÉÏ@∞† zuH˜áÈܵ#, Qõ~_ç
HÁ@ìx. ~ of contract XǨÊ~^°~ LÅ¡~
Ѷ¨∞#, +¨O°`Œ∞Å#∞ LÅ¡~Ѷ≤∞~K«_«~. ~
of law âÍã¨<ÀÅ¡~Ѷ¨∞#, <®ºÜ«∂u„Hí
=∞}. ~ of peace âÍ~uÉèí~Qõ~. ~
of previlege ã¨Éèß Ç¨ÏHí∞¯Å LÅ¡~Ѷ¨∞#/
kèHí¯O°}. ~ presentation Z^°∞O°∞
Hßà◊¡`À ѨÙ@ì_«~. ~ of trust qâÍfiã¨
„^ÀǨÏ~
break qO®=∞~, ǨQõÅ∞, qO°∞Ѩن `ˇ~K«∞,
PQõ∞, Híà‹¡~ ÇıÜ«µ∞. ~ away q_çáÈ=Ù†
q_çáÈܵ#. ~ down PyáÈ=Ù, ÉèíQõfl
=∞=Ù, Kı+Åì¨ ∞_«∞Qõ∞, ™®kè~K«∞, [ܵ~K«∞,
Éèí~Qõ~, ÉèíQõfl~, qѶ¨∂`Œ~. ~ even
point P^®Ü«µ =ºÜ«∂Å ã¨=∞`Œfi~. ~
into |Å=~`Œ~Qå K˘O°|_«∞. ~ neck
speed „Ǩ=∂^°HíO°/ „áå}®áåÜ«µ ÇıQõ~.
~ the ice K˘O°=fã¨∞HÁ#∞. ~
through JkèQõq∞~K«∞. ~ up qzÛù#fl~
KıÜ«µ∞, K‹ÖÏ¡K‹^°O°∞ KıÜ«µ∞, q=i~z
K‹Ç¨C. ~ up figures q=O°}®`Œ‡Hí
ã¨~YºÅ∞, `ŒcûÅ∞. ~ up volue =∞¥Åº
q=O°}. ~ water (¿ã`Œ∞)|~^è~° , JÅÅ
ÇıQõ~ `Œyæ~Kı J_«∞¤Hí@ì. ~ with q_ç
=_«∞, ¿ãflǨÏ~ =^°∞Å∞, ÇıO°Ê_«∞

brief

qÉèı^°~ `˘Åy~K«∞. suspension ~
TÜ«µÅ =~`ˇ#
brief q+¨Ü«µã¨~„QõǨÏ~, Jaèܡ∂Qõ™®O°~†
q=O°}† JkèHßO°Ç¨„`Œ~, ã¨~„QõÇ¨Ï ™®O°
q∞=fi_«~† =HßÅ`Œ∞ <®=∂ W=fi_«~,
Hıã¨∞ PHío~Ѩ٠KıÜ«µ_«~. hold a ~ for
=HíÖÏÎ KıÜ«µ∞, ã¨=∞i÷~K«∞
briefly @¥H©Qå, Hí∞¡Ç¨Î~Qå
brigade Ãã·#º qÉèßQõ~
brigand |~káÈ@∞, ^ÀÇ≤_ô ^˘~Qõ,
J_«q ^˘~Qõ
bright ã≤flQõú, ã¨∞ã¨Ê+¨ì, `ˇeqQõÅ, q=O°
}®`Œ‡Hí, "≥∞i¿ã, „ǨHßâ◊=~`Œ
brightness "≥Å∞Qõ∞, „ǨHßâ◊~, nÇ≤Î,
Hß~u fHí∆}`Œ, ly, ^°∞ºu, xQåi~ѨÙ,
Hß~u f„=`Œ
brilliance `ˇeq† „ǨHßâ◊~, Hß~u
brim J~K«∞=O°Hí∞ x~ѨÙ/x~_«∞† J~K«∞,
X_«∞¤
brimming ѨÓiÎQå x~_ç#
brimstone Qõ~^è°Hí~, Qõ~^è°HítÅ
brindle KÍO°Å∞
brine LǨChO°∞, HíhflO°∞, Å=} [Å~,
ã¨=∞∞„^°~. bring to ~ Hıã¨∞ #"≥Ø^°∞
KıÜ«µ∞, [ÇÍ|∞^®O°∞KıÜ«µ∞. in one's
bad ~ s Ö’Hí∞= JQõ∞, ^°Ü«µH’Ö’Ê=Ù,
ã¨iǨ_«HíáÈ=Ù. in one's good ~ s
Hí$áåáå„`Œ∞_«Qõ∞. ~ keeper Qõ∞=∂™®Î.
~ keeping [=∂YO°∞Û O®Ü«µ_«~. ~
of final entry `Œ∞kǨ^°∞Ì Ñ¨Ùã¨ÎHí~. ~
value ѨÙã¨ÎHí qÅ∞=
bring `ˇK«∞Û. ~ about L`ŒÊ#fl~KıÜ«µ∞.
~ back uiy`ˇK«∞Û. ~ down Ǩ_«
Q˘@∞ì, `Œyæ~K«∞, Hí∂Å∞Û. ~ forward
„ǨÇâı Ã◊ Ñ@∞ì, =∞∞~^°∞Hí∞ `ˇK∞« Û. ~ home
to `ˇeÜ«µK‹Ç¨C, ã¨=∞∞^®Üµ~K«∞. ~ in
„ǨÇıâ◊ÃÑ@∞ì, Hí∞^°∞O°∞ǨO°∞K«∞. ~ into

89

broadside
line ^®iH˜`ˇK«∞Û, J#∞Hí∂ÅǨO°∞K«∞. ~
into play ÇÍ_«∞HíHí∞ `ˇK«∞Û, LǨ

ܡ∂Qõ~Ö’H˜ `ˇK«∞Û, J=Hßâ◊~K«¥Ñ¨Ù. ~
off ѨÓiÎKıÜ«µ∞, ã¨Ñ¶¨bHíi~K«∞, q_ç
Ç≤~K«∞, |Ü«µ>˜H˜ `ˇK«∞Û, O°H˜∆~K«∞. ~
out |Ü«µ@ÃÑ@∞ì, „ǨHí>˜~K«∞, „ǨK«∞
i~K«∞. ~ to Kı`Œ# ã≤÷uH˜ `ˇK«∞Û,
(<®=#∞) xÅ∞ѨÙ/ PѨÙ. ~ under
Ö’|O°∞K«∞HÁ#∞, =â◊~KıÜ«µ∞. ~ up
ÃÑ~K«∞, áÈ+≤~K«∞, tHí∆} WK«∞Û. ~ up
the rear "≥#∞^°Qõ∞Å∞, "≥~@|_«∞, "≥~@
=K«∞Û. ~ to book Hıã¨∞ ÃÑ@∞ì
brining <®#ɡ>ıì Ǩ^°úu. dry ~ á⁄_ç
LǨC#∞ J^°Ì_«~
brinish LǨÊx
brink z=O°, (tYO°Ñ¨Ù) J~K«∞, ǨÏ^°∞Ì,
fO°~
brinkmanship Híqfi~z `ŒÇC
¨ Hí∞<Ë <ËO∞° ʆ
Ü«µ∞^®úxH˜ ^®if¿ã q^èß#~
brisk K«∞O°∞Hí∞, `ŒfiO°. ~ trade K«∞O°∞Hí∞
ÇͺáåO°~. ~ trading K«∞O°∞H≥·#
ÇͺáåO°~
bristle aO°∞ÃãH˜¯# A@∞ì, ѨÙÅHíi~`Œ†
ѨÙÅHíi~K«∞
bristling ^°@ì"≥∞·#, "≥∞∞O°>ˇ·#, "≥~„@∞Hí
Å`À x~_ç# Qõ_«¤~/ g∞ã¨~/ Hí#∞
ÉÁ=∞‡Å∞† PÇıâ◊ǨO°K«∞, L„kHíÎǨO°K«∞
bristol stone ѨÙ+¨ºO®Qõ~
brittle ÃÑà◊∞Ãã·#
broach (=∂@) Hí^°∞ѨÙ, (K«O°Û) "≥∞∞^°Å∞
ÃÑ@∞ì
broadaxe Qõ~„_«Q˘_«¤e, ǨO°â◊∞=Ù
broadcast „Ǩ™®O°~KıÜ«µ∞
broadside =∞¥Hí∞=∞‡_ç/ x~^® ѨÓO°fiHí
"≥∞·# ^®_ç, F_«Ç¨Hí¯ÉèßQõ~, XHí ǨHí¯
#∞~_Ë Ñ¶≤O°~Qõ∞Åxfl~>˜h UHíHßÅ~Ö’
HßÅ∞Û@

broad spectrum
broad spectrum qã¨Î $`Œ =O°‚Ǩ@~. ~
antobiotics JkèHí „Ç¨Éèß=âÍe
broad transcription 㨥÷Å ÖËY#~
brochure HíO°Ç¨„`Œ~, z#flѨÙã¨ÎHí~, =O°‚#

Ǩ„uHí
„Qå"≥غK«ÛO°}† Ǩ^°∞#∞ KıÜ«µx
K«O°‡~`À Hí∞>˜ì# K‹Ç¨CÅ∞
broil áÈ>Ï¡@, QõÖÏ@, [Qõ_«~, ÉÁQõ∞æÅÃÑ·
=~_«_«~† qǨs`Œ~Qå Çı_çKıÜ«µ_«~
broken qiy#, qHíÅ"≥∞·#. ~ period
Py# ã¨=∞Ü«µ~. ~ rhyme Ǩ^°zÛù#fl
„áåã¨. ~ rice #¥HíÅ∞. ~ tissue qHíÅ
Hí}*ÏÅ~
broker „É’HíO°∞, ^°à®s, =∞^è°º=iÎ, =ºH˜Î/
ã¨~ã¨,÷ HÁ#∞QÀà◊∞§, J=∞‡HßÅ∞ Kı¿ã =ºH˜/Î
ã¨~ã¨÷
brokerage ^°à®i/ „É’HíO∞° qkè~Kı/ „É’Hí
O°∞Hí∞ K‹e¡~K«=Åã≤# O°∞ã¨∞=∞∞
bromatology PǨO° Ǩ^®O®÷^谺ܫµ#
âÍG~
broncheole 㨥Hí; âÍfiã¨<®oHí
bronchi âÍfiã¨<®oHíÅ∞
bronchitis âÍfiã¨<®à®Å ÇÍѨÙ
broncho âÍfiã¨<®oHíÅ∞. ~ dilator
âÍfiã¨<®à◊ ÇͺH’K«Hí ™®^è°<®Å∞. ~
genic âÍfiã¨<®à◊ â’^è° [x`Œ
bronchocele Q˘~`Œ∞ÇÍѨÙ
bronchography âÍfiã¨<®à◊ z„`Œ}
broncho-pneumonia âÍfiã¨<®à◊ ã¨~|~
^è°"≥∞·# #∞º"≥ØxÜ«∂
bronchoscope âÍfiã¨<®à◊ ǨsHí∆Hí~
bronchospasm âÍfiã¨<®à◊ ǨÏOîß`Œû~
H’K«~
bronchus âÍfiã¨<®à◊~
brontophobia LO°∞=∞∞Å~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
brood =∞#∞+¨∞ºÅ, [~`Œ∞=ÙÅ, =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ
brogue

90

bud

ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~† `ŒÅáÈÜ«µ∞, O°Qõ∞Å∞`Œ∞#fl
H’Ǩ~Ö’ z~u~K«∞
brooding á⁄^°Qõ_«~, ÃÑ~ǨHí~
brook n. z#fl „ǨÇÍǨÏ~/ ÇÍQõ∞†
ã¨Ç≤Ï~K«∞
browbeat Hí<ˇfl„O°KıÜ«µ∞, H’ǨÊ_«∞
brown goods K‹Hí¯ÃÑ>ˇìÖ’¡ ÃÑ>˜ì JÇı∞‡
=ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞
brown planthopper ^À=∞áÈ@∞, ã¨∞_ç
`ˇQõ∞Å∞
bruise Híq∞e# QåÜ«µ~† ^≥|ƒÅ Qõ∞O°∞ÎÅ∞
HíxÇ≤~K«∞
brunt ÉèßO°~† ^®_çf„=`Œ, `ÍH˜_˜, XuÎ_ç
brush aside fã≤áåO°ÇıÜ«µ∞
brusque „Ǩܫµ`ŒflѨÓO°fiHí~ Hßx† ÃÑ_«ã¨O°
"≥∞·#
brutish =∞$Qõ„áåÜ«µ
bubble h>˜ |∞_«Qõ
bubo Qõ[˚ aà◊¡, K«OHõ Qõ_«¤
buccal P㨺, <À\˜ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#. ~
cavity P㨺Hí∞ǨÏO°~. ~ gland
P㨺„Qõ~kä
buccaner F_«^˘~Qõ, ™®Ç¨Ïã≤Hí∞_«∞
buck J"≥∞iHí<ü/ P„¿ãìeÜ«µ<ü _ÍÅO∑†
ÖË_=ç ~>˜ [~`Œ∞=Ù† =∞Qõ[~`Œ∞=Ù† Ü«µ∞=
Hí∞_«∞† |_Íܵ† „ǨQõŃù~† „ǨuѶ¨∞>˜~K«∞†
J#¥Ç¨Ïº~Qå Z^°∞O°∞uO°∞Qõ∞. ~ teeth
Z`Œ∞ÎǨà◊∞§
buckle ǨxH˜ `ŒÜ«∂O°Qõ∞, ã¨~ã≤^°ú=∞=Ù,
K«∞O°∞Hí∞Qå „áåO°~aè~K«∞
buckler z#fl, Qõ∞~„_«>˜ Hí=K«~
bucks _«|∞ƒ, ™⁄=∞∞‡, _ÍÅO°∞. make a
fast buck, make a quick buck ~
(J„Hí=∞ =∂O®æÅ ^®fiO®) `ŒfiO°Qå _«|∞ƒ
ã¨~áåk~K«∞
bud J~Hí∞O°~, "≥∞∞Qõæ, H’O°Hí~

budding
budding "≥∞∞Qõæ`˘_çy#, Z^°∞Qõ∞`Œ∞#fl
buddy ™È^°O°∞_«∞† ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`Œ q∞„`Œ∞_«∞
budget P^®Ü«µ =ºÜ«∂Å q=O°} Ǩ„`Œ~/

ÇÍi¬Hí „Ç¨}®oHí† ã¨~z, =∞¥@
budgetary |_≥˚>ò ã¨~|~kè
buffer Jã¨=∞O°∞_
÷ ∞« , =∞^躰 ã¨∞_÷ ∞« , „^®=}~.
~ state =∞^è°ºã¨÷ O®[º~, |ÅÇ‘Ï#
^Õâ◊~. ~ stock PǨ^°úO°‡ xÅfi, ^˘~Qõ
™®H˜∆, J|^°úѨ٠™®H˜∆, H˜O®Üµ ™®H˜∆
bugbear JHßO°} ÉèíÜ«µ~
bulb Ç≤ÅHí, ÉÁ_çÃÑ, Åâ◊∞#~, J~@∞†
(HíÅ∞=, Le¡*Ï`Œ∞Ö’¡) Hß_«, ^°∞~Ǩ
bulbil zO°∞Ç≤ÅHí, PHí∞ "≥∞∞Qõæ
bulbous arteriosus Åâ◊∞<®HßO° =∞Ǩ
^è°=∞x
bulbul Ç≤H˜e Ç≤@ì
bulge L|∞ƒ
bulk J`ŒºkèHí, JuÃÑ^°Ì, JkèHí ã¨~MϺHí,
ÖÏ=Ù, "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~, Ǩi=∂}~, PÜ«µ`Œ#~,
JkèHíÉèßQõ~
bull PÉ’`Œ∞, Z^°∞Ì, „Ǩã¨~Qõ~Ö’ á⁄O°
áå@∞, (™®ìH± =∂O≥¯>’¡) ^è°O°Å∞ ÃÑ~Kı
=ºH˜Î
bull's eye ÅHí∆ º~, Qõ∞i† "≥Å∞`Œ∞O°∞ H’ã¨~
Wà◊§ HíǨCÖ’ J=∞OÕÛ J^°Ì~
bullate ÉÁ|ƒÖËO°Ê_ç#, á⁄Hí∞¯ÖËO°Ê_ç#
bull dog |∞Öò*Ïu Hí∞Hí¯† "≥∞∞~_ç^è≥·O°º~
QõÅ =ºH˜Î
bulldoze <ËÅHí∂Å∞Û, <ËÅ=∞@ì~ KıÜ«µ∞,
K«^°∞#∞ KıÜ«µ∞
bulletin ™®O®~â◊~† „ǨHí@# Ǩ„uHí
bullion "≥~_ç
|~QåO®Å∞† "≥~_ç
|~QåO®ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
bullish ^è°O°Å ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°ÅHí∞ J#∞Hí∂Å
"≥∞·#
bullows Qõ∞~„_«<ˇ·#† Qõ_«¤=~>˜

91

burrow

JÅ¡izÅ¡i, Hí*Ï˚H’O°∞† Ç≤Ï~ã≤~K«∞,
Çıkè~K«∞, qã≤y~K«∞
bulwalk H’@QÀ_«, |∞O°∞A† F_«HíǨC
g∞k ǨHí¯ÉèßQõ~† O°Hí∆}Qå xeKı =ºH˜Î/
ã≤^®ú~`Œ~ "≥∞∞II† JÅÅ f„=`Œ#∞ P¿Ñ
J_«∞¤Hí@ì
bumble Jã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå =∂>Ï¡_«_«~† Qõ~^°O°
QÀà◊~
bump QåÜ«µÇ¨O°∞K«∞† ÉÁÇ≤Ê
bumpkin Ǩ֡¡@¥i =ºH˜Î, J<®Qõ~°Hí =ºH˜Î
bunch Q≥Å, Qõ∞uÎ, Qõ∞K«Ûù~, ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~
bundle "≥ØѨÙ, Hí@ì† =∞¥@Qå Hí@∞ì,
P^°O°ÉÏ^°O°Qå áÈܵ
bungle K‹_«Q˘@∞ì
bunker Éèí¥QõO°ƒù O°Hí∆} Qõ$ǨÏ~
bunodont =„Ǩ^°~u. ~ teeth =„Ǩ
^°~`ÍÅ∞
buoyancy `ËÖË â◊H,Θ Ǩ=
¡ #â◊H,Θ L`ÍûǨÏ~,
LÖÏ¡ã¨~, L`ŒÊ¡=#~
buoyant ÃÑ·H˜ `ËÖË K«Å#jÅ, K«Ç¨Å,
L`ÍûÇ≤Ï, L`ÍûǨÏ~ QõÅ
burden ÉèßO°~† ǨÅq
¡ . ~ of proof xO°¥
Ǩ} ÉÏ^è°º`Œ
bureau ã¨~ã¨÷
bureaucracy L^Àºy™®fi=∞º~
bureaucrat „ǨÉèí∞`ÍfikèHßi
bureaucratic PkèHßiHí,
JkèHßO°
ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#, „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
burged qǨs`Œ~Qå ÃÑiy#, Jaè=$kú
K‹~k#
burgeon `Œfii`Œ~Qå Jaè=$kú<˘~^°∞
burglar (Hí#flѨÙ) ^˘~Qõ
burgle ^˘~Qõ`Œ#~ KıÜ«µ∞, Hí#fl~ÇıÜ«µ∞
burial ground â◊‡âÍ#ÇÍ>˜Hí
burn ^°Ç≤Ï~K«∞, HßÅ∞Û
burrow ™⁄O°~Qõ~/ Q˘Üµº (`Œ=Ùfi)
bully

burrow pit
burrow pit HÁeq∞ Q˘Üµº, ^®e
business =$uÎ, ÇͺáåO°~, K«O°Ûh
Ü«∂~â◊~. ~ acumen ÇͺáåO° Hí∞â◊
Å`Œ. a head for ~ ÇͺáåO°^°$+≤ì. ~
depression ÇͺáåO° =∂~^°º~. ~ enterprise ÇͺáåO°ã¨~ã¨÷. ~ ethics
ÇͺáåO° hu. in ~ ÇͺáåO°~Ö’ L#fl
get down to ~ Ǩx „áåO°~aè~K«∞. go
into ~ ÇͺáåO°~/ ǨxKıÜ«µ_«~ „áåO°~
aè~K«_«~. go out of ~ kÇÍà®fÜ«µ∞,
ÇͺáåO°~ xeÇ≤ÇıÜ«µ∞. ~ hours

ÇͺáåO° Çıà◊Å∞, Ǩx ã¨=∞Ü«µ~. ~
houses ÇͺáåO° ã¨~ã¨÷Å∞. ~ lunch
=∞^èߺǨÏfl Éè’[#~`À áå@∞ [iQÕ K«O®Û
ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~. on ~ ǨxÖ’ L~_«∞. open
for ~ ÇͺáåO° xO°fiǨÏ}Hí∞ ã≤^°ú~Qå
L#fl. set up in ~ HÁ`ŒÎ ã¨~ã¨÷#∞/
^°∞Hß}®xfl „áåO°~aè~K«_«~. ~ man/
person ÇͺáåO°ã¨∞÷_«∞. ~ mathematics ÇͺáåO°Qõ}˜`Œ~. ~ sense Çͺáå
O®=QåǨÏ#. ~ woman ÇͺáåO°Çı„uÎ.
~ magnet ÇͺáåO°Çı`ŒÎ
bustard |@ìÉÏ`Œ∞
bustle ã¨~^°_ç, ǨÏ_Íq_ç† (W`ŒO°∞Å#∞)
`˘~^°O°ÃÑ@ì_«~
busy bee xO°~`ŒO° „âÍq∞Hí∞_«∞
butcher H홮ܵ
butchery =^è°(âÍÅ)
butt n. `Œ∞áåH˜ =∞_«=∞ HÁ#† K‹@∞ì
"≥∞∞^°Å∞† ™®O®Ç‘áå† Ç¨iǨ㨠áå„`Œ~†
_è©HÁ@∞ì, Hí∞=∞∞‡
butteress n. P^èßO°~, P„â◊Ü«µ~
butteress v. P„â◊Ü«µ~ WK«∞Û, ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ
Ǩ_«∞
buttock Ç≤O°∞^°∞, Ѩ$+¨ªÉèßQõ~

92

by trail

HÁ#∞. ~ and hold strategy HÁx
nO°…HßÅ~ J=∞‡Hí∞~_Í J>˜ìÃÑ@∞ìHí∞<Ë
=ӺǨÏ~. ~ back uiy HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞
KıÜ«µ∞. ~ in "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~Qå HÁ#∞. ~ into
_«|∞ƒ "≥zÛ~z HÁ#∞. ~ off Å~K«q∞zÛ
`ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞HÁ#∞, J#∞Hí∂ÅǨO°K«∞HÁ#∞. ~
out "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~ HÁ<ËÜ«µ_«~. ~ over
Å~K«q∞K«∞Û, HÁxÇıÜ«µ∞
buyer HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞^®O°∞
buyers market HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞^®O°∞Å
=∂O≥¯@∞ì
buying support HÁ#∞QÀà◊§ =∞^°Ì`Œ∞
buzz O°≠~HßO°~† =^°~u† H’ÖÏǨÏÅ~†
qã≤y~K«∞† (=^°~`Œ∞Å∞) ѨÙ>˜ì~K«∞, QÀÅ
ÃÑ@∞ì
buzz word =∂O°∞¿ÑO°∞, „Ǩ`ͺ=∂flÜ«µ
Ǩ^°~
by ^°QõæO°, Qõ∞~_Í, ^®fiO®, JǨC_«∞† =Å¡,
Kı`Œ, „ǨHßO°~. ~ all means ã¨O°fi
q^èßÖÏ, U q^è°~Qå<ˇ·<®. ~ election
LǨZxflHí. ~ end O°Ç¨Ï™Èº^ÕÌâ◊~. ~
gone [iyáÈܵ#, ѨÓO°fiHßÅѨÙ, Qõ`Œ.
~ law LǨx|~^è°#. ~ leaps and
bounds "≥~@<Ë =∂iáÈ=Ù. ~ line
O°K«Üµ`Œ¿ÑO°∞. ~ name =∂O°∞¿ÑO°∞. ~
pass LǨ=∂O°æ~, ǨHí¯^®i. ~ product J#∞|~^è° L`ÍÊ^°#, LáÈ`ÍÊk`Œ~.
~ reference xOÕÌâÍ#∞™®O°~Qå. ~
stander ^®i#áÈÜ˵ =ºH˜Î. ~ word
™®"≥∞`Œ
by parol <À>˜=∂@^®fiO®
bypass LǨ=∂O°~
æ . ~ surgery LǨ=∂O°æ
â◊G zH˜`Œû
by right ǨÏHí∞¯Qå
by rotation =~`Œ∞ÅÇÍs
by trail (<®ºÜ«µ) qKÍO°}`À

93

C G S system

buy

callousness

Cc
Ãã~>©g∞@O∑ „QåÇò√
ÃãHí~_ü Ǩ^uú° , á⁄_«=Ù, „^°=ºO®t, HßÅ~
HÁÅ`ŒHí∞ ÇÍ_Ë =∞∫eHí „Ç¨=∂}®Å Ǩ^°úu
cab ÉÏ_«∞Qõ, J^≥Ì |~_ç
cabal Hí∞„@, HíHí∆. ~ group Hí∞„@Kı¿ã
=∞∞Oîß
cabbala O°Ç¨Ï㨺 q*Ï˝#~
cabbalistic O°Ç¨Ï㨺"≥∞·#, xQõ¥_è°"≥∞·#
cabinet =∞~„u=∞~_«e† JO°Å∞ QõÅ ÃÑ>ˇì,
UHß~`ÍQåO°~. ~ sub-committee
=∞~„u=O°æ LǨã¨~Ѷ¨∞~
cabotage F_«Å Hí^°eHíÅ#∞, ã¨O°Hí∞ `ŒO°
e~ѨÙ#∞ J#∞=∞u~Kı K«>ÏìÅ∞
cackle á⁄kQÕH’_ç JO°∞ѨÙ, Q˘Ç¨Ê K‹Ç¨C
HÁ#∞
cacogenics K‹_«¤ ÇÍO°ã¨`Œfi „ǨÉèßÇÍÅ
J^谺ܫµ#~
cacography `ŒÇ¨CÅ `Œ_çHí O®`Œ
cacophony J„âÍ=º`Œ
cactus „|Ǩχ*ˇ=∞∞_«∞
cadastrax Éèí¥q∞ÃÑ· Ü«µ[=∂#º~ QõÅ
cadaver =∞$`Œ^ÕǨÏ~
cadaverous â◊ÇÍHßO°"≥∞·#, Ç‘#∞Qõ =~>˜
cadaver transplantation =∞O°}˜~z#
=ºH˜Î J=Ü«µÇÍÅ#∞ ÇıO˘HíiH˜ J=∞
O°Û_«~
caddy (QÀÖòÊù P@Ö’) ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí∞_«∞
cadre (L^ÀºQõ) „âı}˜, ™®÷ܵ
cahoot Hí∞=∞‡Hí∞¯ Hß=_«~† Hí∂@q∞
caird ^Õâ◊k=∞‡i
cajole |∞[˚y~K«∞, ÖÏe~K«∞
cajolery ÖÏÅ#, |∞[˚y~`Œ
cakewalk ã¨∞ÅÉèí™®^è°º~
calamity LǨ„^°=~, „Ǩ=∂^°~, PǨ^°,
C G S system

qǨ`Œ∞Î. natural ~ ã¨Ç¨Ï[ „Ǩ=∂^°~
calaorimeter L+¨‚=∂Ǩx
calaorimetry L+¨‚=∂Ǩ#~
calcaneum =∞_«=∞ Z=∞∞Hí
calcareous ã¨∞#flѨÙ. ~ rock ã¨∞#flѨÙ
O®Üµ
calcinate
calculate

ã‘fiHíi~K«∞† Éèí㨇O
ÖˇHí¯Hí@∞ì/ ÃÑ@∞ì, ÖˇH˜¯~K«∞,

Qõ}˜~K«∞
ã¨fiÖÏÉèß¿ÑHí∆`À K«¥¿ã, ÖˇHí¯
K«¥ã¨∞Hí∞<Ë
calculus HíÅ#Qõ}˜`Œ~, O®Üµ
calender year Ǩ~KÍ~Qõ ã¨~=`ŒûO°~
calf HßeÇ≤Hí¯† ^°¥_«
calibrate „Hí=∂~Hí#~ KıÜ«µ_«~
calibration
Ǩi=∂}
xO°‚Ü«µ~/
=∂Ǩ#~† â’^è°#, „Hí=∂~Hí#~. ~
factor „Hí=∂~Hí# Qõ∞}Hí~
caliology Hí∞ÖÏÜ«µ âÍG~
call Ç≤Å∞Ѩن Ç≤Å∞K«∞. ~ attention motion ™®=^èß# fO®‡#~. ~ it a day
=∞∞y~K«∞. ~ money J_çy# "≥~@<Ë
WKıÛ O°∞}~. ~ option H’i# O’A#
H’i#~`Œ HÁ<Ë ã¨^°∞áåÜ«µ~. ~ up on
Ç≤Å∞ѨÙxK«∞Û. ~ bond =㨥Å∞ ÇÍܵ^®
xO°‚ܵ~Kı Ǩ„`Œ~. ~ attention notice
^°$+≤ìH˜ `ˇKıÛ ÃÇÏK«ÛiHí
calligraphy J~^°"≥∞·# ^°ã¨¥Îi
callipers Hí$„u=∞ áå^°~, ÃÑ@∞ì_«∞ HßÅ∞,
T`ŒHí„O°
callosity HßÜ«µ, H˜}~
callotrophis lÖË¡_«∞
callous Qõ>Ç
ì˜ _¨ #ç , Éèß=~ÖËx, ã¨Ê~^°#ÖËx
callousness Hßiî#º~, xO°ÌÜ«µ`Œfi~
calculative

callow

94

canon

callow J#∞Éèí=~ÖËx
callus âÍvÜ«µ Hß~_«~, HßÜ«µQåz#
calmness hO°=~, „ǨâÍ~`Œ~
calomel O°ã¨Éèí㨇~
calorie LëÈ‚„Qõ`Œ Ǩi=∂}®xfl K‹¿ÑÊ

canaliculus 㨥Hí;<®oHí
canalisation <®oHß HíO°}~†

„Ǩ=∂}~, PǨO°~ L`ŒÊuÎ Kı¿ã â◊H˜Îx
HÁeKı „Ǩ=∂}~
calorific food JkèHí â◊H˜ÎxKıÛ PǨO°~
calumniation JǨx~^°
calumniate ^°¥+≤~K«∞, JǨÇÍ^°∞ áåÅ∞
KıÜ«µ∞, JǨx~^°ÇıÜ«µ∞
calumniator ^°¥+≤~Kı =ºH˜Î, JǨÇÍ^°∞
Çı¿ã =ºH˜Î
calumnious ^°¥+≤~Kı, JǨÇÍ^°∞ Híe
y~Kı
calumny JǨÇÍ^°∞, JǨ„Ǩ^ä°
calyx (ѨÙ=ÙfiÖ’) O°Hí∆Hí Ǩ„`Í=o
camaraderie ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`Œ ¿ãflǨÏ"≥∞·#, XHı
=O®æxH˜ K‹~k# ÇÍO°=∞#fl Éèß=~
camber L|∞Hí∞
cambrian Hı~„aÜ«µ<ü HßÅ~
camelopard lO®Ñ¶‘
camion ÖÏs† Éèßs O°ÇÍ}® â◊Hí@~
cammy lQõ∞O°∞Qå, J`Œ∞HÁ¯<Ë@∞¡Qå
camouflage =∞ÉèíºÃÑ@∞ì, HíÇ≤ÊѨÙK«∞Û
campaign L^°º=∞~, „ǨKÍO° (Ü«µ∞^°ú) O/
HßO°ºHíÖÏáåÅ∞
campaigner „ǨKÍO°Hí∞_«∞
campanology Ѷ¨∞~>ÏâÍG~
campanulate Ѷ¨∞~>ÏHßO°
camphor ǨO°u HíO°¥ÊO°~
canaille JÅ¡i=∞¥Hí
canal HßÅ∞=, =∂O°æ~. cervical ~
QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ=∂O°æ~. vaginal ~ ܡ∂x
=∂O°æ~. alimentary ~ rO°‚<®à◊~.
anal ~ Qõ∞^°<®à◊~. auditory ~
„â◊=}<®à◊~. birth ~ [## =∂O°æ~

K‹Å∞¡ÉÏ@∞ HßHí∞~_Í KıÜ«µ∞
cancellation O°^°∞ÌKıÜ«µ_«~,
xeÇ≤
ÇıÜ«µ_«~
cancer ѨÙ@ìHí∞O°∞ѨÙ, O®K«Ñ¨Ù~_«∞, Hß#ûO∑
J<Ë Çͺkè† HíO®¯@HíO®t. tropic of ~
HíO®¯@Hí OÕY
canda balsam lQõ∞O°∞
candescent [fie~Kı
candex =∂#∞
candid xHí¯zÛ, xë®ÊHí, Ü«µ^äßO°ú~, PÖ’
K«#Å∞ ^®K«∞H’x
candour x+¨¯Ç¨@`Œfi~, ã¨O°à◊`Œ, x+¨ÊHí∆
áå`Œ~
candy HíÅHí~_«, Ǩ>˜HíÉˇÅ¡~
canine Hí∞Hí¯ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#. ~
tooth H’O°Ç¨à◊∞§
canker <À>˜ ѨÙ~_«∞, K‹@¡`ˇQõ∞Å∞, „=}~,
Hí}˜u, ÇͺHí∞ņ O’Qõ„Qõã¨Î
canline Hß~_« ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
cannabis Qõ~*Ïܵ
cannibal #O°=∂~㨠ÉèíHí∆Hí∞_«∞
cannibalism #O°=∂~㨠ÉèíHí∆}
canning _«Éσ֒¡ (PǨO®xfl) xÅfi
KıÜ«µ_«~
cannishness `ˇQõÅ `Œ`Œfi~
cannon Ѷ≤O°~y. ~ bone <®à®ã¨∞÷Å∞. ~
fire Ѷ≤O°~y Qõ∞à◊§=O°¬~. ~ fodder
|eǨâ◊∞=Ù
cannonical text =∞`Œ„Qõ~^ä°~
canoe ^À<ˇ Ǩ_«=† Ǩ_«= #_«∞ѨÙ
canon qkè, K«@ì~† ™®kèHßiHí ™®Ç≤Ï`Œº~/
O°K«<®^è’O°}˜

xs‚`Œ

=∂O°æ~/ q^èß#~
canard J|^°úѨ٠O®`Œ, JÉèß~_«~
cancel PѨÙ, xeÇ≤ÇıÜ«µ∞, O°^°∞ÌKıÜ«µ∞,

canonical
canonical Ǩ~_ç`Œ ã¨=∞‡u á⁄~k#. ~
text =∞`Œ„Qõ~^ä°~
canonicity Ǩ~_ç`Œ ã¨=∞‡u
canonisation =∞`Œ Qõ∞O°∞=ÙÅ *Ïa`ÍÖ’

KıO°∞Û
canopy Ǩ~ki,
cantankerous

=∞~_«Ç¨~
q∞ug∞i# H’Ǩ~QõÅ,
HíÅǨτÇ≤Ü«µ, ^°∞+¨ìÉèß=~ QõÅ
canthoplasty <Ë„`ŒHí} ã¨~^èß#~
canthotamy <Ë„`ŒHí}KıÛù^°#
canto PâÍfiã¨~, Y~_«~, ǨO°fi~, =∞Ǩ
Hß=º ÉèßQõ~
canvasser „ǨKÍO°Hí∞_«∞
canyon Ö’`ˇ·# Ö’Ü«µ
caodaism n. É“^°ú=∞`Œ~, `Íǒܵ[Çò√,
Hí<üѶ¨Óº+≤Ü«µx[Çò√
capability ã¨=∞O°÷`Œ, ™ÈÎ=∞`Œ
capable â◊H˜Î ™®=∞O®÷ºÅ∞ QõÅ
capacious qâÍÅ"≥∞·#
capacitor ã¨~Ѷ¨∞#Hí~
capacity k@ì`Œ#~, ™®=∞O°÷º~, Ѷ¨∞# Ǩi
=∂}~, „QõÇϨ }â◊H.Θ vital ~ r=Hí=∆ ∞`Œ.
~ utilization ™®=∞O°÷º qxܡ∂Qõ~
cap a pic `ŒÅ #∞~_ç áå^®Å =O°Hí∞,
Páå^° =∞ã¨ÎHí~
capillar Hıâ◊<®oHßã¨Ê~^°#~
capillarity Hıâ◊<®oHß K«O°º
capillary Hıâ◊<®oHí. ~ action Hıâ◊
<®oHßK«O°º. ~ movement Hıâ◊<®oHí`«.
~ permeability Hıâ<◊ ®oHß áåO°Q=õ ∞º`Œ
capital =∞O°} ^°~_ÍO°›"≥∞·#, „Ǩ=∂^°
HíO°"≥∞·#, „Ǩâ◊ã¨Î"≥∞·#, =∞∞Yº"≥∞·#† O®[
^èßx, `ŒÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#† Pã¨∞ÎÅ
"≥∞∞`ŒÎ~, ã¨~Ǩ^°, =∞¥Å^è°#~. ~ account =∞¥Å^è°#~ MÏ`Í. ~ accumulation =∞¥Å^è°# ã¨~K«Ü«µ#~. ~ ad-

95

capsicum
equacy ratio Híh㨠ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç x+¨ÊuÎ.
~ allowance =∞¥Å^è°#~ |`ˇÎ~. ~
acquisition =∞¥Å^è°# ¿ãHíO°}. ~
asset ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç, =∞¥Å^è°# Pã≤Î. ~
base ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ѨÙ<®k. ~ charges

ÇͺáåO° =∞¥Å^è°# xO°fiǨÏ} =ºÜ«µ~.
~
consumption
=∞¥Å^è°#
qxܡ∂Qõ~. ~ crime tO°âıÛ^®O®›Ç¨
O®^è°~. ~ deficiency =∞¥Å^è°#~
Ö’@∞. ~ expenditure =∞¥Å^è°#/
ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç =ºÜ«µ~. ~ formation =∞¥Å
^è°# HíÅÊ#. ~ gains tax =∞¥Å^è°#
ÖÏÉèßÅÃÑ· Ǩ#∞fl. ~ goods L`ÍÊ^°Hí
=ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞, ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ™®^è°# ™®=∞„y. ~
growth =∞¥Å^è°# =$kú. ~ investment =∞¥Å^è°# ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç. ~ market
ÃÑ@∞ì|_«∞Å =∂O≥¯>ò, =∞¥Å^è°# qǨ}˜.
~ offence =∞O°}tHí∆ qkè~K«^°y#
<ËO°~. ~ punishment LitHí∆, =∞O°}
tHí∆. ~ receipts =∞¥Å^è°# O®|_ç. ~
sum c=∂ Hí~ÃÑh K‹e¡~Kı _«|∞ƒ
capitalism ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^®s q^èß#~
capitalist ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^®O°∞, ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^®s
=O°æ~. ~ encirclement ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^®s
O®*ϺÅ∞ K«∞@∞ì=∞∞@ì_«~
capitalization issue áå`Œ ÇÍ>Ï^®O°∞
ÅHí∞ *ÏsKı¿ã Lz`Œ ÇÍ>Ï
capitate jO®¬HßO°~ QõÅ
capitulate ÖÁ~Qõ∞, Ö’|_«∞, ÖÁ~y
áÈ=@~
capping JkèHíÉèßO°~
caprice z`ŒÎKÍ~K«Åº~, K«Ç¨Å`Œ
capricious =∞uã≤÷q∞`Œ~ÖËx, K«~K«Å"≥∞·#
capricorn =∞HíO°O®t. tropic of ~
=∞HíO° OÕY
capsicum |∞@ì/ ã‘=∞ q∞O°Ç¨HßÜ«µ

capsid
capsid "≥·O°ã¨∞Å ÉÏǨϺHí=K«~
capsize É’ÖÏÎǨ_«∞
capsule <®oHí, Q˘@ì~ =∞~^°∞
caption (ÇÍO®Î) ji¬Hí
captivate "≥∂Ç≤Ï~ǨKıÜ«µ∞, =â◊~

Kıã¨∞
HÁ#∞, =ÅÇ≤~K«∞, O°~l~ǨKıÜ«µ∞,
=∞∞Qõú~KıÜ«µ∞
captivated PHíi¬`Œ, =∞~„`ŒO°∞^°ú"≥∞·#
captive |On, Mˇ·^Œ∞. ~ market x~°ƒO^èŒ
=∂O≥¯>ò. ~ power plant ™⁄~`Œ
q^°∞º`ü Hı~„^°~
captive breeding xO°ƒ~^è°~Ö’ „Ǩ[
##~
captivity xO°ƒ~^è°~, Mˇ·^°∞, ^®ã¨º~
captor Mˇ·nx Ǩ@∞ìHÁ#fl =ºH˜Î† q*Ë`Œ
capture |~kè~K«∞, Ǩ@∞ìHÁ#∞, [ܵ~K«∞,
=â◊ǨO°K«∞HÁ#∞, ™®finè#~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞
caravan a_ÍO°∞
carbohydrate Ç≤~_çǨ^®O°÷~
carbon HíO°ƒ#~. activated ~ L`ËÎl`Œ
HíO°ƒ#~. ~ fixation cycle HíO°ƒ#
xÜ«µ~„`ŒHí K«„Hí~
carbon dating OÕ_çܡ∂ HßO°ƒ<ü ã¨Ç¨
Ü«µ~`À =ܡ∂xO®úO°}
carbuncle O®K«Hí∞O°∞ѨÙ, 㨥O°ºHß~`Œ=∞}˜
carcass =∞$`Œ^ÕǨÏ~, HíàË|O°~, =∂~ã¨~
=∞∞^°Ì
carcinogen Hß#ûO∑ HíÅ∞Qõ*Ë¿ã
carcinogenic Hß#ûO∑ „¿ÑO°Hí
carcinoma Hß#ûO∑, „áå}®~`ŒHí „=}~
cardamom UÅHí∞Å∞
cardia rO®‚â◊Ü«µ „ǨÇıâ◊^®fiO°~
cardiac ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ H’â◊ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#. ~
arrest Qõ∞~_≥ PyáÈ=_«~. ~ beat
Qõ∞~_≥ HÁ@∞ìH’=_«~. ~ ganglion
ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ<®_ô ã¨~kè. ~ innervation

96

carnage

ǨÏ$^ŒÜ«∞<å_ô ã¨O^è•#O. ~ mach
ѨÓO°firO®‚â◊Ü«µ~. ~ muscle ǨiÌHí
Hí~_«O°~. ~ stimulant ǨÏ$^°Üˇ∂
`ËÎ[Hí~
cardinal =∞∫eHí, P^èßO°É¥
íè `Œ, „áå^äq° ∞Hí†
O’=∞<üfl Hß^äe° H± =∞`ÍkèHßi. ~ points
„Ǩ^èß<®~âÍÅ∞
carding ǨuÎx Ç≤~[Å∞Qå KıÜ«µ_«~
cardio ǨÏ$^°Ü«µH’â◊ ã¨~|~kè. ~ gram
ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ OÕMÏǨ@~. ~ myopathy
ǨÏ$„^ÀQõ~. ~ phonogram ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ
â◊|ÌÖËY
cardiogenic ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ[x`Œ"≥∞·#
cardiology ǨÏ$^°Ü«µH’âÍ^谺ܫµ# âÍG~
cardiophobia Qõ∞~_≥
ã¨=∞㨺Å~>ı
ÉèíÜ«µ~
cardio-vascular Qõ∞~_≥ O°HíÎ<®à®ÅHí∞
ã¨~|~kè~z#
care *Ï„Qõ`ŒÎ. antenatal ~„Ǩã¨=ѨÓO°fiHí
ã¨~O°Hí∆}. intranatal ~ „Ǩã¨=HßÅ
ã¨~O°Hí∆}. postnatal ~ „Ǩã¨ÇÍ#~`ŒO°
ã¨~O°Hí∆}
careerism Ǩ^°gHß~Hí∆, Ǩ^°g Hß~Hí∆
ǨO°∞_«∞
careerist Ǩ^°qH’ã¨~, ÃÑ`ŒÎ#~ H’ã¨~
qÅ∞=Å∞, P^°O®≈Å∞ =ke# =ºH˜Î
caressing ^°∞=fi@~, ÖÏe~K«_«~
caretaker ã¨~O°Hí∆Hí∞_«∞. ~ government
PǨ^°úO°‡ „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~
cargo O°ÇÍ}® ã¨O°∞Hí∞
caricature qHí$`Œ/=º~Qõº z„`Œ~
caries Hí∆Ü«µ~, ѨÙÇ≤Ê. bone ~ Jã≤÷
Hí∆Ü«µ~. dental ~ ^°~`ŒHí∆Ü«µ~,
^°~`ÍÅ∞ ѨÙzÛáÈ=_«~
cariou <®â◊=∞Qõ∞
carnage =∂O°}Ǩϟ=∞~, ^°=∞#Hß~_«

97

carnality
carnality q+¨Ü«µ ֓ź~
carnivorous =∂~™®Ç¨i
carol P#~^°w`Œ~
carona 㨥O°ºÇÍ`Í=O°}~
caronsal [ÖÏû, `ÍQõ∞_«∞`À

Hí∂_ç#

q~^°∞
carotin =O°‚„^°=º~
carousel O°~Qõ∞ÅO®@fl~
carpel Ѷ¨Å^°à◊~
carpet uÇÍp, [~ǨHß<®
carping ^°∞O®Hı∆Ǩ~
carriage â◊Hí@~† O°ÇÍ}®

(=ºÜ«µ~/

YO°∞Û)
carrier O°ÇÍ}® ÇͺáåO°~/ â◊Hí@~/ =ºH˜Î.
~ system ÇÍǨÏHí =º=ã¨÷
carrion K‹`ŒÎ, Hí∞o§# Ǩ^®O°÷~
carry fã¨∞HÁxáÈ=Ù, KıO°∞Û, ™®kè~K«∞,

HÁ#™®y~K«∞, ÉèßO°~ =Ç≤Ï~K«∞, P"≥∂
k~ǨKıÜ«µ∞, Q≥Å∞K«∞. ~ away fã¨∞
HÁxáÈ=Ù, HÁ@∞ìHÁxáÈ=Ù. ~ forward
=∞∞~^°∞Hí∞ fã¨∞HÁxáÈ=Ù. ~ into effect ѨÓiÎKıÜ«µ∞, J=∞Å∞ KıÜ«µ∞. ~ off
fã¨∞HÁx Z`Œ∞ÎHÁx áÈ=Ù† Q≥Å∞K«∞, K«~Ç≤
ÇıÜ«µ∞. ~ on HÁ#™®y~K«∞. ~ one's
point =∂@ <ˇyæ~K«∞HÁ#∞. ~ over
^®@∞, ^®>˜~K«∞. ~ the day ã¨Ñ¶¨Å
=∞Qõ∞, Q≥Å∞á⁄~^°∞. ~ through ѨÓiÎ
KıÜ«µ∞, <ˇO°ÇıO°∞Û. ~ weight qÅ∞=
Híey L~_«∞
cartage |~_ç ÉÏ_«∞Qõ
carte blanche ѨÓiÎ JkèHßO°~
cartel Ü«µ∞^°úMˇ·nÅ =∂iÊ_ç XǨÊ~^°~†
ã¨~ã¨÷Å Hí∂@q∞, L`ŒÊuÎ^®O°∞Å ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~
cartilage =∞$^°∞ÖÏã≤÷
cartography =∂#z„`Œ O°K«<®âÍG~
carve K‹Hí∞¯, =∞Å∞K«∞, z„u~K«∞

casteism
casanova â◊$~QåO° ѨÙO°∞+¨∞_«∞
cascade [Åáå`Œ~, JkèHß~â◊~, Hí∞=∞‡
i~K«∞. ~ method ™Èáå# „Hí=∞Ǩ^°úu
cascading effect ǨO°º=™®# „ǨÉèß=~
case ÃÑ>ˇì, _«Éσ, XO°† x[ã≤÷u, x^°

O°≈#~† Jaèܡ∂Qõ~, Çͺ[º~† (ÇͺHíO°
}~Ö’) qÉèíH˜Î† O’y. ~ history =ºH˜Î
(O’Qõ) K«i„`Œ. ~ law x^°O≈° # <®ºÜ«µ~.
~ study ã¨=∂KÍO®^谺ܫµ#~
cash #Qõ^°∞, O˘Hí¯~. ~ account #Qõ^°∞
MÏ`Í. ~ balance #Qõ^°∞ xÅfi. ~
crop ÇÍ}˜[º Ǩ~@. ~ crunch #Qõ^°∞
HÁO°`Œ. ~ deal #Qõ^°∞ =º=ǨO°~. ~
discount `Œyæ~Ѩ٠^è°O°, =∞∞^°O®. ~
deposit ratio #Qõ^°∞ xÅfiÅ ÃÑ@∞ì
|_«∞Å x+¨ÊuÎ. ~ flow „^°=ºã¨O°Ñ¶¨O®.
~ incentive #Qõ^°∞ „áÈ`ÍûǨÏHßÅ∞. ~
in on Åaúá⁄~^°∞, „Ǩܡ∂[#~ á⁄~^°∞.
~ market #Qõ^°∞ qǨ}˜. ~ memo
#Qõ^°∞ p>©. ~ on delivery ã¨O°∞Hí∞
J~^°Qå<Ë _«|∞ƒ K‹e¡~Kı q^èß#~. ~
price #Qõ^°∞ ^è°O°. ~ sale #Qõ^°∞
J=∞‡Hí~. ~ settlement #Qõ^°∞ Ǩi
뮯O°~. ~ voucher ^è°O° `Œyæ~ѨÙ#∞
WKıÛ Hí∂Ǩ#∞
cashew nut =∞∞~`Œ=∂q∞_ç, r_çǨǨC
casino #O°Î#âÍÅ, E^°âÍÅ
casket ÃÑ>ˇì
cassandra xO®âÍÇÍk
cassia `Œ~QÕ_«∞, Híã≤~^°K‹@∞ì
cast (áåO°)
ÇıÜ«µ∞, =keÇıÜ«µ∞,
Çͺ[º~Ö’ F_ç~K«∞† Híiy~z áÈ`Œ
áÈÜ«µ∞
castaway "≥eÃÑ@∞ì, "ÕO°∞ǨO°K«∞
caste Hí∞Å~
casteism Hí∞Å`Œ`ŒÎ fi~

casteist

Hí∞Å`Œ`ŒÎ fiÇÍk. ~ forces Hí∞Å
`Œ`ŒÎ fi â◊Hí∞ÎÅ∞. ~ politics Hí∞Å O®[
H©Ü«∂Å∞
castigate tH˜∆~K«∞, ^°~_ç~K«∞
casting vote xO°‚Ü«∂`Œ‡Hí F@∞
castor P=∞∞^®Å∞
castration q`Œ∞ÎHÁ@ì_«~, á⁄QõO°∞ `Œyæ~
K«_«~
casual XHí Ǩ^°úuÖ’ ÖËx, „Hí=∞|^°ú~
Hßx. ~ employment `Í`ͯeHí
L^Àºy`Œ. ~ labour k#Hí∂b, `Í`ͯ
eHí Hßi‡Hí∞Å∞
casuality „Ǩ=∂^°~, ^°∞ã¨û~Ѷ¨∞@#, ^°∞O°…
@#. ~ insurance JǨѶ¨∂`Œ c=∂.
~ ward J`Œº=ã¨O° zH˜`Íû ã¨÷Å~
casuarina ã¨O°∞Qõ∞_«∞, ã¨ifi
cataclysm qǨ¡=~, [ńǨà◊Ü«µ~
catalog(ue) *Ïa`Í, Ǩ>˜ìHí
catalyse L„`ËÊO°} KıÜ«µ_«~
catalysis L„`ËÊO°}~
catalyst L„`ËÊO°Hí~
catalystic converter L„`ËÊO°Hí Ǩi
=O°ÎHí~
catalytic L„`ËÊO°Hí
catameran z#flǨ_«=
catamountain zO°∞`ŒÑ¨Ùe† Hí*Ï˚H’O°∞
catanation ǨO°ã¨ÊO®#fiÜ«µ~
catapult qã¨iHÁ@∞ì, ÖÏyHÁ@∞ì† =_çÃãÅ,
L~_聰
cataract Hí~>˜â◊∞Hí¡~, á⁄O°. ~ immature JǨHõfiâ◊∞Hí¡~. ~ mature ǨHífi
â◊∞Hí¡~. ~ senile =$^®úǨº~Ö’ UO°Ê_«¤
â◊∞Hí¡~
catarrh n. [Å∞|∞, Ǩ_çâ◊~
catastrophe qǨ`Œ∞Î, ^°∞O°æu, LǨ„^°=~,
ã¨O°fi<®â◊~
casteist

98

cation

Ǩ@∞ìHÁ#∞, Ü«µ∞H˜Î`ÀHí∂_ç# „Ǩâ◊fl,
Pâ◊ÛO°º~, "≥∂ã¨~. ~ a cold Çͺáå
O°~Ö’ #+¨ì~ÇÍ>˜Å∞¡. ~ at ÖÏQõ∞HÁ#∞.
~ fire J~@∞HÁ#∞, ÇͺÇ≤~K«∞. ~ on
ÇͺÇ≤~K«∞, qã¨Îi~K«∞. ~ the eye Hí~@
Ǩ_«∞. ~ up Ǩ@∞ìHÁ#∞, ã¨=∂#=∞Qõ∞†
#ë®ìxfl, Ö’áåxfl ѨÓi~K«∞HÁ#∞. ~
word T`ŒÇ¨^°~
catch feeder h>˜ áåO°∞^°ÅHí∞ `Œqfi#
Q˘Üµº
catching bargain J#∞z`Œ ÉıO°~
catchment JO°Qå}˜, hO°∞ x~¿Ñ =#O°∞.
~ area JO°Qå}˜ ǨÏiÇÍ}~, #n
ǨiÇÍǨÏHí „áå~`Œ~
catechism (=∞`Œ~Ö’) „Ǩâ’fl`ŒO° „Qõ~^ä°~†
(O®[H©Ü«∂Ö’¡) „Ǩâ’fl`ŒÎO®Å∞
categorically ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå, `Ë@`ˇÅ¡~Qå
categorical proposition xO°∞áåkèHí
„Ǩu*Ï˝ÇÍHߺÅ∞
categorisation =sæHíO°}
categorize =sæHíi~K«∞
category =O°æ~, qÉèßQõ~
cateran Ǩâ◊∞=ÙÅ ^˘~Qõ† HÁÅ¡Q˘>ıì =ºH˜Î
caterer PǨO° Ǩ^®O®÷Å#∞, ã¨O°Ñ¶¨O® Kı¿ã
=ºH˜Î/ ÇͺáåO° ã¨~ã¨÷
catering Éè’[#™œHíO°º~
HíeÊ~Kı
ÇͺáåO°~. ~ services Éè’[# ã¨^°∞
áåÜ«∂Å∞
caterpiller Q˘~Qõo ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞
caterwaul Ç≤e¡Hí∂`Œ
catharsis H∆ßà◊#„Ǩ„H˜Ü«µ, ^ÕǨÏâ◊√kú
cather 㨥Hí;Hıâ◊<®oHí
cathertic qOÕK«#Hßi, Éèık=∞~^°∞
catheterisation 㨥Hí;Hıâ◊<®oHß „ǨÇı
â◊#~
cation Hß@Ü«∂<ü, O°∞}®`Œ‡Hí JÜ«∂<ü
catch

99

catkin
catkin =∞$^°∞ѨÙ+¨Êq<®ºã¨~
catridge `Œ$}®=ã≤÷
cattle Ǩâ◊∞Qõ}~
cattle rearing Ǩâ◊∞áåÅ#~/ áÈ+¨}
cat walk ™œ~^°O°º „Ǩ^°O°≈#
caucus =∞∞Oîß
caudal ѨÙK«Ûù. ~ fin ѨÙ+¨ÊÇÍ[~. ~
region `ÀHíÉèßQõ~. ~ vertebra ѨÙK«ÛùHí

âıO°∞Hí~
caudate ã¨Ñ¨ÙK«Ûù
causality HßO°}ÇÍ^°~, ¿ÇÏ`ŒfiO°÷ÇÍ^°~
causative „¿ÑO°}®O°÷Hí(~)
causeway ¿ã`Œ∞=Ù, HßeÉÏ@
caustic ^®Ç¨ÏHí, HßÖËÛ. ~ soda ^®Ç¨ÏHí

™È_Í
cauterization

^°Ç¨ÏhHíO°}~, =∞~_ç~

K«_«~
caution ÃÇÏK«ÛiHí, =∞∞~^°∞ *Ï„Qõ`ŒÎ
cautioner ǨÏg∞^®O°∞, ѨÓp^®O°∞
cautiously "≥∞à◊Hí∞=Qå, *Ï„Qõ`ŒÎQå
cavalcade JtfiHí|$~^°~
cavalier JtfiHí∞_«∞, OÒ`Œ∞, qÖÏ㨠ѨÙO°∞

+¨∞_«∞, gO°Ñ¨ÙO°∞+¨∞_«∞
JtfiHí^°à◊~, Qõ∞„O®Å^°~_«∞
P@~Hí~, +¨O°`Œ∞, ÃÇÏK«ÛiHí
(Ǩ„`Œ~)† ÇÍi~K«∞† K«O°ºÅ qO°=∞}Hí∞
<À>©ã¨∞. ~ emptor HÁ<ËÇÍiH˜ ÃÇÏK«Û
iHí. ~ venditor JÇı∞‡ÇÍiH˜ ÃÇÏK«ÛiHí
cavern aÅ~, Qõ∞ǨÏ
cavernicolous Qõ∞ǨÏr=#~
cavil ^°∞O®Hı∆Ǩ}, O°~„^èß<Ëfi+¨}
cavity H’â◊~, Hí∞ǨÏO°~† â◊¥#º„Ǩ^Õâ◊~.
abdominal ~ L^°O°Hí∞ǨÏO°~. amniotic ~ Ç≤~_«H’â◊~. cranial ~ HíáåÅ
Hí∞ǨÏO°~. nasal ~ <®ã≤HßHí∞ǨÏO°~.
pelvic ~ Hí>©Hí∞ǨÏO°~. tympanic ~
HíO°‚Éèıs Hí∞ǨÏO°~
cavalry
caveat

censure
caw HÍH˜‰õÄ`«
cease fire HßÅ∞ÊÅ

qO°=∞}, `Í`ͯe
Hí~Qå Ü«µ∞^°úqO°=∞}
cede WzÛÇıÜ«µ∞, JǨÊy~K«∞† F_çáÈ=Ù,
^°`ŒÎ~KıÜ«µ∞, =^°∞Å∞HÁ#∞
ceiling Qõi+¨ªÇ¨iq∞u, tYO°~, HíǨC. ~
price Qõi+¨ª=∞¥Åº~
celebrate L`Œû=~KıÜ«µ∞, <ˇO°ÇıO°∞Û
celebrity „áå=∞∞Yº~, „Ǩãk
≤ ,ú H©i,Î MϺu†
„Ǩã≤^°ú=ºH˜Î
celerity `Œfii`Œ`Œfi~
celestial YQÀà◊, k=º"≥∞·#, JuÖ’Hí,
„âı+¨ª"≥∞·#. ~ bodies YQÀà◊=ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞
celibacy „|ǨχK«O°º~
cell *ˇ·Å∞Qõk† q^°∞º^°…@~, r=Hí}~. ~
culture Hí}ã¨~=O°÷#~. ~ free Hí}
O°Ç≤Ï`Œ. ~ theory Hí}ã≤^®ú~`Œ~. ~
wall Hí}Hí=K«~
cellar <ËÅ=∂oQõ, áå`ŒO°, <ËÅHÁ@∞ì
cellular Hí}ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
celluloid K«Å#z„`Œ ã¨~|~^è"
° ∞≥ #· . ~ divinity K«Å#z„`Œ #@∞ÅHí∞ QõÅ „Ǩ`˺Hí
Q“O°=~, P^°O°}
cament n. JuHıǨ^®O°÷~† dental ~
Ǩ~>˜ ã¨~^°∞Å#∞ x~¿Ñ Ǩ^®O°÷~
cement v. JuH˜~K«_~
« , J`Œ∞H’¯=_«~. ~
setting ã≤"≥∞~>ò Qõ>˜ìǨ_«_«~
cementation J`ŒHí_«~, ֒ǨÏq∞„â◊=∞~
ѨÓÜ«µ_«~
cenozoic era P^è°∞xHí, r==∞ǨÜ«µ∞Qõ~
censor x¿+kè~K«∞. ~ motion Jaèâ~
◊ ã¨#
fO®‡#~ ~ ship HíuÎi~Ѩ٠q^èß#~/
P~Hí∆
censure =∞~^°e~ѨÙ, x~^°, Jaèâ◊~ã¨#,
Y~_«#† x~k~K«∞, =∞~^°e~K«∞, Jaè
â◊~ã≤~K«∞

census
census [<®ÉèßÖˇHí¯Å∞
cent #¥O’=~`Œ∞, _ÍÅO∑Ö’ #¥O’=~`Œ∞
centenarian â◊`ÍÜ«µ∞+¨‡~`Œ∞_«∞
centenary â◊`ŒÇÍi¬Hí~, â◊`ŒÇÍi¬H’`Œû=~
centennial â◊`ŒÇÍi¬H’`Œû=~
center Hı~„^°~, „Ǩ^èß#ã¨÷Å~
centigrade Ãã~>©„QÕ_ü,
LëÈ‚„Qõ`Í

„Ǩ=∂}~
centimeter g∞@O∑Ö’ =~^À=~`Œ∞
centipede *ˇ„i
centisimal measure â◊`Í~â◊=∂#~
central Hı~„nÜ«µ. ~ air conditioning
Hı~„nHí$`ŒÇÍ`Í#∞Hí∂Å#~. ~ government Hı~„^°„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~. ~ undertaking
or undertakings of ~ government

Hı~„^°„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi Ü«∂[=∂#º~Ö’x ã¨~ã¨÷.
~ issue price Hı~„^° *Ïs ^è°O°. ~
pool Hı~„^° ^èß#º~ xÅfiÅ∞. ~ processing unit Hı~„nÜ«µ xÜ«µ~„`Œ}
ÉèßQõ~
centraliser Hı~„^°Hí~
centralization Hı~„nHíO°}
centralize Hı~„nHíi~K«∞, Hı~„nHíi~Ǩ
*ËÜ«µ∞
centralized states Hı~„nHí$`Œ O®*ϺÅ∞
centre n. Hı~„^° („ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~), =∞^è°ºÉèßQõ~
centre v. =∞^è°º#∞~K«∞, =∞^è°ºxÅ∞ѨÙ,
Hı~„nHíi~K«∞. ~ of gravity Qõi=∞
<®aè, Qõ∞O°∞`ŒfiHı~„^°~. ~ of a plane
ã¨=∞`ŒÅ Qõ∞O°∞`ŒfiHı~„^°~. ~ of an are
=„HíY~_« Qõ∞O°∞`ŒfiHı~„^°~. ~ of inertia [_«`Œfi Hı~„^°~. ~ of mass
„^°=ºHı~„^°~
centrifugal JǨ Hı~„^°, Hı~„^° ǨO®_«∞‡Y.
~ force JǨHı~„^° |Å~
centrifugation JǨHı~„nHíO°}~

100

certificate

centrifuge JǨHı~„^°Ü«µ~„`Œ~
centripetal JaèHı~„^°, Hı~„^À#∞‡Y. ~
force JaèHı~„^°|Å~
centrism =∞^èıºÇÍ^°~
centrists =∞^èıºÇÍ^°∞Å∞
centrosphere Éèí¥Hı~„^®=O°}~
centuple #¥i~`ŒÅ∞ (KıÜ«µ∞)
cephalalgia `ŒÅ<˘Ç≤Ê
cephalic jO°¬ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
cephalin "≥∞^°_«∞Ö’x HÁ=Ùfi
cephalon `΁
cephalothorax tO’ǨHí∆~. ~ metry

`ŒÅHÁÅ`Œ
cephalotriosy HíáåÅ qzÛù#fl„Ǩ„H˜Ü«µ
ceramic Ç≤~Qå}©
ceramics =∞$`ŒÊiHíO° q*Ï˝#~
cereals `Œ$}^èß<®ºÅ∞
cerebellum z#fl"≥∞^°_«∞, J#∞=∞ã≤Î+¨¯~
cerebral cortex =∞ã≤Î+¨¯ =ůÅ~.
cerebral palsy tâ◊∞ ǨHí∆ÇÍ`Œ~
cerebrum ÃÑ^°Ì"≥∞^°_«∞
ceremonious P_«~|O°Ñ¨ÓO°fiHí, PKÍO°

|^°ú
ceremony Çı_«∞Hí, L`Œû=~, `Œ~`Œ∞
cerography "≥∞·#~`À z„fHíO°}
certain x["≥∞#
· , xs‚`"Œ ∞≥ #· , #=∞‡Hí~QõÅ,

XHß<˘Hí, xtÛ`Œ, O°¥_è˜Jܵ#. ~
knowledge xâ◊ÛÜ«µ*Ï˝#~
certainly =∞∞=∂‡>˜H˜, `ŒÇ¨Êxã¨iQå
certainty x[~, xâ◊ÛÜ«µ~
certificate ܡ∂Qõº`ÍǨ„`Œ~. authorisation ~ JkèHßO° „^è°∞gHíO°} Ǩ„`Œ~. ~
of deposit [=∞ „^è°∞gHíO°} Ǩ„`Œ~. ~
of incorporation „Ǩ=∂} Ǩ„`Œ~†
#"≥∂^°∞Ǩ„`Œ~. ~ of merit ã¨#^°∞,
ܡ∂Qõº`ÍǨ„`Œ~, „Ǩâ◊~™®Ç¨„`Œ~. ~ of
origin L`ŒÊuÎ ™®÷#„^è°∞=Ǩ„`Œ~

certification

101

charade

certification „^è°∞gHíO°}
certified „^è°∞gHí$`Œ. ~ cheque „^è°∞gHí
i~z# K‹Hí∞¯. ~ copy JkèHßO° „^è°∞g

chamber Qõk. anterior ~ =∞∞~^°∞Qõk,
ѨÓO°fiHíHí∆. ~ of commerce ÇͺáåO°

Hí$`Œ „Ǩu
certify „^è°∞gHíi~K«∞
certiorari writ ^®ÇÍÅ iHßO°∞¤Å#∞
Ǩ~Ǩ=∞x ÃÑ^°Ì H’O°∞ì *ÏsKı¿ã L`ŒÎO°∞=Ù
cerumen K‹qÖ’x Qõ∞ae
cervex QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ (^®fiO°) ~
cervical QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#, "≥∞_«Hí∞
K‹~k#. ~ canal QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ ^®fiO°~.
cesarean ã≤*ËiÜ«µ<ü, á⁄@ìH’ã≤ a_«¤#∞
fÜ«µ_«~
cess Ǩ#∞fl, ã¨∞~Hí~
cessation qO®=∞~, PѨÙ, qO°=∞},
xÅ∞ѨÙ^°Å
cession JǨÊy~`Œ, ã¨=∞O°Ê}, Ǩi`ͺQõ~
cesspit ¿Ñ_«Qõ∞~@
cesspool =∞∞iH˜Qõ∞~@
cetus uq∞~yÅ~
chaff THí, `Œ=Ù_«∞, á⁄Å∞¡, á⁄@∞ì, K‹`ŒÎ,
Ǩâ◊∞„Qåã¨~
chaffer ÉıO°~, ÉıO°=∂_«_«~
chafing dish xǨCÅ Hí∞~Ǩ>˜
chagrin qã¨∞Qõ∞, xO°∞`ÍûǨÏ~, PâÍ
Éèí~Qõ~, xO®â◊, =∞<À=º^è°, J==∂#~
chain Q˘Å∞ã¨∞, Hí~Oî°Ç¨O°~† ã¨~H≥ņ
xO°ƒ~^è~° , â◊$~YÅ~, [`ŒH∂í O°∞Û. ~ reaction â◊$~YÖÏ „ǨuK«O°º
chair Hí∞sÛ™®÷#~, Jkè+ì¨ ™®÷#~, ã¨Éßè Ǩu,
J^è°ºHí∆∞_«∞, PKÍO°ºÇ¨^°q, J^è°ºHí∆`Œ
=Ç≤Ï~K«∞, Ç‘Oî°~. ~ man J^è°ºHí∆∞_«∞.
~ person J^è°ºHí∆∞_«∞/ J^è°ºHí∆∞O®Å∞
chalaza HíÖÏ*Ï, âıfi`ŒHí O°A˚=Ù
challenge ã¨ÇÍÅ∞, „ǨuѶ¨∞@#, Z^°∞
O’¯=_«~

chamberlain O®[Qõ$ǨÏxO®fiǨÏHí∞_«∞
chameleon Tã¨O°"≥e¡
champion q*Ë`Œ, J„Qõ™®÷#~ á⁄~k#

Çı`ŒÎÅ ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~

=ºH˜Î, Jã¨Ç¨Ü«µâ◊¥O°∞_«∞
J^°$+¨ì~, Ѷ¨∞@#, PHíã≤‡Hí
ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@#† ã¨=∞Ü«µ~, Ü«∂^°$zÛùHí, J=
Hßâ◊~† ™®^è°º~, ã¨~Éèí=~. take a ~
„Ǩܫµufl~K«∞, J=Hßâ◊~ fã¨∞HÁ#∞. ~
upon JHí™®‡`Œ∞ÎQå á⁄~^°∞
chance v. ã¨~Éèíq~K«∞, `Œ@ã≤÷~K«∞
chancellor Hí∞ÅǨu, J^è°ºHí∆∞_«∞
chancery q^Õj O®Ü«µÉÏO° HßO®ºÅÜ«µ~
chancre ã¨ÇÍܵá⁄Hí∞¯
chancy xâ◊ÛÜ«µ~ Hßx, „Ǩ=∂^°HíO°"≥∞·#
change Ǩi=O°Î#, =∂O°∞ʆ zÅ¡O°
changeability Jã≤÷O°`Œfi~,
=∂OÕ
ã¨fiÉèß=~
changeable Jã≤÷O°, Ǩi=O°Î#jÅ
changeful Jã≤÷O°, Ǩi=O°Î#jÅ
changeful Jã≤÷O°, K«Ç¨Å"≥∞·#
changeling ^˘~Qõ™⁄=∞∞‡
channel HßÅ∞=, ÇÍǨÏHí~, [Åã¨~kè
chant [Ç≤~K«∞† áå_«∞
chaos Jã¨Î=ºã¨Î`Œ, Qõ~^°O°QÀà◊~
chaotic Qõ~^°O°QÀà◊"≥∞·#, Jã¨Î=ºã¨Î"≥∞·#
chap K«O°‡~ ǨQõ∞Å∞† ѨÙO°∞+¨∞_«∞, ÉÏÅ∞_«∞
chaperon ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí =ºH˜Î
character jÅ~, áå„`Œ, ÅHí∆}~.
aquired ~ Pi˚`Œ ÅHí∆}~
characteristic „Ǩ`˺HíÅHí∆}~
characterization áå„`Œ z„fHíO°}
characterize =i‚~K«∞, z„u~K«∞
charade ã¨=∞㨺, „Ǩâ◊fl
chance n.

charcoal
charcoal Hí„O° ÉÁQõ∞æ. ~ test ÉÁQõ∞æ ǨsHí∆
charge n. ÉèßO°~, |O°∞=Ù, K«@ì|^°ú~Qå

á⁄~^ÕǨÏHí∞¯, O°∞ã¨∞=∞∞, =ã¨∞οã=ÅHí∞
H’OÕ "≥ņ ÉÏ^è°º`Œ, PO’Ǩ}, x~^®
O’Ǩ}~† =∞~^°∞Qõ∞~_«∞, Ѷ≤O®º^°∞, ^è°O°.
~ account [=∞Ǩ^°∞Ì, JO°∞=Ù MÏ`Í.
~ sheet Jaèܡ∂Qõ/ ^Àë®O’Ǩ} Ǩ„`Œ~
charge v. Pq+¨ì~KıÜ«µ∞, HÁ@∞ì, ^®_ç
Kıܵ« ∞, PO’Ç≤~K«∞. electric ~ q^°∞º^®
Çıâ◊~
charged Pq+¨ì
electrically ~
q^°∞º^®q+¨ì
charge d' affairs `Í`ͯeHí ^Ò`ŒºO®Ü«µ
ÉÏi/ JkèHßi
chariot O°^ä°~
charioteer O°^ä°™®O°kä
charisma [<®HíO°¬}, ã¨"≥∂‡Ç¨Ï#â◊H˜Î
charismatic „Ǩ*ÏHíO°¬} Híey#
charitable trust ^è°O°‡ã¨~ã¨÷
charity ^°Ü«∂^è°O°‡aèHí∆~
charlatan _Í~aHí∞_«∞, ‰õΩ"≥·^°∞º_«∞
charm PHíO°¬}, „ǨHßâ◊~, =∞~„`Œ~,
`Íg^°∞, O°Hí∆
charmer =∞~„`ŒQå_«∞
charring =∂_çáÈ=Ù
chart Ǩ@~. ~ of temperature [fiO°
Ǩ@~
charter P*Ï˝Ç¨„`Œ~, ǨÏHí∞¯, JkèHßO°~.
~ of the company Hí~ÃÑh xÜ«µ=∂
=o
chartered accountant JkèHí$`Œ Qõ}
Hí∞_«∞
chary *Ï„Qõ`ŒQõÅ, Ç≤ã≤<®i
chase Çı@Éèí¥q∞† "≥~@|_«∞, "≥<®fl_«∞,
Çı>Ï_«∞, "≥à◊§Q˘@∞ì, `ŒO°∞=∞∞
chasing ֒ǨÏ~ÃÑ· K‹Hí¯_«~

102

chemical

chasm JQå^è°~, Ö’`ˇ·# Hí#∞=∞
chassis K«„@~
chaste Ǩiâ◊∞^°ú, Ǩq„`Œ, x+¨¯à◊~Hí,

ã¨fiK«Ûù

"≥∞·#
chasten

PѨن

xO°ƒ~^è°~Ö’L~K«∞,

tH˜∆~K«∞
chastise tH˜∆~K«∞
chastisement tHí∆
chastity Ǩq„`Œ`Œ, ã¨pÛùÅ`Œ
chat =∂>Ï¡_«∞, Hí|∞O°∞¡ K‹Ç¨C
chateau H’@
chatted ™®=∂#∞, K«O®ã≤÷
chatter ÇÍQõ∞_«∞, =^°O°∞, ǨHí∆∞Å

H˜ÅH˜ÖÏ

O®=~
chauffeur „_≥·=O∑, ëÈѶ¨O∑, KÀ^°Hí∞_«∞
chauvinism ^°∞O°Ç¨Ï~HßO°~,
^°∞O°aè

=∂#~
cheap K«=Hí, <®}º`ŒÖËx. ~ money
`ŒHí∞¯= =_ô¤H˜ Åaè~Kı _«|∞ƒ
cheat "≥∂ã¨~, ^°Qå, =~K«#† "≥∂ã¨Qå_«∞†
"≥∂ã¨y~K«∞, ^°QåKıÜ«µ∞, =~z~K«∞
check J_«¤y~K«∞, ÇıQõ~ `Œyæ~K«∞, ǨsHí∆,
ǨijÅ#, `Œxv. keep in ~ J^°∞ѨÙÖ’
L~K«∞. ~ list Ǩije`Œ Ǩ>˜ìHí. ~
mate P@Hí@∞ì. ~ point `Œxvã¨÷Å~
checks and balances xO’^è° ã¨=∞
`“ÖϺÅ∞
cheer „áÈ`ŒûÇ≤Ï~K«∞,
ã¨~`À+¨ÃÑ@∞ì,
K«Ç¨Ê@∞¡HÁ@∞ì, Jaè#~k~K«∞, ǨÏO°¬
^èßfi#~, K«Ç¨Ê@∞¡, L`ÍûǨÏ~
cheerful ã¨~`À+¨~Qå, P#~^°~Qå
cheerfully „Ǩã¨#fl~Qå, ã¨~`À+¨~Qå
cheilitis <À>˜Ñ¨Ó`Œ
chemical O°™®Ü«µ#~, O°™®Ü«µxHí. ~
bond O°™®Ü«µ#|~^è°~. ~ decomposition O°™®Ü«µ# â‹·käź~. ~ dis-

chemist
placement O°™®Ü«µ# ™®÷#„Éèí~â◊~. ~
energy O°™®Ü«µ# â◊H˜Î. ~ equation
O°™®Ü«µ# ã¨g∞HíO°}~. ~ equillibrium
O°™®Ü«µ# ã¨=∞`Íã≤÷u. ~ name O°™®
Ü«µ# ã¨~Hı`Œ~/ <®=∞~. ~ preservative O°™®Ü«µ# ã¨~O°Hí∆Hí~ ~ potential
O°™®Ü«µ# â◊Hí‡~. ~ reaction O°™®Ü«µ
xHí K«O°º. ~ reactivity O°™®Ü«µ#
„H˜Ü«∂jÅ`Œ. ~ warfare O°™®Ü«µ#
PÜ«µ∞^èßÅ`À Ü«µ∞^°ú~. ~ weapons

O°™®Ü«µ<®Ü«µ∞^èßÅ∞.
chemist O°™®Ü«µ# âÍGÇı`ŒÎ, B+¨^è° q„Hı`Œ
chemistry O°™®Ü«µ#âÍG~. blood ~
O°HíÎ O°™®Ü«µ# âÍG~
chemo O°™®Ü«µ#. ~ autotrophic O°™®
Ü«µ# ã¨fiÜ«µ~áÈ+≤`Œ. ~ receptor
O°™®Ü«µ#„QåÇ≤Ï. ~ synthesis O°™®Ü«µ#
ã¨~âı¡+¨}. ~ therapy O°™®Ü«µxHí
zH˜`Œû
cheque K‹Hí∞¯. crossed ~ „Hßãπ Kıã≤#
K‹Hí∞¯. open ~ „Hßãπ KıÜ«µx K‹Hí∞¯.
post dated ~ `ŒO®fi`Œ `Ën Çıã#
≤ K‹H∞í ¯.
stale ~ áå`ŒK‹Hí∞¯
cherish Éèßq~K«∞, =∞#ã¨∞Ö’ L~K«∞HÁ#∞,
㨇 $uQå xH˜∆ǨÎ~KıÜ«µ∞
cherophobia Ǩ㨺cèu
chess K«^°O°~Qõ~. ~ board K«^°O°~Qõ~
|Å¡. ~ men áå=ÙÅ∞
chest Kèßu, Qõ∞~_≥† ÃÑ>ˇì, Éè’ë®}~
chewing #=∞Å_«~, K«O°fi}~
chicanery =~K«#, Hí∞Ü«µ∞H˜Î, `Œ~„`Œ~,
O≥~_«∞ "≥·Ñ¨ÙÅ #∞~z =º=ǨO°~ #_«∞ѨÙ
chick H’_çÇ≤Å¡
chicken H’_ç, |ÅÇ‘Ï# =∞#ã¨∞¯_«∞
chicken pox P@Å=∞‡, z#fl=∞‡ÇÍO°∞
chick pea Ãã#QõÅ∞, HÁ=∞∞‡ Ãã#Qõ

103

chlorosis

chide =∞~^°e~K«∞, QõkÌ~K«∞
chief =∞∞Yº, „Ǩ^èß#, ÃÑ^°Ì, qâı+¨
chief „Ǩ^èß<®kèHßi, <®Ü«µHí∞_«∞, „Ǩ=∞∞
Y∞_«∞. ~ justice „Ǩ^èß# <®ºÜ«µ=∞¥iÎ.
~ patron „Ǩ^èß# áÈ+¨Hí∞_«∞. ~ whip

„Ǩ^èß# qÑπ
chiefly „Ǩ^èß#~Qå, qâı+¨~Qå
chiffonade `Œiy# `Í*Ï Hí∂O°QåÜ«µÅ∞
chilblains K«eHí∞O°∞ѨÙÅ∞
child tâ◊∞=Ù. ~ care tâ◊∞ã¨~O°Hí∆}
chill K«Å¡x, L^®ã‘#`Œ, L`ÍûǨÏO®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
chimaera JÉèí¥`ŒHíÅÊ#
chime Qõ~@, Qõ~@HÁ@∞ì, J~wHßO°~
Hí∞^°∞O°∞
chimney á⁄QõQ˘@ì~
china rose =∞~^®O°
chine "≥<ˇfl=∞∞Hí† "≥#∞fl|^°Ì
chink ǨQõ∞Å∞, qÉèı^°~† ã¨~^°∞† <®}®Å∞
Y~Qõ∞=∞<Ë ^è°fix
chip ¿Ñ_«∞, |^°Ì† Hí∞ã‘ÎÖ’ XHíǨ@∞ì, ÇÍ>Ï,
=∞∞Hí¯, K‹Hí∞¯, H’Ü«µ∞
chirogriomy ™®=∞∞„kHí~
chirp, chirrup z#fl ǨHí∆∞Å H˜K«H˜K«Å∞†
H˜K«H˜K«ÖÏ_«∞, ã¨~`À+¨~`À =∂>Ï¡_«∞
chisell Le, K‹Hí∞¯, #y+‘ KıÜ«µ∞
chit chat Ö’HßaèO®=∂Ü«µ}~, Ç≤KÍÛáå>©
chiton ã¨#fl>˜ =G~
chivalry O°Hí∆Hí`Œfi~, â◊¥O°`Œfi~, ǨO®
„Hí=∞~
chlorenchyma ǨÏi`Œ Hí}*ÏÅ~
chlorination ǨÏih HíO°}~
chloroform =∞`Œ∞ÎHíey~Kı Ǩ^®O°÷~
chlorophyll Ǩ„`ŒÇ¨Ïi`Œ~
chloroplast ǨÏi`Œ OÕ}∞=Ù
chloroquine =∞ÖËiÜ«∂ xÇÍi}˜
chlorosis xO°›i`Œ`Œfi~

choice

W+¨ì"≥∞·#, „âı+¨ª"≥∞·#, L`ŒÎ=∞,
#zÛ#† xO°‚Ü«µ~, ZxflHí, W+¨ì~, H’iHí
choir QåÜ«µHí|$~^°~, Éèí[#=∞~_«e
choke #∞eq∞ÇıÜ«µ∞, qѶ¨∂`Œ~ Híey~K«∞†
LH˜¯iaH˜¯i KıÜ«µ∞, PÇıâ◊~=Å¡ =∂>Ï¡_«
ÖËHíáÈ=Ù
choked voice Qõ^°æ^°ã¨fiO°~, _«Qõ∞æuÎHí
choking á⁄O°ÉÏO°@~
chondrometer qt+¨ì ÉèßO°=∂ǨHí~
choose Z#∞flHÁ#∞, xO°‚ܵ~K«∞, W+¨ìǨ_«∞
chop `ˇQõ#O°∞Hí∞, =∞∞Hí¯Å∞KıÜ«µ∞, ^®i
Kıã¨∞Hí∞~@¥ áÈ=Ù, =∂~ã¨Ñ¨Ù=∞∞Hí¯
chopping block =^è°ºtÅ
choral |$~^°Qå# ã¨~|~kè
chord ÇÍ^°º™®^è°<®Å fQ≥, KÍǨHíO°‚~,
^®O°~
chordata =$+¨ì ^°~_«~
choreographer #$`Œº^°O°≈Hí∞_«∞
choreography #$`Œºã¨~ܡ∂[#~, <®@º
Híà◊, <®@ºÇ¨^°úu 㨥K«#
chorography Éè“QÀoHí „áå~`Œ^谺ܫµ#~
chorus |$~^°Qå#~, „^è°∞ÇÍQå#~
christen <®=∞HíO°}~KıÜ«µ∞, ¿ÑO°∞ÃÑ@∞ì,
*Ï˝#™®fl#~`À „H≥·ã¨Î=ÙxQå KıÜ«µ∞
christendom „H≥·ã¨Î=„ǨǨ~K«~
christian „H≥·ã¨Î=Ù_«∞† „H≥·ã¨Î=
christianise „H≥·ã¨Î==∞`Œ~Ö’ KıO°∞Û
christianism „H≥·ã¨Î==∞`ŒÇÍ^°~
christianity „H≥·ã¨Î==∞`Œ~
chroma =O°‚Ǩiâ◊∞^°ú`Œ
chromatic =O°‚ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
chromatics =O®‚^谺ܫµ#(âÍG)~
chromatography =O°‚OÕY# âÍG~
chromotropic =O®‚HíO°¬Hí
chromosome „H’"≥∂*’=∞∞
chromosphere 㨥O°ºÇÍ`Í=O°}~
choice

104

circle

circuit

chronic Z_«`Q
ˇ xõ , =∞m§=∞m§ ã¨~Éèqí ~Kı.
~ disease nO°…Çͺkè. ~ hunger `ŒQõæx

circuit

PHíe
H≥·Ñ¶‘Ü«µ`ü, Hí^ä°#~, KÍi„`ŒHí
Ǩ„`Œ~/ „Qõ~^ä~° , (HßÅ„Hí=∞~Ö’) #"≥∂^°∞
KıÜ«µ∞
chronobiology PÜ«µó„Ǩ=∂} xO®‚Ü«µHí
âÍG~
chronological HßÅ„Hí=∂#∞™®O°~. in
order HßÅ„Hí=∂#∞™®O°~Qå
chronologist HßÅ„Hí=∞ xO°Ü
‚ µ« xѨÙ}∞_«∞
chronology HßÅ„Hí=∞~
chrysanthemum Kı=∞~u
chrysolite K«~„Hß~`Œ=∞}˜, ÖË`ŒQõ∞_«¡O®Üµ
chuff "≥∞∞O°@∞, Ç≤ã≤<®i
chummy ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`Œ,
¿ãflǨÏѨÓO°fiHí,
Pf‡Ü«µ
chunk ÉèßQõ~
churlish =∞O®º^°ÖËx, "≥∞∞O°>ˇ·#, ¿ãflǨÏ
je Hß#>˜ì
churn zÅ∞Hí∞, =∞kä~K«∞
churning zÅHí@~, =∞^ä°#~
cicatrix QåÜ«µÑ¨Ù =∞K«Û
cilia 㨥Hí;HıâÍÅ∞, O’=∞HßÅ∞, â‹·eHíÅ∞
ciliary 㨥Hí;Hıâ◊ã¨~|~^è°
cinchona ã≤~H’<®K‹@∞ì
cinema K«Å#z„`Œ~
cinemascope ã≤x=∂™È¯Ñπ,
Éèßs
`ˇO°g∞^° ã≤x=∂ „Ǩ^°i≈~Kı P^è°∞xHí
Ǩ^°úu
cinerary |¥_ç^°H˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#. ~
urn z`ÍÉèí㨇áå„`Œ
cinnamon ^®eÛ#K‹Hí¯
cipher ™®~HıuHíeÇ≤, â◊¥#º~, ã¨∞#fl. ~
code eÇ≤ã¨~Hı`Œ~
circle K«∞@¥ìuO°∞Qõ∞, yO°yO° uO°∞Qõ∞†
=$`ŒÎ~, =ÅÜ«µ~, =∞~_«Å~† ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~
chronicle

(q^°∞º`ü) =ÅÜ«µ~, K«„Hí~,
ã¨~KÍO°~
circulant =ÅÜ«µHßi
circular =O°∞Îņ „ǨHí@#Ǩ„uHí, ã¨O°∞¯ º
ÅO∑. ~ orbit =$`ÍÎHßO° HíHí∆ º. ~
muscle =O°∞ÎÅ Hí~_«O°~
circulating asset x`Œº ÇÍ_«HíѨ٠Pã≤Î
circulating capital ã¨O°∞¯ ºÖË>˜~Q∑
=∞¥Å^è°#~, „ǨÇÍǨÏ, K«„H©Ü«µ =∞¥Å
^è°#~: ÇͺáåO®xfl #_çÇ≤~Kı~^°∞Hí∞,
=$kúKı¿ã~^°∞Hí∞ LǨܫµ∞HíÎ=∞Ü˵º ^è°#~,
xÅ∞=ã¨O°∞Hí∞
circulation „Ǩã¨O°}, K‹ÖÏ=∞}˜, ÇͺÇ≤Î,
J=∞∞‡_«∞áÈÜ˵ HßÇ‘Åã¨~Yº, O°HíÎ „Ǩã¨
O°}
circulative ã¨~KÍO°Hí
circulatory system (O°HíÎ) „Ǩã¨O°}
=º=ã¨÷
circumambulation „Ǩ^°H˜∆}
circum centre ǨiHı~„^°~, Ǩi=$`ŒÎ
Hı~„^°~
circumcission ã¨∞#u
circumference Ǩikè, K«∞@∞ìHÁÅ`Œ
circumlocution
âÍMÏK«~„Hí=∞}~,
_˘~HíuO°∞Qõ∞_«∞Qå K‹Ç¨Ê_«~, (ÇÍHíº)
qã¨ÎO°}
circumnavigate (<ÒHí) K«∞@¥ìuO°Qõ_«~
circumnuclear ǨiHı~„^°Hí
circumorbital ǨiHíH©∆Ü«µ
circumration =~K«#, "≥∂ã¨~
circumscribe K«∞@¥ì w`ŒwÜ«µ∞, ǨÏ^°∞Ì
UO°ÊO°K«∞
circumsolar 㨥O°∞ºxK«∞@¥ì uiQÕ
circumspect *Ï„Qõ`ŒÎQõÅ, `Œ¥z =∂>Ï¡_Ë
circumspection *Ï„Qõ`ŒÎ, PÖ’K«<®`Œ‡Hí`Œ
circumstantial evidence „áåã¨~yHí
™®Hí∆ º~

105

civil

circumstellar matter

#Hí∆„`Œ~ K«∞@¥ì

QõÅ „^°=º~
`ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞H’=_«~† "≥∂ã¨
ѨÙK«Û_«~† ^®@ÇıÜ«µ_«~
circumvention "≥∂ã¨~
circuitous litigation _˘~HíuO°∞Qõ∞_«∞,
Çͺ[º~/ =º=ǨO°~,
cirrhosis „áå}®~`ŒHí HßÖËÜ«µ Çͺkè
cirrus Láå~Qõ~
cissun #ÖË¡O°∞
cistern LǨi [ÖÏâ◊Ü«µ~
citadel ^°∞O°æ~
citation J#∞Y#~. ~ form J#∞ed`Œ
O°¥Ç¨~
cite ¿ÑO˘¯#∞, WK«∞Û, L^®Ç¨Ïi~K«∞
citizen áœO°∞_«∞. ~ front áœO°ã¨q∞u
citizenship áœO°ã¨`Œfi~
citric acid x=∞‡LǨC
citronella x=∞‡Qõ_ç¤
citrus x=∞‡*Ïu "≥∞∞Hí¯
city hall #QõO° áåÅHí ã¨~ã¨÷ HßO®ºÅÜ«µ~
city state #QõO° O®[º~
civic critic ™®~Ѷ≤∞Hí q=∞O°≈Hí∞_«∞
civic poetry ™®=∂lHí Híq`Œ
civic reception áœO°ã¨<®‡#~
civil ™®~Ѷ≤∞Hí, áœO° (ã¨~|~^è°), =∞O®º^°
QõÅ. ~ administration áœO° Ǩi
áåÅ#. ~ aviation áœO° q=∂#
Ü«∂#~. ~ code áœO°ã¨‡ $u. common ~code L=∞‡_ç áœO°ã¨‡ $u. ~
death Çͺ=ǨiHí =∞O°}~. ã≤qÅ∞
ǨÏHí∞¯Å∞ áÈQ˘@∞ìH’=_«~. ~ defence
áœO° O°Hí∆}. ~ disobedience âÍã¨
<ÀÅ¡~Ѷ¨∞#. ~ law áœO°<®ºÜ«µ~. ~
liberty áœO°¿ãfiK«Ûù. ~ list „ǨÉèí∞
`Àfi#fl`ÍkèHßO°∞Å *Ïa`Í. ~ marcircumvent

civilian

=∞`Œ xÜ«µ=∂ÅHí∞ aè#fl~Qå
[i¿Ñ ÃÑo§. ~ society „Ǩ*Ïr=#
=º=ã¨÷. ~ religion ™®=∂lHí =∞`Œ~.
~ rights áœO°Ç¨ÏHí∞¯Å∞. ~ suit ã≤qÖò
Çͺ[º~. ~ servant „ǨÉèí∞`Àfi^Àºy. ~
service „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi¿ã=. ~ supplies
áœO°ã¨O°Ç¨O®. uniform ~ code L=∞‡_ç
áœO°ã¨‡ $u, áœO°ã¨O°Ñ¶¨O®Å∞. ~ war
J~`ŒO°∞º^°ú~
civilian áœO°(ã¨~|~kè), „ǨÉèí∞`ÍfikèHßi,
™®^èßO°} áœO°∞_«∞. ~ area áœO° xÇÍã¨
„áå~`Œ~. ~ dress áœO°^°∞ã¨∞ÎÅ∞
civility ã¨Éèíº`Œ, =∞O®º^°
civilization <®QõO°Hí`Œ, ã¨Éèíº`Œ, =∞O®º^°
civilize <®QõO°Hí`Œ <ËO°∞Ê, ã¨Éèíº`Œ JÅÇÍ@∞
KıÜ«µ∞, =∞O®º^°K‹Ç¨C
civilized <®QõO°Hí, ã¨Éèíº`ŒQõÅ. ~ society ã¨Éèíºã¨=∂[~
cladode Ǩ„`ÍÉèíHß~_«~
claim ǨÏHí∞¯, ÇÍ^°~
claimant ǨÏHí∞¯^®O°∞
clairvoyance k=º^°$+≤ì, ^°¥O°^°$+≤ì
clam PeÛǨÊ
clamorously ÃѶ∞∞Å∞¡=∞x
clamour n. QÀÅ, QõQÀæÅ∞, x<®^®Å∞,
JO°∞=Ù, Qõ_«a_«, H’ÖÏǨÏÅ~, Qõ~^°O°
QÀà◊~ KıÜ«µ∞, x<®^®Å∞ KıÜ«µ∞, HıHíÅ∞
ÃÑ@∞ì
clamp n. HÁH≥¯~, Q˘à‹¡~, W@∞HíÅ Hí∞ǨÊ,
ay~z L~K«∞, qkè~K«∞, JkèHßO®xfl
LǨܡ∂y~K«∞. ~ connection `Œ~`Œ∞
|~^è°#~
clan QÀ„`Œ~: Hí∞@∞~|=O°æ~
clandestine ^˘~QõKÍ@∞, „ǨK«Ûù#fl, Qõ∞ǨÎ.
~ sale ^˘~Qõ`Œ#~Qå J=∞‡_«~
clank QõÅQõÅ ^è°fix
riage

106

classified

calssifieds

clap K«Ç¨Ê@∞¡ HÁ@∞ì, `Œ@∞ì
clarification ã¨Ê+‘ìHíO°}, q=O°}
clarify ã¨Ê+¨ì~ KıÜ«µ∞
clarinet ã¨<®flܵ
clarion ÉÏHß, |¥O°. ~ call Ç≤Å∞ѨÙ,

calssifieds =sæHí$`Œ „ǨHí@#Å∞
classifier =sæHßO°Hí~
clause x|~^è°#, LǨÇÍHíº~, ÇÍHߺ~Qõ~
clavate XHí z=O° ÉèßQå# ^°à◊ã¨iQå QõÅ
clavicle Hí~>˜ Z=∞∞Hí, É’O° Z=∞∞Hí,

PǨfi#~
clarity ã¨Ê+¨ì`Œ
clash qO’^è°~, ã¨~Ѷ¨∞O°¬}, Z^°∞O˘¯#∞,
^®_çKıÜ«µ∞, qÉèık~K«∞
clasp J~@∞HÁ#∞, J~>˜ L~_«∞. ~ ing
root J~@∞ÇıO°∞
clasper ã¨~ǨO°¯ Hí~@Hí~
class „âı}˜, `ŒO°Qõu, =O°æ~. ~ awareness =O°æã¨Ê $ǨÏ. ~ bias =O°æ ǨHí∆
áå`Œ~. ~ Conflict =O°æ ã¨~Ѷ¨∞O°¬}. ~
consciousness =O°æK‹·`Œ#º~. ~ dialect =O°æ=∂~_«eHí~. ~ exploitation
=O°æ^ÀÇ≤_ç. ~ frequencies =O°æ áœ#ó
ѨÙ<®ºÅ∞. ~ less society =O°æO°Ç≤Ï`Œ
ã¨=∂[~. middle ~ =∞^è°º`ŒO°Qõu. ~
oppression =O°æÇ‘_«#. proletariat
~ „âÍq∞Hí=O°æ~. ~ society =O°æqÉèíHíÎ
ã¨=∂[~
classcism ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«µÇÍ^°~
classic „áå=∂}˜Hí„Qõ~^ä°~, „áåp# =∞Ǩ
Hß=º~
classical „áå=∂}˜Hí. ~ abstraction
„áå=∂}˜Hí q=HíÎ`Œ. ~ period „áå=∂
}˜Hí Ü«µ∞Qõ~
classical „áåp#, ™®~„Ǩ^®ÜµHí, L^®`ŒÎ
"≥∞·#. ~ dance ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«µ #$`Œº~.
~ literature „áåp# ™®Ç≤Ï`Œº~. ~
music âÍ¢ã‘ÎÜ«µ ã¨~w`Œ~
classification =sæHíO°}~. ~ of assets
Pã¨∞ÎÅ=sæHíO°}
classified =sæHí$`Œ

[„`Œ∞Hí
claw QÀO°∞, #Y~. ~ foot Ǩ~*Ï =~>˜
áå^°~. ~ hammer Çı∞Hí∞Å∞ f¿ã ã¨∞uÎ
clawed QÀà◊∞§QõÅ, #MÏi`Œ
clay |~Hí=∞#∞fl† áåi÷=â◊sO°~
clay court =∞>˜ìH’O°∞ì
clean â◊∞„Éèí"≥∞·#, k^°∞ÌÉÏ@∞¡ ÖËx `Œ∞k
„Ǩu. ~ chit =∞K«ÛÖË^°<Ë H˜`Í|∞. ~
credit ã¨~ѨÓO°‚ǨO°Ç¨u. ~ days ѨÓiÎ
k<®Å∞. ~ hands x+¨¯à◊~Hí Ǩϙ®ÎÅ∞.
~ receipt xO°∞Ì+¨ì O°ã‘^°∞. ~ sweep
JY~_«q[Ü«µ~
cleaning H∆ßà◊#~, â◊∞„ÉèíǨO°K«_«~. ~
mixture H∆ßà◊#q∞„â◊=∞~. ~ solution
H∆ßà◊#„^®=}~. ~ nuts zÅ¡y~[Å∞
cleanse ガHƧo~Kǰ
clear Ǩiâ◊∞^°ú, HíbÎÖËx, ã¨fiK«Ûù"≥∞·#, xO°‡Å
"≥∞·#, `ŒQõ∞=ÙÖËx, ã¨Ê+¨ì"≥∞·#, q∞ye#
"≥∞∞`ŒÎ~, q„Híܵ~K«∞, ǨÏã¨ÎQõ`Œ~KıÜ«µ∞,
K‹e¡~K«∞, `˘Åy~K«∞. ~ profits xHíO°
ÖÏÉèí~
clearance fiÛÇı`Œ, `˘Åy~ѨÙ. ~ certificate q_«∞^°ÅO°ã‘^°∞
cleavable ǨQõ∞ÅQ˘@ìQõey#, pÅÛQõÅ
cleavage pÅ∞Û, #O°∞Hí∞, q_ç=_«∞† peHí,
q^°à◊#~
cleave ǨQõ∞Å∞, pÅ∞, ǨQõ∞ÅQ˘@∞ì, pÅ∞Û
cleaver H홮ܵHíuÎ, Qõ~„_«Q˘_«¤e
cleft peHí, ǨQõ∞Å∞. ~ palate "≥∞∞„i
clemancy Hí∆=∂aèHí∆
clement ^°Ü«µQõÅ

107

clinical psychology

clergy „H≥ã
· =Ψ =∞`ÍkèHßi/ ѨÙO’Ç≤Ï`Œ
clerical error O®`Œá⁄O°áå@∞,

=O°~æ
O®`Œ

`ŒÇ¨C, Qõ∞=∞™®Î á⁄O°áå@∞
clericalism =∞`ÍkèHßO°∞Å *’Híº~
clerk Qõ∞=∂™®Î
clever `ˇe"≥·#, Hí∞â◊Å, 㨥Hí;|∞kúQõÅ
cleverly `ˇeqQå, <ËO°∞ÊQå
cleverness K«`Œ∞O°`Œ
cliche Ǩ_çHí@∞ìǨ^°~, #ey# ™®"≥∞`Œ,

Qõ`Í#∞QõuHí ÇÍHíº~, ѨÙ#O°∞H˜Î
client HíH˜∆^®O°∞, LǨܡ∂HíÎ
clientele LǨܡ∂HíÎÅ∞, qxܡ∂Qõ^®O°∞Å

|$~^°~
cliff K«iÜ«µ, HÁ~_«HÁ=∞∞‡, tYO°~
climate j`À+¨‚ã≤÷u, ÇÍ`Í=O°}~
climatic ÇÍ`Í=O°}/ j`À+¨‚ã¨~|~kè. ~
regions j`À+¨‚„áå~`ÍÅ∞
climatologist ÇÍ`Í=O°}âÍGA˝_«∞
climatology j`À+¨‚ã≤÷u/
ÇÍ`Í=O°}
âÍG~
climax Ǩ`ÍHíã¨xflÇıâ◊~, ǨO®Hß+¨ª, „Hí"≥∂
#flu, ǨO®Hß+¨ªHí∞KıO°∞
climb down ky=K«∞Û
climber ZQõÉÏHı "≥∞∞Hí¯
clinch `Œ∞kxO°‚Ü«µ~ KıÜ«µ∞, ѨÓiÎKıÜ«µ∞
clinching qã¨Ê+¨ì. ~ evidence qã¨Ê+¨ì
™®Hí∆ º~
clincher `ˇQõ^≥~Kı =ºH˜Î† `Œ∞kxO°‚Ü«µ
„ǨHí@#
cling ÇıÖÏ_«∞
clinical "≥·^°ºzH˜`Œû/ ǨijÅ#/ ǨsHí∆Hí∞
ã¨~|~kè~z#. ~ death =∞ã≤Î+¨¯ =∞$u.
~ medicine zH˜`Íû "≥·^°º~. ~ thermometer [fiO°=∂ǨHí~
clinical psychology =∂#ã≤Hí zH˜`Íû
^谺ܫµ# (âÍG)~

clinker
clinker Hße# W@∞Hí, z>ˇì~† `Œ∞ǨC
clinometer H’}=∂ǨHí~
clip n. HíuÎi~ѨÙ, Ǩ@ìHßO°∞, HíuÎi~K«∞,

Qõ>˜ìQå Ǩ@∞ìHÁ#∞
HíuÎi~ѨÙ, HíuÎi~z# Çͺã¨~/
„ǨHí@#
clique =∞∞Oîß, Qõ∞~ѨÙ
clitic P„â◊~Ú
clitoris ÉèíQå~Hí∞O°~
cloak ÃÑ·Qõ∞_«¤, Çı+¨~, ™®Hí∞, q∞+¨, ǨO°^®†
^è°i~K«∞,
HíǨC,
=∞O°∞Qõ∞Ǩ_«∞,
=∂O°∞Çı+¨~ÇıÜ«µ∞
cloak room ™®=∂#∞Qõk
clock off Ǩx=∞∞y~Ѩ٠ã¨=∞Ü«∂xfl
#"≥∂^°∞KıÜ«µ∞
clock on Ǩx„áåO°~Éèí
ã¨=∞Ü«∂xfl
#"≥∂^°∞KıÜ«µ∞
clockwise ã¨=º. ~ direction ã¨=ºkâ◊,
„Ǩ^°H˜∆}kâ◊
clod =∞~>˜Qõ_«¤† `ˇeq`ŒHí∞¯= =∞x+≤
clog P@~Hí~, Qõ∞kHÁÜ«µº, áå=ÙH’à◊∞§†
*’à◊∞§† J^°∞ѨÙÖ’ÃÑ@∞ì, J_«∞¤ÃÑ@∞ì
cloister („H≥·ã¨Î= ã¨<®ºã≤#∞Å) =∞Oî°~† =∞Oî°
rq`Œ~
cloistress ã¨<®ºã≤x
clone ã¨=∞O°¥Ç¨rqx ã¨$+≤ì~z#
cloning ã¨=∞O°¥Ç¨ r=Ùx ã¨$+≤ì
clop n. _≥Hí¯Å K«Ç¨C_«∞ ÖÏ~>˜ ^è°fix† JÖÏ
^è°fix~K«∞
close ã¨~=$`Œ† ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`Œ, WO°∞H≥·#, aQõ∞
"≥·#, =∞¥ã≤#, O°Ç¨Ï㨺"≥∞·#, UHß~`Œ
"≥∞·#, Ç≤ã≤<®i, ã¨=∂Ç≤Î, Ǩikè,
=∞¥Ü«µ∞, ^°QõæO°KıO°∞Û, =∞∞y~K«∞,
=∞¥ã¨∞HÁ#∞, =∞∞yÜ«µ∞. ~ by ^°QõæO°Qå.
~ call „Ǩ=∂^°~ #∞~z "≥~„@∞Hí
ÇÍã≤Ö’ `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞HÁ#∞. ~ down =∞¥ã≤
ÇıÜ«µ∞. ~ fisted Ç≤ã≤<®i. ~ in K«∞@∞ì
clipping

108

cluster

=∞∞@∞ì. ~ knit ã¨∞=º=ã‘H÷ $í `Œ, ^°$_è"° ∞≥ #· .
~ quarters ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`Œ ã¨÷ÖÏÅ∞. ~
ranks qÉèı^®Å∞ q㨇i~K«∞. ~ up
=∞¥ã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞, SHíº=∞Qõ∞. ~ vowel
ã¨~=$`ÍK«∞Û.
closet UHß~`ŒQõ$ǨÏ~, ™®=∂#∞ QÆk
UHß~`Œ ÇÍã¨~Ö’ L~K«∞. ~ drama
K«^°=_ÍxH˜ J#∞Hí∂Å"≥∞·# <®@Hí~
close up ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`Œ"≥∞·#. ~ shot Ju
^°Qõæi #∞~z fã≤# z„`Œ~
closing date =∞∞y~Ѩ٠`Ën
closure =∞∞y~ѨÙ, z@ìz=i ÉèßQõ~,
ÉèíO°`ŒÇÍHíº~
clot (O°HíÎ~) Qõ_«¤Hí@∞ì† Hí^°∞=∞∞, =∞∞^°Ì,
|$~^°~
cloud =∞|∞ƒ, Çı∞Ѷ¨∞~, ^°@ì"≥∞·# á⁄Qõ. ~
seeding Hí$„u=∞=O°¬~ Hí∞iÇ≤~K«_«~
clout Qõ∞_«¤Ç‘eHí† JkèHßO°~, ǨÅ∞Hí∞|_ç,
J~Qõ|Å~, XuÎ_ç, ^≥|ƒHÁ>ıìâ◊H˜Î,
„ǨÉèß=~, „ǨÉèßq`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞
clouted J`Œ∞Hí∞Å∞ Çıã≤#
clove Å=~Qõ~ ("≥∞∞Hí¯)
clown Ǩ㨺Qå_«∞, q^°¥+¨H∞í _«∞, ǨÖ@
¡ˇ ¥i
ÇÍ_«∞† ɡ·`Œ∞
club Qõ^°, ÖÏsî, ^°∞_«∞¤Hí„O°† Hí¡|∞ƒ, ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~
(¿ÑHíÖ’) Híà®=O°∞=∞∞Hí¯† ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~Qå
UO°Ê_«∞. ~ law Híiî# âÍã¨#~
cluck H’_çÇ≤Å¡Å#∞ Ç≤Å=_ÍxH˜ JiKı
JO°∞Ѩن =∞¥O°∞ö_«∞
clue *Ï_«, PK«¥H©† #¥Å∞~_«, Hí~_≥
clump K‹@¡/ á⁄^°Åã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~† `ÀѨÙ
clumsy qHí$`Œ, "≥∂@ܵ#, Jã¨Ç¨ÏºHíO°,
J_«¤k_«¤"≥∞·#, Jã¨Î=ºã¨Î"≥∞·#
clustard bean QÀO°∞zHí∞¯_«∞
cluster Qõ∞~ѨÙ, Qõ∞uÎ, Q≥Å, ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~,
=∞¥Hí, ã¨~Ü«µ∞HíÎ=O°‚~. ~ bomb
qã¨Î $`Œ „Ǩ^Õâ◊~Ö’ ¿ÑÖË ÉÏ~|∞

clutch
clutch Qõ>Ç
ì˜ @
¨ ∞ì,

Hí|~^è° Ç¨Ïã¨~Î † ^°_ÍÅ∞#
Ǩ@∞ìHÁ#∞† Qõ>˜ìQåǨ@∞ìHÁ#∞
clutter O˘^° KıÜ«µ∞, JÅ¡iKıÜ«µ∞† J=
ã¨O°~ ÖËx ™®=∂#∞ áÈQõ∞KıÜ«µ_«~
co-accused ã¨Ç¨Ïx~k`Œ∞_«∞
coach â◊Hí@~, |~_ç† tHí∆Hí∞_«∞† Láå^èߺ
Ü«µ∞_«∞† tHí∆}xK«∞Û, <ËiÊ~K«∞, `ŒsÊù^°∞
KıÜ«µ∞
co-action ã¨~Ü«µ∞HíÎ PK«O°}
coagulant HíO°∞_«∞, 㨯~^°#~† Qõ_«¤Hí>˜ì#
coagulate ¿ÑO°∞HÁ#∞, Qõ_«¤Hí@∞ì
coagulation Ѷ¨∞hÉèí=#~,
Qõ_«¤Hí@∞ì
H’=_«~, ¿ÑO°∞H’=_«~
coal ÉÁQõ∞æ. ~ field ÉÁQõ∞æ xHı∆áåÅ∞#fl
„áå~`Œ~. ~ tar `ÍO°∞. ~ mine ÉÁQõ∞æ
Qõx. ~ pit ÉÁQõ∞æ `Œqfi# Q˘Üµº
coalition (O®[H©Ü«µ ǨH∆ßÅ) q∞„â◊=∞~,
ã¨~H©O°‚~† `Í`ͯeHí XǨÊ~^°~/ Hí∂@q∞†
UH©Éèíq~K«_«~† Híeã≤áÈ=_«~. ~ government ã¨~H©O°‚ „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~, q∞„â◊=∞
„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~. ~ partners ã¨~H©O°‚ (ÉèßQõ
™®fi=∞º) ǨH∆ßÅ∞. ~ politics ã¨~H©O°‚
O®[H©Ü«∂Å∞
coarse =∞∞`ŒHí, J<®QõO°Hí, [_ç¤. ~
grain =∞∞`ŒHí^èß#º~
coarseness "≥∂@∞`Œ#~
coast H’™®Î, ã¨=∞∞„^°fO°~† ^Õâ◊ ã¨iǨÏ^°∞Ì.
~ guard fO° O°Hí∆Hí^°à◊~. ~ line fO°~
coastal fO°ã¨~|~^è°. ~ dwellers fO°
„áå~`ŒÇÍã¨∞Å∞. ~ habitat fO° „áå~`Í
ÇÍã¨~. ~ line fO°OÕY, fO° „áå~`Œ~.
~ zone fO°„Ǩ^Õâ◊~
coat ѨÓ`Œ† á⁄O°/ K«O°‡~† H’@∞† ѨÓÜ«µ∞
coating qÖËǨ#~, ѨÓ`Œ† H’@∞¡ Hí∞@ì
_ÍxH˜ LǨܡ∂y~Kı Qõ∞_«¤
co-author ã¨Ç¨ÏO°K«Üµ`Œ

109
coax WK«ÛùHßÖÏ_ç

cocktail

=~z~K«∞, á⁄y_ç ã¨=∞‡
u~ǨKıÜ«µ∞† ÖÏe~K«∞
coaxing =∞∞iÃÑ~
coaxingly ÖÏÅ#Qå
cob =∞QõǨÏ~㨆 |e+¨ª"≥∞·# Qõ∞„O°Ñ¨Ù `Œ@∞ì
cobalt =∞}˜tÅ
cobble HíeÜ«µ_«~, Hí∂O°∞ʆ ÉÏQõ∞KıÜ«µ∞
cobbler K«O°‡HßO°∞_«∞† =∞^°º~, Ǩà◊∞§ Híe
Ç≤# K«Å¡xáåhÜ«µ~
cobbles <ËÅg∞^° ǨiKı Qõ∞~„_«x O®à◊∞§
cobra „`ÍK«∞áå=∞∞, q+¨ã¨`Œº~. ~ posture Éèí∞[~Qåã¨#~
cobweb ™®ÖˇQõ¥_«∞† zHí∞¯=∞∞_ç
cocaine HÁH≥ܵ<ü, =∞`Œ∞Î=∞~^°∞
coccus QÀà®HßO° ÉÏH©ìiÜ«µ~
coccygeal J#∞„uHßxH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#
coccygeo J#∞„uHíѨÙ
coccyx J#∞„uHí~, "≥#∞flѨÓã¨Å∞ Híeã≤
UO°Ê_Ë „uH’}®HßO°Ñ¨Ù z#fl Z=∞∞Hí
cock H’_çѨÙ~A, =∞QõÇ≤@ì† h>˜Q˘@ìѨÙ
`˘~_«~† ѨÙO°∞ë®~Qõ~† `Œ∞áåH˜ g∞@,
=∞∞Y∞º_«∞, <®qHí∞_«∞
cockade `Œ∞O®Üµ
cockboat ^˘<ˇfl
cockhafer z=∞‡@, DÅѨÙO°∞Qõ∞
cockcrow H’_çHí∂`ŒÇıà◊, `ˇÅ¡ÇÍO°∞Çıà◊
cock-eyed "≥∞Å¡Hí#∞fl Qõņ =~HíO° |∞kú
Qõņ ǨxH˜O®x
cockney QåO®|~=Å¡ K‹_çáÈܵ# Ç≤Å¡
ÇÍ_«∞
cockpit q=∂#~Ö’ ÃÑ·Å>òHí∞, ã≤|ƒ~kH˜
Hı>Ïܵ~Kı JO°
cockscomb H’_çA@∞ì† h@∞Hß_«∞
cockswain `Œ~_ËÅ∞, Ǩ_«=ÇÍi <®Ü«µ
Hí∞_«∞
cocktail =∞^°ºq∞„â◊=∞~

110

coconut fibre
coconut fibre HÁ|ƒiÇ‘K«∞
cocoon Ǩ@∞ìQõ¥_«∞, Ǩã≤xHßÜ«µ
cocoonery Ǩ@∞ìѨÙO°∞Qõ∞Å#∞

ÃÑ~Kı

Qõ¥_«∞
cocooning L|∞ã¨∞áÈHíH∞í >©.g. K«¥_«_~
«
cocurricular J#∞|~^è° áåOî°~
cod ÃÑ^°Ì ã¨=∞∞„^°Ñ¨ÙKıǨ† ã¨~z, `ŒÅQõ_«
coddle LǨK«i~K«∞† =∞∞^°∞ÌÖÏ_«∞, <ˇ=∞‡

kQå PǨO°~ =~_«_«~
code ã¨~Hı`Œ~,
xÜ«µ=∞x|~^è°#Å
*Ïa`͆ 㨇 $u. ~ of conduct „Ǩ=O°Î#
xÜ«µ=∂=o
code mixture Éèßë®q∞„â◊=∞~
code noise ã¨~Hı`Í=O’^è°~
code of laws <®ºÜ«µ 㨥„`Í=o
code switching Éèß+¨=∂O°∞Ê
codex O®`Œ„Ǩu
codger Kèß~^°ã¨∞_«∞, "≥∂@∞=∞x+≤
codicil gÅ∞<®=∂Ö’ =∂O°∞Ê, J#∞|~^è°
gÅ∞<®=∂
codification „H’_ôHíO°}~
codify ã¨~Hıu~K«∞,
„H’_ôHíi~K«∞,
ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå ¿ÑO˘¯#∞
coding Qõ∞O°∞ÎÅ =∂O°∞Ê
co-edition ã¨Ç¨Ï„ǨK«∞O°}
co-editor ã¨Ç¨Ïã¨~áå^°Hí∞_«∞
co-education ã¨Ç¨Ïq^°º
coefficient Qõ∞}Hí~
coeliac L^°O°Hí∞ǨÏO° ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
coencyte JY~_« r=Hí}H’â◊~
coerce |Å=~`ŒÃÑ@∞ì
coercion |ÖÏ`ͯO°~
coercive |Å=~`Œ~ Kı¿ã
co-eval ã¨=∞Hßb#"≥∞·#, ã¨=∞Hßb#∞_«∞
co-exist ã¨Ç¨Ïr=#~ KıÜ«µ∞, Híeã≤ L~_«∞
co-existance ã¨Ç¨Ïr=#~. peaceful ~
âÍ~uÜ«µ∞`Œ ã¨Ç¨Ïr=#~

coffer Y*Ï<®
cofferdam `Í`ͯeHí
coffin â◊=¿Ñ>˜Hí
cog Ǩà◊§K«„Hí~ Ǩà◊∞§†

cohesive force

cohort

|$~^°~† ã¨Ç¨ÏK«O°∞_«∞† (<ËO°~Ö’)
=∞^°Ì`Œ∞^®O°∞
coil (fQõ) K«∞@ì
coinage Ǩ^°ã¨$+≤ì, Ǩ^°ã¨$[#
coincide ã¨iǨ_«∞, UH©Éèíq~K«∞† ã¨=∂#
ã¨÷ÖÏxfl P„Híq∞~K«∞† XHı ã¨=∞Ü«µ~Ö’
`Œ@ã≤÷~K«∞
coincidence HßHí`ÍmÜ«µ~, Ü«∂^°$zÛùH~
í†
UH©Éèß=~
coitus "≥∞·^ä°∞#~, ã¨~Éè’Qõ~. ~ interruptus ã¨öÅ#O°Ç≤Ï`Œ "≥∞·^ä°∞#~
coke n. XHíO°Hí"≥∞·# ÉÁQõ∞æ† HÁH≥ܵ<ü
=∂^°Hí„^°=º~
coke v. =∂^°Hí „^°ÇͺxH˜ JÅÇÍ@∞Ǩ_«∞
cokehead =∞`Œ∞ÎǨ^®O®÷ÅHí∞ JÅÇÍ@∞Ǩ_Ë
=ºH˜Î
cold j`ŒÅ, K«Å¡x. ~ storage j`ŒÅ
y_«¤~y. ~ war „ǨK«Ûù#flÜ«µ∞^°ú~. ~
wave j`ŒÅ`ŒO°~Qõ~
cold glacier j`ŒÅ Ç≤Ï=∂h#^°~
colic â◊¥Å<˘Ç≤Ê. biliary ~ Ç≤`ÍÎâ◊Ü«µ
â◊¥Å. gastric ~ [Oî°O°â◊¥Å. intestinal ~ P~„`Œâ◊¥Å
colitis ÃÑ^°Ì¿ÑQõ∞ <˘Ç≤Ê
collaborate Híeã≤ ǨxKıÜ«µ∞, ã¨Ç¨ÏHí
i~K«∞, ÉèßQõ™®fiq∞ JQõ∞
collaboration ã¨Ç¨ÏÉèßy`Œ, ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO°~,
`À_ÍÊ@∞, ÉèßQõ™®fi=∞º~
collaborator ã¨ÇϨ Hßi, ÉèßQõ™®fiq∞, ã¨ÇϨ
Çͺáåi, ã¨Ç¨ÏHí$+≤Hí∞_«∞
collage ^Œ$â◊º ~°∂ѨHõÅÊ#
collapse Hí∂eáÈ=_«~, Ǩ_çáÈ=Ù
collate áÈQõ∞KıÜ«µ∞
collateral *Ïu ã¨~|~^è°~ QõÅ, `Œ`Œû~
|~^è°"≥∞·#, ǨO°ã¨ÊO° ã¨~|~^è° =∞∞#fl,
*Ï˝u. ~ agreement J#∞+¨~yHí
XǨÊ~^°~. ~ damage Ü«∂^°$zÛùHí
cohort

P#Hí@ì

XHí ÃÑ^°Ì ã¨~ã¨÷Ö’
z#fl ǨxKı¿ã =ºH˜Î† "≥∂ã¨y~K«∞
cogency â◊H˜Î, ™®=∞O°÷º~, |Å~
cogent |Å"≥∞·#, xO®‚Ü«µHí"≥∞·#, ã¨=∞∞z`Œ
"≥∞·#† qâ◊fiã¨hÜ«µ"≥∞·#
cogitate nO°…~Qå PÖ’z~K«∞
cognac „^®Hí∆™®O®Üµ
cognate ã¨Ç¨Ï*Ï`Œ~
cognate language ™È^°O°Éèß+¨
cognate word ã¨fi*ÏuǨ^°~
cognisable offence Hıã¨∞ÃÑ@ì^°y# <ËO°~
cognitive consistency Jaè*Ï˝ã¨~`Œ∞
Å#~
cognitive development Jaè*Ï˝qHßã¨~,
Çı∞^èßqHßã¨~
cognitive dissonance Jaè*Ï˝ "≥·O°∞^è°º~
cognitive sociology Jaè*Ï˝`Œ‡Hí ™®=∂
lHíâÍG~
cognitive theory Jaè*Ï˝ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
cognizance (<ËO°~) Qõ∞iÎ~Ѩن ǨijÅ#
Ǩikè, <®ºÜ«µs`ͺqKÍO°} Kı¿ã ǨÏHí∞¯,
`ˇeã≤ L~_«_«~† „Ǩ`˺Hí"≥∞·# Qõ∞O°∞Î
cohabitation ã¨~H©O°‚~, q∞„â◊=∞~, HíÅ
ܵHí, ã¨Ç¨ÏxÇÍã¨~
co-heir ã¨Ç¨ÏÇÍO°ã¨∞_«∞
cohere J~@∞HÁ#∞, á⁄~kHíQå L~_«∞
coherence ã¨~^°O°ƒùâ◊∞kú† á⁄~kHí
coherence theory á⁄~kHí ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
cohesion
|~^è°~,
ã¨~|~^è°~,
ã¨~ܡ∂Qõ~, SHí=∞`Œº~, JuH˜ L~_«_«~/
J~>˜ÃÑ@∞ìHÁx L~_«_«~
cohesive force |~^è°#â◊H˜Î, HíeÇ≤ L~Kı
â◊H˜Î, ã¨~ã¨~[#|Å~

111

colloquial

#+¨ì~. ~ proceedings J#∞+¨~yHí
=º=ǨO®Å∞. ~ evidence „Ǩ^èß#
™®H∆ߺxfl |ÅǨiKı ™®Hí∆ º~. ~ guarantee ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí Ǩg∞. ~ loan J#∞
+¨~yHí O°∞}~. ~ obligation J#∞
+¨~yHí ÉÏ^è°º`Œ. ~ security J^°#ѨÙ
Ǩg∞/ Éèí„^°`Œ. ~ weed Ǩ~@Ö’ ÃÑiQÕ
HíÅ∞ѨÙ
collation ã¨=∂HíÅ#~†
„Hí=∞~Ö’
Hí∂O°Û_«~, ã¨iK«¥_«_«~, ã¨~HíÅ#~,
|Ǩï=∂#~, JÖÏÊǨO°~
colleague ã¨Ç¨ÏŸ^Àºy, `À>˜L^Àºy
collection =㨥Å∞, ¿ãHíO°}. ~ of data
ã¨=∂KÍO° ¿ãHíO°}
collective L=∞‡_ç, ™®=∞¥Ç≤ÏHí, ™®=∞∞
^®ÜµHí. ~ agreement L=∞‡_ç
XǨÊ~^°~. ~ bargaining Qõ∞~ѨÙÖ’
ÉıO°~. ~ behaviour ™®=∞¥Ç≤ÏHí „Ç¨=
O°#Î . ~ conscience ™®=∞¥Ç≤ÏHí Kı`#Œ .
~ farm L=∞‡_ç Kı#∞
collectivism ™®=∞∞^®ÜµHí`Œ
collectivization ã¨=∞+‘ìHíO°}
collectomy ¿ÑQõ∞Ö’ ÉèßQõ~ `˘Åy~ѨÙ
collector lÖÏ¡kèHßi, HíÖˇHíìO∑
collide _è©HÁ#∞, ã¨~Ѷ¨∞i¬~K«∞
collier ÉÁQõ∞æQõx Hßi‡Hí∞_«∞, ÉÁQõ∞æÅ
Çͺáåi
colliery ÉÁQõ∞æQõx
collinear ã¨Ç¨ÏOÕvÜ«µ
collision _è©HÁ#_«~
collocate XHíKÀ@ ÃÑ@ì_«~/ J=∞O°Û_«~
collocation ã¨Ç¨Ïã¨~|~^è°~† ã¨~ܡ∂[#
collop =∂~ã¨Ñ¨ÙHí~_«
colloquialism Éèßë®ÇÍ^°~
colloquial Çͺ=ǨiHí, ÇÍ_«∞HíÖ’ L#fl,
ÇÍ_«∞HíÉèß+¨, Çͺ=ǨiHí Éèß+¨

112

colloquium
colloquium

xѨÙ}∞Å/ Ǩ~_ç`Œ∞Å K«O®Û

QÀ+≤ª
ã¨~Éèß+¨}
Hí∞=∞‡Hí¯Qõ∞, Kı`Œ∞Å∞HíÅ∞ѨÙ,
ÖÏÅ¥pǨ_«∞
collusion Hí∞„@, Hí∞=∞‡Hí∞¯† O°Ç¨Ï㨺
XǨÊ~^°~
colocasia KÍ=∞Qõ_«¤
colon (ÃÑ^°Ì) ¿ÑQõ∞, ZÖò™®Åfi_ÍO∑ ^Õâ◊ѨÙ
HíO≥hû<À@∞
colonel ¿ã<® qÉèßQåkèǨu, HíÅflÖò
colonial =Åã¨^â
Õ ÍÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#. ~
office =Åã¨^ÕâÍÅ HßO®ºÅÜ«µ~. ~
power =Åã¨O®[º~. ~ rule =Åã¨
áåÅ#. ~ war =Åã¨Ü«µ∞^°ú~
colonialism =Åã¨áåÅ# q^èß#~† =Åã¨
ÇÍ^°~
colonisation =Åã¨O®[º ™®÷Ǩ#
colony HßÅh, ¿Ñ@, Qõ$ǨÏã¨=∞∞^®Ü«µ~†
(=Åã¨) O®[º~, UHíO°¥Ç¨Hí UHí*Ïu
r=ÙÅ ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~
colophon =∞∞„^°, z=i=∂@
colorral |$ǨÏ^®HßO° (tÅÊ~)
colotomy ÃÑ^°Ì¿ÑQõ∞Hí∞ Hí#fl~ ÃÑ@ì_«~
colossal KÍÖÏ ÃÑ^°Ì^°Üµ#, „|Ǩ‡~_«"≥∞·#
colossus =∞Ǩ=∞¥iÎ, =∞#∞+¨º „Ǩ=∂
}®xfl q∞~z# q„QõǨÏ~
colostrum „Ǩ^ä°=∞ã¨Î#º~, ([~`Œ∞=ÙÖ’¡)
=∞∞„O°∞/ A#∞fláåÅ∞
colour O°~Qõ∞, =<ˇfl, =O°‚~. ~ blindness =O®‚~^è°`Œfi~. ~ characteristic
=O°‚qÅHí∆}`Œ. ~ doppler O°Hí΄Ǩ™®O°
ǨsHí∆Ü«µ~„`Œ~. ~ print O°~Qõ∞
J^°ÌHí~.~ property =O°‚^è°O°‡~. ~ relationship |~^è°∞`Œfi~, ã¨~|~^è°~,
=O°‚ã¨=∞#fiÜ«µ~. ~ sculpture =O°‚
tÅÊ~. ~ theory =O°‚ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
colloquy
collude

comeliness

colourist =O°‚Çı`ŒÎ
columbarium Éèí¥`ŒÅ â◊‡âÍ#Qõ$ǨÏ~
column ã¨Î~Éèí~† Ãã·xHí∞ÅÉÏO°∞, =O°ã¨†
„Ǩ`˺Hí O°K«#. ~ spinal "≥#∞fláå=∞∞.
~ vertebral "≥<ˇfl=∞∞Hí
columnist „Ǩ`˺Hí ji¬HÍ O°K«Üµ`Œ
coma JǨ™®‡O°Hí~. ~ tose JǨ™®‡O°

ã≤÷uÖ’#∞#fl
comb ^°∞"≥fi#, `Ë<ˇÇ¨@∞ì† ^°∞=Ùfi, zHí∞¯
nÜ«µ∞, "≥`Œ∞Hí∞
combatant ܡ∂^è°∞_«∞, áÈO®_Ë^Õâ◊~
combat áÈO®@~, áÈO°∞† ^°fi~^°fi
Ü«µ∞^°ú~† Z^°∞O˘¯#∞, „ǨuѶ¨∞>˜~K«∞
combination HíÅܵHí† UH©Éèß=~, Hí@∞ì
ÉÏ@∞† Çı∞à◊#~
combine HíÅ∞ѨÙ, KıO°∞Û† HíÅ∞ã¨∞HÁ#∞,
KıO°∞
combined q∞o`Œ
combing (A@∞ì) ^°∞=fi_«~, zHí∞¯
fÜ«µ_«~
combuster ^®Ç¨ÏHíO
combustibility ^®Ç¨Ïº`Œ,
[ށ#
™®=∞O°÷º~† ^°Ç¨Ï#jÅ`Œ
combustible ^°Ç¨Ï#jÅ, =∞~_Ë, HßÖË.
~ nature L„^ÕHßxH˜ Ö’#Ü˵º ã¨fiÉèß=~
combustion ^°Ç¨Ï#~,
^°Ç¨Ï#K«O°º,
HßÅÛ_«~. ~ boat ^°Ç¨Ï#áå„`Œ/ <ÒHí.
~ bomb ^°Ç¨Ï#ÉÏ~|∞. ~ chamber
^°Ç¨Ï#¿Ñ>˜Hí. ~ engine ^°Ç¨Ï#jÅ
Ü«µ~„`Œ~. ~ furnace P=~, HÁeq∞.
~ space ^°Ç¨Ï#„Ǩ^Õâ◊~. ~ tube
^°Ç¨Ï#<®oHí
comedian q^°¥+¨Hí∞_«∞† ã¨∞MÏ~`Œ <®@Hí
O°K«Üµ`Œ† Ǩ㨺#@∞_«∞
comedy Ǩ㨺O°K«#† ã¨∞MÏ~`Œ<®@Hí~
comeliness K«Hí¯^°#~, ™œ~^°O°º~

comely
comely K«Hí¯x, ã¨∞~^°O°"≥∞·#
comer #zÛ#/ Z^°∞Qõ∞`Œ∞#fl =ºH˜Î
comestible u#^°y#=ã¨∞Î=Ù
comet `ÀHíK«∞Hí¯
comfort F^®O°∞Û, TO°_ç~K«∞† ™œHíO°º~,

ã¨^°∞áåÜ«µ~, ™œYº~, ÉÁ~`Œ
comic #=ÙfiѨÙ>˜ì~Kı, Ǩ㨺áÈ+¨Hí. ~ relief Ǩ™ÈºÇ¨âÍ~u
comintern J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ Hí=∞¥ºxã¨∞ì

ã¨~ã¨÷
comity ™œÇ¨O°ú~
command P[˝,

PkèǨ`Œº~, ™®finè#`Œ,
P*Ï˝Ç≤~K«∞, ™®finè#~Ö’ L~K«∞
commandant ¿ã<®kèǨu
command area PÜ«µHí@∞ì
commandeer ÖÏQõ∞HÁ#∞, [ѨÙÎKıÜ«µ∞
commander-in-chief ã¨O°fi¿ã<®x
commanding officer ^°àÇ
◊ Íܵ, ¿ã<®x
commandment P[˝,
Dâ◊fiO®[˝,
âÍã¨#~, qkè
commando Hí"≥∞~_À,
Éèí„^°`Í^°à◊
Ãã·xHí∞_«∞
commemorate ™®‡O°HßO°÷~/ *Ï˝Ç¨HßO°÷~
xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«∞
commemoration ã¨~㨇O°},
™®‡O°
H’`Œû=~, ™®‡O°HízǨÏfl~
commemorative Qõ∞O°∞ÎHí∞ `ˇKıÛ, HÁx
Ü«∂_Ë
commence "≥∞∞^°Å∞ÃÑ@∞ì, „áåO°~aè~K«∞
commencement "≥∞∞^°Å∞, „áåO°~Éèí~
commend "≥∞K«∞ÛHÁ#∞, á⁄Qõ_«∞, „Ǩ™®Î
q~K«∞, ¿ÑO˘¯#∞, JǨÊy~K«∞
commendable HÁxÜ«∂_«^°y#, â͡Ѷ¨∞
hÜ«µ, ã≤á¶åO°ã¨∞ KıÜ«µ^°y#
commendation ã≤á¶åO°ã¨∞, "≥∞K«∞ÛH’Å∞,
"≥∞ǨC, á⁄Qõ_«Î
commensurate ã¨=∂#"≥∞·#, `Œy#

113

commission

ÇͺYº† q=∞O°≈, K«O°Û† ÇͺMϺ
x~K«∞, q=∞i≈~K«∞, PHı∆Ç≤~K«∞
commentary ÇͺMϺ#~,
Éèß+¨º~,
>˜Ç¨Ê}˜
commentator ÇͺMϺ`Œ
commerce ÇÍ}˜[º (âÍG)~
commercial ÇÍ}˜[º, ÇÍ}˜[º ã¨~|~^è°
"≥∞·#† ÖÏÉèß¿ÑHí∆`À Hí∂_ç#. ~ affairs
ÇÍ}˜[º =º=ǨO®Å∞. ~ agency
ÇÍ}˜[º ã¨~ã¨÷. ~ art ÇͺáåO° Híà◊. ~
artist ÇÍ}˜[º Híà®HßO°∞_«∞. ~ bank
ÇÍ}˜[º ÉϺ~Hí∞. ~ break ÇÍ}˜[º
„ǨHí@#ÅHí∞ Hı>Ïܵ~Kı ã¨=∞Ü«µ~. ~
code ÇÍ}˜[º ã¨~Hı`Œ~. ~ court
ÇÍ}˜[º <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~. ~ crisis ÇÍ}˜[º
ã¨~H∆’Éèí~. ~ enterprise ÇÍ}˜[º
ã¨~ã¨÷. ~ law ÇÍ}˜[º <®ºÜ«µâÍG~.
~ pilot „Ǩܫ∂}˜Hí∞Å q=∂<®efl #_ç¿Ñ
ÃÑ·Öˇ>ò. ~ production ÇÍ}˜[º ™®÷ܵ
L`ŒÊuÎ. ~ traveller =O°ÎHí∞_«∞, ã¨~KÍi
commercialisation ÇͺáåsHíO°}
commercialise ÇͺáåsHíi~K«∞
commie (x~^®O°÷~Ö’) Hí=∞¥ºxã¨∞ì
comminate â◊Ç≤~K«∞, ɡki~K«∞
commiserate *ÏeK‹~^°∞
commissar âÍMÏkèǨu, (Hí=∞¥ºxã¨∞ì
„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~Ö’) =∞~„u, L^Àºy
commissariat Ãã·<®ºxH˜ PǨO° Ǩ^®
O®÷Å∞ ã¨=∞Hí∂OÕÛ qÉèßQõ~
commissary Ãã·xH’^ÀºQõ∞ÅHí∞, Qõx Hßi‡
Hí∞ÅHí∞ PǨO° Ǩ^®O®÷Å∞ J~^°*Ë¿ã
qÉèßQõ~
commisseration *Ïe, HíxHíO°~
commission P[˝, JǨÊy~z# Ѩx,
P*Ï˝Ç¨„`Œ~, ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~, =∞~_«e† „áåO°~
aè~K«∞† xܡ∂y~K«∞, JkèHßO°q∞K«∞Û. ~
agent =∞^è°º^°à®i
comment

commissioner
commissioner L#fl`ÍkèHßi
commissioning „áåO°~aè~K«_«~
commit ÇÍQåÌ#~ KıÜ«µ∞, JǨÊy~K«∞. ~
to custody xO°ƒ~^è°~Ö’ L~K«∞. ~ to
sessions Ãã+¨<üû H’O°∞ìHí∞ xÇık~K«∞. ~
to writing O®`ŒÑ¨ÓO°fiHí~Qå XǨCHÁ#∞
committal proceedings („H˜q∞#Öò

Hıã¨∞Ö’) „áå^ä°q∞Hí qKÍO°}
committed x|^°ú. ~ bureacracy x|
^®úkèHßi |$~^°~, x|^°ú áåÅ<®
Ü«µ~„`Í~Qõ~. ~ judiciary x|^°ú
<®ºÜ«µ =º=ã¨÷. ~ press x|^°ú Ǩ„uHß
O°~Qõ~
committee ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~, ã¨q∞u. ~ on welfare of backward classes "≥#∞Hí|_ç#
`ŒO°Qõ`Œ∞Å ã¨~Hı∆=∞ Híq∞>©. ~ on general purpose ™®^èßO°} „Ǩܡ∂[<®Å
Híq∞>©. ~ on government assurances „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi Ǩg∞Å Híq∞>©. ~ on
library „Qõ~^äßÅÜ«µ Híq∞>©. ~ on
public-undertakings „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi ã¨~ã¨÷Å
Híq∞>©. ~ on welfare of scheduled
castes Ã+_«¥ºÅ∞ =O®æÅ ã¨~Hı∆=∞
Híq∞>©. ~ on welfare of scheduled
∆ ∞ Híq∞>©
tribes Ã+_«¥ºÅ∞ *Ï`Œ∞Å ã¨~Hı=
commode ^˘_ç¤ `˘>˜ì, |Ü«µÅ∞ `˘>˜ì
commodities L`ŒÊ`Œ∞ÎÅ∞
commodity =ã¨∞Î=Ù, ã¨O°∞Hí∞, k#∞ã¨∞†
LǨÜ∂ˇ QåxH˜/ J=∞‡HßxH˜ ã≤^~ú° Qå L#fl
=∞∞_çã¨O°∞Hí∞/ `ŒÜ«∂O≥·#=ã¨∞Î=Ù. ~ market ã¨O°∞Hí∞Å qǨ}˜
common ™®^èßO°}, ™®=∂#º, L=∞‡_ç.
~ civil code L=∞‡_ç áœO°ã¨‡ $u. ~
core vocabulary ã¨=∂# „áå^ä°q∞Hí
Ǩ^°*ÏÅ~. ~ front SHíºÇıkHí. ~ law
™®^èßO°}<®ºÜ«µ~. ~ market J~`ŒO®˚
fÜ«µÇÍ}˜[º~. ~ millet ǨiQõÅ∞. ~

114

communicative

communion

™®^èßO°} ÇÍ>Ï. ~ usage Ö’Hí
=º=ǨO°~
commonality ™®=∞º~, UHí`Œfi~
commons ™®=∂#º[#~, „a>©+π áåO°¡
"≥∞~>òÖ’ ™®^èßO°} ã¨Éèí
commonsense Ö’Hí*Ï˝#~, =º=ǨO°
*Ï˝#~, „ǨǨ~K«*Ï˝#~. ~ knowledge
W~y`Œ*Ï˝#~
commonwealth Hß=∞<ˇfiÖòÎ ^ÕâÍÅ∞
commotion Q˘_«=, JÅ[_ç, Qõ_«a_«
communal =O°æ/ Hí∞Å/ =∞`Œ`Œ`Œfi~ QõÅ.
~ forces =∞`ŒÇÍ^° â◊Hí∞ÎÅ∞. ~ harmony =∞`Œ™®=∞O°ã¨º~. ~ marriage
™®=∞¥Ç≤ÏHíqÇÍǨÅ∞. ~ politics Hí∞Å/
=∞`Œ`Œ`ŒÎ fi O®[H©Ü«∂Å∞. ~ riots =∞`Œ
HíÖ’¡ÖÏÅ∞. ~ tensions =∞`À„^ÕHßÅ∞
communalise Hí∞Å/ =∞`Œ`Œ`ÍÎ fixfl O≥K«Û
Q˘@∞ì
communalism Hí∞Å/ =∞`Œ`Œ`ŒÎ fi~
commune ã¨Ç¨Ïr=#=º=ã¨÷
communicable ™ÈHı, J~@∞Hí∞<Ë. ~
disease J~@∞Çͺkè
communicate `ˇeÜ«µ*ˇÇ¨C† „Ǩã¨i~K«∞†
J~>˜~K«∞† ã¨~^Õâ◊~ Ǩ~ѨÙ, Hí|∞O°∞
ÃÑ@∞ì, =O°Î=∂#~ Ǩ~ѨÙ
communication ã¨=∂KÍO° „Ǩ™®O°~,
ÇÍO°Î, 㨥K«#, ã¨~^Õâ◊~. ~ channel
ÇÍO°ÎǨ^ä°~. ~ facilities ÇÍO®Î ™œHí
O®ºÅ∞. ~ gap J=QåǨÏ# ֒Ǩ~. ~
theory Éèß= „Ǩ™®O° ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
communication
ÇÍO®Î™œHíO®ºÅ∞,
O°ÇÍ}®ã¨^°∞áåÜ«∂Å∞. ~ satellite
ã¨=∂KÍO°LǨ„QõǨÏ~. ~ theory ã¨=∂
KÍO° ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
communicative =∂@Hßi† `ˇeÜ«µ
K‹¿ÑÊ. ~ competence Éèß뮄Ǩܡ∂Qõ
^°Hí∆`Œ

communion

stock

115

ã¨Çı∞‡à◊#~† Éèß= qx

=∞Ü«µ~
communique JkèHßO° „ǨHí@#, q[˝Ç≤Î
communism Hí=∞¥ºx[~, ã¨=∞ã¨=∂[

ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
ã¨=∂[~, ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~† =O°æ~,
Hí∞Å~, =∞`Œ~. ~ care ™®=∂lHí
O°Hí∆}. ~ charge „Ǩ[Å∞ K‹e¡~Kı
Ǩ#∞fl. ~ development ã¨=∂*Ïaè=$kú.
~ investment ã¨=∂[Ç≤Ï`Œ HßO°º„Hí=∂
ÅÖ’ ÃÑ>ıì ÃÑ@∞ì|_«∞Å∞. ~ service
ã¨~Ѷ¨∞¿ã=. ~ study =O®æ^谺ܫµ#~
commutable =∂iÊ_çH˜ gÖˇ·#
commutate kHíÊi=O°Î# KıÜ«µ∞
commutation Ǩi=O°Î#~, =∂iÊ_ç,
`Œyæ~ѨÙ, =∞k~ѨÙ
commutator kHíÊi=O°ÎHí~
commute =∂O°∞Ê,
=∂iÊ_ç, |^°
ÖÏܵ~ѨÙ
commute v. `ŒO°K«∞Qå „Ç¨Ü«∂}~ KıÜ«µ∞†
tHí∆`Œyæ~K«∞, UHí "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~Qå K‹e¡~K«∞.
commuter x`Œº„Ǩܫ∂}˜Hí∞_«∞
commotion QõQÀæÅ∞, ^°∞=∂O°~
companion ã¨Ç¨ÏK«O°∞_«∞, `À>˜ÇÍ_«∞
company ™®Ç¨ÏK«O°º~, ÇͺáåO°ã¨~ã¨÷. ~
law Hí~ÃÑh <®ºÜ«µâÍG~
comparable áÈÅÛ^°y#
comparative `Œ∞Å<®`Œ‡Hí. ~ grammar
`Œ∞Å<®`Œ‡Hí ÇͺHíO°}~. ~ law `Œ∞Å
<®`Œ‡Hí <®ºÜ«µ Ǩ^°úu. ~ linguistics
`Œ∞Å<®`Œ‡Hí Éèßë®âÍG~. ~ literature
`Œ∞Å<®`Œ‡Hí ™®Ç≤Ï`Œº~. ~ method
`Œ∞Å<®`Œ‡Hí Ǩ^°úu. ~ philosophy
`Œ∞Å<®`Œ‡Hí `Œ`ŒÎ fi âÍG~. ~ philology
`Œ∞Å<®`Œ‡Hí „áåp# Éèßë® âÍG~
compare áÈÅ∞Û, `ˇ·áåO°∞ÇıÜ«µ∞, ™®=∞º
community

competition

Éèı^®Å#∞ xO°¥Ç≤~K«∞
comparing áÈÅÛ_«~
comparsion áÈeHí,

LǨ=∂#~†

™®^°$â◊º~
compass n.

kHí∂ûz† Ǩikè, qã¨Î $u,

K«∞@∞ì=∞∞@∞ì
compassion ^°Ü«µ,

*Ïe, „¿Ñ=∞, HíO°∞},

ã¨~Çı^°#
compassionate HíO°∞}®=∞Ü«µ, ^°Ü«∂à◊∞
compatibility J#∞Hí∂ź~, J#∞Hí∂Å`Œ,

á⁄~kHí, J#∞Qõ∞}º`«
compatible J#∞Hí∂Å, ܡ∂Qõº, J#∞Qõ∞}
compatriot `À>˜ áœO°∞_«∞, ã¨fi^ÕjÜ«µ∞_«∞
compel |Å=~`Œ~KıÜ«µ∞, xO°ƒ~kè~K«∞
compendium ™®O®~â◊~, ã¨~H˜∆ǨÎO°¥Ç¨~
compensate ǨiǨO°~
K‹e¡~K«∞†
ѨÓi~K«∞
compensation ǨiǨO°~, #+¨ìǨiǨO°~,
„ǨuHíO°}~. ~ insurance #+¨ìǨiǨ
O°Hí c=∂. ~ scheme #+¨ìǨiǨO°Hí
Ǩ^ä°Hí~
compensatory lengthing ֒ǨnO°…`Œ
compare ã¨=∂#™®÷ܵQõÅ =ºH˜Î† ã¨Ç¨Ï
K«O°∞_«∞
competence ã¨=∞O°÷`Œ, „áåg}º~, „ǨuÉèí,
ܡ∂Qõº`Œ† JkèHßO°~† ^°Hí∆`Œ
competent ã¨=∞O°÷, ܡ∂Qõº, ™®kèHßiHí.
~ authority ã¨=∞O®÷kèHßi/ ã¨=∞O®÷kè
HßO°~
competently ã¨=∞O°÷~Qå
competetor áÈ>©^®O°∞
competition áÈ>©. cut throat ~ f„=
"≥∞·# áÈ>©. destructive ~ q^è°fi~ã¨Hí
áÈ>©. imperfect ~ Jã¨~ѨÓO°‚ áÈ>©.
monopolistic ~ Qõ∞`ÍÎkèǨ`ŒºÑ¨Ù áÈ>©.
perfect ~ ã¨~ѨÓO°‚ áÈ>©

116

competitive
competitive áÈ>©Ç¨_«QõÅ.
tage ã¨ÊO®ú™œHíO°º~, áÈ>©
examination áÈ>©Ç¨sHí∆.

~ advan™œHíO°º~. ~
~ price

áÈ>©^è°O°
compilation Hí∂O°∞Ê, ã¨~HíÅ#~ ~ of
data ^°`ÍÎ~â◊ ã¨~HíÅ#~
compile ã¨~HíÅ#~ KıÜ«µ∞† ã¨~„QõÇ≤Ï~K«∞,

Hí∂O°∞Û
compiler Hí∂O°Êi, ã¨~„QåǨÏHí∞_«∞
complacency xO°¡Hí∆ º~, JÅã¨`Œfi~,

JÅÊ
ã¨~`À+¨~† xâ◊ÛÅ`Œ
complacent xtÛ~`ŒQå L#fl, ã¨~`À
+¨~Qå L#fl
complain Ѷ≤O®º^°∞KıÜ«µ∞, Jã¨~`Œ$Ç≤Î
=ºHíÎ~KıÜ«µ∞† ã¨}∞Qõ∞
complainant Ѷ≤O®ºk, ÇÍk
complaint Ѷ≤O®º^°∞, PÇı^°#† O’Qõ~
complaisant =∞O®º^°QõÅ, ^®H˜∆}º~QõÅ,
P^°O°}QõÅ
complement ã¨~ѨÓO°Hí† KÍ@¥H˜Î
complementary ǨiѨÓO°Hí"≥∞·#, |Ǩï
=∂#ѨÓO°fiHí. ~ food ѨÙ+≤ìHíO° JÖÏÊ
ǨO°~. ~ hypothesis ǨO°ã¨ÊO° ѨÓO°Hí
ÇÍ^°~
complete =∞∞y~K«∞, ѨÓiÎKıÜ«µ∞† ™®~QÀ
áå~Qõ, ã¨=∞„Qõ, =∞∞yã≤#, <ˇO°Çıi#
completely x~_«∞Qå, ѨÓiÎQå
completion ã¨=∂Ç≤Î, =∞∞y~ѨÙ, ã¨~ѨÓiÎ
completness ǨiѨÓiÎ
complex H˜+
¡ ,ì¨ [>˜Å, ã¨~H©O,‚° 㨥Å÷ , zHí¯
#ܵ#, (Éèí=#) ã¨=Ú^®Ü«µ~, =∞<À
qHßO°~. ~ fertilizers q∞„â◊=∞ ZO°∞
=ÙÅ∞. inferiority ~ P`Œ‡#¥º#`Í
Éèß=~. primary ~ „áå^ä°q∞Hí O’Qõ
ã¨~K«Ü«µ~. superiority ~ PkèHíº
Éèß=#

composing

complexion

KèßÜ«µ, =O°‚~, O°~Qõ∞,

O°¥Ç¨~
complexity ã¨~H˜¡+¨ì`Œ
compliance J#∞=O°Î#~,

J~wHßO°~†
J=∞Å∞KıÜ«µ_«~† K‹Ç≤Ê#@∞¡ KıÜ«µ_«~,
x|^°ú`Œ
compliant J~wHíi~Kı
complicacy H˜¡+¨ìã≤÷u
complicate [>˜Å, ã¨~H˜¡+¨ì† [>˜Å~
KıÜ«µ∞, H˜¡+¨ìǨO°∞K«∞
complication [>˜Å`Œ, zHí∞¯, ã¨~H˜¡+¨ì`Œ†
Hı¡â◊~
complicity ÉèßQõ™®fi=∞º~
compliment n. Jaè#~^°#† „Ç≤ܡ∂H˜Î
compliment v. Jaè#~k~K«∞, "≥∞K«∞Û
HÁ#∞
complimentary
Jaè#~^°#ѨÓO°fiHí,
"≥∞ǨC#∞ `ˇeÜ«µ*ËÜ«µ∞#>˜ì. ~ copy
|Ǩ˙Hí$`Œ „Ǩu/ Lz`Œ„Ǩu. ~ distribution ǨiѨÓO°Hí ÇͺÇ≤Î
comply J=∞Å∞[O°Ç¨_«~, Hí@∞ì|_«_«~,
J#∞Qõ∞}~Qå =º=ǨÏi~K«_«~† J~wHí
i~K«∞
complying áå>˜~Kı, xO°fiiÎ~Kı
component J~Qõ~, J~â◊~, ÉèßQõ~,
J#∞Ѷ¨∞@Hí~, ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@<®~â◊~† ÉèßQõ
™®fi=∞ºÇ¨Hí∆~
comport =iÎ~K«∞† ã¨iǨ_«∞
comportment #_«`Œ
compose Hí∂O°∞Û, JHí∆O®Å#∞ ¿ÑO°∞Û,
O°z~K«∞, Ǩi+¨¯i~K«∞, âÍ~`ŒÇ¨O°K«∞,
ã¨fiO°|^°ú~ KıÜ«µ∞
composed âÍ~u~z#, <ˇ=∞‡kǨ_ç#†
O°z`Œ
composer ã¨fiO°HíO°Î, O°K«Üµ`Œ, Hí∂O°Êi
composing O°K«#, Hí∂O°∞Ê

composite
composite JqÉèíHíÎ, q∞„â◊=∞, L=∞‡_ç. ~
numbers ã¨~Ü«µ∞HíÎã¨~YºÅ∞
composition ã¨~O°K«#, ã¨~q^èß#~
compost ǨzÛZO°∞=Ù
composure <ˇ=∞‡k, z`ŒÎâÍ~u, ã≤÷q∞

`Œ`Œfi~
q∞„â◊=∞~ KıÜ«µ∞† Hí∂O°∞Û†
O®r Kıܵ« ∞† O®rǨ_∞« † ã¨=∂ã¨~, Ǩ^®Å
HíÅܵHí, ã¨Ç∞ı ‡à◊#~, ã¨~ܡ∂Qõ Ǩ^®O°~÷ ,
Qõ$Ǩ=O°}~. chemical ~ O°™®Ü«µ#
ã¨Çı∞‡à◊#~. ~ eyes ã¨~Ü«µ∞HíÎ <Ë„`ÍÅ∞.
~ interest K«„Hí=_ô¤. ~ microscope
ã¨~Ü«µ∞HíΠ㨥Hí;^°i≈x. ~ pendulum
Qõ∞O°∞Ö’ÅHí~. ~ sentence =∞Ǩ
ÇÍHíº~. ~ structure ã¨~Ü«µ∞HíÎ
xO®‡}~. ~ verb ã¨~Ü«µ∞Hí΄H˜Ü«µ
compoundable offence O®rH˜ gÅ∞#fl
<ËO°~
compounding fees JǨO®^è° O°∞ã¨∞=∞∞,
[i=∂<®
compradore ^°à®s† q^Õj ÇͺáåO°
ã¨~ã¨÷ „Ǩuxkè
comprehend „QõÇ≤Ï~K«∞, W=∞∞_«∞ÛHÁ#∞
comprehensible „QåǨϺ"≥∞·#
comprehension „QõǨÏ}â◊H˜Î† W=∞∞_«∞Û
HÁ<Ë â◊H˜Î† „QõÇ≤Ï~K«_«~† „QõÇ≤Ï~ѨÙ
comprehensive ã¨=∞„Qõ,
ã¨~ѨÓO°‚,
qѨÙÅ, qã¨Î $`Œ
comprehensively ™êHíź~Qå, ã¨=∞
„Qõ~Qå
compress Hí∞~z~K«∞, ã¨~„QõÇ≤Ï~K«∞,
J}K«∞, ã¨~H˜Ç∆ HΑ ií ~K«∞. ~ cold â‹`· ÀºÇ¨
KÍO°~. ~ hot LëȂǨKÍO°~
compression ã¨~Ç‘_«#~
compressor ã¨~Ç‘_«Hí~
comprise W=∞∞_«∞ÛHÁ#∞† KıO°∞ÛHÁ#∞
compound

117

concealment

comprising HíeyL#fl
compromise O®rKıÜ«µ∞,

XǨÊ~^°~/
ã¨~kè Hí∞^°∞O°∞Û† O®r, XǨÊ~^°~, ã¨~kè
compulsion xO°ƒ~^è°~,
JxÇÍO°º~,
`ŒÇ¨Êx† xâ◊ÛÜ«µ~, XuÎ_ç, |ÖÏ`ͯO°~
compulsory `ŒÇ¨Êxã¨iQå, JxÇÍO°º~Qå,
P=â◊ºHí~Qå, xO°ƒ~^è°~Qå, `ŒÇ¨ÊHí∞~_Í.
~ acquisition xO°ƒ~^è° ¿ãHíO°}. ~
amalgamation xO°ƒ~^è° ã¨Çı∞‡à◊#~. ~
loan xO°ƒ~^è° O°∞}~. ~ services
xO°ƒ~^è° ¿ã=Å∞. ~ retirement xO°ƒ~^è°
Ǩ^°g qO°=∞}
compunction Ǩi`ÍǨ~, ǨâÍÛ`ÍÎǨ~†
Ǩi`ŒÇ≤~K«∞, ǨâÍÛ`ÍÎǨǨ_«∞
compurgation xO’Ì+≤Qå xO°‚ܵ~K«_«~
compurgator xO’Ì+≤`Œfi „^è°∞gHíO°Î
computation ÖˇH˜¯~K«_«~,
Qõ}#†
ǨiHíÅ#~
computer Hí~ѨӺ@O∑. ~ graphics
Hí~ѨӺ@O∑ xi‡~Kı TǨz„`ÍÅ∞. ~
literacy Hí~ѨӺ@O∑ Ǩi*Ï˝#~
computerization Hí~ѨӺ@sHíO°}
computerize Hí~ѨӺ@sHíi~K«∞
comrade ã¨Ç¨ÏK«O°∞_«∞,
¿ãflÇ≤Ï`Œ∞_«∞,
Hí=∞¥ºxã¨∞ì (áåsì ã¨Éèí∞º_«∞)
con ÇÍ^°#, "≥·Yi, ÇÍk, =e¡~K«∞†
Hí~Oî°ã¨÷~KıÜ«µ∞
conartist J|^®úÅ H’O°∞, #=∞‡Hõ„^ÀÇ≤Ï
conation ã¨~HíÅÊâ◊H˜Î
concatenate Å~H≥, HíÅ∞ѨÙ/ ÇıÜ«µ∞
concave ѨÙ>ÏHßO°. ~ lens ѨÙ>ÏHßO°
Hí@Hí~. ~ mirror ѨÙ>ÏHßO° ^°O°Ê}~
concavity ѨÙ>ÏHßO° „Ǩ^Õâ◊~
conceal ^®Qõ∞, ^®K«∞, O°Ç¨Ï㨺~Qå L~K«∞
concealed Qõ∞ǨÎ
concealment =∂@∞, QÀǨ#~, ^®Ç¨
iHí~† O°Ç¨Ï㨺 „Ǩ^Õâ◊~, ^®zÃÑ@ì_«~

concede

XǨCH’=_«~, ã¨=∞‡u~K«_«~,
J~wHíi~K«_«~
conceit ™®fiuâ◊Ü«µ~,
JǨÏ~Éèß=~†
TǨφ QõO°fi~, `ŒÅ~ѨÙ
conceited QõO°fi~HíÅ
conceivable Qõifi~K«^°y#, TÇ≤Ï~K«
^°y#, ã¨~Éèí=hÜ«µ
conceive Éèßq~K«∞, J#∞HÁ#∞† QõO°ƒù~
^è°i~K«∞
conceiving QõO°ƒù~`À L~_«_«~
concentrate Hı~„nHíi~K«∞, XHíKÀ>˜H˜
KıO°∞Û, ™®~„nHíi~K«∞
concentration Hı~„nHíO°}~, UHß„Qõ`Œ,
™®~„nHíO°}~, Qå_è°`Œ. ~ camps
xO°ƒ~^è° taO®Å∞
concentrative Hı~„nHíi~ǨKı¿ã, ™®O°~
f¿ã
concentric UHí Hı~„^°Hí. ~ circle UHí
Hı~„^°H=í $`Œ~Î .~ ring UHíH~ı „^° =ÅÜ«µ~
conception QõO°ƒù^èßO°}† TǨÏ, Éèß=~
conceptual colour ã¨~Éèßq`Œ =O°‚~
conceptualisation Éèß=„QõǨÏ}~
conceptualism ã¨~Hı`ŒÇÍ^°~
concern n. ã¨~|~^è°~, P~^Àà◊#
concern v. „ǨÉèßq`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞, Ǩ>˜ì~K«∞
HÁ#∞
concerning ã¨~|~kè~z#, xq∞`ŒÎ"≥∞·#
concert ã¨~w`Œ HíKıs, UH©Éèß=~, Ü«µ∞H˜Î
Ǩ#∞fl, Hí∂_ç PÖ’z~K«∞
concession O®Üµf, =∞∞^°O®, `Œyæ~ѨÙ,
„Ǩ`˺Hí ã¨^°∞áåÜ«µ~† ǨÏHí∞¯Å∞ W=fi_«~
conch â◊~Y~
conchoidal â◊~MÏHßO°
conchology â◊~MÏ^谺ܫµ#(âÍG)~
conciliate ã¨=∂^èß#ǨO°K«∞, O®rKıÜ«µ∞,
á⁄~kHíKıÜ«µ∞
concede

118

concussion

condemn

conciliation O®r, XǨÊ~^°~
conciliator =∞^è°º=iÎ, O®rHí∞kOÕÛ =ºH˜Î
conciliatory O®r^è’O°}˜ Qõņ ¿ãflǨÏ

condemn

ѨÓO°fiHí
concise @¥H©, ã¨~H˜∆ǨÎ, ã¨~„QõǨÏ
concision ã¨~H˜∆ǨÎ`Œ, ^°$_è°`Œfi~
conclave O°Ç¨Ï㨺ã¨Éèí/ ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~/

ã¨=∂

Ö’K«#
=∞∞y~K«∞, =∞∞yÜ«µ∞† xâ◊Û
ܵ~K«∞HÁ#∞† UO°ÊO°K«∞
concluding Hí_«Ç¨>˜, ã¨=∂ǨHí. ~ remarks =∞∞y~ѨÙ, `Œ∞kǨÅ∞Hí∞Å∞
conclusion =∞∞y~ѨÙ, ǨO°º=™®#~†
xO®úO°}
conclusive xâ◊ÛÜ«∂`Œ‡Hí
concoct HíeÊ~K«∞, Hí@∞ìHí^ä°Å∞ K‹Ç¨C
concoction HíÅÊ#† Hí∞„@
concomitant ã¨Ç¨ÏQåq∞, UHíHßeHí
concord J#fiÜ«µ~, J#∞ã¨fiO°`Œ
concordance ™®=∞O°ã¨º~† Ǩ^°„Ǩܡ∂Qõ
Ǩ>˜ìHí/ H’â◊~
concordant J#∞ã¨i~z L~_Ë, ã¨∞ã¨~
Qõ`Œ
concourse ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~, Qõ∞~ѨÙ, HíÅܵHí,
Qõ∞q∞Hí∂_«_«~
concrete ÇÍã¨ÎqHí, xiÌ+¨ì, Ü«µ^äßO°÷
concretion Ѷ¨∞hÉèí=#~, ã¨~„Qõ^ä°#~, HíÅ
ܵHí
concretise Qõ>˜ìǨO°K«∞, |ÅǨO°K«∞
concubine L~ѨÙ_«∞Qõ`ˇÎ
concupiscence "≥∂ǨÏ~, L„kHíÎ`Œ
concur UH©Éèíq~K«∞
concurrence UH©Éèß=~
concurrent ã¨=∞Hßb#, UHíHßeHí. ~
list O®*Ϻ~Qõ~Ö’ L=∞‡_ç*Ïa`Í
concussion f„=ã¨Ê~^°#,
kQõ∞Å∞,
Ѷ¨∂`ŒÇ¨i=∂}~, "≥∞^°_«∞ J^°O°_«~
conclude

Y~_ç~K«∞, `Àã≤ѨÙK«∞Û, tHí∆
qkè~K«∞, ^°~_ç~K«∞
condemnation xO°ã¨#, ^°¥+¨}† tHí∆
qkè~K«_«~
condensation Hí∞k~K«_«~, ã¨~Hı∆Ǩ}~,
™®~„nHíO°}~
condense Hí∞k~K«∞, Qõ>˜ìǨO°K«∞, Hı~„nHí
i~ǨKıÜ«µ∞
condensed milk _«ÉσáåÅ∞, ™®~„nHí$`Œ
H©∆O°~
condenser Hí~_≥#ûO∑, „^°gHíO°}Hßi
condescended kQõ*ÏO°∞, ky=K«∞Û†
#„=∞`ŒK«¥Ñ¨Ù
condescending #„=∞`ŒQõÅ,
J#∞
„QõÇ≤Ï~Kı, P^°i~Kı
condign KÍe#, ã¨=∞∞z`Œ, `Œy#
condiment =∞™®ÖÏ
condition (Ǩi) ã≤÷u, ^°â◊, J=ã¨÷, +¨O°`Œ∞
conditional xÜ«µ`Œ,
xÜ«µ=∞|^°Ì,
+¨O°`Œ∞Å`À Hí∂_ç#. ~ bail +¨O°`Œ∞Å`À
Hí∂_ç# *Ïg∞#∞. ~ contract +¨O°`Œ∞
Å`À Hí∂_ç# Hß~„>ÏHí∞ì. ~ support
+¨O°`Œ∞Å`À Hí∂_ç# =∞^°Ì`Œ∞
conditioning P„â◊Ü«µ}~, ã≤÷uÇͺ[~
condole ǨO®=∞i≈~K«_«~, F^®O°∞Û
condolence ǨO®=∞O°≈,
™®#∞Éèí¥u,
ã¨~`ÍǨ~. ~ resolution ã¨~`ÍǨ
fO®‡#~
condom QõO°ƒùxO’^è°Hí ™®^è°#~, O°|ƒO°∞
`˘_«∞Qõ∞
condominium L=∞‡_çO®[º~, L=∞‡_ç
ǨiáåÅ#
condonation Hí∆=∂aèHí∆, =∂Ѷ‘
condone =∂Ѷ‘KıÜ«µ∞, =∞xfl~K«∞, =ke
ÃÑ@∞ì, Hí∆q∞~K«∞
condor ™®à◊∞= _ËQõ

119

confession

conduce HßO°}=∞Qõ∞, ™®^è°#=∞Qõ∞
conducive ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHßi, HßO°}"≥∞·#,

™®^è°#"≥∞·#
„Ǩ=O°Î#, xO°fiǨÏ}, ^®i
K«¥Ç¨_«~, =∂O°æ^°O°≈#~, #_çÇ≤~K«∞,
xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«∞, =iÎ~K«∞
conductance ÇÍǨÏHí`Œ
conduction „Ǩã¨O°}
conductivity ÇÍǨÏHí`Œ, K«Å#~
conductometer ÇÍǨÏHí =∂ǨHí~
conductor xO®fiǨÏHí∞_«∞†
Hí~_«HíìO∑†
ÇÍǨÏHí~. ~ current q^°∞º^®fiǨÏ#~.
~ of electricity q^°∞º^®fiǨÏHí`Œfi~. ~
of heat L+¨‚ÇÍǨÏHí`Œfi~
conduit ÃÑ· `˘_«∞Qõ∞, HßÅ∞=, =∂O°æ~†
(O®[H©Ü«∂Ö’¡) =∞^è°º=iΆ z#fl
™⁄O°~Qõ~, Q˘@ì~, HßÅ∞=, =∂O°æ~
cone Hí∂z, H’}~, â◊~Hí∞=Ù
confabulate =∂>Ï¡_«∞H’=_«~
confabulation K«O°Û
confection q∞Oîßܵ, u#∞|~_ÍO°~
confectioner q∞OîßܵÅ∞/ u#∞|~_Í
O®Å∞ JÇı∞‡ =ºH˜Î
confectionery q∞Oîßܵ (^°∞Hß}~)
confederate ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí∞_«∞, Hí∂@q∞Ö’
Kıi#ÇÍO°∞† Hí∂@q∞Qå KıO°∞Û
confederacy (O®*ϺÅ) Hí∂@q∞, ã¨q∞u,
ã¨^°ã¨∞û, ã¨Çı∞‡à◊#~
confederation (O®*ϺÅ)
Hí∂@q∞/
ã¨=∂Yº
confer K«iÛ~K«∞† Jaè„áåÜ«∂Å∞ HíÅ
É’ã¨∞HÁ#∞, ã¨~Éèß+≤~K«∞, WK«∞Û
conferee ã‘fiHíO°Î, „QõÇ‘Ï`Œ
conference ã¨^°ã¨∞û, ã¨=∂Ö’K«#, QÀ+≤ª,
ã¨Éèí (ÇÍi¬Hí) ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~
confession <ËO®xfl J~wHíi~K«_«~
conduct n.

confessional poetry
confessional poetry ǨâÍÛ`ÍÎǨ Híq`Œfi~
confidant P~`ŒO°~yHí∞_«∞
confidante P~`ŒO°~yHí∞O®Å∞
confide #=∞‡Hí~ L~K«∞ (O°Ç¨Ï㨺~) K‹Ç¨C
confidence #=∞‡Hí~, qâÍfiã¨~, x|ƒO°~†
#=∞‡Hí~† ^è≥·O°º~. ~ motion qâÍfiã¨

fO®‡#~
confidential P~`ŒO~
° yHí,

QÀǨº, O°ÇϨ 㨺,
=∞O˘HíiH˜ `ˇeÜ«µQõ¥_«x, #=∞‡^°y#.
~ communication O°Ç¨Ï㨺 =O°Î
=∂#~. ~ report O°Ç¨Ï㨺 xÇıkHí
confidently x|ƒO°~Qå, #=∞‡HõOQÍ,
P`«‡qâßfiã¨O`À
configuration q<®ºã¨~, ã¨Oã≤÷u, PHí$u
confine Hí@∞ì|_çL~_«∞, „Ǩã¨q~K«∞, xO’
kè~K«∞, Ǩiq∞`Œ=∞=Ù
confinement „Ǩã¨=~† xO°ƒ~^è°~, xO°ƒ~
^è°~Ö’ L~K«_«~, tHí∆. solitary ~
UHß~`ŒÇÍ㨠tHí∆
confirm ã≤÷O°Ç¨O°K«∞, O°¥_è˜Ç¨O°K«∞, „^è°∞gHí
i~K«∞
confirmation xO®úO°}, „^è°∞gHíO°}
confirmed MÏÜ«µ~/ O°¥_è˜ Jܵ#, „^è°∞=
Ǩ_ç#/ Ǩiz#
confiscable [ѨÙÎ KıÜ«µ^°y#, =â◊ǨO°K«∞
H’^°y#
confiscate [ѨÙÎ KıÜ«µ^°y#, =â◊ǨO°K«∞
H’^°y#
confiscate [ѨÙÎKıÜ«µ∞,
ÖÏQõ∞HÁ#∞,
™®finè#~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞, HíÉÏ˚ KıÜ«µ∞
confiscation [ѨÙÎ, ™®finè#`Œ
conflagration ^°Ç¨Ï#Hß~_«, ǨO°â◊∞O®=∞
„Ç‘u
conflict ã¨~Ѷ¨∞O°¬}, qÇÍ^°~. ~ theory
™®=∂lHí "≥·O°∞^茺 ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
confluence
ã¨~Qõ=∞~,
Hí∂_«e,
ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~

120

congestus

confluent Híe¿ã† LǨ#k
conform áÈÅ∞#@∞¡ KıÜ«µ_«~,

J#∞ã¨
i~ǨKıÜ«µ∞, J#∞Qõ∞}~Qå =iÎ~K«∞,
J#∞ã¨i~K«∞
conformable áÈe#, J#∞ã¨i~z L#fl,
XÇ≤Ê#, á⁄~kHíQå L#fl
conformist Ü«µ^äß`Œ^ä°ÇÍk
conformity X^°∞Qõ∞^°Å, J#∞ã¨O°}
confound P~^Àà◊# Híey~K«∞, HíÅ`Œ
ÃÑ@∞ì, HíÅ=O°ÃÑ@∞ì, qzÛù#fl~ KıÜ«µ∞
confront Z^°∞O˘¯#∞, „ǨuѶ¨∞>˜~K«∞
confrontation =∞∞MÏ=∞∞d x~^®O’Ǩ}†
„ǨuѶ¨∞@#, Ѷ¨∞O°¬}
confrontationist Ѷ¨∞O°¬}ÇÍ^°, „ǨuѶ¨∞
>˜~Kı =ºH˜Î
confuse Hí~QåO°∞ÃÑ@∞ì, K‹ÖÏ¡K‹^°O°∞ KıÜ«µ∞
confusion Qõ~^°O°QÀà◊~, HíÅ=O°áå@∞,
Hí~QåO°∞, Jã¨Ê+¨ì`Œ
confutation Y~_«#, JǨO®^è° xO°¥Ç¨}
confute Y~_ç~K«∞, PHıÇ
∆ ~≤ K«∞, JǨO®^è~° ,
xO°¥Ç≤~K«∞, `ŒÇ¨Êx xO°¥Ç≤~K«∞
congeal ¿ÑO°∞HÁ#∞, ¿ÑO°Éˇ@∞ì, Ѷ¨∞hÉèí
q~K«∞
congealment Ѷ¨∞hÉèí=#~, ¿ÑO°∞H’=_«~
congenial J#∞Hí∂Å, `Œy#, XHı
ã¨fiÉèß=~ QõÅ, ã¨*Ï`Œ, ã¨Ç¨Ï[
congenital [#‡`Œó, ѨÙ@∞ìHí`À =zÛ#,
ã¨Ç¨Ï["≥∞·#. ~ abnormality [#‡ã≤^°ú
=∞<À"≥·Híź~. ~ diseases ѨÙ@∞ìHí`À
ã¨~„Híq∞~Kı Çͺ^è°∞Å∞
congest x~_«∞, XHıKÀ@ Hí∂_«∞HÁ#∞
congestion `˘_«`˘H˜¯_ç, O°HßÎkèHíº`Œ† [#
ã¨=∞‡O°Ì~, O°nÌ
congestive heart failure O°HíÎ „Ǩ™®O°~
ã¨Î~aè~z Qõ∞~_≥ PyáÈ=_«~
congestus áÈQõܵ#

conglomerate
conglomerate ã¨Çı∞‡à◊#~, áÈe#
conglomeration ã¨Çı∞‡à◊#~, UHíO®t
conglutinate ã¨~ܡ∂[#~, JuH˜~ѨÙ
congrats Jaè#~^°#Å∞
congratulate Jaè#~k~K«∞
congratulation Jaè#~^°#
congregant ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~Ö’x =ºH˜Î
congregate Qõ∞~ѨÙHí@∞ì, Qõ∞q∞Hí∂_«∞,

ã¨=∂Çıâ◊=∞Qõ∞† ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~
congress Hß~„Q≥ãπáåsì, =∞Ǩã¨Éèí, (J"≥∞
iHß) âÍã¨#ã¨Éèí
congruenc J=∞iHí, XǨC^°Å, á⁄~kHí,
J#∞Qõ∞}`Œfi~
congruous J#∞Qõ∞}"≥∞·#†
ã¨~|^°ú,
á⁄~kH≥·#, J=∞i#
conical â◊$~QåHßO°, â◊~HßfiHßO°
conidium 㨥Hí;ã≤^°ú c*Ïâ◊Ü«µ~
conifer â◊$~QåHßO° =$Hí∆~
coniferous â◊$~QåO° =$H∆ßÅ∞#fl
conium q+¨~, q+¨Ñ¨Ù "≥∞∞Hí¯
conjecture n. TǨÏ, Jaè„áåÜ«µ~,
Éèß=#, L*Ï˚ܵ~Ѩن TÇ≤Ï~K«∞, J#∞
HÁ#∞
conjoined ã¨~ܡ∂l`Œ
conjoint J~@∞HÁ#fl, Híeã≤ L#fl
conjugal ^®~Ǩ`ͺxH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#,
™®~™®iHí. ~ bliss "≥·ÇÍÇ≤ÏHß#~^°~.
~ rights "≥·ÇÍÇ≤ÏHí ǨÏHí∞¯Å∞, ^®~Ǩ`Œº
ǨÏHí∞¯Å∞
conjugally ã¨~™®O°suQå
conjugate ã¨~ܡ∂[Hí~, qx=∞Ü«µ~†
|~kè~z#, HíeÇ≤#† „H˜Ü«∂O°¥áåÅ∞
K‹Ç¨C† [~@Hí∂O°∞Û
conjugation ã¨~Ü«µ∞Qõ‡~, ã¨~ܡ∂[#
„H˜Ü«µ

121

consanguineous

ã¨=∞∞K«ÛÜ«µ~, HíÅܵHí,
ã¨~ܡ∂Qõ~, L=∞‡_ç
conjunctiva Hí#∞O≥ǨÊ, Hí#∞Qõ∞_«¡#∞ Híe¿Ñ
á⁄O°
conjunctive Híe¿Ñ, ã¨~t¡+¨ì
conjuncture HíÅܵHí, Hí∂_çHí† ã¨~kQõú
ã¨=∞Ü«µ~
conjuration =∞#óѨÓO°fiHí „áåO°÷#† Jaè
=∞~„`Œ}~
conjure QåO°_ôKıÜ«µ∞, P#ÃÑ>˜ì Ç≤Å∞K«∞,
„áåi÷~K«∞
conjurer =∞~„`ŒQå_«∞, QåO°_ôÇÍ_«∞
conman Pã≤Îx/ _«|∞ƒ#∞ Hß*Ë¿ã =ºH˜Î,
"≥∂㨠Qå_«∞
connate UHíHßÅ~Ö’ ѨÙ>˜ì#, [#‡`À
=zÛ#
connatural <ˇã
· i¨ Hæ "í ∞≥ #· , „ǨH$í u ã¨~|~^è°
"≥∞·#
connection Å~H≥, KıiHí, HíÅܵHí,
ã¨~|~^è°~† ÉÏ~^è°=º~, |~^è°∞=Ù,
ã¨~^°O°ƒù~
conniption =∞¥O°Ûù, JǨ™®‡O°~
connivance ã¨=∞‡u, L¿ÑHí∆, JO®ú~w
HßO°~
connive `ŒÇ¨C_«∞Ǩx „áÈ`ŒûÇ≤Ï~K«∞, Hí∞„@
KıÜ«µ∞, K«¥ã‘K«¥_«#@∞¡~_«∞
connoisseur áås}∞_«∞, ã¨Ç¨Ï$^°Ü«µ∞_«∞,
O°ã≤Hí∞_«∞. ~ ship ã¨Ç¨Ï$^°Ü«µ`Œ, O°ã≤Hí`Œ
connotation ã¨Ç¨Ï*Ï~°÷O, QÆ∞}xˆ~Ìâ◊O
conquer
™®kè~K«∞,
P„Híq∞~K«∞,
[ܵ~K«∞, Q≥Å∞K«∞
conqueror q*Ë`Œ, [ܵ~z#ÇÍ_«∞
conquest q[Ü«µ~
consanguinary ã¨QÀ„`Œ
consanguineous O°HíÎã¨~|~^è°~ Qõņ
ã¨QÀ„`Œ
conjunction

122

consanguinity
consanguinity

O°HíÎã¨~|~^è°~, ÇÍq†

ã¨QÀ„`Œ`Œ
J~`ŒO®`Œ‡, =∞#™®ûH˜∆, P`Œ‡
„Ǩɒ^è°~. ~ money ZQ˘æ>˜ì# Ǩ#∞fl/
_«|∞ƒ áåǨcèu`À K‹e¡~K«_«~. ~ morality Kı`<
Œ ®`Œ‡Híhu. ~ state =∂#ã≤Hí
ã≤÷u
conscientious <®ºÜ«µ|∞kúQõÅ, áåǨcèu
QõÅ, =∞#™®ûH˜∆H˜ Ö’|_ç#
conscious ã¨Ê $ǨÏÖ’L#fl,
*Ï„Qõ`ŒÎQå
L#fl, Kı`Œ#
consciousness ã¨Ê $ǨÏ, K‹·`Œ#º~
conscribe xO°ƒ~^è°~Qå Ãã·#º~Ö’ KıO°∞Û
conscript(ee) xO°ƒ~^è°
Ãã·xHí∞_«∞†
xO°ƒ~^è°~Qå Ãã·#º~Ö’ KıO°∞ÛH’=_«~
conscription xO°ƒ~^è° Ãã·xHí tHí∆}
consecrate Ǩq„`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞, ã¨=∞iÊ~K«∞,
xÇık~K«∞, â◊∞kúKıÜ«µ∞
consecration Ǩq„`Œ~
KıÜ«µ_«~,
=∞∞_«∞Ѩ٠Hí@ì_«~, â◊∞kú
consecution ¿ÇÏ`Œ∞ǨO°~ǨO°
consensus J~wHßO°~, UHßaè„áåÜ«∞~
consent ã¨=∞‡u~K«∞, J~wHíi~K«∞
consentaneours `Œy#, UH’#∞‡Y"≥∞·#
consentience XǨÊ~^°~, UHßaè„áåÜ«µ~
consent ã¨=∞‡u, J~wHßO°~
consequence Ѷ¨e`Œ~, Ѷ¨Å~, ǨO°º=
™®#~, Ǩi}®=∞~, ÃÑ^°ÌiHí~, Q“O°=~
consequential ǨO°º=™®#~Qå UO°Ê_ç#,
Ǩi}®=∂ŠѶ¨e`Œ~Qå `ŒÖˇuÎ#. ~
damages J#∞+¨~yHí #+¨ìǨiǨO°~
consequently ǨO°º=™®#~Qå
conservation ã¨~O°Hí∆},
JHí∆Ü«µ`Œ,
xÅ=KıÜ«µ∞, ^®zÃÑ@∞ì, J~`Œi~K«
Hí∞~_Í O°H~∆˜ K«∞, =$^äß áÈHí∞~_Í K«¥_«∞,
#+¨ì~ [O°QõHí∞~_Í K«¥_«∞. ~ of forest
conscience

consolidated fund

J@gO°Hí∆}. ~ of water hO°∞ xÅfi
KıÜ«µ@~
conservatism ã¨~O°Hí∆HíÇÍ^°~, ã¨~„Ǩ
^®Ü«µ (ǨiO°Hí∆}) ÇÍ^°~
conservatist ǨO®º=O°} ã¨~O°Hí∆Hí∞_«∞/
ǨiO°Hí∆} ÇÍk
conservative ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«µÇÍk, Ü«µ^äß
`Œ^ä°ÇÍk
conservator ǨiO°Hí∆Hí∞_«∞
consider Ǩije~K«∞, PÖ’z~K«∞
consideration ǨiQõ}#, ǨijÅ#, Ǩi
ǨO°~† |Ǩï=∞u, „ǨuѶ¨Å~
consign Ǩ~ѨÙ, O°ÇÍ}®KıÜ«µ∞, ™®finè#
ǨO°K«∞
consignee =ã¨∞΄QõÇ‘Ï`Œ
consignment XǨÊy~`Œ,
(O°ÇÍ}®)
XǨÊ~^°~, Ǩ~Ç≤~Kı =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ∞/ ™®=∞„y.
~ note Ǩ~Ç≤~Kı =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ *Ïa`Í/
q=O®Å∞. ~ tax ã¨O°∞Hí∞ O°ÇÍ}® Ǩ#∞fl.
consignor ã¨O°∞Hí∞ Ǩ~Ç≤# =ºH˜Î
consist Híey/ Hí∂_çL~_«∞, `Œy L~_«∞
consistency ã¨~Qõ`Œ`Œfi~, „Hí=∞|^°ú`Œ,
zHí¯^°#~, J#∞Qõ∞}`Œ, xÅHí_«
consistent with xÜ«µ=∂#∞™®O°~,
`Œy#@∞ì
consistent J#∞Qõ∞}"≥∞·#, JqO°∞^°ú"≥∞·#
consistometer Qå_è°`Í=∂ǨHí~
consolation TO°_ç~ѨÙ, F^®O°∞Ê
console F^®O°∞Û, TO°_ç~K«∞, UH©Hí$`Œ
O°∞}Ǩ„`ÍÅ∞
consolidate |ÅǨO°K«∞HÁ#∞, Qõ>˜ìǨO°∞K«∞
HÁ#∞, Ǩ@∞ì™®kè~K«∞, ǨkÅǨO°K«∞HÁ#∞,
Ǩ>˜+¨ª~Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞, UHí=∞Qõ∞
consolidated fund ã¨~z`Œxkè† UH©Hí$`Œ
xkè. ~ annual accounts UH©Hí$`Œ
ÇÍi¬Hí MÏ`ÍÅ∞

consolidation
consolidation UHí~KıÜ«µ_«~. ~ of
holdings Éèí¥ Hí=∞`ÍÅ#∞ ã¨~Ѷ¨∞>˜`Œ

ǨO°K«_«~
consols „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi O°∞}Ǩ„`ÍÅ∞
consonance O≥~_«∞ ã¨fiO®Å

Çı∞à◊#~,
ǨÏÅ#∞„áåã¨, J#∞Hí∂ź~, J#∞O°¥Ç¨`Œ
consonant ǨÏÅ∞¡, =º~[#~
consort ÉèßO°º, ÉèíO°Î† ã¨Ç¨ÏÇÍã¨~ KıÜ«µ∞,
ã¨Ç¨ÏK«i~K«∞
consortium ã¨Ç¨Ï=º=ã¨÷, „^°=º, ÇÍ}˜[º
ã¨~ã¨÷Å HíÅܵHí† ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ`Í ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~
conspectus 㨥÷ÖÏaè„áåÜ«µ~, ™®O®~â◊~
conspicuous ã¨Ê+¨ì=∞ܵ#,
Hí#|_Ë,
Qõ}˜~K«^°y#, Qõ∞iÎ~K«^°y#, |Ç≤ÏO°~Qõ
"≥∞·#, „Ǩã¨∞Êù@
conspicuousness ã¨∞ã¨Ê+¨ì`Œ
conspiracy Hí∞„@, Qõ¥_«∞ѨÙOîß}©
conspirator Hí∞„@^®O°∞
conspire Hí∞„@KıÜ«µ∞
constabulary O°Hí∆HíÉèí@=O°æ~
constancy ã≤÷O°, xâ◊ÛÅ`Œ, ã¨Ç≤Ï+¨∞‚`Œ
constant ã≤÷O®~Hí~, ã≤÷O°O®t, xO°~`ŒO°,
JqzÛù#fl, =∂O°x. ~ of integration
ã¨=∂HíÅ# ã≤÷O®~Hí~. ~ of proportion ã≤÷O®#∞áå`Œ~. universal ~ ™®O°fi
„uHí ã≤÷O®~Hí~
constellate Qõ∞~ѨÙQå KıO°∞Û
constellation
#Hí∆„`ŒO®t†
#Hí∆„`Œ
=∞~_«Å~
constellations #Hí∆„`ŒO®ã¨∞Å∞
consternation k„Qõƒù=∞,
k„Qåƒù~u,
ã¨Î~Éèí#, „áå}cèu
constipation =∞Å|^°úHí~
constituency xܡ∂[Hí=O°æ~
constituent J=Ü«µ=~, F@O°∞, xܡ∂[
Hí∞_«∞† ÉèßQõ~. ~ assembly O®*Ϻ~Qõ
ã¨Éèí/ Ǩi+¨`Œ∞Î

123

consul

constitute

UO®Ê@∞KıÜ«µ∞† xܡ∂y~K«∞,

™®÷Ç≤~K«∞
O®*Ϻ~Qõ~† xÜ«∂=∞Hí~†
âÍsO°Hí/ =∂#ã≤Hí „Ç¨Hí$u
constitutional O®*Ϻ~Qõ |^°ú"≥∞·#/ ǨO°
"≥∞·#. ~ head O®*Ϻ~Qåkè<Ë`Œ. ~ impasse O®*Ϻ~Qõ„Ǩu+¨ì~Éèí#. ~ government O®*Ϻ~Qõ |^°ú „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~. ~
law O®*Ϻ~Qõ <®ºÜ«µâÍG~. ~ remedy O®*Ϻ~Qõ ǨiǨO°~. ~ validity
O®*Ϻ~Qõ|^°ú`Œ, O®*Ϻ~QõǨO°"≥∞·# K‹Å∞¡
ÉÏ@∞
constitutionalism O®*Ϻ~Qõ |^°ú`Œ,
O®*Ϻ~Qõ|^°ú`Í ÇÍ^°~
constitutionalist O®*Ϻ~Qõ xѨÙ}∞_«∞/
ÇÍk
constitutionality O®*Ϻ~Qõ|^°ú`Œ
constrain xO’kè~K«∞, ÖÁ~QõnÜ«µ∞, K‹O°
ɡ@∞ì
constraint ã¨=∞㨺† Ǩiq∞u, xO’^è°~,
xO°ƒ~^è°~, ã¨~Ü«µ=∞#~
constrict J}Q˘æ@∞ì, <˘Hí∞¯
constrictor HÁ~_«zÅ∞=
constringe <˘Hí∞¯, J^°∞=∞∞
construct xi‡~K«∞, Hí@∞ì, Hí∂O°∞Û†
z„u~K«∞
construction way `Í`ͯeHí =∂O°æ~
construction O°K«#, xO®‡}~, Hí@ì_«~.
~ industry xO®‡}Ǩi„â◊=∞
constructive „H˜Ü«∂`Œ‡Hí, xO®‡}®`Œ‡Hí
constructivism xO®‡} Híà®ÇÍ^°~
constructor xO®‡`Œ
construe J#fiܵ~K«∞, Éèß+¨º~K‹Ç¨C,
ÇͺMϺx~K«∞, qâı¡+≤~K«∞
consubstantiate SHíº~KıÜ«µ∞, SHíº=∞Qõ∞
consul O®[^°¥`Œ, ^Ò`Œº„Ǩuxkè
constitution

124

consulate
consulate Hß#∞ûÖË>ò, ^Ò`ŒºHßO®ºÅÜ«µ~
consultancy ã¨ÅǨã¨~ã¨÷, ã¨~„Ǩk~ѨÙ

ã¨~ã¨÷
consultant

ã¨ÅǨ^®O°∞, ã¨ÅǨ WKıÛ

xѨÙ}∞_«∞
consultation ã¨~„Ǩk~ѨÙ, ã¨=∂Ö’K«#
consume J#∞Éèíq~K«∞, qxܡ∂y~K«∞,

=ºÜ«µ~KıÜ«µ∞
consumer qxܡ∂Qõ^®O°∞.

~ credit qx

ܡ∂Qõ^®O°∞Å O°∞}®Å∞. ~ disposables
ZHí∞¯=HßÅ~ LǨÜ∂ˇ y~K«ÖxË =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ∞
(PǨO° Ǩ^®O®÷Å∞, áåhÜ«∂Å∞, k#
Ǩ„uHíÅ =~>˜q). ~ durables nO°…
HßÅ~ =∞<Ëfl qxܡ∂Qõ =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞ („Ѷ≤*ò,
>©g =~>˜q). ~ forum qxܡ∂Qõ
^®O°∞Å á¶ÈO°~/ <®ºÜ«µã¨Éèí. ~ goods
qxܡ∂Qõ =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞. ~ price index
qxܡ∂Qõ =ã¨∞Î=Ù ^è°O°Å 㨥z
consumerism qx=∞Ü«µ`Œ`ŒÎ fi~
consumerist qxܡ∂Qõ^®O°∞ŠǨÏHí∞¯Å
ǨiO°Hí∆Hí∞_«∞
consummate ѨÓiÎKıÜ«µ∞, xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«∞,
ã¨~ѨÓO°‚~ Qåq~K«∞, J`Œº~`Œ <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~/
xѨÙ}∞_«∞, ^®~Ǩ`«ºã≤kú, `Œ∞k, K«O°=∞,
ã¨~ѨÓO°‚
consummation â’Éèí#~, ǨiѨÓO°‚`Œ,
ÅHí∆ º„áåÇ≤Î
consumption Hí∆Ü«µ†
qxܡ∂Qõ~,
ÇÍ_«Hí~. ~ goods qxܡ∂Qõ =ã¨∞Î
=ÙÅ∞. ~ loan x`ͺ=ã¨O®ÅHí∞ Pi÷Hí
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~. ~ sectors qxܡ∂HíÎÅ
=O®æÅ∞
consumptive Hí∆Ü«µO’Qõ~`À ÉÏ^è°Ç¨_ˆ
ǨÏi~Kı
contact ã¨ÊO°≈, ã¨~|~^è°~, ™®xflÇ≤Ï`Œº~.
~ agent ã¨ÊO°≈HßO°Hí~. ~ angle
ã¨ÊO°≈H’}~

contemptuous

contact v. HíÅ∞ã¨∞HÁ#∞, ã¨~„Ǩk~K«∞
contagion J~@∞, ã¨~„Hí=∞}
contagious ™®~ã¨iæHí, ™®~„Hßq∞Hí, ™ÈHı
contain J^°∞ѨÙÖ’ L~K«∞, xÅ=i~K«∞
container _«Éσ, ÃÑ>ˇì† Éèßs ÇÍǨÏ#~
containment xÅ∞ѨÙ^°Å, xÅ=i~K«_«~,
J^°∞ѨÙKı¿ã K«O°º/ Ǩ^ä°Hí~. ~ policy

J}zÇı`Œ q^èß#~
contaminant =∂e#º~
HíÅQõ*Ë¿ã,
=∞e#HßO°Hí
contaminate =∞e#ǨO°K«∞, HíÅ∞+≤`Œ~
KıÜ«µ∞
contaminated HíÅ∞+≤`Œ, q+¨Ñ¨Ói`Œ"≥∞·#.
~ food HíÅ∞+≤`ÍǨO°~
contamination Jâ◊∞z,
JǨq„`Œ`Œ,
HßÅ∞+¨º~
contemn K«∞ÅHí#KıÜ«µ∞, hK«~Qå K«¥K«∞
contemnor K«∞ÅHí#Kı¿ã =ºH˜Î, `Œ$}©HíO°Î
contemplate ^èߺx~K«∞, z~u~K«∞,
`ŒÅK«∞, ܡ∂z~K«∞, PÖ’z~K«∞, `ŒÅ
ÃÑ@∞ì, L^ÕÌt~K«∞
contemplation PÖ’K«#,
^èߺ#~,
ܡ∂K«#, `ŒÅ~ѨÙ
contemplative PÖ’K«<®`Œ‡Hí
contemporary ã¨=∞Hßb#, ã¨=∞HßeHí,
=O°Î=∂#† ã¨=∞HßeHí∞_«∞, ã¨=∞ =Ü«µ
ã¨∞¯_«∞† ã¨=∞Hßb# Ǩ„uHí
contempt kèH߯O°~, uO°™®¯O°~, J=
=∂#~† K«∞ÅHí#. ~ of court H’O°∞ì
kèH߯O° (<ËO°~). ~ of legislature
âÍã¨#ã¨ÉèßkèH߯O°~, ã¨ÉèÏ Ç¨ÏHí∞¯Å LÅ¡~
Ѷ¨∞# <ËO°~
contemptible hK«"≥∞·#, K«∞ÅHí# KıÜ«µ
^°y#
contemptuous `Œ$}©Híi~Kı, K«∞ÅHí#
Kı¿ã, uO°ã¨¯i~Kı

contemptuously
contemptuously K«∞ÅHí#Éèß=~`À
contend <˘H˜¯K‹Ç¨C,
ã¨Ê+¨ì~KıÜ«µ∞,

^°$_è°~QåK‹Ç¨C, <˘H˜¯ =H߯}˜~K«∞,
ÇÍk~K«∞, áÈO®_«∞
contender áÈ>©^®O°∞
content `Œ$Ç≤,Î `Œ∞+≤,ì =ã¨∞=
Î Ù, ™®O°~: `Œ$Ç≤Î
K‹~k#† ã¨~`À+¨ÃÑ@∞ì. ~ analysis
=ã¨∞Îqâı¡+¨}
contentedness `Œ$Ç≤Î
contention „Ǩuã¨ÊO°ú, ÇÍ^°#, [Qõ_«~,
qÇÍ^°~, Çͺ[º~, áÈ>©
contentious qÇÍ^®ã¨Ê^°, HíÅǨÏHßO°
contentment ã¨~`Œ∞+¨ì, ã¨~`À+¨~
contenture <Ë`Œ, Je¡Hí† Hí@ì_«~
contest n. áÈ>©, ÇÍ^°#, qÇÍ^°~
contest v. áÈ>©KıÜ«µ∞, qÇÍ^°~ ÖË=<ˇ`Œ∞Î
contestable ã¨ÇÍÅ∞KıÜ«µ^°y#, ÇÍk~Ǩ
^°y#
context ã¨~^°O°ƒù~. ~ of situation
„Ǩܡ∂Qõã¨~^°O°ƒù~
contiguity J~>˜ L~_«_«~, J=º=Ç≤Ï
`Œ`Œfi~
contiguous P#∞HÁx L#fl, ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`Œ,
á⁄O°∞Qõ∞# L#fl
continent Y~_«~† W~„kÜ«µ x„QõǨÏ~
QõÅ, q∞`Œ"≥∞·#
continental Éèí¥Y~_« ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#. ~
crust Y~_«Éèí¥Ç¨@Å~. ~ drift Y~_«
K«Å#~. ~ shelf `ŒO®ƒùQõ~. ~ slope
fO°Ñ¨ÙÇÍÅ∞
contingency JxtÛ`Œ"≥∞·#, Ü«∂^°$zÛùHí
"≥∞·#, TÇ≤Ï~K«x, TÇ≤Ï~K«Hí∞~_Í
[iQÕ, `ŒHí∆}. ~ fund PQõ~`Œ∞Hí xkè,
J`Œº=ã¨O° xkè
contingent debt PQõ~`Œ∞Hí O°∞}~
contingent plan PQÆO`«∞Hõ Ǩ^ä°Hí~. ~

125

contradict

event Ü«∂^°$zÛùHí ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@#
continuosly Z_»`ˇQõHí∞~_Í
continual `ˇ~ѨÙÖËx, ã¨~`Œ`Œ
continually Z_«`ˇQõHí∞~_Í
continuance JqzÛù#fl`Œ
continuation xO°~`ŒO°`Œ
continuous ã¨~`Œ`,Œ xO°~`ŒO,° `ˇ~ѨÙÖËx,

Z_«`ˇQõx
continuum JqzÛù#fl`Œ,

JY~_« „^°=º~,

JqÉèíHíÎ`Œ
contort =~HíO° uO°∞Qõ∞, HÁ~HíO°áÈ=Ù
contortion =„Hí`Œ, =~HíO°
contortionist Çͺܫ∂=∞je, =~HíO°∞¡

uiQÕ =ºH˜Î
=∂#ã≤Hß#∞Éèí¥u ǨÏ^°∞Ì, ã¨"≥∂
#fl`Œ OÕY
contour x"≥∂fl#fl`Œ OÕY, PHí$u
contra „ǨuHí∂Å"≥∞·#
contra adjustment accounts ã¨O°∞Ì
ÉÏ@∞ Z^°∞O°∞ MÏ`ÍÅ∞
contraband x+≤^°ú, J„Hí=∞, ^˘~Qõ
`Œ#~Qå kQõ∞=∞u Kıã≤#. ~ goods
x+≤^°ú"≥∞·# ã¨O°∞Hí∞Å∞
contracept QõO®ƒùxfl xO’kè~K«∞
contraceptive ã¨~`Í#/ QõO°ƒùxO’^è°Hí (O)
contract X_«~|_çHí, XǨÊ~^°~† Qõ∞`ŒÎ.
~ labour Qõ∞`ŒÎ Hßi‡Hí∞Å∞† „Ǩ`˺Hí"≥∞·#
ǨxH˜, xÜ«µ`Œ HßÖÏxH˜ xÜ«µq∞`Œ∞Öˇ·#
Hßi‡Hí∞Å∞. ~ of employment L^ÀºQõ
XǨÊ~^°~
contractor Hß~„>ÏHíìO∑, Qõ∞`ËÎ^®O°∞
contraction =∞∞_«∞K«∞H’=_«~, ã¨~H’K«~
contractual
liability
XǨÊ~^°~
„ǨHßO°~ xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«=Åã≤# ÉÏ^è°º`Œ
contradict Y~_ç~K«∞, xO®Híi~K«∞, =ºu
OÕH˜~K«∞
contour

contradiction

Y~_«#, qO°∞^°Ì ÇÍ^°#,
xO®HíO°}, "≥·O°∞^è°º~
contradiction "≥·O°∞^è°º~
contradistintion "≥·Ç¨s`Œº~, qǨO®ºã¨~
contrary qO°∞^°ú, „ǨuHí∂Å, =ºuOÕH˜. ~
to law âÍã¨# qO°∞^°ú"≥∞·#
contrast n. Éèı^°~, `Ë_Í, =º`ͺã¨~
contrast v. áÈeÛK«¥K«∞, `ÍO°`Œ=∂ºxfl
qKÍi~K«∞, Ju„Híq∞~K«∞, =º`ͺã¨~
K«¥Ñ¨Ù
contravariant „ǨuK«O°O®t
contravene LÅ¡~Ѷ≤∞~K«∞, Zki~K«∞,
Ju„Híq∞~K«∞, =ºuOÕH˜~K«∞
contravention =ºuOÕHí~,
xO’^è°~,
LÅ¡~Ѷ¨∞#, Ju„Hí=∞}
contraversial qÇÍ^®ã¨Ê^°
contravert qO°∞^°úÇÍ^°#KıÜ«µ∞, xO®Hí
i~K«∞
contribute qO®à◊q∞K«∞Û, K«~^® WK«∞Û,
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~KıÜ«µ∞, áåÖÁæ#∞, `À_«Ê_«∞,
O°z~K«∞
contribution qO®à◊~,
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~,
`À_ÍÊ@∞, O°K«#, ¿ã=
contributor ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHßi
contributory ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí
contrition ǨâÍÛ`ÍÎǨ~
contrivance ™®^è°#~, Ü«µ∞H˜Î, `Œ~„`Œ~†
HíÅÊ#, LáåÜ«µ~, =Å
contrive Ü«µ∞H˜Î Ǩ#∞fl, HÁ`ŒÎQå HíeÊ~K«∞,
=ÅǨ#∞fl
contriver LáåÜ«µâÍe
contriving ǨiHíÅÊ#
control n. JkèHßO°~, J^°∞ѨÙ, xÜ«µ~
„`Œ}. ~ accounts Hí~„>’Å∞ MÏ`ÍÅ∞
control v. xÜ«µ~„u~K«∞, J}K«∞, xO°fi
Ç≤Ï~K«∞, xOÕÌt~K«∞
contradiction

126

conversant

conversation

controller xÜ«µ~`Œ, JkèHßi
controlling interest xÜ«µ~„`Œ}®ã¨H˜Î
controversialist "≥·`Œ~_ôHí∞_«∞
controversy qÇÍ^°~
controvertible ã¨ÇÍÅ∞ Kıܵ« ^°y#, qÇÍ

conversation ã¨OÉèÏ+¨}
converse n. ã¨~Éèß+¨}† `ŒÅH˜~^°∞Åܵ#
converse v. ã¨~Éèß+≤~K«∞, =∞∞K«Û>Ï¡_«∞
conversion =∂O°∞Ê, HÁ`ŒÎ ã≤^®ú~`Íxfl

^®ã¨Ê^°"≥∞·#k
contuse #ÅQõQ˘@∞ì, Híq∞eáÈÜ˵@@∞¡
HÁ@∞ì
contusion ÉÁÇ≤Ê, Hí=∞∞Hí∞ ^≥|ƒ
conundrum H˜¡+¨ì ã¨=∞㨺, âı¡+¨ „Ǩâ◊fl
convalescence H’Å∞H’=_«~, „Hí=∞ã¨fiã¨`
÷ Œ
convalescent ã¨fiã¨÷`Œ K‹~^°∞`Œ∞#fl
convection ã¨~=ǨÏ#~: L+¨‚„Ǩã¨O°}
convene ã¨=∂Çıâ◊ǨO°K«∞, Ǩ[O°∞ǨO°K«∞,
UO®Ê@∞KıÜ«µ∞
convener ã¨=∂Çıâ◊HíO°Î, ã¨~ܡ∂[Hí∞_«∞
convenience "≥ã¨∞Å∞ÉÏ@∞, J#∞Hí∂Å`Œ,
ÖÏÉèí~, J=Hßâ◊~, =ã¨u, ã¨^°∞áåÜ«µ~
convenient J#∞Hí∂Å, ã¨∞ÅÉèí
conveniently J#∞Hí∂Å~Qå, gÅ∞Qå
convention =∞O®º^°, Ǩ^°úu, ã¨~„Ǩ
^®Ü«µ~, PKÍO°~, JÅÇÍ@∞, J~`ŒO®˚
fÜ«µ XǨÊ~^°~, Ö’Hí =∞O®º^°, ã¨^°ã¨∞û,
ã¨Éèí, ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~
conventional „áåp#, ™®~„Ǩ^®ÜµHí. ~
education ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«µq^°º
converge Qõ∞q∞Hí∂_«∞
convergence HíÅܵHí, Jaèã¨O°}
convergent Jaè™®i. ~ beam Jaè™®i
H˜O°}ѨÙ~[~. ~ lens Jaè™®iHí@Hí~.
~ system Jaè™®i =º=ã¨÷
conversable ã¨O°ã¨ ã¨~Éèß+¨} KıÜ«µQõÅ,
HíÅ∞ѨÙQÀÅ∞`Œ#~ QõÅ
conversance K«#∞=Ù, ǨiK«Ü«µ~
conversant ǨiK«Ü«µ~ QõÅ, `ˇeã≤#,
Jaè[˝

convert

J=Å~a~K«_«~ (=∞`Œ) =∂iÊ_ç
(=∞`Œ~) =∂i# =ºH˜Î, (=∞`Œ~)
=∂O°∞Û
convertibility Ǩi=O°ÎhÜ«µ`Œ
convertible =∂O°Û^°y#, Ǩi=O°ÎhÜ«µ.
~ currency =∂O°Hí~ KıÜ«µQõÅ HíO≥hû.
~ debentures ÇÍ>ÏÅ∞Qå =∂O°Û^°y#
O°∞}Ǩ„`ÍÅ∞. ~ securities =∂O°Û^°y#
ÃãHí∂ºi>© Ǩ„`ÍÅ∞
convex Hí∞~ÉèßHßO°, LaH˜#, Lɡƒ`Œ∞ÎQå
L#fl. ~ lens Hí∞~ÉèßHßO° Hí@Hí~. ~
mirror Hí∞~ÉèßHßO° ^°O°Ê}~
convey Ǩ~Ç≤~K«∞, `ˇeÜ«µ*ËÜ«µ∞, „Ǩã¨
i~Ǩ*ËÜ«µ∞
conveyance Pã≤Î=∂O°∞Ê, J<®º„Hß~`Œ
Ǩ„`Œ~, ^°™®ÎÇıA, ÇÍǨÏ#~, ã¨ÇÍs
conveyancer ^°™®ÎÇıAÅ∞ O®¿ã =ºH˜Î
conveyancing ǨÏHí∞¯Å |^°ÖÏܵ~ѨÙ
convict JǨO®kè, ^À+≤: Mˇ·n, tH˜∆`Œ∞_«∞,
<ËO°~ x~°úi~K«∞, <ËO°Qå_«x fO°∞Ê K‹Ç¨C
conviction ^À+¨
xO®úO°}, ^°$_è°
qâÍfiã¨~, tHí∆, #=∞‡Hí~
convince #q∞‡~K«∞, XÇ≤Ê~K«∞, #K«Û*ˇÇC
¨
convivial LÖÏ¡ã¨~QõÅ, ã¨O°^®QõÅ
convocation ™®fl`ŒH’`Œû=~. ~ adress
™®fl`ŒH’Ǩ<®ºã¨~
convoke ã¨=∂Çıâ◊ǨO°K«∞
convolution =∞_«`Œ, K«∞@∞ìH’=_«~, "≥∞e
(uO°Qõ_«~)
convoy O°Hí∆Hí ǨiÇÍO°~, ã¨Ç¨Ï„Ǩܫ∂}~
Kıã¨∞Î#fl ÇÍǨÏ<®Å∞† ÇÍǨÏ#„âı}˜†
Ǩ~Ç≤~K«∞, fã¨∞HÁxáÈ=Ù

127

cop

Hí~Ǩ~† qO°Qõ|_ç #=fi_«~†
=∞¥O°ÛùO’Qõ~† â◊sO°~Ö’ =}∞Hí∞,
qH∆’Éèí~
convulsively y[y[ÖÏ_«∞`Œ¥
co-occur UHíHßÅ~Ö’ ã¨~Éèíq~Kı
cook =~@ =∞x+≤† =~@ KıÜ«µ∞
cookery =~@, áåHí(q^èß#~)
cool K«Å¡x, <ˇ=∞‡^≥·#† K«ÖÏ¡O°∞Û, âÍ~u~Ǩ
*ËÜ«µ∞† K«ÖÏ¡O°∞. ~ breeze K«Å¡`ˇ"≥∞‡O°.
~ headed „ǨâÍ~`Œ"≥∞·#
coolant j`ŒÅHßi
cooling j`ŒbHíO°}. ~ agent j`ŒbHíO°}
HßO°Hí~
coon HíǨ>˜
coop K‹O°Ç¨@∞ì, xO°ƒ~kè~K«∞, H’à◊§Qõ¥_«∞
cooperation ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO°~,
=∞^°Ì`Œ∞,
`À_ÍÊ@∞
cooperative ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO°. ~ agricultural
lands ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO° =º=™®Ü«µ Hı∆„`ÍÅ∞. ~
credit society ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO° ǨO°Ç¨u
ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~. ~ dairy farm ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO° áå_ç
Ǩi„â◊=∞ Hı~„^°~. ~ economy ã¨Ç¨Ï
HßO° Pi÷Hí q^èß#~. ~ farming ã¨Ç¨Ï
HßO° ¿ã^°º~. ~ societies ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO°
ã¨~Ѷ¨∂Å∞
coopt KıO°∞ÛH’=_«~, ã¨Ç¨ÏxÜ«∂=∞Hí~
cooption HíÅ∞ѨÙHÁ#∞, P"≥∂k`Œ ã‘fiHí
O°}~
coordinate ã¨=∂#"≥∞·#, `Œ∞ź, ã¨=∞#fi
ܵ~K«∞, ã¨Ç¨ÏHíi~K«∞† xO°¥Ç¨Hí~,
xOÕÌâÍ~Hí~
coordination ã¨=∞#fiÜ«µ~, ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO°~
coordinator ã¨=∞#fiÜ«µHíO°Î
coowner ÉèßQõ™®fiq∞, ã¨=∞+≤ì Ü«µ[=∂#∞
ÅÖ’ XHíO°∞. ~ ship ã¨=∞+≤ì Ü«∂[
=∂#º~
cop O°Hí∆Hí Éèí@∞_«∞† Ǩ@∞ìHÁ#∞
convulsion

coparcenary
coparcenary ã¨=∂#ÉèßQõ™®fi=∞º~
coparcener ^®Ü«∂k, ÉèßQõ™®fiq∞
copartner ã¨Ç¨ÏÉèßQõ™®fiq∞
cope =∞^°∞O°∞, áÈ>©KıÜ«µ∞, D_«Qõ∞,

=∞^°∞O°∞ÃÑ@∞ì
copious qã¨Î $`Œ, qâÍÅ
copper O®y, `Í„=∞~
coprophagy =ºO°÷ Ǩ^®O°÷ rq
copse z#fl Hí„O°=∞∞Hí¯
copulation "≥∞·^ä°∞#~
copy n. J#∞Híi~K«∞, #HíÅ∞ O®Ü«µ∞,
#HíÅ∞, J#∞HíO°}, „Ǩu† ™®O°¥Ç¨º`Œ. ~
book XO°=_ç ѨÙã¨ÎHí~. ~ right act
O°K«<®™®fi=∞º K«@ì~. ~ right „Qõ~^ä°
™®fi=∞º~
coquet =QõÅ∞áÈ=Ù
coquette z<ˇflÖÏ_ç, =<ˇflÖÏ_ç
coral ǨQõ_«~, „ǨÇÍà◊~. ~ reef ǨQõ_ÍÅ
k|ƒ, „ǨÇÍà◊ aèuÎHí
corbonation HíO°ƒhHíO°}~
cord `Í_«∞. spinal ~ "≥#∞fláå=∞∞. umbilical ~ ÉÁ_«∞¤`Í_«∞. vocal ~
<®^°`Œ~„u
cordage F_« `Íà◊∞§
cordial ã¨∞ǨÏ$^®ƒù=/ ¿ãflǨÏѨÓO°fiHí"≥∞·#,
=∞~z, ǨÏ$^°Üµ« ѨÓO°fiHí, ™®^°O,° Ǩi÷Hí
cordiality ǨO°ú`Œ, ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ ѨÓO°fiHí`Œ,
™®^°O°`Œ
cordially ™®^°O°~Qå, ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ/ ¿ãflǨÏ/
ѨÓO°fiHí~Qå
cordinal points <®Å∞Qõ∞ kHí∞¯Å∞
cordite á⁄QõO®Hí∞~_Í ¿ÑÖË =ã¨∞Î=Ù
cordon Éèí„^°`Í =ÅÜ«µ~, OÕY, ǨǨÏO®†
K«∞@∞ì=∞∞@∞ì
core Kı=, J~`ŒO®ƒùQõ~, ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ~.
business ~ „Ǩ^èß# ÇͺáåO°~. ~
committee KÍÖÏ =∞∞Yº"≥∞·# Híq∞>©/

128

corporate

corporation

ã¨Éèí/ ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~/ ã¨q∞u. ~ group meeting „Ǩ=∞∞Y =ºHí∞ÎÅ ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~. ~
issue KÍÖÏ =∞∞Yº"≥∞·# q+¨Ü«µ~. ~
principle „Ǩ^èß<®â◊Ü«µ~. ~ sector
H©ÅHí O°~Qõ~
coriander HÁuÎq∞O°. ~ seeds ^è°x
Ü«∂Å∞
cork aO°_Í, ɡ~_«∞, aO°_ÍÇıÜ«µ∞
corkage |Ü«µ>˜#∞~z
`ˇK«∞ÛHí∞#fl
=∞^°º~ÃÑ· =㨥Å∞Kı¿ã O°∞ã¨∞~
corm Hí~^°~
cornea TO°Éˇ@ì_«~, P<ˇHßÜ«µ, "≥∞∞Hí¯
*Á#fl. sweet ~ "≥∞∞Hí¯*Á#fl
corn â◊√Hõ¡Ñ¨@ÅO
cornice K«¥O°∞
corollary Ǩi}®=∞~, fO®‡#~, LǨ
ã≤^®ú~`Œ~, Ѷe¨ `Œ~† ǨOº° =™®#~, J=º=
^èß#~Qå `ËÖËÛ Éèß=~, ǨiÇı+¨~. ~
radiata qH˜O°} =∞~_«Å~
coronal =∞ã¨ÎHí ã¨~|~kè, H˜s@~, =∂Å,
ǨO°~
coronary ǨiǨÏ$^°Ü«µ, ǨÏ$^°Ü«∂xH˜
ã¨~|~kè~z. ~ artery ^è°=∞x
coronation Ǩ>Ïìaè¿+Hí~
coroner ^°∞O°‡O°} qKÍO°}®kèHßi
coronet =∞∞Hí∞@~, H˜s@~, =∂Å
coronoid =~HíO≥·#
corporal z#fl Ãã·xH’^Àºy† â◊sO°
ã¨~|~kè† Ç¨q„`Œ =ã¨∞Î=Ùefl L~Kı =G~
corporality ã¨â◊sO°`Œ
corporate ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~Qå Kıi#, ã¨~ã¨÷Qå
UO°Ê_ç#. ~ governance ÇͺáåO°
ã¨~™®÷ xO°fiǨÏ}~. ~ morality
ÇͺáåO° ã¨~™®÷Qõ`Œ hu. ~ sector
HßO˘ÊOÕ>ò O°~Qõ~. ~ society =}˜H±
ã¨=∂[~. ~ tax ÇͺáåO° ã¨~ã¨÷ÅÃÑ·
qkè~Kı Ǩ#∞fl

corporation

(ѨÙO°áåÅHí)
ã¨~ã¨÷,
ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~, K«@ì|^°Ì ã¨~ã¨÷
corporeal âÍsO°Hí, ™®HßO°"≥∞·#, ^≥·Ç≤ÏHí,
=∞¥O°Î, „Ǩã¨∞Êù@, Éè“uHí. ~ property
Éè“uHí ã¨~Ǩ^°
corps Ǩ>ÏÅ~, Ãã·xHí^°à◊~
corpse =∞$`Œ^ÕǨÏ~
corpulence |Å∞ѨÙ
corpulent 㨥÷Å, |eã≤#
corpus O°K«<® ™®=∞„y. ~ fund =∞¥Å
xkè
corpuscle Hí}~
corpuscular Hí}ã¨~|~kè. ~ theory
Hí}ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
corral Ǩâ◊∞=ÙÅ ^˘_ç¤
correct ã¨iܡµ#
· , `ŒÇC¨ Å∞ÖËx, ã¨=i~K«∞,
k^°∞Ì, |∞kÌK‹Ç¨C
correction k^°∞ÌÉÏ@∞, ã¨=O°}, qâ’
^è°#~
corrective ã¨~㨯i~Kı, ÉÏQõ∞ǨiKı. ~
measures ã¨ik^ÕÌ K«O°ºÅ∞. ~ punishment ã¨~㨯i~Kı tHí∆
correctness `ŒÇ¨CÅ∞ÖËx, ã¨O°Üµ#
correlate ã¨Ç¨Ï ã¨~|~^è°~, J<Àº#º
ã¨~|~^è°~ QõÅ =ã¨∞Î=ÙÖ’¡ XHí>˜† ǨO°
ã¨ÊO° ã¨~|~^è°~ Híey~K«∞
correlation ã¨Ç¨Ïã¨~|~^è°~
correlative ǨO°ã¨ÊO° ã¨~|~^è°~ QõÅ,
ǨO°ã¨ÊO®„t`Œ"≥∞·#
correspondence L`ŒÎO° „Ǩ`Œ∞º`ŒÎO®Å∞,
J#∞O°¥Ç¨º~. ~ course ^°¥O°q^°º
correspondence theory J#∞Qõ∞}º
ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
correspond ã¨~„Ǩk~K«∞, L`ŒÎO° „Ǩ`Œ∞º`ŒÎ
O®Å∞ #_«∞Ѩن ã¨=∞~Qå L#fl, J#∞
Qõ∞}~Qå L#fl

129

coryza

qÖËYi/ „Ǩuxkè
J#∞O°¥Ç¨, J#∞Qõ∞},
`Œy#, ã¨^°$â◊, ã¨=∂#, D_≥·#
corridor =O°~_Í, =™®O®, Ǩ~K«
corrigendum `Œá⁄ÊǨCŠǨ>˜ìHí
corroborate |ÅǨO°K«∞, O°¥_è˜Ç¨O°K«∞
corroboration |ÅǨO°K«_«~, O°¥_è˜
ǨO°K«_«~
corrobortant |Å=O°÷Hí~, |ÅǨiKı
q+¨Ü«µ~
corrode H’`ŒÃÑ@∞ì, HßÅ„HíÇı∞}® #t~K«∞,
`Œ∞ǨCǨ@∞ì, HßÅ„HíÇı∞}® |ÅÇ‘Ï#=∞Qõ∞,
K‹_çáÈ=Ù
corrosion H’`Œ, ǨÏi~ѨÙ, uxÇıÜ«µ_«~,
`Œ∞ǨCǨ@ì_«~, Hí∆Ü«µ~
corrosive ǨÏi~Ǩ *Ë¿ã
corrugator Hí#∞ÉÁ=∞efl
=∞∞_çKı
Hí~_«O°~
corrupt Å~K«Q˘~_ç, JqhuHíO°, Hí∞o§#,
„Éèí+¨∞ìǨ>˜ì#, Å~K«q∞K«∞Û, HíbÎKıÜ«µ∞,
Hí∞o§áÈ=Ù, K‹_çáÈ=Ù, K‹_«Q˘@∞ì, „Éèí+¨ì
=∞Qõ∞
corruption Jqhu, Å~K«Q˘~_ç`Œ#~
corruptionist JqhuǨO°∞_«∞
corruptive áå_«∞Kı¿ã, K‹_«Q˘>ıì
corset O°qH≥, Hí~K«∞Hí~† ÉÏ_ô
corslet LO°„™®Î}~, aQõ∞=Ù@~w
cortege J~`Œº„H˜Ü«µÅ TOÕy~ѨÙ
cortex K‹@∞ì Ǩ@ì, <®O°Ç¨@ì, =ůÅ~
corundum Z„O°x H≥~ѨÙ, Hí∞O°∞q~^°~
coruscate "≥∞O°Ü«µ∞, „ǨHßt~K«∞
coruscation "≥∞O°Ñ¨Ù
corvee "≥>˜ì
corvette z#fl Ü«µ∞^°ú<ÒHí
coryza Ǩ_çâ◊~
correspondent
corresponding

cosmetic
cosmetic ™œ~^°O°º ™®^è°Hí (~). ~ measures ÃÑ·ÃÑ· K«O°ºÅ∞. ~ nature ÃÑ·ÃÑ·

"≥∞O°∞Qõ∞Å∞
cosmetics ™œ~^°O°º ™®^è°<®Å∞, ™œ~^°O°º
™®=∞„y
cosmetic surgery ™œ~^°O°º ™®^è°Hí â◊G
zH˜`Œû
cosmic qâ◊fiã¨~|~kè, [Qõ`ü ã¨~|~kè.
~ dust J~`ŒiHí∆ ^è°¥o. ~ evolution
qâ◊fiǨi}®=∞~. ~ noise qâ◊fi`ŒO°~Qõ
â◊|Ì~. ~ rays qâ◊fi H˜O°}®Å∞† Hßã≤‡H±
H˜O°}®Å∞
cosmism qâ◊fiǨi}®=∞ ^°O°≈#~
cosmodrome LǨ„QõÇ¨Ï „Ǩܡ∂Qõ Hı~„^°~
cosmogony [Qõ^°∞`ŒÊuÎ (ÇÍ^°~)
cosmography ã¨$+≤ì =O°‚#
cosmology qâ’fi^°ƒù= âÍG~
cosmonaut Ç’º=∞Qåq∞, O’^°ã‘ Ü«∂„u
Hí∞_«∞, J~`ŒiHí∆ Ü«∂„uHí∞_«∞
cosmopolis J<ËHí *Ï`Œ∞Å∞ L~_Ë #QõO°~
cosmopolitan qâÍÅ^°$+≤ì QõÅ, ã¨O°fi
ã¨=∞Éèß=~ QõÅ, qâ◊fi[h#, qâ◊fiÇͺǨÎ
cosmopolitanisation qâ◊fi[hhHíO°}
cosmopolitanise qâ◊fi[h# Éèß=~ Híe
y~K«∞
cosmopolite „ǨǨ~K« áœO°∞_«∞† „ǨǨ~K«
ÇͺǨÎ"≥∞·# [~`Œ∞=Ù/ "≥∞∞Hí¯
cosmos qâ◊fi~, [Qõ`Œ∞Î
cosmosony ™œO° =º=™®÷^谺ܫµ#~
cosset |∞[˚y~K«∞, QåO®|~ KıÜ«µ∞
cost n. "≥Å, =∞¥Åº~, ^è°O°† YO°∞Û, #+¨ì~.
~ cut YO°∞Û `Œyæ~ѨÙ. ~ of living
r=# =ºÜ«µ~. ~ of production
L`ÍÊ^°# =ºÜ«µ~. ~ price HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞
^è°O°† Ys^°∞, qÅ∞= Hí@∞ì
costing =㨥Î`ÍÊ^°# =ºÜ«∂xfl J~K«<®
ÇıÜ«µ_«~† J=∞‡Hí~ ^è°O°#∞ xO°‚ܵ~K«_«~

130

countenance

costive =∞Å|^°ú~Qå L#fl
costiveness =∞Å|^°úHí~
costly Ys^≥·#, „Ç≤Ü«µ"≥∞·#
costume PǨO°º~, ^°∞ã¨∞ÎÅ∞, Çı+¨~
cosy ã¨∞Y"≥∞·#, ǨܵJܵ#
coterie =∞∞Oîß, Qõ∞~ѨÙ, |$~^°~
cottage Qõ∞_çÃã, Hí∞>©O°~
cottage industry Hí∞>©O° Ǩi„â◊=∞
cottager Qõ∞_çÃã/ Hí∞>©O° ÇÍã≤
couch n. =∞~K«~† ǨO°∞ѨÙ, â◊Ü«µº, ™Èá¶å
couch v. #Hí∞¯, ^®Qõ∞HÁ#∞, á⁄~z

L~_«∞, =∂@∞ÇıÜ«µ∞
^°Qõ∞æ. productive ~ HíѶ¨~`À
Hí∂_ç# ^°Qõ∞æ. ~ up ã¨=∞Hí∂O°∞Û.
whooping ~ H’i~`Œ ^°Qõ∞æ
council =∞~_«e, Ǩi+¨`Œ∞Î, ã¨q∞u.
ligislative ~ âÍã¨# =∞~_«e. ~ of
advisers ã¨ÅǨ =∞~_«e. ~ of ministers =∞~„u=O°æ~. ~ of states
O®[ºã¨Éèí. ~ of war Ü«µ∞^°ú Ǩi+¨`Œ∞Î
counsel n. ã¨ÅǨ, <®ºÜ«µÇÍk, <®ºÜ«µ
ã¨ÅǨ^®O°∞, =H©Å∞
counsel v. ã¨ÅǨ K‹Ç¨C, Ç≤Ï`ŒÉ’^è°KıÜ«µ∞
counsellor =H©Å∞, ã¨ÅǨ^®O°∞, Ç≤Ï`Œ
É’^è°Hí∞_«∞
count n. Qõ}#, ÖˇHí¯, ã¨~Yº, <Ë`Œ<®}º`Œ,
XHí aO°∞^°∞
count v. ÖˇH˜¯~K«∞,
[=∞Çıã¨∞HÁ#∞,
Q˘Ç¨ÊQå Z~K«∞, qâ◊fiã≤~K«∞, ^°$_è°~Qå
Pt~K«∞
count down `Œ∞k ã¨<®flǨÅ∞, UO®Ê@∞
countenance n. ã¨Ç¨Ï#~, xâ◊ÛÅ`Œfi~,
Ãã÷ÂO°º~, =∞∞Y"≥·Yi, J#∞„QõǨÏ~, "≥∞ǨC,
ã¨=∞‡u, P"≥∂^°~
countenance v. Jaè=∂x~K«∞, P"≥∂
k~K«∞, „áÈ`ŒûÇ≤Ï~K«∞, FO°∞ÛHÁ#∞
cough

counter
counter qO°∞^°ú,

„ǨuHí∂Å, =ºuOÕHí, „Ǩu
ÇÍ^°#, LǨã¨~㨯 $u. ~ act ǨiǨÏ
i~K«∞, x+¨ÊùÅ~ KıÜ«µ∞. ~ action
qѶ¨∂`Œ~, ǨiǨO°~, „ǨuK«O°º, „Ǩu
Hí∂Å „H˜Ü«µ. ~ argument „ǨuÇÍ^°#.
~ attack Z^°∞O°∞^®_ç. ~ attraction
„Ǩ`ͺHíO°¬}. ~ blast f„= Y~_«#~.
~ balance ã¨i`Œ¥Hí~. ~ change
J_«¤y~ѨÙ. ~ charge „Ǩ`ͺO’Ǩ}. ~
claim Z^°∞O°∞^®ÇÍ. ~ check xO’^è°~.
~ clock wise JǨã¨=º~. ~ culture
„Ǩu ã¨~㨯 $u. ~ espionage „Ǩu
Qõ¥_è°K«O°º~. ~ guarantee H“~@O∑
QåºO°~>©, Híh㨠ÖÏÉèߊǨg∞. ~ foil
=∂O°∞„Ǩu. ~ insurgency „Ǩu
q„^ÀǨÏ~. ~ irritant „ǨuH∆’ÉèíHí~. ~
mand =ºuOÕHß^ÕâÍÅ∞ *ÏsKıÜ«µ∞. ~
movement =ºuOÕHí L^°º=∞~. ~
revolution „ǨuqǨ¡=~. ~ vailing
credit ã¨=∂hHíO°} ǨO°Ç¨u. ~
vailing duty ã¨=∂hHíO°} ã¨∞~Hí~. ~
weapon „Ǩ`ŒºG~, „Ǩ`ͺܫµ∞^è°~. ~
weight „ǨuÉèßO°~
counterfeit K«@ì qO°∞^°ú"≥∞·#, ^˘~Qõ,
#H˜b
countermarch "≥#∞kO°Qõ_«~
counterpart ã¨=∞™®÷ܵ =ºH˜Î, „Ǩu
O°¥Ç¨~
counterpoise ã¨i`Œ¥Hí~†
ã¨i`Œ¥Qõ
KıÜ«µ∞, ã¨=∞ã≤÷uÖ’H˜ `ˇK«∞Û
countersign =∂O°∞ ã¨~`ŒHí~, J~wHí
i~z ã¨=∞i÷~K«∞
countervail ã¨i`Œ¥Qõ∞† ã¨=∞Lr˚
countless ÖˇHí¯ÖËx, Jã¨~MϺHí
countryard P=O°}/ „áå~Qõ}~
county lÖÏ¡, =∞~_«Å~

131
coup Hí∞„@, u~°∞QÆ∞ÉÏ@∞
coup de grace KÍ=Ù^≥|ƒ
coupd' etat uO°∞Qõ∞ÉÏ@∞

courtesy

[iÇ≤ „ǨÉèí∞

`Ífixfl Hí∂Å^ÀÜ«µ_«~
de main PHíã≤‡Hí ^®_ç
de maitre JkOÕ ^≥|ƒ
dessi `˘e „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~, `˘e^≥|ƒ
de theatre (<®@Hí~Ö’) J#¥
ǨϺ"≥∞·# =∞Å∞ѨÙ
coupe |~_ç `ÀÖË =ºH˜Î, Qõ¥_«∞ |~_ç,
O≥·Å∞Ö’ W^°ÌO°∞ =∂„`ŒÇı∞ „Ǩܫ∂}˜~K«
gÅ∞~_Ë Qõk
couplet kfiǨk, Ǩ^°º áå^®Å [~@
coupling ã¨~^èß#~
courage Qõ∞~_≥^è≥·O°º~, ™®Ç¨Ïã¨~, `ˇy~ѨÙ
courageous ^è≥·O°º~QõÅ, xO°ƒùÜ«µ
courier HÁiÜ«µO∑: ã¨=∂KÍO° ÇÍǨÏHí∞_«∞
course Qõ=∞#~, kâ◊, #_«`Œ, „Hí=∞~,
=∂O°æ~, ǨO°∞Qõ∞Ǩ~^≥~, Ǩ~^≥~Ö’ Ǩi
Q≥`ËÎ „Ǩ^Õâ◊~, O°∞`Œ∞„™®=~, P^°O°∞=Ù,
áåOîߺ~â◊~. ~ pattern áåOî°º „Hí=∞~
courser Ǩ~^≥Ѩ٠Qõ∞„O°~
coursing Çı@
court O®*Ï™®÷#~, <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~, „H©_Í
ã¨÷Å~, „¿Ñ=∞#∞ Ji÷~K«∞. ~ directive
H’O°∞ì P^Õâ◊~. ~ of law <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~.
~ martial Ãã·xHí <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~. ~ of
appealate jurisdiction ѨÙ#ifiKÍO°
}®kèHßO°~ QõÅ H’O°∞ì. ~ of appeal
ѨÙ#ifiKÍO°} <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~. ~ of competent jurisdiction `Œy# JkèHßO°
Ǩikè QõÅ H’O°∞ì. ~ of wards ã¨~O°H˜∆
`Œ∞Å <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~
courtesan Ǩ_«∞ѨÙHí`ˇÎ, Çıâ◊º
courtesy =∞O®º^°, ^°Ü«µ, ã¨O°ã¨`Œ. ~
call =∞O®º^° ѨÓO°fiHí~Qå HíÅ=_«~,
=∞O®º^°Hí∞ K«¥ã≤O®=_«~
coup
coup
coup
coup

courtier
courtier O®[Éèí$`Œ∞º_«∞
courtship J#∞O°~[#~, „¿Ñ=∂ÉèíºO°÷#
covalance ã¨=∞ܡ∂[hÜ«µ`Œ
covalent ã¨=∞ܡ∂[hÜ«µ. ~ bond ã¨=∞

ܡ∂[hÜ«µ |~^è°~
covariant ã¨Ç¨ÏK«O° O®t
covenant XǨÊ~^°~, X_«~|_çHí (Ǩ„`Œ~)
covenantee X_«~|_çHíHí∞ |^°∞ú_«∞
covenenter XǨÊ~^°~ Kıã¨∞Hí∞#fl =ºH˜Î
coventur L=∞‡_ç ÇͺáåO°~
cover =∞¥`Œ, HíǨC, =∞∞ã¨∞Qõ∞, ѨÙã¨ÎHí~

J@ì, XO°, „H˜H≥>òÖ’ ÉÏ>òû"≥∞<üHí∞ Hí∞_ç
Kıu "≥·Ñ¨Ù (Z_«=∞ KıuÇÍ@~ P@Qå_çH˜
Z_«=∞ "≥·Ñ¨Ù). ~ story q=O°}®`Œ‡Hí
Hí^ä°#~
coverage ÇÍO®Î¿ãHíO°}, Éèí„^°`å xkè,
„Ǩ=∂^° Ǩiq∞u
covert „ǨK«Ûù#fl, O°Ç¨Ï㨺, Qõ∞ǨÎ. ~ observation „ǨK«Ûù#fl ǨijÅ#
covert operation q„^ÀǨÏK«O°º, O°Ç¨Ï㨺
HßO°ºHíÖÏǨ~
coverture P„â◊Ü«µ~
cover up HíÇ≤ÊѨÙK«Û_«~
covet (`Œ#k Hßx ^®xfl) J¿ÑH˜∆~K«∞
covetous ^°∞O®â◊QõÅ, ¿ÑO®ã¨QõÅ, Å∞|ú
covetousness J`ͺâ◊, ¿ÑO®ã¨, ^°∞O®â◊,
„Ǩ֒Éèí~
covin Hí∞„@, X_«~|_çHí, Qõ¥_«∞ѨÙOîß}˜
cow n. P=Ù, J~^°qHßO°"≥∞·#, K«¥_«ÖËx,
`ŒQõx, â◊∞„Éèí`ŒÖËx, `ŒÅ=∂ã≤# =ºH˜Î,
QõO°›}©Ü«µ∞_«∞, âÍY, pѨÙO°∞Hí@ì. ~ pea
JÅK«~^°Å∞, ÉÁ|ƒO°∞¡
cow v. ÖÁ~Qõnã¨∞HÁ#∞, ^®iH˜ `ˇK«∞Û
HÁ#∞, J}K«∞. ~ down J}zÇıÜ«µ∞,
J}Qõ„^˘Hí∞¯, F_«Q˘@∞ì, [ܵ~K«∞,
Ju„Híq∞~K«∞, `Œyæ~K«∞, =∞zÛHíǨO°∞Û

132

craftswoman

coward ÉèíÜ«µã¨∞÷_«∞, Ç≤iH˜ÇÍ_«∞, cèO°∞=Ù
cowardice Ç≤iH˜`Œ#~
cower ÉèíÜ«µ~`À Hí∞~Qõ∞/ #Hí∞¯
cowherd Ǩâ◊∞=ÙÅ HßǨi
cowl =∞∞ã¨∞Qõ∞
cowrie Qõ=fi
coxcomb |_ÍܵH’O°∞, ™⁄Qõã¨∞Hß_«∞
coxcombry _Í|∞ã¨i/ „Ǩ=O°Î#
coy a_çÜ«µÇ¨_Ë, ã≤Qõ∞æQõÅ, UHß~`Œ~Ö’

L#fl
coyness a_çÜ«µ~, ã≤Qõ∞æ
coze ã¨~Éèß+¨}, =∞∞K«Û@†

ã¨~Éèß+≤~K«∞,
=∞∞K«Û>˜~K«∞
cozen "≥∂ã¨y~K«∞
crab Ç‘`,Œ Z~„_«HßÜ«µ† HíO®¯@HíO®t† ÃÑ^°Ì
|O°∞=Ù#∞ Z`ËÎ Ü«µ~„`Œ~† H’Ç≤+≤ì† wHí∞,
áÈO®_«∞
crack K«Ö’H˜Î qã¨∞O°∞, ǨQ∞õ ÅHÁ@∞ì, c@Å∞
Ǩ_«∞. ~ down qO°∞K«∞Hí∞Ǩ_«∞
cracker @áåHßÜ«µ, @áåã¨∞† J_«Hí`ˇÎO°
cracking `ˇ·Å Éèí~[#~
crackle z@Ǩ@ ^è°fix
crack c@Å∞, ǨQõ∞Å∞, <ˇiÜ«µ† |_Íܵ†
_«~|~† ÃÑ>ıÅ∞=∞<Ë ^è°fix† "≥„iÇÍ_«∞,
=∞~z P@Qå_«∞, Ǩ~^≥Ѩ٠Qõ∞„O°~, Hí#fl~
^˘~Qõ, W~>˜ ^ÀÑ≤_ç† Kè«Ö’H˜Î
cradle _ÀeHí, TÜ«µÅ, ѨÙ>˜ì# KÀ@∞.
~ song *’Åáå@
crafish QåAO˘Ü«µº
craft Híà◊, H“â◊Å~, <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~† HíǨ@~†
=$uÎq^°º, ÇͺáåO°~, z#fl F_«
craftiness l`Œ∞ÎÅ=∂i`Œ#~, <ËO°Êi`Œ#~
craftsman xѨÙ}∞_≥·# ǨxÇÍ_«∞, Híà®
HßO°∞_«∞
craftsmanship Ǩx`Œ#~, =$uÎ xѨÙ}`Œ
craftswoman Híà®Hßi}˜

133

crag
crag ZQõ∞_«∞
cram Hí∞Hí∞¯,

kQõ∞_«∞Qå L#fl Qõ∞@ì
Hí∂O°∞† ZHí∞¯= u#∞† |>©ì

ÃÑ@∞ì
cramp uq∞‡i, P@~Hí~
crampon ֒ǨÏѨ٠HÁH≥¯~
crane HÁ~Qõ† |O°∞=ÙÅ <ˇ`ËÎ

Ü«µ~„`Œ~,
hà◊∞§ Ç‘ÖËÛ Q˘@ì~
craniometry HíáåÅq∞u
craniotomy HíáåÅKıÛù^°#
cranium HíáåÅ~
crank Tyã¨ÖÏ_Ë, Hí^°ÖÏ_Ë, =∞∞xy
áÈÜ˵† =~ѨÙQõÅ WO°∞ã¨∞, =„H’H˜Î, qǨ
s`Œ =ºH˜Î
crankle "≥∞e, =~Ѩن =~Ѩ٠uO°∞Qõ∞,
"≥∞euO°∞Qõ∞
cranky O’y+≤ì, K«~K«Å, "≥∞euiy#
cranny c@, ǨQõ∞Å∞, O°~„^è°~
crash q<®â◊~, ÃÑà◊ÃÑà◊=∞<Ë â◊|Ì~†
qiyǨ_«∞, Hí∂eáÈ=Ù
crashlanding |Å=~`Œ~Qå kQõ@~/
k~K«@~
crash programme J`Œº=ã¨O° HßO°º
„Hí=∞~
crater JyflǨO°fi`Œ aÅ~
crave (|Å"≥∞·#) H’iHí, Ji÷~K«∞,
Ü«∂z~K«∞, Pt~K«∞
craving `Œ$+¨‚, =∞#óѨÓO°fiHí ÇÍ~Kè«
craw ǨHí∆∞Å PǨO°H’â◊~
crawl áåHí_«~, <ˇ=∞‡kQå #_«=_«~
crayon O°~Qõ∞|ÅǨ~
craze "≥∂A, Ç≤zÛH’iHí, "≥„i, "≥„O≥u~
Î K«∞
craziness "≥„i`Œ#~, =∞<À^ÒO°ƒÅº~,
Ü«∂=
crazy Ç≤zÛ, "≥„i (Çͺ"≥∂ǨÏ~)
cream g∞Qõ_«, ™®O®~â◊~
creamy layer L#fl`Œ =O°æ~, ã¨~Ǩ#fl
=O°æ~

creep

=∞_«`Œ (Qõ∞O°∞Î) („H˜H≥>òÖ’) |~ux
qã≤OÕ =ºH˜Î, ÉϺ>òû"≥∞<ü ^®>˜ O®Hí∂_«x
w`Œ, =∞_«`ŒÅ∞ Ǩ_«∞
create ã¨$+≤ì~K«∞, HíeÊ~K«∞, L`ŒÊuÎKıÜ«µ∞
creation ã¨$[#, ã¨$+≤ì, HíÅÊ#, xO®‡}~
creative ã¨$[<®`Œ‡Hí. ~ evolution ã¨$[
<®`Œ‡Hí Ǩi}®=∞ÇÍ^°~. ~ power
ã¨$[<®`Œ‡Hí â◊H˜Î
creativity ã¨$[<®`Œ‡Hí`Œ
creator ã¨$+≤ìHíO°Î, ǨO°=∂`Œ‡
creature „áå}˜, rq, =∂#=Ù_«∞,
[~`Œ∞=Ù, xÜ«∂=∞HíǨ„`Œ~
creaturely „áå}˜ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
creche tâ◊∞ã¨~O°Hí∆Hí Hı~„^°~
credelous ã¨∞ÅÉèí~Qå #=∞‡^°y#, É’à®
credence qâÍfiã¨~, #=∞‡Hí~
credential ܡ∂Qõº`Í Ç¨„`Œ~, JkèHßO°
Ǩ„`Œ~, „Ǩ=∂} Ǩ„`Œ~
credentials ǨiK«Ü«µ Ǩ„`ÍÅ∞† JkèHßO°
Ǩ„`ÍÅ∞
credibility #q∞‡Hí, qâ◊fiã¨hÜ«µ`Œ, „Ǩu+¨ª
credible #=∞‡^°y#, qâ◊fiã¨hÜ«µ
credit ǨO°Ç¨u, [=∞. ~ account [=∞
Ǩ^°∞Ì, JO°∞=ÙMÏ`Í. ~ exchange O°∞}
=∂O°Hí~. ~ policy O°∞}q^èß#~. ~
rating ǨO°Ç¨u „Ǩ=∂}~
creditable H©iÎ^®Ü«µHí"≥∞·#, ܡ∂Qõº"≥∞·#
creditor JÇ≤ÊzÛ#ÇÍ_«∞, O°∞}^®`Œ
credit squeeze JǨCÅ∞ xeÇ≤"≥Ü«µº_«~
credulity É’à®`Œ#~
creed ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«µ~, =∞`ŒqâÍfiã¨~, Jaè
„áåÜ«∂Å "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~
creek ã¨=∞∞„^°ÑÙ¨ áåÜ«µ, =∞_«∞Qõ∞, WO°∞H≥#
·
Ö’Ü«µ, z#fl F_«OÕ=Ù
creel ÃÑ^°ÌKıǨÅ|∞@ì
creep cèu, áåHí_~
« , áåHí∞, ^˘~QõKÍ@∞Qå
áÈ=Ù
crease

creeper
creeper fQõ,

áå^°∞, QåÅ~† JÅ∞¡H∞í áÈÜ˵
=∞#ã¨Î`Œfi~ QõÅ
creepy áåHı, QõQõ∞O®Ê@∞ Híey~Kı
cremate J~`Œº„H˜Ü«µÅ∞ KıÜ«µ∞
cremation J~`Œº„H˜Ü«µÅ∞,
^°Ç¨Ï#
ã¨~™®¯O°~, â◊=^°Ç¨Ï#~. ~ ground
O°∞„^°Éèí¥q∞, â◊‡âÍ#~
crematorium â◊= ^°Ç¨Ï# âÍÅ
creme de la creme J`Œ∞º`ŒÎ=∞"≥∞·#,
„ǨuÉèß áå@ÇÍÅ∞ QõÅ
cremery áåÅ J~Qõ_ç
cremona Ѷ≤_ËÅ∞
crenate O°~Ǩ~ =~>˜ J~K«∞QõÅ
creole ã¨O°mHí$`Œ Éèß+¨, xO®fiã≤`Œ Éèß+¨
creolization Hı=Å~ ÇͺáåO° Éèß+¨Qå
q∞yeáÈ=_«~
crepe <˘Hí∞¯Å A@∞ì, L~QõO®Å A@∞ì
crepitate z@Ǩ@ ^è°fixKıÜ«µ∞, HíO°‚ HíOî’O°
^è°fix KıÜ«µ∞† Ѷ¨∂@∞ÇÍã¨# QõÅ „^°ÇÍxfl
z=∞∞‡
crepuscular ™®Ü«µ~HßÅѨ٠ã¨~[ "≥Å∞
Qõ∞Ö’ uiQÕ, =∞ã¨Hí pHí>˜Qå L#fl
crescendo Ǩ`ÍHí ™®÷ܵ, „Hí=∂aè=$kú
crescent K«~„^°=~Hí, JO°úK«~„^®HßO°†
=O°ú=∂#
crest EÅ∞, Ç≤~Kè«~, `Œ∞O®Üµ, A@∞ì,
tY, zǨÏfl~. ~ fallen Hí∞~y#, JǨ
[Ü«µ~ á⁄~k#, "≥Å"≥ÅáÈܵ#
cretaceous ã¨∞#flѨÙ
cretinism ÇÍ=∞#`Œfi~
cretonne =∞∞`ŒHí #¥Å∞ Qõ∞_«¤, HíÅ~Hßs
=∞∞`ŒHí
crevasse (Ç≤Ï=∞Y~_«~) c@
crevice ã¨~^°∞, c@
crew ã≤|ƒ~k, <®qHíQõ}~, |$~^°~,
Qõ∞~Ѩن á⁄>˜ìQå HíuÎi~z# A@∞ì

134

crimp

crimson

ã¨#fl ^®O°~
`˘>˜ì† LÜ«∂ºÅ
`˘>˜ì, Qõ#∞ÅÖ’H˜ kQõ_ÍxH˜ LǨܡ∂
y~Kı K«„@~† z#fl Qõ∞_çÃㆠ„Qõ~^ä°K“O°º~
cribbage XHí O°Hí"≥∞·# ¿ÑHß@
crick "≥∞_«#O°~ Ǩ@∞ìH’=_«~, ɡ}∞Hí∞
cricket „H˜H≥>ò P@† H©K«∞O®Üµ, z=∞‡@,
WÅH’_ç
cridecoeur ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ Çı^°#, PÇıâ◊ѨÓi`Œ
q[˝Ç≤Î, "≥∞∞O°† Jã¨=∞‡u
crier ÇıÅ~áå_Ë/ JiKı/ KÍ>˜~Kı =ºH˜Î
crikey Pâ◊ÛO®ºO°÷Hí~
crime JǨO®^è°~, ^°∞+¨¯ $`Œº~, <ËO°~
criminal <ËO° ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#, J#∞z`Œ†
^À+≤, <ËO°Qå_«∞, JǨO®kè. ~ advocacy „H˜q∞#Öò Hıã¨∞Ö’ ÇÍ^°#Å∞. ~
breach of trust qâÍfi㨠Ѷ¨∂`Œ∞Hí~,
#=∞‡Hí „^ÀǨÏ~. ~ conspiracy <ËO°~
K‹Ü«µº_ÍxH˜ Hí∞„@. ~ law <ËO®ÅHí∞
ã¨~|~kè~z# <®ºÜ«µâÍã¨#. ~ procedure code tH∆߇㨇 $u, tH∆ßã¨~Ç≤Ï`Œ.
~ propensity JǨO®^è° „Ǩ=$uÎ. ~
psychology <ËO°ã¨∞÷Å
=∞#ã¨Î`Ífi^è°º
Ü«µ#~
criminalisation of politics O®[
H©Ü«∂Å#∞ <ËO°=∞Ü«µ~ KıÜ«µ_«~
criminalise <ËO°=∞Ü«µ~KıÜ«µ∞
criminate PHı∆Ç≤~K«∞, <ËO°~"≥∂ѨÙ, PO’
Ç≤~K«∞† ^À+≤ Jx O°∞A=Ù KıÜ«µ∞
criminology <ËO°qKÍO°} âÍG~
criminous <ËO°~ Kıã≤#. ~ clerk „H≥·ã¨Î=
=∞`Œ L^Àºy
crimp n. ^°à®i† "≥∂ã¨~ Kıã≤ Ǩ>ÏÅ~Ö’
KıOÕÛ =ºH˜Î
crimp v. Ǩ_«ÇıÜ«µ∞, =∞∞_«`ŒÅ∞ Ǩ_Ë@∞¡
KıÜ«µ∞† "≥∂ã¨y~K«∞

crimson

crewel Je¡Hí, XHíO°Hí~
crib Ǩâ◊∞=ÙÅHí∞ Qõ_ç¤Çı¿ã

=∞∞^°∞O°∞ ZO°∞ѨÙ, ã≤~^è°¥O°~,
H≥~ѨÙ=<ˇfl
cringe Juq#Ü«µ~, #Hí¯q#Ü«µ~
crinite #¥Qõ∞ QõÅ, ÉÁK«∞ÛQõÅ
crinkle "≥∞euǨC/ uO°∞Qõ∞, =∞∞_«`ŒÅ∞
Ǩ_«∞
crinkum crankum Jë®ì=„Hí"≥∞·#,
=~HíO°∞¡ uiy#, Qõlalܡµ·#
crinoid `Í=∞O°Ñ¨Ó=Ù PHßO°=∞∞#fl
crinoline Ü«µ∞^°ú <ÒHíÅ K«∞@¥ì ay~z#
=ņ Hí~|o
cripple Hí∞~>˜ÇÍ_«∞, Jâ◊Hí∞Î_«∞, |ÅÇ‘Ï#
"≥∞·#, Kı`ŒHßx, xsfiO°º~KıÜ«µ∞
crisis ã¨~H∆’Éèí~, ã¨~Hí@~
crisp ÃÑà◊∞ã¨∞, HíO°HíO°ÖÏ_Ë, aQõ∞"≥·#,
ã¨∞Êù@"≥∞·#, K«∞O°∞H≥·#† ã¨~H˜∆ǨÎ~
crispate ÃÑà◊∞Ãã·#, HíO°HíO°ÖÏ_Ë, JÅÅ
=~>˜ J~K«∞QõÅ
crispation L~QõO®Å∞ K«∞@∞ìH’=_«~†
ã¨~H’K«~
crispy ÃÑà◊∞Ãã·#, L~QõO®Å∞ K«∞@∞ìHÁ#fl,
K«∞O°∞H≥·#
criss cross Qõlal, JÅ∞¡Hí∞#fl, zO®Hí∞.
~ pattern xÅ∞=Ù J_«∞¤w`ŒÅ`À Hí∂_ç#
cristate H˜s@~/ tYO°~ QõÅ
criterion P^èßO°~, „Ǩ=∂}~, ÅHí∆}~
critic q=∞O°≈Hí∞_«∞, `ŒÇ¨CÖˇ<Ëfl =ºH˜Î
critical H˜¡+¨ìǨiã≤÷u, ã¨~H∆’Éèí~. ~ angle
ã¨~kQõú H’}~. ~ method q=∞O°≈
<®`Œ‡Hí Ǩ^°úu† J#∞Éèí= ¿ÇÏ`Œ∞=Ù. ~
point (O°™®Ü«µ#âÍG~Ö’)
ã¨~kQõú
a~^°∞=Ù. ~ temperature ã¨~kQõú LëÈ‚
„Qõ`Œ
critically ã¨q=∞O°≈Hí~Qå. ~ endangered status `ŒfiO°Qå J~`Œi~záÈÜ˵
„Ǩ=∂^° ã≤÷u

135

crore

criticise

q=∞i≈~K«∞, `Œá⁄ÊǨCÅ∞ ÉısA

ÇıÜ«µ∞
q=∞O°≈, J#∞jÅ#, ǨijÅ#,
¿ÇÏ`Œ∞|^°ú"≥∞·# K«O°Û, PHı∆Ǩ}
critique ã¨q=∞O°≈Hí ǨijÅ#
croak HßH˜ JO°∞ѨÙ, HíÇ¨Ê ÉˇHíɡHí, xO®
â◊Qå =∂>Ï¡_«∞, Jâ◊∞Éèßxfl 㨥z~K«∞†
K«xáÈ=Ù
croaker â◊Hí∞#ǨH˜∆
croceate Hí∞~Hí∞=∞ O°~Qõ∞QõÅ
crock n. Hí∂*Ï, =∞>˜ìHí∞~_«, ֒ǨÏáå„`Œ†
zÅ¡ÃÑ~Hí∞† Jã¨=∞O°∞_÷ ∞« , =∞∞ã¨e, Qõ∞„O°~/
Q˘„O≥
crock v. ǨxH˜ =∂ÖË@@∞¡ KıÜ«µ∞, Jã¨
=∞O°÷~ KıÜ«µ∞. ~ up _ôÖÏǨ_«∞, Hí∞ǨÊ
Hí∂Å∞
crockery Ç≤~Qå}© áå„`ŒÅ∞, =~@/=_«¤#
áå„`ŒÅ∞
crocodile "≥∞∞ã¨e. ~ tears "≥∞∞ã¨e
HíhflO°∞, HíǨ@ ^°∞óY~, ^˘~Qõ U_«∞ѨÙ
crocus Hí∞~Hí∞=∞ѨÙ=Ùfi
croft ÃÑO°_«∞, HÁkÌáå>˜ ™®Qõ∞Éèí¥q∞
crofter HÁkÌ Éèí¥q∞x ™®Qõ∞Kı¿ã O≥·`Œ∞
cromlech O®Hí∆㨠Qõ∞à◊∞§ (K«i„`Œ ѨÓO°fi
Ü«µ∞Qõ ã¨=∂^è°∞Å∞)
crone =∞∞k=Qõ∞æ† =∞∞ã¨e(Q˘„O≥)
crony ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`Œ ã¨Ç¨ÏK«O°∞_«∞
crooked Hí∞~z`Œ. ~ ness =~HíO°,
H“>˜Åº~
croon Hí∂xO®Qõ~, Q˘}∞Qõ∞_«∞, Hí∂xO®Qõ~
fÜ«µ∞, Q˘}∞Qõ∞
crooner n. Åe`ŒQåÜ«µHí∞_«∞
crop Ǩ~@, ã¨ã¨º~. ~ management
Ǩ~@Å Ü«∂[=∂#º~
crop switching Ǩ~@ =∂iÊ_ç
crore H’>˜: =~^° ÅHí∆Å∞
criticism

136

cross
cross

ã≤Å∞=, „H≥·ã¨Î=ÙÅ #=∞™®¯O° Ǩ^°úu.

bench ǨHí∆áå`Œ O°Ç≤Ï`Œ"≥∞·#. at ~
swords Hí`Œ∞ÎÅ∞ ^°¥Ü«µ∞. ~ cheque

~

MÏ`Í^®O°∞ =∂„`ŒÇı∞ =∂O°Û_ÍxH˜
gÅÜ˵º K‹Hí∞¯. ~ one's mind =∞#
ã¨∞ûÖ’ ã¨∞Êùi~K«∞. ~ out/off HÁ>˜ì
ÇıÜ«µ∞, O°^°∞ÌKıÜ«µ∞. ~ patch ^°∞O®‡
O°∞æ_«∞. ~ reference ǨO°ã¨ÊO° xOÕÌâ◊~.
~ the path of K‹O°∞K«∞† Z^°∞O˘¯#∞†
J~@∞Hí@∞ì, ã¨~HíO*° Ïux L`ŒÊuÎ Kıܵ« ∞.
~ voting ã¨fi~`Œ áåsìH˜ =ºu OÕHí~Qå
F@∞ KıÜ«µ_«~
cross-belt #_«∞=∞∞H˜ ^è°i~Kı `Œ∞áåH©
Qõ∞à◊§ ɡÅ∞ì
cross-bow `Œ∞áåH©H˜ J=∞iÛ# qÅ∞¡
cross-breed q∞„â◊*Ïu
cross-buttok (=∞Å¡Ü«µ∞^°ú~Ö’) `Œ∞~>˜
g∞^°∞Qå H˜~^° Ǩ_«ÇıÜ«µ_«~
cross-counter (ÉÏH˜û~Q∑Ö’) Z^°∞>˜ =ºH˜Î
`ŒÅÃÑ· HÁ>ıì^≥|ƒ
cross-cultural qq^è° ã¨~㨯 $`Œ∞ʼnõΩ
ã¨~|~kè~z#
cross-cut J_«¤^®i
cross-examination J_«∞¤ ã¨ÇÍÅ∞, qKå
~°}, "å^ÀѨ"å^•Å∞
cross-fire Z^°∞O°∞ HßÅ∞ÊÅ∞
cross-furrows J_«∞¤ KÍà◊∞§
cross-grained ÃÑ_«ã¨O°Ñ¨Ù, `ŒÅuHí¯
crossing Hí∂_«e. ~ the floor áåsì ѶO
≤®
ܵ~ѨÙ
cross-legged HßÅ∞ g∞^° HßÅ∞ Çıã¨∞Hí∞x
Hí∂O°∞Û#fl
cross-multiplication J_«¤Qõ∞}HßO°~
cross purposes qO°∞^°ú „Ǩܡ∂[<®Å∞.
be at ~ aè#fl =∂O®æÅ∞ J=Å~a~K«∞,
=ºuOÕHí ^è’O°}˜ „Ǩ^°i≈~K«∞, Z^°∞O°∞
ã¨ÇÍÅ∞

crumb

cross road K“O°™®Î, Hí∂_«e. at the ~
s H©ÅHí ã¨=∞Ü«µ~, H©ÅHí =∞Å∞ѨÙ
cross-section J_«∞¤H’`Œ
cross section „Ǩuxkè =O®æÅ∞
cross-stitch J_«¤Hí∞@∞ì
crossword Qõà◊§#∞_çHí@∞ì
crostat Ç≤Ï=∂~Hí L+¨‚™®÷ǨHí~
crotch Ǩ~Qõ
crouch #Hí∞¯, =~Qõ∞, J}y L~_«∞
croup Ç≤e¡Hí∂`ŒÅ [|∞ƒ, áåÅ L|ƒã¨~
croupier E^°~ P_ËKÀ@ =㨥à◊∞§/

K‹e¡~ѨÙÅ∞ Kı¿ã =ºH˜Î
crow n. H’_çHí∂`Œ, tâ◊∞=Ù Hıi~`Œ† HßH˜†
Hıi~`Œ HÁ@∞ì, ǨÏO°¬^èßfi#~ KıÜ«µ∞. as
the ~ flies ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå, <ËO°∞Qå, 㨥>˜Qå.
~ bar Qõ_«¤áåO°. carrion ~ =∂ÅHßH˜.
eat ~ J==∂#~ kQõq∞~Qõ∞. ~ over
[ܵ~K«∞. ~ quill O®Ü«µ_ÍxH˜ LǨ
ܡ∂y~Kı DHí. white ~ `ˇÅ¡HßH˜.
crowd =∞¥Hí, [#ÉÏǨïà◊º~
crown H˜s@~
crowner â◊= Ǩ~K«<®=∂ Kı¿ã JkèHßi
crown prince Ü«µ∞=O®A, O®AH˜
ÇÍO°ã¨∞_«∞
crucial H©ÅHí"≥∞·#, =∞∞Yº"≥∞·#
cruciate ã¨fiã≤ÎHßHßO°~QõÅ
crucible =∞¥ã¨, Hí∞ÃÑÊ
crucifix tÅ∞= Çıã≤# „H©ã¨∞Î „Ǩu=∞
crucifixion tÅ∞= ÇıÜ«µ_«~, z„`Œ=^è°
cruciform tÅ∞= PHßO°Ñ¨Ù
crude =∞∞`ŒHí, "≥∞∞O°@∞, =~_«x, ǨzÛ,
JO°Qõx, ǨHífi~Hßx
crude oil =∞∞_ç K«=∞∞O°∞
cruel „Hí∂O°"≥∞·#, Híiî#"≥∞·#, ÉÏ^èßHíO°"≥∞·#
cruiser JkèHíÇıQõ~ QõÅ Ü«µ∞^°ú<ÒHí
crumb n. O˘>ˇì=∞∞Hí¯† ã¨∞YÖËâ◊~, O˘>ˇì
֒Ǩe "≥∞`ŒÎ>˜ ÉèßQõ~

crumb

O˘>ˇì#∞ z#fl =∞∞Hí¯Å∞Qå
KıÜ«µ∞, ÇÍ>˜x KıiÛ Ç¨Å∞K«x Ǩ^®O®÷xfl
zHí¯Ç¨O°K«∞, |Å~Qå HÁ@∞ì
crumble =∞∞Hí∞¯Å∞ K‹Hí¯ÅQõ∞, |^°úÅ∞
HÁ@∞ì, ÉèßQåÅQõ∞, Pâ◊Å∞ ==∞∞‡ JQõ∞,
ã¨~|~^è~° K‹_∞« , „ǨuѶ∞¨ >˜~K«_~« =∂#∞
HÁ#∞, áÈO®_«ÖËHíáÈ=Ù, „Ѩܫ∞`«flO qO°
q∞~K«∞, `Œ∞Hí∞¯`Œ∞Hí¯Qõ∞, á⁄_ç JQõ∞
crumbling á⁄_çJܵ O®eáÈ=Ù
crumbly z#flaè#fl~ Hß^°y#
crumpling #ÅQõ Q˘@ì_«~
crunch HÁO°`Œ
crusade =∞`ŒÜ«µ∞^°ú~, =∞Ǩϟ^°º=∞~
crusader ^è°O°‡ Ü«µ∞^®úxH˜ #_«∞=∞∞
ay~Kı =ºH˜Î
crush z`ŒHí HÁ@ì_«~, J}Qõ^˘Hí¯_«~,
H˜H˜¯iã≤# ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~† J^°∞=∞∞† J}∞K«∞.
as a ~ defeat ^®O°∞}"≥∞·# F@q∞,
q<®â◊HíO°"≥∞·# F@q∞. as a ~ reply
<ÀO≥`ŒÎhÜ«µx ã¨=∂^èß#~. ~ ing out
<®â◊~KıÜ«µ∞, xO°¥‡e~K«∞. ~ room
<®@HíâÍÅÖ’x q„âÍ~u Qõk
crust Éèí¥=∞∞ºÇ¨i`ŒÅ~, |Ü«µ>˜ á⁄O°
crusted á⁄Hí∞¯ Hí>˜ì#† ѨÙO®`Œ#"≥∞·#†
=∂#gÜ«µ"≥∞·#
crusty ÃÑ~Hí∞=~>˜, Qõ>˜ì† ã¨~H˜∆ǨÎ"≥∞·#,
ã¨~„QõǨÏ"≥∞·#
crutch K«~Hí Hí„O°, T`Œ Hí„O°, T`Œ~,
P^èßO°~† W~HÁHíi ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~`À ÃÑ·H˜
áÈÜ˵ =ºH˜Î
crux =∞O°‡~, H©ÅHß~â◊~
cry HıHí, JO°∞ѨÙ, Hí∂`Œ, U_«∞Ѩن ѨÙHßO°∞†
„Ǩ*ÏÇÍ}˜† ǨiÉèß+¨. a far ~ ã¨^°¥O°~†
â’HßÅ∞ ÃÑ@∞ì, aQõæO°Qå U_«∞Û. ~ out
HıHíÇıÜ«µ∞. battle ~ Ü«µ∞^°ú x<®^°~.
~ down ^°¥+≤~K«∞. ~ for the moon
crumb v.

137

crystallisable

J~^°x Ǩ~_«¡Hí∞ J„O°∞Å∞ ™®K«∞. ~ off
ÉıO°~ KÍe~K«∞. ~ over spilt milk
[iyáÈܵ# ^®xH˜ qKÍi~K«∞. ~ up
á⁄Qõ_«∞. within ~ Hí∂`ŒÇı@∞ ^°¥O°~Ö’
crying "≥~@<Ë Qõ=∞x~K«=Åã≤#, Ö’Hí
=∞~`Í H’_≥·Hí∂ã¨∞Î#fl
cryochemistry Ç≤Ï=∞ O°™®Ü«µ# âÍG~
cryocopy Ç≤Ï=∂~Hí =∂Ǩ#~
cryogen Qõ_«¤Hí>˜ì~Kı q∞„â◊=∞~
cryogenics J`ŒºÅÊ LëÈ‚„Qõ`ŒÅ#∞ Qõ∞i~
z# J^谺ܫµ#~
cryonics =∂#= HíàË|O®Å#∞ Éèí„^°Ç¨iKı
„Ǩ„H˜Ü«µ
cryophilic `ŒHí∞¯= LëÈ‚„Qõ`ŒÖ’ ÃÑiQÕ
r=ÙÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
cryotherapy Juj`ŒÅ "≥·^°º q^èß#~
cryptaesthesia Jf~„kÜ«µ *Ï˝#~
cryptic QÀǨHí, O°Ç¨Ï㨺"≥∞·#, xQõ¥_è°,
JO°÷~Hßx, J~`Œ∞Ǩ@ìx
cryptogam ѨÙ+≤Ê~K«x "≥∞∞Hí¯, q`ŒÎ<®Å∞
ÖËx "≥∞∞Hí¯
cryptogram O°Ç¨Ï㨺 eÇ≤, Qõ¥_è° eÇ≤
crystal ã¨Êù>˜Hí~† ã¨Ê+¨ì"≥∞·#, ã¨fiK«Ûù"≥∞·#.
compound ~ ã¨~Ü«µ∞HíÎ ã¨Êù>˜Hí~. ~
lattice ã¨Êù>˜Hí*ÏÅHí~. ~ line ã¨Ê>˜Hí
ã¨~|~kè. minoclinic ~ UHí#`Œ
ã¨Êù>˜Hí~. ~ orientation ã¨Êù>˜Hí
q<®ºã¨~, ã¨Êù>˜Hí kyfi<®ºã¨~. rhombic ~ qã¨=∂Hí∆ ã¨Êù>˜Hí~. rhombohedral ~ „uH’} ã¨Ê>˜Hí~. tetragonal
~ K«`Œ∞ëȯ} ã¨Êù>˜Hí~. triclinic ~
„u#`Œã¨Êù>˜Hí~. trigonal ~ „uH’}
ã¨Êù>˜Hí~
crystallanity ™®Ê>˜Hí`Œ
crystalline ã¨Êù>˜Hí~ =~>˜, ã¨Êù>˜HßHßO°
crystallisable ã¨Êù>˜H©HíO°}©Ü«µ

crystallisation
crystallisation ã¨Ê>˜H©HíO°}~
crystallize ã¨Êù>˜H©Híi~K«∞, ã¨Ê+¨ì=∞Qõ∞
crystallogram ã¨Êù>˜Hí z„`Œ~
crystallograph ã¨Êù>˜Hí q*Ï˝#~
crystallograph ã¨Êù>˜Hí ÖËdx
crystallographer ã¨Êù>˜HíâÍGÇı`ŒÎ
crystallography ã¨Êù>˜HßHí$u âÍG~
crystalloid ã¨Êù>˜Hí~ =~>˜, ã¨Êù>˜Hß`Œ
cub ѨÙeÇ≤Å¡, #Hí¯Ç≤Å¡ =Q≥·O®† J<®=∞Hí
Ü«µ∞=Hí∞_«∞. ~ reporter Ü«µ∞= áå„u

HıÜ«µ∞_«∞, D#∞, Ç≤Å¡Å#∞ ÃÑ@∞ì
cubage Ѷ¨∞#Ǩi=∂}~
cube n. Ѷ¨∞#~, Ѷ¨∞<®HßO°~, Ѷ¨∞<®HßO°Ñ¨Ù
k=∞‡
cube v. Ѷ¨∞# Ǩi=∂}®xfl Hí#∞HÁ¯#∞†
Ѷ¨∞<®HßO°Ñ¨Ù O®à◊∞§ ǨO°∞K«∞
cubeb K«Å=/ `ÀHí q∞iÜ«∂Å∞
cubic Ѷ¨∞#O°¥Ç¨"≥∞·#. ~ content Ѷ¨∞#
Ǩi=∂}~. ~ equation „uѶ¨∂`Œ ã¨g∞
HíO°}~. ~ foot Ѷ¨∞#ѨÙ@_«∞Qõ∞
cubicle „Ǩ`˺Hí"≥∞·# (z#fl) Qõk, QõkÖ’x
„Ǩ`˺Hí ÉèßQõ~
cubiform á⁄_«=Ù, "≥_«Å∞Ê, =∞~^°~
ã¨=∂#~Qå QõŠѶ¨∞<®HßO°~
cubism OÕMÏQõ}˜`Œ z„`ŒHíà®â‹·e
cubit =∞¥O°
cubital =∞∞~*Ëu ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
cubitus "≥∂Kıܵ
cuboid Ѷ∞¨ <®HÍ~°. ~ bone nO°Ñ
… ∞¨¶ # K«`∞Œ
O°„ã¨~, ã¨=∂~`ŒO°∞ƒù[ Ѷ¨∞#~
cuckold ÇıâͺÉèíO°Î, =ºaèK«i~z ÉèíO°Î#∞
#=ÙfiÅáåÅ∞ KıÜ«µ∞
cuckoo H’H˜Å, "≥„i, K«Ç¨Å z`ŒÎ~, J=∂
Ü«µHí∞_«∞
cucullate Ǩ_«QõQõÅ
cucumber ^Àã¨HßÜ«µ

138

cult

cucurbit ™⁄O°HßÜ«µ, ^Àã¨HßÜ«µ
cud <ˇ=∞O°∞. chew the ~

=∞##~

KıÜ«µ∞
cudbear T^®O°~Qõ∞ K«¥O°‚~
cuddle Pe~Qõ#~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞,

H“ye~K«∞

HÁ#∞
cuddley ǨÏ`Œ∞ÎHÁ<Ë, ǨÏ`Œ∞ÎH’ÇÍÅxÇ≤~Kı
cuddle Pe~Qõ#~, H“ye~`Œ
cuddy <ÒHíÖ’x Hߺa<ü† ÃÑ^°Ì F_«Ö’

qâÍÅ"≥∞·# ǨÅ∞† z#fl Qõk, JO°Å
cO°∞Ç͆ JqÇıH˜† Qå_ç^°† XHí O°HíѨÙ
KıǨÇ≤Å¡
cudgel ^°$_è°"≥∞·# z#fl Hí„O°
cue 㨥ÊùiÎ, ã¨~Hı`Œ~, „¿ÑO°Hí~
cuff K˘H߯ =∞∞~*Ëu Ǩ>©ì, #_«∞=∞∞Hí∞
Hí@∞ìHí∞<Ë Qõ∞_«¤ Ǩ>©ì† Qõ∞^°∞Ì, K«O°∞K«∞
cuirass O˘=∞∞‡, gѨ٠O°Hí∆} Hí=K«~, ¢ã‘ÎÅ
aQõ∞=Ù O°qHí
cuisine =~@ Ǩ^°úu, =~>˜~>˜ UO®Ê@∞¡
culinarry áåHí ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#. ~ banana Hí∂O° JO°>˜
cull Z~Ç≤Hí KıÜ«µ∞
cullet QåA ÃÑ~Hí∞, Ǩye# QåA
culm O®u ÉÁQõ∞æá⁄_ç† K˘Ç¨Ê^°~@∞
culminant tYO®Ü«µ=∂#"≥∞·#, PHßâ◊
=∞^èߺxH˜ =zÛ# („QõǨÏ~)
culminate tYO°~ KıO∞° , PHßâ◊~ =∞^躰 Hí∞
=K«∞Û
culmination L#fl`Œã≤÷ux KıO°_«~
culpable <ËO°~QõÅ, ^À+¨Ñ¨Ói`Œ, `ŒÇ¨C
Kı¿ã, JǨO®kè† <ËO°Qå_«∞, `ŒÇ¨CKıã≤#
ÇÍ_«∞, tH∆ßO°∞›_«∞, tH∆ßO°›"≥∞·# <ËO°~
culprit JǨO®kè, <ËO°Qå_«∞, `ŒÇ¨CKıã≤#
=ºH˜Î
cult =∞`ŒÇ¨O°"≥∞·# HßO°ºHíO°ÎÅ |$~^°~,
ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~, PO®^è°# q^èß#~, ѨÓ[,
„áåO°÷<® q^èß#~, ÉèíH˜Î Éèß=~, „â◊^°ú

139

cultivable
cultivable ¿ã^°ºÜˇ∂Qõº"≥∞·#
cultivate Ǩ~_ç~K«∞, JÅ=O°K«∞HÁ#∞
cultivation ¿ã^°º~, =º=™®Ü«µ~
cultivator =º=™®Ü«µ^®O°∞, Hí$+‘=Å∞_«∞
cultural affairs ™®~㨯 $uHí =º=Ǩ

O®Å∞
cultural determinism

ã¨~㨯 $f xO®‚

Ü«µHí ÇÍ^°~
cultural fabric ™®~㨯 $uHí xO®‡}~
cultural imperialism ™®~㨯 $uHí

™®„=∂[ºÇÍ^°~
cultural lag ã¨~㨯 $f "≥·O°∞^è°º~
cultural relativism ™®~㨯 $uHí ™®¿ÑHí∆
ÇÍ^°~
cultural
revolution
™®~㨯 $uHí
qǨ¡=~
culture ã¨~㨯 $u
cultured ã¨Éèíº
cultured pearls Hí$„u=∞ =∞∞`ͺÅ∞
culture shock ™®~㨯 $uHí PѶ¨∂`Œ~
culturology ã¨~㨯 $u â◊„ã¨ÎO
culver ÉˇÅ¡Qõ∞=fi, J_«q áå=ÙO°~
culvert `Œ¥=∞∞† z#fl HßÅ∞=ÃÑ· =~`ˇ#
cumber P@~Hí~, xO’^è°~† J_«¤y~K«∞,
P@~HíǨO°∞Û, Hí+¨ìÃÑ@∞ì
cumbersome Qõlal, zHí∞¯=_ç#
cumin seeds rÅHí„O°
cumshaw W<®~, |H©∆ã¨∞
cumulate áÈQõ∞Kıã≤#,
ã¨~Híe~z#,
áÈQõ∞KıÜ«µ∞, ã¨~K«Üµ~K«∞
cumulation ã¨~z`Œ~
cumulative ã¨~z`Œ. ~ development
ã¨~z`Íaè=$kú
cumulus ^°@ì"≥∞·# Çı∞Ѷ¨∞~
cuneform H©ÖÏHßO°Ñ¨Ù, H©ÅeÇ≤
cunning @Hí¯iܡµ·#, HßǨ@º~, l`Œ∞ÎÅ
=∂i`Œ#~, <ËO°Êi`Œ#~

curtail

cupid =∞#‡^ä°∞_«∞
cupola Qõ∞=∞‡@~
cupulate Qõ∞=∞‡@~ÖÏ~>˜
cur `ŒHí∞¯= *ÏuHí∞Hí¯† ^°∞+¨∞ì_«∞,

Ç≤iH˜

Ǩ~^°
curative ã¨fiã¨÷`Œ HíÅQõ*Ë¿ã =∞~^°∞
curator ã¨~O°Hí∆HßkèHßi, ǨO°ºÇıHí∆Hí∞_«∞
curb Híà‹§~ÇıÜ«µ∞, „Ǩu|~kè~K«∞, P@~Hí

ǨO°∞K«∞, xO’kè~K«∞, xÇÍi~K«∞
cure ã¨fiã¨÷`Œ, =∂#∞Ê, <ˇ=∞‡k~K«∞, Ǩ^°∞#∞
KıÜ«µ∞, xÇÍi~K«∞
curette `Œ∞iÇı∞ ™®^è°#~
curiosity L`Œ¯~Oî°, l*Ï˝ã¨, Pã¨H˜Î, Hí∞`Œ¥
ǨÏÅ~, P„`Œ∞`Œ
curious Pã¨H˜ÎHíO°"≥∞·#, L`ÍûÇ¨Ï Ñ¨Ói`Œ
"≥∞·#
curl L~QõO®ÅA@∞ì, "≥∞euǨC, K«∞@∞ì
HÁ#∞, =∞∞_«∞K«∞HÁ#∞
curly "≥∞euiy#
currency HíO≥hû, „^°=º~
current q^°∞º`ü, „ǨÇÍǨÏ~, ã¨O°o, Qõu†
„Ǩã¨∞Î`Œ. ~ assets K«O®ã≤Î. ~ capital
„ǨÇÍǨÏ/ K«„H©Ü«µ =∞¥Å^è°#~. ~ liability „Ǩã∞¨ `
Î Œ ÉÏ^躰 `Œ/ #+¨~ì . ~ ratio
„Ǩã¨∞Î`Œ x+¨ÊuÎ
current account HíO≥~@∞ MÏ`Í, =O°Î
=∂# MÏ`Í
curriculum É’^è°# „Ǩ}®oHí
curry Hí∂O°, Hí∂O°QåÜ«µÅ =~@Hí~. ~
favour „áåǨHí~ H’ã¨~ „Ǩܫµufl~K«∞,
Z^°∞>˜ ÇÍiH˜ J#∞Qõ∞}~Qå =º=ǨÏ
i~K«∞. ~ leaf HíiÇıáåHí∞
curse âÍǨ~, u@∞ì, â◊Ç≤~K«∞, u@∞ì
cursive Q˘Å∞ã¨∞Hí@∞ì
curt ÃÑ_«°ã¨~°Ñ¨Ù, "≥∂@∞
curtail `Œyæ~K«∞, J^°∞ѨÙKıÜ«µ∞, H’`ŒÃÑ@∞ì

curtain

ǨO^° ®, Ü«µ=xHí. ~ raiser
ѨÓO°fiO°~Qõ~
curvature =„Hí`Œ, =~ѨÙ
curve =~ѨÙ
curvilinear =„HíOÕYÅ∞QõÅ
cusec Hí∂ºÃãH±: ÃãHí#∞Hí∞ XHí Ѷ¨∞#ѨÙ
J_«∞Qõ∞ h>˜ „ǨÇÍÇ¨Ï ÇıQõ~
cushion "≥∞`ŒÎ, k~_«∞† Hí∞^°∞ѨÙÅ#∞ `Œ@∞ì
Hí∞<Ë â◊H˜Î, X_ç^°∞_«∞Hí∞Å#∞ xÉèßܵ~Kı
cusp zQõ∞O°∞, tYO°~, J~K«∞, ^°à◊~,
^°~`Í„Qõ~
cuspidate "≥∞∞#ÇÍ_ç
custard apple ã‘`ÍѶ¨Å~
custodian ã¨~O°Hí∆Hí∞_«∞
custody xO°ƒ~^è°~, J^°∞ѨÙ, =â◊~
customer MÏ`Í^®O°∞, =ã¨∞¿Î ã=Å#∞ HÁ#∞
QÀÅ∞ Kı¿ã =ºH˜Î
customize HÁ<ËÇÍi JaèO°∞K«∞ÅHí∞, J=ã¨
O®ÅHí∞ J#∞Qõ∞}~Qå =∂O°∞ÊÅ∞ KıÜ«µ∞
customs PKÍO®Å∞† ã¨∞~HßÅ∞ qkè~Kı
„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi qÉèßQõ~. ~ duty Híã¨ìÇò√û
ã¨∞~Hí~
cut motion H’`Œ fO®‡#~
cutaneous K«O°‡ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
cute K«∞O°∞H≥·#, PHíO°¬}©Ü«µ"≥∞·#
cuticle K«O°‡~ ÃÑ·á⁄O°, J=Éèßã≤x
cutis K«O°‡~
cutler Hí`Œ∞ÎÅ∞ Kı¿ã/ JÇı∞‡ =ºH˜Î
cutlery Hí`Œ∞ÎÅ¥, Hí>ÏO°∞Å¥
cutter H’¿ã =ºH˜/ΠǨiHíO~
° † Ü«µ∞^°ú <ÒHíH∞í
K‹~k# z#fl Ǩ_«=
cutthroat f„=, ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°. ~ competition K«KıÛ~`ŒáÈ>©
cyan =∞∞^°∞O°∞ hÅ~
cyanosis hÅ/ âͺ=∞Å =O°‚~
cybernetics ã¨=∂KÍO°
xÜ«µ~„`Œ}
Ü«µ~„`Í^谺ܫµ#~
curtain `ˇO,°

140

cystochemistry

141

cystography

cyberphobia Hí~ѨӺ@O°¡~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
cycle =O°∞ÎÅ~, K«„Hí~: Éèß=ѨÙ#~å=$uÎ
cycle of deprivation `ŒO®Å `ŒO°|_ç

cystography =∞¥„`Íâ◊Ü«µ z„`Œ}~
cystoscope =∞¥„`Íâ◊Ü«µ ^°i≈x
cystotomy =∞¥„`Íâ◊Ü«µ qzÛùuÎ, =∞¥„`Í

=KıÛ ™®=∂lHí ^®i„^°º~
cyclic K«„H©Ü«µ, K«„Hí„Hí=∞, =O°∞ÎÅ„Hí=∞. ~
compound K«„H©Ü«µ ã¨Çı∞‡à◊#~. ~ disorder `ŒO°K«¥ ã¨~Éèíq~Kı =∂#ã≤Hí
֒Ǩ~. ~ rules =O°∞ÎÅ „Hí=∞ 㨥„`ÍÅ∞.
~ structure K«„H©Ü«µ xO®‡}~
cyclical K«„H©Ü«µ
cyclone `Œ∞á¶å#∞, QåeÇÍ#
cyclonic separator Ǩi„â◊=∞ÅÖ’ =ºO°÷
Ǩ^®O®÷Å#∞ ÇıO°∞ǨO°Kı ǨiHíO°~
cyclonic storm Ju f„="≥∞·# `Œ∞á¶å#∞
cylinder 㨥÷Ǩ~, ã¨Î~ÉèßHßO°~ QõÅ Hí_ç¤/
Q˘@ì~
cylindrical 㨥÷áåHßO°
cyme ѨÙ+¨Ê=∞~[i
cymotrichous L~QõO®Å A@∞ìQõÅ
cyncope =∞¥O°Ûù
cynic qO®y, qO°ã¨∞_«∞, `ŒÇ¨CÖˇ<Ëfl =ºH˜Î,
ã¨∞Y^Õfi+≤, O°~„^èß<Ëfi+¨Hí∞_«∞, xO®âÍÇÍk
cynicism xã¨Ê $ǨÏ`Œ`ŒÎ fi~
cynophobia Hí∞Hí¯Å~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
cypher Qõ¥_è°eÇ≤† ã¨∞#fl
cypher telegram Qõ¥_è°eÇ≤ `Œ~u
cypres law Ü«µ^äßã¨g∞Ǩ <®ºÜ«µ~
cypridophobia ã¨∞YÇͺ^è°∞Å∞ J~>ı
ÉèíÜ«µ~
cyptonym O°Ç¨Ï㨺<®=∞~
cyst „^°=H’â◊~, uuÎ
cystectomy „^°=H’â◊KıÛù^°#~
cystic „^°=H’â◊ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
cystitis =∞¥„`Íâ◊Ü«µ~Ö’ <˘Ç≤Ê
cystochemistry r=Hí}
O°™®Ü«µ#
âÍG~

â◊Ü«µ zÛù„nHíO°}
cytogenesis Hí}’`ÍÊ^°#

damage

cytogenetics

r=Hí} =~âÍ#∞Qõ`Œ `Œ`ŒÎ fi

âÍG~
cytology r=Hí}âÍG~
cytopenia Hí}®Å `ŒQõ∞æ^°Å
cytoplasm Hí}„^°=º~, Hí}

Ǩ^®O°÷~

Dd
O°~Qõ∞ ѨÓ`Œ, `Œ@ì_«~, J^°=∞_«~†
XHí O°Hí~ ǨÅK«x KıǨ† <ˇ=∞‡kQå `Œ@∞ì,
J^°∞=∞∞, X`Œ∞Î
dabble K«Å∞¡, ѨÓÜ«µ∞† Py Py `Œ_«∞ѨÙ,
HÁkÌQå ^°∞=∞∞‡ J~@∞HÁ#∞
dabbler Kı`ŒHßx^®xx KıÜ«µ|¥<Ë =ºH˜Î
dabchick h>˜H’_ç
dacoit |~káÈ@∞ ^˘~Qõ
dacoity |~káÈ@∞ ^˘~Qõ`Œ#~
dactylitis J~Qõ∞o ÇÍѨÙ
dactylogram Çıe=∞∞„^°
dactylography =∞¥QõÃã·QõÅ J^谺ܫµ#~
dactylomegaly J™®^èßO°}~Qå á⁄_«"≥·#
Çıà◊∞§ Híey L~_«_«~
dadaism _Í_ÍÇÍ^°~, JO®[Hí ™®Ç≤Ï`Œº
Ǩ^°úu
daddle =∞ã¨Å∞, *ÏQõ∞Kıܵ« ∞, HßÅ~ =$^äß
KıÜ«µ∞
dado QÀ_«#∞ HÁ~`Œ Z`Œ∞Î =O°H∞í O°~Qõ∞`À,
ÃÑ~Hí∞Å`À, HíÅǨ`À JÅ~Híi~K«_«~
daft qÇıHíÇ‘Ï#"≥∞·#† *Ï„Qõ`ŒÖËx
dagger ÉÏHí∞, Kè«∞iHí, Hí>Ïi
daily „ǨuO’E. ~ allowance O’E
ÇÍs |`ˇÎ~, O’AHí∂b, k#|`ˇÎ~. ~
fine O’AÇÍs [i=∂<®. ~ mazdoor
k#ã¨i Hí∂b. ~ necessaries O’A
ÇÍs J=ã¨O®Å∞. ~ period k#k#
Qõ~_«~. ~ routine x`Œº Ǩiáå>˜,
O’AÇÍs =∂=∞¥Å∞. ~ wages O’A
ÇÍs Hí∂e
dab

™®fiO°ã¨º~, ™œHí∞=∂O°º~,
<®EHí∞^°#~
dairy áåÅ (L`ŒÊuÎ) Hı~„^°~. ~ development officer áå_ç
Jaè=$kú
JkèHßi. ~ farm áåÅ L`ŒÊuÎ Hı∆„`Œ~.
~ industry áå_çǨi„â◊=∞. ~ man
áå_ç áåi„âÍq∞Hí∞_«∞. ~ officer áå_ç
Ǩi„â◊=∂kèHßi. ~ products áå_ç
L`ŒÊ`Œ∞ÎÅ∞
dairying áå_çǨx KıÜ«µ_«~
dais ÇıkHí
dale Hí#∞=∞, (HÁ~_«) Ö’Ü«µ
dalliance =ºO°÷~Qå HßÅ~ "≥à◊§|∞K«Û@~
dally ã¨O°ã¨=∂_«∞, Çı∞Å=∂_«∞† q<À
k~K«∞, ǨiǨã¨=∂_«∞, =∞∞^°∞ÌÖÏ_«∞,
PÅ㨺~KıÜ«µ∞, *ÏQõ∞KıÜ«µ∞
daltonism =O®‚~^è°`Œ
dam P#Hí@ì
damage K‹O°∞ѨÙ. certificate of ~
ã¨O°∞Hí∞ ^≥|ƒu#fl^°<Ë „^è°∞gHíO°} Ǩ„`Œ~.
consequential ~ J#~`ŒO° HßÅ
#+¨ìǨiǨO°~. ~ for breach of contract XǨÊ~^° Éèí~Qõ #+¨ìѨÓiÎ. ~ for
mesne profits =∞^è°ºã¨÷ #+¨ìǨiǨO°~.
liquidated ~ =∞∞~^Õ xO°‚ܵ~z#
#+¨ìǨiǨO°~. nominal ~ <®=∞=∂„`Œ
#+¨ìǨiǨO°~. punitive ~ tH∆ß`Œ‡Hí
#+¨ìǨiǨO°~. ~ suit #+¨ìǨiǨO°
^®ÇÍ. ultra ~ J`ŒºkèHí #+¨ìǨiǨO°~
daintiness

142

damaging confession
damaging confession

#+¨ì^®Ü«µHí"≥∞·#,

<ËO°~ XǨC^°Å
dame Ǩϟ^® Qõey# ¢ã‘Î, ™®~Ѷ≤∞Hí~Qå
L#fl`Œ∞O®Å∞† _Í~|O°∞, `ÍO°∞† O°~Qõ∞ÖËx
ÇÍifl+π
damn u@∞ì, ^°¥+≤~K«∞, x~k~K«∞
damnable ^°¥+≤~K«^°y#, ¿ÇÏÜ«µ"≥∞·#,
O’`Œ ѨÙ>˜ì~Kı, áå_«∞
damnation Y~_ç~K«_«~† xO°ã≤~K«_«~†
#O°Hí~, #O°Hí^°~_«#
damned Ǩu`Œ∞_≥·#, ¿ÇÏÜ«µ"≥∞·#
damnify #+¨ì~ Híey~Kı
damning u@∞ì, âÍǨ~† |Å"≥∞·# ™®Hí∆ º~
damnity Ǩx
damp K‹=∞‡, `Ë=∞, `Œ_ç, xO°∞`ÍûÇ≤φ
`Œ_Qç å L~_«∞, K‹=∞‡Qå/ P„O°~÷ Qå L~_«∞,
`Ë=∞Qå L~_«∞† z`ŒÎ_ç <ËÅ
damped J=O°∞^°ú, =∞~^°y~Ǩ*Ë¿ã
dampen =∞~^°y~z#
dampener K‹=∞‡ ÇͺÇ≤~K«Hí∞~_Í L~_«
_ÍxH˜ Ǩiz# ǨÅHíÅ =O°ã†¨ xO°∞`ÍûǨÏ
ǨiKı =ºH˜Î
damper xO°∞`ÍûǨÏǨiKı =ºH˜Î/ =ã¨∞Î=Ù
damping control J=O’^è° xÜ«µ~„`Œ}~
dampness <ˇ=∞∞‡
damp proof K‹=∞‡/ `Ë=∞ `ŒQõÅx
damsel J~^°Qõ`ˇÎ, Ǩ_«∞K«∞, Hí#º. ~ in
distress PǨ^°Ö’ J=∂‡Üµ
damson PÖò|HßO® Ǩ~_«∞/ K‹@∞ì
dan h>˜ÃÑ·# `ËÖË Hí>ÏǨÏ~
dancer #O°ÎH˜, #O°ÎHí∞_«∞
dander H’Ǩ~, zO®Hí∞, Jã¨Ç¨Ï#~
dandle =∞∞^°∞ÌKıÜ«µ∞, ÖÏe~K«∞
dandruff K«∞~„_«∞
dandy h@∞Hß_«∞, ™⁄Qõã¨∞Hß_«∞, qÖÏã¨

dastard

data

ѨÙO°∞+¨∞_«∞, P_«~|O°"≥∞·#, _Íɡ·#, PO®ƒù
@"≥∞·#
danger JáåÜ«µ~, „Ǩ=∂^°~. ~ money
„Ǩ=∂^°HíO° Ǩiã≤÷`Œ∞ÅÖ’ ǨxKı¿ã Hßi‡
Hí∞ÅHí∞ WKıÛ JkèHí Çı`Œ#~. ~ zone
JáåÜ«µ „áå~`Œ~
dangerously inflammable JáåÜ«µ
HíO°~Qå =∞~_Ë
dangle TQõ∞, ÇıÖÏ_«∞, Pâ◊Q˘Å∞ѨÙ
dapper K«∞O°∞H≥·#, ™⁄QõÃã·#
dapple =∞K«ÛÅ∞ =∞K«ÛÅ∞Qå L~_«_«~
dappled =∞K«ÛÅ∞#fl
dare ™®Ç¨Ïã≤~K«∞, Zki~K«∞, kèHí¯i~K«∞,
`ˇy~K«∞
daring ™®Ç¨Ïã¨~, K˘O°=, ™®Ç¨Ïã¨~QõÅ
dark pHí>˜, J*Ï˝#~, O®„u, =∞∞^°∞O°∞
O°~Qõ∞† Qõ∞ǨÎ"≥∞·#, =∞∞^°∞O°∞O°~Qõ∞ QõÅ,
`ˇeÜ«µx, *Ï˝#O°Ç≤Ï`Œ"≥∞·#
darken #Å¡|O°K«∞, Híà◊~H˜`Œ~KıÜ«µ∞
darkhorse O°Ç¨Ï㨺rq/ Qõ∞ǨÎ=ºH˜Î
darkness `Œ=∞ã¨∞û, #Å¡^°#~
darling „Ç≤Ü«µ"≥∞·#,
„¿Ñq∞~K«^°y#,
„Ç≤Ü«µ∞_«∞, „Ç≤Ü«µ∞O®Å∞
darn J`Œ∞Hí∞, `ÍѨÙ, HíeÇ≤ Hí∞@∞ì
dart |Öˇ¡~† "≥∞∞#^Õe# ÉÏ}~† JG
„Ǩܡ∂Qõ~, H©@HßÅ∞ Hí∞@ì_«~
dartle z=∞∞‡, qã¨∞O°∞, `Œ>ÏÅ∞# |Ü«µ@
Ǩ_«∞
dash `ÍHí∞_«∞ ^≥|ƒ/ ^èfi° x† J_«∞w
¤ `Œ† O°~Qõ∞
ѨÓ`Œ† ™®Ç¨Ïã¨~† P_«~|O°~† ǨO°∞Qõ∞
Ǩ~^≥~, HÁ@∞ì, qã≤iHÁ@∞ì, `ÀÜ«µ∞,
z=∞∞‡, =∞e#ǨO°∞K«∞, Éèí~QõǨO°∞K«∞
dashing K˘O°= QõÅ, L„^ÕHí~ QõÅ,
L`ÍûǨÏ~ QõÅ, ™®Ç¨Ïã¨~ QõÅ
dastard ^˘~Qõ^≥|ƒ fã≤# =ºH˜Î, Ç≤iH˜
Ǩ~^°

data

^°`ÍÎ~â◊~, ã¨=∂KÍO° Qõ}®~Hí q=
O®Å∞† Hí~ѨӺ@O∑Ö’ xÅ∞=Kı¿ã ã¨=∂
KÍO°~. ~ bank Éèí„^°Ç¨iKı Hı~„^°~. ~
base xÅ=Kıã≤# ã¨=∂KÍO°~. ~ management ã¨=∂Kå~° xO°fiǨÏ}
data capture ã¨=∂KÍO®xfl ZH˜¯~Kı
q^èß#~
data processing ^°`ÍÎ~âÍŠǨijÅ#
„Ǩ„H˜Ü«µ
date n. `Ëk, YO°¥˚O°~, D`ŒK‹@∞ì. ~
palm YO°¥˚O°Ñ¨Ù K‹@∞ì, `ËnÇıÜ«µ∞,
ÖˇHí¯Hí∞ =K«∞Û, HßÅ~ Qõ}˜~K«∞
date line ÇÍO°Î#∞ Ǩ~Ç≤ã¨∞Î#fl Ti¿ÑO°∞,
`Ëk
datum ^°`ÍÎ~â◊~, P^èßO° q+¨Ü«µ~, q=
O®Å∞
datura L"≥∞‡`ŒÎ"≥∞∞Hí¯
daub =∞>˜ì/ ã¨∞#flѨ٠ѨÓ`Œ† O°~Qõ∞Å∞
ѨÙeq∞# z„`Œ~, ^°O°∞˚KıÜ«µ∞† JÅ∞Hí∞
(O°~Qõ∞Å∞), ѨÙÅ∞=∞∞
dauber JxѨÙ} z„`ŒHßO°∞_«∞
daunt ɡki~K«∞, ÉèíÜ«µ~ Híey~K«∞, xO°∞
`ÍûǨÏǨO°K«∞
dauntless ÉèíÜ«µ~ÖËx, ^è≥·O°º~Qõņ Ǩ@∞ì
^°ÅQõÅ
dawn ÇıHí∞=, `≥Å¡ÇÍO°∞Çıà◊, „Ǩ`Œ¥º+¨,
xâÍ~`Œ~
day ǨQõÅ∞, O’A, k#~. ~ and night
kÇÍO®„`ÍÅ∞. ~ off ÃãÅ=Ù k#~. ~
today ^≥·#~k#, O’AÇÍs
daze q„Éèß~u, k„Qõƒù=∞, q∞O°∞q∞@∞¡
Q˘Å∞ѨÙ, k„Qåƒù~u Híey~K«∞
dazzle "≥∞O°∞ѨÙ, `Œà◊∞Hí∞, q∞iq∞@∞¡
Q˘Å∞Ѩن k„Qõƒù=∞ Q˘Å∞ѨÙ
deactivate K‹·`Œ#º O°Ç≤Ï`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞
deactivation J#∞`ËÎ[#~, xO°∞`ËÎ[#~

143

dean

PyáÈܵ#, K«xáÈܵ#, „áå}~
ÖËx, =∞$`Œ† ÇÍ_«∞HíÖ’ ÖËx† "≥∞∞^°∞Ì
ÉÏi#† =∞~^°HÁ_ç† K«Å#O°Ç≤Ï`Œ† uq∞‡
O≥H˜¯#† xâ◊≈|Ì"≥∞·#. ~ account J=∞
Å∞Ö’ ÖËx MÏ`Í. ~ capital =∞^°∞ѨÙ
KıÜ«µx ^è°#~† ÖÏÉèí^®Ü«µHí~ Hßx ÃÑ@∞ì
|_ç. ~ fence xs˚ÇÍ=O°}~. ~
freight MÏm O°∞ã¨∞~. ~ head Lz`Œ
„Ǩܫ∂}˜Hí∞_«∞. ~ house â◊ÇÍÅ#∞ Éèí„^°
ǨiKı Qõk. ~ letter J„_«ã¨∞ ã¨iQåÖËx
L`ŒÎO°~† J=∞Å∞Ö’ ÖËx âÍã¨#~. ~
line Qõ_«∞=Ù, xs‚`Œ HßÖÏ=kè. ~ lock
ã¨~ѨÓO°‚ „Ǩu+¨ì~Éèí#. ~ march KÍ=Ù
Çı∞à◊~. ~ matter Qõu~z# q+¨Ü«µ~.
~ of partnership ÉèßQõ™®fi=∞º
XǨÊ~^°~/ Ǩ„`Œ~. ~ point `Œ∞k
a~^°∞=Ù. ~ rent ã≤÷O°"≥∞·# J^≥Ì. ~
security J=∞Å∞Ö’ ÖËx ѨÓp. ~
shipping xâ◊ÛÅ ÉèßO°~. ~ stock
J=∞∞‡_«∞ áÈx ã¨O°∞Hí∞† qxܡ∂Qõ~ ÖËx
=∞¥Å^è°#~. ~ weight [_«ÉèßO°~
deadcat bounce ÇÍ>ÏÅ OÕ@∞¡ ѨÙ#O°∞
`ËÎ[~ á⁄~^°_«~
deaden "≥∞∞^°∞ÌÉÏO°∞, uq∞‡O≥Hí∞¯, xO°∞
`ÍûǨÏ~ Qåq~K«∞, x¿ãÎ[~Qåq~K«∞,
Jâ◊Hí∞Î_«Qõ∞
deadline z=i Qõ_«∞=Ù
deadly „áå}®~`ŒHí"≥∞·#, q+¨Ñ¨Ói`Œ"≥∞·#,
P`Œ‡q<®â◊Hí"≥∞·#
deaf-mute K‹q>˜, =∞¥Qõ
deal =º=ǨO°~† ÉıO°~† XǨÊ~^°~
dealer =º=ǨÏO°Î† Çͺáåi, =O°ÎHí∞_«∞
dealings =º=ǨO®Å∞, ÖÏÇÍ^ÕgÅ∞. ~
policy =_ô¤ OÕ@∞¡ ÃÑ~z =ºÜ«∂xfl
xÜ«µ~„u~K«_«~
dean „H≥·ã¨Î= ѨÓ*Ïi† qâ◊fiq^®ºÅÜ«µ~Ö’
ã¨~|~kè`Œ qÉèßQåÅHí∞ Jxfl>˜H© HíeÇ≤
JkèǨu
dead

dearness
dearness „Ç≤Ü«µ~, qÅ∞= ÃÑO°Qõ_«~. ~
allowance HíO°∞=Ù Éèí`Œº~
dearth Ö’@∞, HÁO°`Œ
death rate =∞O°}®Å ã¨~Yº
death rattle KÍ=ÙQõ∞O°Hí
deaths man `ŒÖÏi
debacle Ǩ`Œ#~, ǨO®[Ü«µ~, ã¨~H˜¡+¨ì~,

q^è°fi~ã¨~, F@q∞† Qõ_«¤Hí>˜ì# =∞~K«∞
HíO°Qõ_«~. ~ of government „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi
Ǩ`Œ#~
debar x¿+kè~K«∞, `˘Åy~K«∞, „Ǩu¿+
kè~K«∞
debark F_«#∞~z k~ѨÙ/ ÖË^® kQõ∞
debarment `˘Åy~Ѩن „Ǩu|~^è°Hí~
debase HíbÎ, ™®÷ܵ `Œyæ# Qõ∞}~/ܡ∂Qõº`Œ
debasement <®}ˇÑ¨Ù „Ǩ=∂}®xfl `Œyæ~
K«_«~
debatable qÇÍ^®ã¨Ê^°"≥∞·#, ã¨~kQõú,
PHı∆Ç≤~Ǩ^°y#, K«O°ÛKıÜ«∞^°y#
debate K«O°Û
debauchee hu^°¥O°∞_«∞, `ÍQõ∞É’`Œ∞
debaucher *ÏO°∞_«∞, „Éèí+¨∞ì_«∞, Çıâͺ
Ö’Å∞_«∞
debauchery Çıâͺ֒Å`Œfi~, *ÏO°`Œfi~
debenture O°∞}Ǩ„`Œ~
debilitate qÅ∞= `Œyæ~K«∞, |ÅÇ‘Ï#
ǨO°K«∞, K‹O°∞ѨÙ, K‹_«Q˘@∞ì
debilitated ^°∞O°ƒÅ"≥∞·#, hO°ã¨"≥∞·#
debility ^°∞O°ƒÅ`Œfi~, |ÅÇ‘Ï#`Œ, x„™®Î},
Jã¨=∞O°÷`Œ
debit YO°∞Û. ~ note K‹e¡~ѨÙÅ#∞ Qõ∞O°∞Î
Kı㨥ΠMÏ`Í^®O°∞Hí∞ Hí~ÃÑh *Ïs Kı¿ã
Ǩ„`Œ~
debonair LÖÏ¡ã¨HíO°"≥∞·#, ã¨Éèíº"≥∞·#
debridement QåÜ«∂xfl â◊∞„ÉèíǨO°K«_«~
debris K‹`ŒÎ, tkäÖÏ=âı+¨~, =ºO°÷ Ǩ^®
O®÷Å∞

144

deceive

O°∞}~, JǨC, ÉÏH©. accruing ~
ã¨~„Híq∞~Kı JǨC. ~ capital JǨCQå
`ˇzÛ# Hí~ÃÑh _«|∞ƒ. ~ collector
JǨC ™⁄=∞∞‡ =㨥Å∞ Kı¿ã =ºH˜Î. ~
conversion JǨC=∂iÊ_ç. ~ free
JǨCÖËx. judgement ~ _ç„H© O°∞}~.
~ liability W=fi^Õe# "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~
debtor ÉÏH©^®O°∞, O°∞}„Qõã¨∞Î_«∞. absent
~ Q≥·O®›[O°∞ ÉÏH©^®O°∞
debtor's ledger ÉÏH©^®O°¡ P=O®˚, O°∞}
„Qõã¨∞ÎÅ MÏ`Í
debug `ŒÇ¨Cefl Qõ∞iÎ~z ã¨=i~K«∞
debunk Jã¨`Œº xO°¥Ç¨}† JáÈÇ¨Ï `˘Å
y~K«∞, x[~ |Ü«µ@ÃÑ@∞ì
debut „Ǩ„Ǩ^ä°=∞ „Ǩ^°O°≈#
debutant "≥∞∞^°>˜™®i O°~Qõ"≥∞Hı¯ =ºH˜Î
debuttor =∞`Œ „Ǩܡ∂[<®Å H’ã¨~
WzÛ# J^≥Ì ÖËx Pã≤Î
decade ^°âÍ|Ì~
decadence kQõ*ÏO°∞_«∞`Œ#~, Ǩ`Œ#~,
Ǩ`Œ<®=ã¨÷, H©∆}`Œ, „Éèí+¨ì`Œ
decadent „Éèí+¨ì"≥∞·#, H©∆}˜~z#. ~ period H©∆}Ü«µ∞Qõ~. ~ art H©∆} Híà◊
decagon ^°â◊Éèí∞l
decamp áåiáÈ=Ù, taO°~ ZuÎÇıÜ«µ∞
decant `Ë@ǨO°∞K«∞, `ËO°∞Û
decantation `ËO°Û_«~
decapitate tO°âıÛù^°# KıÜ«µ∞
decay â‹·käź~. ~ constant Hí∆Ü«µ „H˜Ü«µ
ã≤÷O®~Hí~. ~ product tkäŠǨ^®O°÷~
decease =∞O°}~
deceit "≥Øã¨~, Hí∞Ü«µ∞H˜Î† `ŒÇ¨C_«∞ „Ǩu
áå^°#, ^°Qå, HíǨ@~, ^°~Éèí~
deceitful U=∂OÕÛ, "≥Øã¨y~Kı, ^°Qõ∞
Öσl, =~K«#`À Hí∂_ç#
deceive "≥Øã¨y~K«∞
debt

145

deceiver
deceiver "≥Øã¨Qå_«∞, (#Ü«µ) =~K«Hí∞_«∞
decelerate ÇıQõ~ `ŒQõ∞æ, =∞~^°y~K«∞
decency ã¨Éèíº`Œ, =∞O®º^°, Bz`Œº~,

ܡ∂Qõº`Œ
decennary ^°âÍ|Ì~
decennial ^°âÍ|Ì, ^°â◊ÇÍi¬Hí. ~ census ^°â◊ ÇÍi¬Hí [<®Éèß ÖˇHí¯
decent `Œy#, Lz`Œ, ã¨Éèíº, ܡ∂Qõº. ~
standard of life ܡ∂Qõºr=#

„Ǩ=∂}~
decentralisation qHı~„nHíO°}
decentralise qHı~„nHíi~K«∞
deception =~K«#, "≥Øã¨~, ^°Qå
deceptive =~K«<®`Œ‡Hí,
`ŒÇ¨C^®i

Ǩ>˜ì~Kı
decibel ^è°fix „Ǩ=∂}~
decidual Ǩ`Œ#=∞Ü˵º, O®eáÈÜ˵
deciduous `Í`ͯeHí"≥∞·#, PHí∞Å∞ O®ÖËÛ.
~ forest PHí∞Å∞O®ÖËÛ J_«=ÙÅ∞
decimal ^°âÍ~â◊~
decimate <®â◊#~ KıÜ«µ∞
decipher J=Qõ`Œ~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞/ K«^°∞=Ù
decision fO°∞Ê, xO°‚Ü«µ~. ~ making

q^èß# xO°‚Ü«µ~
decisive uO°∞Qõ∞ÖËx, xO®‚Ü«µHí,
decivilise J<®QõsHíi~K«∞
deck F_« ÃÑ·ÉèßQõ~† p@¡¿ÑHí,

xO®úO°Hí
JÅ~Hí

i~K«∞, ã≤~Qåi~K«∞
LǨ<®ºã¨ ^è’O°}˜Ö’ =∂>Ï¡_«∞,
Qõ>˜ìQå Y~_ç~K«∞, xO®Híi~K«∞
declamation LǨ<®ºã¨~† K«`Œ∞O° ã¨~Éèß
+¨} <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~
declarant ÇÍV¥‡ÅHíO°Î, „ǨHí@#HíO°Î
declaration KÍ>˜~ѨÙ, "≥Å¡_ç, „ǨHí@#,
ÇÍV¥‡Å~. dying ~ =∞O°}ÇÍV¥‡Å~.
~ of insolvency kÇÍÖÏ „ǨHí@#.
statutory ~ âÍã¨#|^°ú „ǨHí@#
declaim

decompression

xOÕÌâ’H˜Î, xOÕÌ
âÍ`Œ‡Hí ÇÍHíº~
declaratory q=O°}®`Œ‡Hí, „ǨHí>˜~Kı. ~
act q=O°}®`Œ‡Hí K«@ì~
declaratory decree „ǨHí@<®`Œ‡Hí _ç„H©
declare "≥Å¡_ç~K«∞, xO°‚ܵ~z K‹Ç¨C†
(JkèHßiHí~Qå) „ǨHí>˜~K«∞
declassify =sæHíi~K«∞, =sæHí$`Œ *Ïa`Í
#∞~z `˘Åy~K«∞† O°Ç¨Ï㨺 ã¨=∂KÍO°~
|Ü«µ@ÃÑ@∞ì
declension Hí∆Ü«µ~, H©∆}`Œ† hu `ŒÇ¨Ê_«~,
Ǩ`Œ#~† qÉèíH˜Î
declevity kQõ∞_«∞, U@ÇÍÅ∞
declination =~ѨÙ, H©∆}`Œ, xO®HíO°},
JH∆ß~â◊~
decline xO®Híi~K«_«~, uO°ã¨¯i~K«_«~†
`ŒyæáÈ=_«~† xO®Híi~K«∞† H©∆}˜~K«∞
declivous U@ÇÍÅ∞Qå L#fl
decoction Híë®Ü«µ~
decode ã¨~Hı`Œ~ Éèık~K«∞
decoding qã¨~Hı`Œ#~
decollate `ŒÅfÜ«µ∞
decolonization =Å㨠q=∞∞H˜Î
decolouration qO°~[#~,
O°~Qõ∞
áÈ=_«~, q=O°‚~ Hß=_«~
decolourisation q=s‚HíO°}~
decolourise qO°~[#~ KıÜ«µ∞
decomplex ÉÏQå zH˜¯#, ã¨~H©O°‚ ÉèßQå
Å`À Hí∂_ç#
decompose Hí∞o§áÈ=Ù, K‹_çáÈ=Ù, Hí∞à◊§
ɡ@∞ì, tkäÅ"≥∞·áÈ=Ù
decomposite ã¨~ܡ∂QõÇ^
¨ ®O°~÷ , ã¨=∂ã¨~
decomposition Ǩ~Ç≤}©†
tkäÅ~
Hß=_«~. ~ of rocks tÖÏ qѶ¨∞@#~
decompress Ç‘_«#~ `Œyæ~K«∞
decompression XuÎ_ç `Œyæ~K«_«~
declarative sentence

146

decongestant
decongestant
deconsecrate

O°HßÎkèHíº~ `Œyæ~K«_«~
JǨq„`Œ~KıÜ«µ∞, =∞e#

ǨO°∞K«∞
deconstruction qxO®‡}~, decontaminate HÍÅ∞+¨ºO `˘Åy~K«∞, „ǨH∆ß

o~K«∞
decontamination „ǨH∆ßà◊#
decontrol xO°ƒ~^èßÅ#∞ `˘Åy~K«∞
decor JÅ~HßO° ™®=∞„y
decorate ã≤~Qåi~K«∞, JÅOHíi~K«∞,

aO°∞^°∞/ Ǩ`ŒHí~ WK«∞Û
decorated style JÅ~Hí$`Œâ‹·e
decoration JÅ~HíO°}, qÉèí¥+¨}~
decorative art JÅ~HßO° Híà◊
decorous Ü«µ∞HíÎ"≥∞·#, =∞O®º^°`À Hí∂_ç#
decorticate ɡO°_«∞/ á⁄@∞ì fÜ«µ∞,
XÅ∞K«∞
decorum Bz`Œº~, Lz`Œ „Ǩ=O°Î#/ Çı+¨
^èßO°}
decoste ^®Ü«∂k ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
decoupage Ǩ„`ŒY~_« O°K«#
decoy ZO°, x~^°, u@∞ì, =ÅÖ’ Çıã¨∞
HÁ#∞, z#fl|∞K«∞Û, =~K«#`À PHíi¬~K«∞,
z#fl|∞K«∞Û, x~k~K«∞
decoyer =~K«Hí∞_«∞
decree H’O°∞ì fO°∞Ê/ L`ŒÎO°∞=Ù
decrement Hí∆Ü«µ~, `Œyæ~ѨÙ
decrepit ^°∞O°ƒÅ"≥∞·#, zqH˜#, ri‚~z#
decrepitate ÇıK«∞, Çıܵ~K«∞
decrepitude =∞∞kq∞
decry Y~_ç~K«∞† x~k~K«∞† HÁ>˜ìÇıÜ«µ∞,
=ºuOÕH˜~K«∞
dectrolytic q^°∞ºkfiâı¡+¨Hí. ~ cell q^°∞º
kfiâı¡+¨Hõ Ѷ¨∞@~. ~ reduction q^°∞º`ü
Hí∆Ü«µHíO°}~
decuman ÃÑ^°Ì JÅ

defalcation

decumbent ™®yÅǨ_ç#
decuple Ǩk~`ŒÅ "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~
decussate ǨO°ã¨ÊO°~ Y~_ç~K«∞HÁ<Ë
dedicate J~H˜`Œ~KıÜ«µ∞, J~H˜`Œ~ J=Ù
dedication J~H˜`ŒÉèß=~
deduce O®|@∞ì, xO°‚Ü«∂xH˜ =K«∞Û
deducible TÇ≤Ï~z xâ◊Ûܵ~Ǩ^°y#
deduct fã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞, `˘Åy~K«∞, `Œyæ~K«∞
deducted wages q∞#Ǩܵ~z#/ `Œyæ~

z#/ Çı`Œ<®Å∞
deductible `˘Åy~K«^°y#, `Œyæ~K«^°y#
deduction fã≤Çı`Œ, xQõ=∞#~
deductive TÇ≤Ï~Ǩ^°y#. ~ logic xQõ

=∞#`ŒO°¯~
deed ^°™®ÎÇıA. ~ of assignment JǨÊ
y~`Œ ^°™®ÎÇıA. ~ of gift ^®#Ǩ„`Œ~.
~of transfer |kb Ǩ„`Œ~. sale ~
q„HíÜ«µ ^°™®ÎÇıA
deem `ŒÅK«∞, J#∞HÁ#∞, Éèßq~K«∞
deep JMÏ`Œ~† ã¨=∞∞„^°~† Ö’`Œ∞. ~
rooted |Å~Qå Çıà◊¥§x#. ~ sea
floor JQå^è° ã¨=∞∞„^° Éèí¥`ŒÅ~
deep case HßO°Hí~
deep depression f„="≥∞·# ÇÍÜ«µ∞
Qõ∞~_«~
deepen f„==∞Qõ∞
deep grammar J~`ŒO°æ`Œ ÇͺHíO°}~
deep structure J~`ŒiflO®‡}~, Qõ∞ǨÎ
xO®‡}~
deface qO°¥Ç¨~ KıÜ«µ∞, O°¥Ç¨~ K‹O°K«∞,
=∞∞Y~ Hí#|_«Hí∞~_Í KıÜ«µ∞, qHßO°~
KıÜ«µ∞, K‹iÇ≤ÇıÜ«µ∞, K‹_«Q˘@∞ì
de facto Ü«µ^äßO°"
÷ ∞≥ #· , x["≥∞#· . ~ ruler
Jã¨Å∞ áåÅHí∞_«∞
defalcate JǨǨÏi~K«∞
defalcation „^°ÇͺǨǨÏO°},
Ö’@∞,
HÁO°`Œ

defamation

147

definition

defamation ǨO°∞=Ù #+¨ì~
defamatory ǨO°∞=Ù #+¨ì~ Híey~Kı
defame JǨH©iÎ `ˇK«∞Û, JǨÇÍ^°∞ ÇıÜ«µ∞
defamiliarization JǨiK«Ü∂HíO°}~
default J=∞Å∞
ǨO°ÛÖËHíáÈ=_«~†

defender O°Hí∆Hí∞_«∞
defender of faith ^è°O°‡„`Í`Œ
defending champion xO°∞>˜ q*Ë`Œ
defense O°Hí∆}, P`Œ‡O°Hí∆}
defensible <®ºÜ«µ=∞x xO°¥Ç≤~K«^°y#,

ÇÍܵ^® <®_«∞ H’O°∞ìH˜ Ǩ[O°∞ HßHí
áÈ=_«~† xs‚`Œ HßÖÏxH˜ _«|∞ƒ K‹e¡~K«
ÖËHíáÈ=_«~† HíO°Î=º xO°fiǨÏ}Ö’
"≥·Ñ¶¨Åº~. ~ book K‹e¡~Ѩ٠Hßx Ǩ^°∞Ì
ѨÙã¨ÎHí~. ~ in payment K‹e¡~ѨÙÖ’
L¿ÑHí∆. ~ of issue ã¨~`Í#~ ÖËHí
áÈ=_«~
defaulter ZQõÇı`Œ^®O°∞, ã¨HßÅ~Ö’ _«|∞ƒ
K‹e¡~K«x =ºH˜Î, <ËO°~ Kıã≤# Ãã·xHí∞_«∞
defeasance qѶ¨Å~ KıÜ«µ_«~
defeasible qѶ¨Å~HßQõÅ, O°^°∞ÌHß^°y#.
~ title ǨÏHí∞¯=∞¥Å~
defeat F@q∞
defecate xO°‡Å~Kıܵ« ∞, â◊∞kúKÜ
ı µ« ∞, â◊∞„Éèí
ǨO°K«∞
defecation â◊∞kú
defect #¥º#`Œ, ^À+¨~, ֒Ǩ~, ^°∞O°∞}
æ ~.
lantent ~ Hí#Ǩ_«x ֒Ǩ~. patent ~
ÃÑ·H˜ Hí#Ǩ_Ë Ö’Ç¨~, |Ç≤ÏO°æ`Œ ֒Ǩ~
defection áåsì ѶO
≤ ®Üµ~K«_~« / =∂O°Û_«~
defective ֒Ǩ~QõÅ, ֒ǨÉèí¥Üµ+¨ª
defence „ǨuÇÍ^°~, O°Hí∆}. ~ committee O°Hí∆} ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~. ~ counsel x~k
`Œ∞x ǨH∆ß# ÇÍk~Kı <®ºÜ«µÇÍk. ~
department O°Hí∆}âÍY. ~ expenditure O°Hí∆} =ºÜ«µ~. ~ in bar ÇÍ^°
xO’^è°Hí „Ç¨uáå^°#. ~ scheme O°Hí∆}
Ǩ^ä°Hí~. ~ treaty O°Hí∆} X_«~|_çHí
defend „ǨuÇÍ^°~KıÜ«µ∞† HßK«∞, Hßáå_«∞,
O°H˜∆~K«∞
defendant x~k`Œ∞_«∞† „ǨuÇÍk

O°H˜∆~Ǩ^°y#, O°H˜∆`Œ „áå~`Œ~
defensive O°Hí∆}®O°÷"≥∞·#, ã¨~O°Hí∆Hí"≥∞·#
defer HÁ~`Œ^®K«_«~† ÇÍܵ^® ÇıÜ«µ_«~†
q∞#Ǩܵ~z "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~Qå XHí™®i K‹e¡~
K«_«~† J#º=∞#㨯~Qå<ˇ·<® UH©Éèí
q~K«_«~, qÉèık~K«@~
deference Ö’|_«_«~,
XǨCH’Å∞†
Q“O°=~
deferred ÇÍܵ^® Çıã≤#, PÇ≤ L~z#.
~ annuity ÇÍܵ^®Ç¨_ç# ÇÍi¬Hí
K‹e¡~ѨÙ
defervescence L+¨‚~ `ŒO°∞Qõ∞^°Å, Çı_ç
`ŒQõ∞æ^°Å
defiance kèH߯O°~, kèHí¯O°}, uO°™®¯O°~,
JÅHí∆ º~
defiant Z^°∞O°∞ uiQÕ, kèHí¯i~Kı, Ju„Hí
q∞~Kı, Jq^èıÜ«µ`Œ K«¥¿Ñ. ~ attitude
kèH߯O° „Ǩ=$uÎ
deficiency ֒Ǩ~. Ö’@∞
deficient `ŒHí∞¯=
deficit Ö’@∞, P^®Ü«∂xfl q∞~z#
=ºÜ«µ~
defier Zki~Kı/ [=^®>ı =ºH˜Î
defile Hí#∞=∞: JǨq„`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞, HíÅ∞
+≤`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞, =O°∞ã¨Ö’ áÈ=Ù
defilement "≥∞·Å
define q=i~K«∞, ã¨Ê+‘ìHíi~K«∞, xO°fi
z~K«∞, ǨÏ^°∞ÌÖËO°ÊO°K«∞
definitely W^°q∞`Œ÷~Qå, YzÛ`Œ~Qå,
J#∞=∂<®ÅHí∞ `Í=ÙÖËHí∞~_Í
definition xO°fiK«#~

definitive

xâ◊ÛÜ«∂`Œ‡Hí. ~ edition
xO®úO°Hí„Ǩu, „áå=∂}˜Hí „Ç¨u
deflagrate HßÅ∞Û† HßeÛ |¥_ç^° KıÜ«µ∞
deflate QåefÜ«µ∞, „^°Ç’ºÅƒ}~ `Œyæ~K«∞,
„^°=ºK«ÖÏ=∞}˜x `Œyæ~K«∞
deflation „Ǩu „^°Ç’ºÅƒ}~, ZQÆ∞~°"Õ`«
deflationist „^°=ºã¨~H’K«Hí ÇÍk
deflect ^®i `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞
deflection qHı∆Ǩ~
defloration PHí∞Å∞ O®Å_«~, Hí<ˇflá⁄O°
Kèık~K«_«~, =∂#Éèí~Qõ~ KıÜ«µ_«~
deflower ѨÓÅ∞ ÖËHí∞~_Í KıÜ«µ∞,
Hí<®º`Œfi~ K‹O°K«∞† É’_çQå KıÜ«µ∞
deforce Éèí¥q∞x |Å=~`Œ~Qå P„Hí
q∞~K«∞
deforcement |Å=~`ŒÑ¨Ù P„Hí=∞}
deforestation J@g xO°¥‡Å#
deform qHí$fHíi~K«∞, qO°¥Ç¨~KıÜ«µ∞,
Hí∞O°¥Ç≤x KıÜ«µ∞
deformation qO°¥Ç¨}~, qHí$fHíO°}†
J~Qõ"≥·Híź~
deformity "≥·Híź~,
Hí∞O°¥Ç≤`Œ#~,
qO°¥Ç¨~, J=Ü«µ=֒Ǩ~
defossion ã¨r= Éèí¥™®÷Ǩ#/ ^°Ç¨Ï# tHí∆
defraud =~z~K«∞,
"≥Øã¨y~K«∞,
Hß*ËÜ«µ∞
defray "≥ÅK‹e¡~K«∞, Éèíi~K«∞
defrayable YO°∞Û Éèíi~Ǩ^°y#
deft xѨÙ}, K«`Œ∞O°, <ËO°∞ÊQõÅ
deftly <ËO°∞ÊQå
defunct ǨxKıÜ«µx, „H˜Ü«∂O°Ç≤Ï`Œ, „H˜Ü«∂
â◊¥#º, J=∞Å∞Ö’ ÖËx. ~ company
ÇͺáåO°~ KÍe~z# Hí~ÃÑh. ~ partnership J=∞Å∞Ö’ ÖËx ÉèßQõ™®fi=∞º~
defuse `Œyæ~K«_«~, fã≤ÇıÜ«µ_«~
defy LÅ¡~Ѷ≤∞~K«_«~, kèHí¯i~K«_«~
definitive

148

delay

H©∆}`Œ, J^è°óǨ`Œ#~,
„Éèí+¨ì`Œfi~, J^è’Qõu† qzÛù#fl`Œ
degeneracy H©∆}`Œ, Ç‘Ï#`Œ, „Éèí+¨ì`Œ
degenerate „Éèí+¨ì"≥∞·#, kQõ*ÏO°∞_«∞
deglutition q∞~Qõ_«~, Hí|o~K«_«~
degradation „H˜~k „âı}˜H˜ Ǩ~Ǩ_«~,
™®÷ܵ֒Ǩ~, ÃÇÏ·#º~
degrade Ç‘Ï#ǨO°∞K«∞, J==∂#ǨO°∞K«∞,
`Œyæ~K«∞, Ǩ^°g „Éèí+¨∞ìx KıÜ«µ∞, ǨO°∞=Ù
áÈQ˘@∞ìHÁ#∞, <ˇ·uHí~Qå Ǩ`Œ#~ K‹~^°∞
degratia ^°Ü«∂ѨÓO°fiHí"≥∞·#
degree ™®÷ܵ, H’}~, Ǩi=∂}~. ~ of
accuracy Ü«µ^äßO°÷`Í ™®÷ܵ. ~ of association ™®Ç¨ÏK«O°º ™®÷ܵ. ~ of discretion qÇıK«# ™®÷ܵ. ~ of dissociation qѶ¨∞@# ™®÷ܵ. ~ of hardness (water) ([Å) Hßiî#º ™®÷ܵ. ~
of utility LǨܡ∂Qõ™®÷ܵ
degression ^°â◊Å ÇÍs `ŒQõ∞æ^°Å
degressive ^°â◊Å ÇÍsQå `ŒQÕæ
dehiscent ǨHßfixH˜ =zÛ# `ŒO°ÇÍ`Œ
Ǩye q`ŒÎ<®Å∞ |Ü«µ@Hí∞ O®=_«~
dehydrate Z~_«Éˇ@∞ì, xO°˚bHíi~K«∞
dehydration Z~_çáÈ=_«~,
xO°˚b
HíO°}~, [ÅǨÏO°}~
deification ^≥·gHíO°}~, PO®^è°#
deign ã¨iǨ_«∞`Œ∞~^°x `ŒÅK«∞, ^°Ü«µ`À
J~wHíi~K«∞
deity ^Õ=`Œ, ^≥·=~, ^Õ=Ù_«∞
deject z#fl|∞K«∞Û
dejected J„Ǩã¨#fl, n#
dejection d#fl`Œ, n#`Œ
de jure K«@ì„ǨHßO°~, <®ºÜ«µs`ͺ
delate <ËO°~"≥ØѨن Ѷ≤O®º^°∞KıÜ«µ∞
delay *ÏQõ∞, *ÏǨº~, PÅ㨺~. inordinate ~ ÃÑ#∞*ÏǨº~, J™®^èßO°}
PÅ㨺~
degenaration

149

delaying tactics
delaying tactics *ÏǨºÜ«µ∞Hí∞ÎÅ∞
delectation PǨ¡^°HíO°"≥∞·#,

q<À^°

Éèíi`Œ"≥∞·#
„Ǩux^è°∞Å xÜ«∂=∞Hí Ǩ^°úu,
„Ǩuxkè |$~^°~
delegate „Ǩuxkè, „ǨuxkèQå Ǩ~Ç≤~K«∞,
JkèHßO°~ JǨÊy~K«∞, „áåux^è°ºq∞K«∞Û
delegation „Ǩuxkè |$~^°~, ^°`ŒÎ`Œ. ~
of authority JkèHßO° ^°`ŒÎ`Œ. ~ of
power JkèHßO° ^°`ŒÎ`Œ
delete `˘Åy~K«∞, `Œ∞_çzÇıÜ«µ∞, xeÇ≤
ÇıÜ«µ∞
deleterious q<®â◊HíO°, q+¨`Œ∞ź
deletion `˘Åy~ѨÙ, ǨiǨÏO°}~, Ö’Ç≤~
Ǩ*ËÜ«µ@~. ~ rule ֒Ǩ㨥„`Œ~
deliberate ã¨=∂Ö’z~K«∞. ~ killing
|∞kúѨÓO°fiHí~Qå K«~Ǩ_«~
deliberately |∞kú/ L^ÕÌâ◊ ѨÓO°fiHí~Qå
deliberation L#fl`Œ™®÷ܵ K«O°Û/ ã¨=∂
Ö’K«#, ѨÓO®fiÖ’K«#, xt`Œ ǨijÅ#
delicacy O°∞zHíO°"≥∞·# PǨO° Ǩ^®O°÷~,
<®EHí∞`Œ#~, H’=∞Å`Œfi~, ™œHí∞
=∂O°º~, O°=∞}©Ü«µ~, ã¨O°ã¨`Œ† ^°∞O°ƒ
Å`Œfi~, qÇıK«#, <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~† Z^°∞>˜ÇÍi
=∞#ã¨∞û#∞ <˘Ç≤Ê~K«Hí áÈ=_«~† J=∞
O®º^°HíO° Ǩ#∞Å #∞~z `ŒÇ¨CH’=_«~
delicate ã¨∞Hí∞=∂O°, ã¨∞xfl`Œ"≥∞·#
delicious O°∞zHíO°"≥∞·#. ~ meal O°∞zHíO°
Éè’[#~
delict ^°∞+¨¯ $u, âÍã¨# qO°∞^°ú~, `ŒÇ¨C,
<ËO°~
delight P#~^°~† ã¨~`À+¨Ç¨_«∞/ ǨO°K«∞
delimit ǨÏ^°∞ÌÖËO°ÊO°∞K«∞
delimitation ǨÏ^°∞ÌÅ∞ xO°‚ܵ~K«_«~. ~
of constituencies xܡ∂[Hí=O®æÅ
ѨÙ#ifiÉèí[#
delegacy

demagogue

delineate z„u~K«∞, =i‚~K«∞,
delineation z„`Œ}, =O°‚#,

„Ǩ^°i≈~K«∞
ã¨iǨÏ^°∞ÌÅ

xO°‚Ü«µ~
delinking `ˇQõQ˘@ì_«~, ÇıO°∞ǨO°K«@~
delinquency JǨO®^è°~
delinquent L¿ÑHí∆Hí∞_«∞, ^À+≤, JǨO®kè,
<ËO°Qå_«∞. ~ child JǨO®^è°~ Kıã≤#
tâ◊∞=Ù. ~ juvenile ÉÏÅ<ËO°ã¨∞÷_«∞
deliquesce HíO°∞Qõ∞, „^°q~K«∞, HíiyáÈ=Ù
delirious „ǨÖÏÇ≤~Kı, L„kHíÎ
delirium ã¨xfláå`Œ~, „Ǩ`ÍǨ~, ã¨~kè
deliver |>Ïfi_Í KıÜ«µ∞, J~^°KıÜ«µ∞,

WK«∞Û, =∞∞@ìK‹Ç¨C, q=∞∞H˜Î Híey~K«∞,
Hßáå_«∞, O°H~∆˜ K«∞, Hí#∞, „Ǩãq¨ ~K«∞, „ǨHí
>˜~K«∞, "≥Å¡_ç~K«∞, JO°Ê} KıÜ«µ∞, q_«∞
^°ÅKıÜ«µ∞. ~ a lecture LǨ#ºã≤~K«∞
deliverance W=fi_«~, J~k~K«_«~
delivery |>Ïfi_Í, W=fi_«~, J~^°
KıÜ«µ_«~, JǨÊy~K«_«~† LǨ<®ºã¨~,
Hß#∞Ê, „Ǩã¨=~. ~ book `ŒáåÖÏ
ѨÙã¨ÎHí~. ~ order JǨÊy~`Œ L`ŒÎO°∞=Ù.
~ premeture JǨiǨHífi „Ǩã¨=~. ~
tube ÇÍǨÏHí <®à◊~
dell Hí#∞=∞, Ö’Ü«µ
delta X~„_«∞ <ËÅ, "≥∞·^®# („áå~`Œ) ~
delude „Éèíq∞~Ǩ*ËÜ«µ∞, "≥Øã¨Ñ¨ÙK«∞Û
deluge [ńǨà◊Ü«µ~
delusion "≥Øã¨~, „Éèß~u, q„Éèí=∞~,
q∞^äߺq<®ºã¨~
delusive „Éèí=∞Q˘e¿Ñ, „Éèß~u [#Hí"≥∞·#
de luxe ǨiѨÙ+¨ì"≥∞·#, Éè’QõÜ«µ∞HíÎ"≥∞·#
delve ÉÏQå Ǩi„â◊q∞~K«∞, (Ǩiâ’^è°#
ÅÖ’) `Œ=Ùfi
demagnetisation xO°Ü«µ™®¯~fHíO°}~
demagogue P~^Àà◊#HßO°∞_«∞, ÇÍHí∂≈
O°∞_«∞

demand

_ç=∂~_ü, (ǨÏHí∞¯Qå) H’O°_«~,
H’iHí, yO®H©, JÉèíºO°÷#. ~ bill ã¨=∞
iÊ~K«Qå<Ë K‹e¡~KÍeû# qx=∞Ü«µaÅ∞¡.
~ price yO®H© ^è°O°. ~ schedule
yO®H© Ǩ>˜ìHí
demarcate ZÅ¡Å∞ UO°ÊO°K«∞, ǨÏ^°∞ÌÅ∞
xO°‚ܵ~K«∞
demarcation (ã¨i)ǨÏ^°∞Ì (xO°‚Ü«µ~). ~
dispute Ǩx ǨÏ^°∞ÌÅ qÇÍ^°~. ~ line
ǨÏ^°∞ÌOÕY
demarcator ǨÏ^°∞ÌxOÕ‚`Œ
demasking agent J<®KÍÛù^°Hí~
dematerialise P^èߺu‡Hí~ KıÜ«µ∞
demean #¥º#ǨO°∞K«∞, J„Ǩu+¨ªáåÅ∞
KıÜ«µ∞
demeanour #_«=_ç, "≥·Yi
dementi
(ѨÙHßO°∞#∞)
JkèHßO°
ѨÓO°fiHí~Qå Y~_ç~K«_«~
dementia z`ŒÎ"≥·Híź~, q„^°∞u
demerit J=ÅHí∆}~, Jܡ∂Qõº`Œ, ֒Ǩ~,
^À+¨~, ^°∞O°∞æ}~
demersal ã¨=∞∞„^®~`ŒO®ƒùQõ rq`Œ~
demesne ǨÏHí∞¯ Éèí∞HßÎÅÖ’ L~K«∞HÁ#∞.
~ lands ™⁄~`Œ LǨܡ∂Qõ~ H’ã¨~
L~K«∞HÁ#fl Éèí¥=∞∞Å∞
demi ã¨Qõ~, JO°ú. ~ official JO®úkèHßi
demigod ^≥·ÇÍ~â◊ ã¨~Éèí¥`Œ∞_«∞, k=º
ѨÙO°∞+¨∞_«∞, ÉèíQõ=`ü ã¨fiO°¥Ñ¨Ù_«∞
demilitarisation xÃã· ûxH©HíO°}
demilitarise Ãã·<®ºxfl LǨã¨~ǨÏi~K«∞,
xÃã· ûxHí~KıÜ«µ∞
demineralisation qYxrHíO°}~
demineralised water qYxrHí$`Œ
[Å~
demise =∞O°}~† nO°…HßÅ H“Å∞bA,
gÅ∞<®=∂ ^®fiO® Pã≤Î ã¨~„Híq∞~Ǩ
demand

150

demoniac

*ËÜ«µ_«~. ~ of the crown 㨄=∂@∞ì
=∞O°}~† ã≤~Ǩã¨#`ͺQõ~
demission O®r<®=∂, Ǩi`ͺQõ~
demit Ǩi`Œºl~K«∞, O®r<®=∂ KıÜ«µ∞,
=^°∞Å∞HÁ#∞
demitting O®r<®=∂ Kı¿ã ã¨~^°O°ƒù~
demiurge =∞¥Å=∞¥iÎ
demobilization qÃã·hºHíO°},
¿ã#
#∞~z `˘Åy~K«∞
demobilize Ãã·#º~ #∞~z `˘Åy~K«∞
democles sword á⁄~z L#fl =∞∞ǨC,
Q˘~`Œ∞g∞k HíuÎ
democracy „Ǩ*Ï™®fi=∞º~
democrat „Ǩ*Ï™®fi=∞ºÇÍk
democratic „Ǩ*Ï™®fiq∞Hí"≥∞·#. ~ centralism Hı~„nHí$`Œ „Ǩ*Ï™®fi=∞º~. ~
convention „Ǩ*Ï™®fi=∞º ã¨Ç∞ı ‡à◊#~. ~
forces „Ǩ*Ï™®fiq∞Hí â◊Hí∞ÎÅ∞. ~ socialism „Ǩ*Ï™®fi=∞º ™®=∞ºÇÍ^°~
democratization „Ǩ*Ï™®fig∞ºHíO°}
demode áå`ŒÇ¨_«¤, ÇÍ_«∞Hí `Œyæ#, JÅ
ÇÍ@∞ `ŒÇ≤Ê#
demographic regulation [<®Éèß
xÜ«µ~„`Œ}
demography [<®Éèß q*Ï˝#~, [#
™®~YºHíâÍG~, ã¨~MϺ^谺ܫµ# (âÍG)~
demolish <ËÅ=∞@ì~ KıÜ«µ∞, Ǩ_«Q˘@∞ì
demolition q^è°fi~ã¨~ KıÜ«µ_«~, <®â◊~
Kıܵ« _«~, Hí∂ÅQ˘@ì_~« . ~ order Hí∂Å
Q˘@ì=∞<Ë L`ŒÎO°∞=Ù
demon ^°Ü«µº~, ^®#=Ù_«∞
demonetization <®}ıÅ K‹ÖÏ=∞}˜ O°^°∞Ì
demonetize K‹ÖÏ=∞}˜ #∞~z <®}ıÅ#∞,
HíO≥hûx O°^°∞ÌKıÜ«µ∞/ LǨã¨~ǨÏi~K«∞
demoniac ^°Ü«µº~ Ǩ>˜ì# =ºH˜Î† "≥„i PÇı
â◊~`À Hí∂_ç#

demoniacal
demoniacal ^°Ü«∂ºxH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#
demonic Jf~„kÜ«µ â◊H˜Î PÇıt~z#
demonism Éèí¥`Œ „¿Ñ`Œ Ç≤âÍKÍÖ’¡

#=∞‡Hí~
demonology ÃÑ·âÍzHí (âÍG)~
demonstrability xO°¥Ç¨}©Ü«µ`Œ
demonstrable xO°¥Ç≤~K«^°y#,

„Ǩ^°
i≈~K«^°y#, O°∞A=Ù KıÜ«µ^°y#
demonstrate xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«∞, „Ǩ^°i≈~K«∞,
^°$ë®ì~`Œ~Qå K«¥Ñ¨Ù, x[ǨO°∞K«∞,
O°∞A=ÙKıÜ«µ∞, „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆~Qå K«¥Ñ¨Ù
demonstration „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆
xO°¥Ç¨},
„Ǩ^°O°≈#, `Íi¯Hí xO°¥Ç¨}, ÉÏǨϺ „Ǩ^°
O°≈#. ~ experiment „Ǩ^°O°≈<®`Œ‡Hí
„Ǩܡ∂Qõ~
demonstrative „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆ xO°¥Ç¨}®`Œ‡Hí
demonstrator „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆ xO°¥Ç¨Hí∞_«∞,
„Ǩ^°O°≈Hí∞_«∞
demoralization hu„Éè+
í `ì¨ ,Œ J^èó° Ǩ`#Œ ~,
xO°∞`ÍûǨÏ~
demoralize <ˇ·uHí~Qå Éèí~QõǨO°K«∞, Ǩx
KıÜ«µ∞, „Éèí+¨∞ìǨ>˜ì~K«∞
demos „Ǩ*Ï™®=∂#º~, [#™®=∂#º~,
™®=∂#º[#~
demote Ǩ^°q/ Ǩϟ^® `Œyæ~K«∞
demotice ™®O°fi[xHí"≥∞·#, ã¨O°fi ™®^èßO°}
"≥∞·#
demotion Ǩ^°q/ Ǩϟ^® `Œyæ~ѨÙ
dempster fO°Êi
demulcent LǨâ◊=∞#Hßi
demur „Ǩu|~kè~K«∞, â◊~H˜~K«∞, PÅ㨺~
KıÜ«µ∞, JÉèíº~`ŒO°~ ÖË=nÜ«µ∞
demure Qõ~cèO°"≥∞·#† ã≤Qõ∞æǨ_ˆ #Hí¯
q#Ü«µ~, #~Qõ<®z
demurrage qÅ~|(#) â◊∞ů~
demurrer ÇÍ^®HıÇ
∆ H¨ ∞í _«∞† ÇÍ^®~âÍHıÇ∆ }
¨

151

denounce

den Qõ∞ǨÏ, aÅO, O°Ç¨Ï㨺 ™®÷=O°~
denationalization „ÃÑ·Çı>©Híi~K«_«~,

„ÃÑ·Çı@∞ǨO°~ KıÜ«µ_«~
„ÃÑ·Çı>©Híi~K«∞, „ÃÑ·Çı@∞
ǨO°~ KıÜ«µ∞
denaturalise áœO°ã¨`Œfi~
ÖËHí∞~_Í
KıÜ«µ∞, ã¨fiÉèßÇÍxfl =∂O°∞Û
denature HíbÎKıÜ«µ∞, ã¨Ç¨Ï[ Qõ∞}®xfl
áÈQ˘@∞ì
dendritic âÍMÏÜ«µ∞`Œ, âÍYÅ∞Qå qã¨Î
i~z#
dendrology =$H∆ß^谺ܫµ#~
denegation xO®HíO°}
dengue _≥~Q∑, _≥~Qõ∞º, _≥~w [fiO°~
denial xO®HíO°}, Y~_«#
denied xO®Hí$`Œ
denier xO®HíO°Î, Hß^°<ËÇÍ_«∞, uO°ã¨¯i~Kı
ÇÍ_«∞† z#fl <®}ˇ~
denigration J„Ǩu+¨ªáåÅ∞ KıÜ«µ_«~
denization áœO°`Œfi „Ǩ^®#~
denize ^ÕjÜ«µ∞x/ áœO°∞x KıÜ«µ∞
denizen áœO°∞_«Üµ#
q^ÕjÜ«µ∞_«∞,
ÇÍã¨Î=Ùº_«∞
denominate <®=∞=sæHíO°} KıÜ«µ∞
denomination <®=∞=sæHíO°}~
denominative ¿ÑO°∞ÃÑ>ıì, ¿ÑO°∞ÖÏQå
ÇÍ_«^°y#
denominator ǨO°~, qÉèß[Hí~, ™®^èßO°
}®~â◊~
denotation <ˇ·Ñ¶¨∞~@∞HßO°÷~, =∞¥ÖÏO°÷~
denotative xOÕÌâ◊Hí"≥∞·#, ã≤÷O®O°÷~
denote 㨥z~K«∞, xOÕÌt~K«∞
denotified tribe q=∞∞HíÎ *Ïu/ `ˇQõ
denouement Ǩi}®=∞~, Ǩi뮯O°~,
LǨã¨~ǨO°~
denounce xO°ã≤~K«∞,
`ŒÇ¨CÖˇ#∞fl,
x~k~K«∞, ^°¥+≤~K«∞, q=∞i≈~K«∞
denationalize

152

de novo
de novo =∞m¡ "≥∞∞^°>˜ #∞~z, ã¨iHÁ`ŒÎQå
dense ^°@ì"≥∞·#
denseness Qõ∞|∞O°∞, ™®~„^°`Œ, ^°@ì~
density ™®~„^°`Œ, ([#) ™®~„^°`Œg∞^°
P^èßO°Ç¨_«¤ HßO°HßÅ∞. ~ gradient
™®~„^°`Í „Ǩ=}`Œ. ~ of population

[# ™®~„^°`Œ
dent Qõ~@∞, Qå@∞
dental ^°~`Œº^°~`ÍHßO°.

~

papilla

^°~`Œã¨¥H∆߇~Hí∞O°~
Ǩà◊∞§ QõÅ, O°~ǨѨ٠J~K«∞Å=Öˇ
L~_Ë ^°~`ÍÅ∞ QõÅ
denticle z#flǨÅ∞¡
denticulate z#fl Ǩà◊∞§QõÅ
dentine ^°~`Œ ^èß`Œ∞=Ù
dentistry ^°~`Œ"≥·^°ºâÍG~. cosmetic ~
™œ~^°O°º=O°÷Hí ^°~`Œ"≥·^°º âÍG~
dentition Ǩ~_«∞¡ "≥∞∞Å=_«~, ^°~`ÍÅ
J=∞iHí
denture Hí@∞ì_«∞Ǩà◊∞§, Hí$„u=∞ ^°~`ÍÅ∞
denudation h>˜H’`Œ
denude #Qõfl~KıÜ«µ∞, kQõ~|O°~KıÜ«µ∞
denunciation <ËO®O’Ǩ} KıÜ«µ_«~,
ã¨=∂Ç≤Π㨥K«#
deny Y~_ç~K«∞, uO°ã¨¯i~K«∞, xO®Hí
i~K«∞, Hß^°#∞, ÖË^°#∞
deoderant ^°∞O°æ~^è°Ç¨i, ^°∞O®fiã¨# áÈQ˘
>ıìk
deoderiser ^°∞O°æ~^è°Ç¨i}˜
deoderization ^°∞O°æ~^è°Ç¨ÏO°}~
deoderize ^°∞O°æ~^èßxfl ǨÏi~Ǩ*ËÜ«µ∞
deontology ^è°O°‡âÍG~, huâÍG~
depart q_«záÈ=Ù, |Ü«µÅ∞^ÕO°∞, "≥o§
áÈ=Ù
department qÉèßQõ~, âÍY, ÉèßQõ~
departmental âÍvÜ«µ. ~ accounts
dentate

deplume

âÍMÏǨO°"≥∞·# ÖˇHí¯Å∞. ~ action âÍMÏ
ǨO°"≥∞·# K«O°º. ~ enquiry âÍMÏǨO°
"≥∞·# qKÍO°}
departmentalization qÉèßwHíO°}~
departure |Ü«µÅ∞^ÕO°∞, =ke"≥à◊∞§,
`ŒÇ¨CHÁ#∞, ^°¥O°=∞Qõ∞† x„+¨¯=∞}~,
=∂O®æ~`ŒO°~, ^®i`˘ÅQõ_«~
depasture Çı∞ѨÙ@Hí∞ q_«K«∞, Çı∞ѨÙ
depauperize ^®i„^°º q"≥ØK«#~
depend `Œ@ã≤÷~K«∞, ÇıÖÏ_«∞, P^èßO°Ç¨_«∞,
qâ◊fiã≤~K«∞, xsH˜∆~K«∞, #=∞∞‡HÁx
L~_«∞, Jnè#"≥∞· L~_«∞
dependable #=∞‡^°y#, P^èßO°Ç¨_«^°y#
dependence P^èßO°Ç¨_ç L~_«_«~
dependencies ǨO®nè# ^ÕâÍÅ∞
dependency ǨO®nè#`Œ, Jnè#O®[º~
dependency
theory
P„â◊Ü«∞}
ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
dependent Jã¨fi`Œ~„`Œ, P^èßO°Ç¨_ç#,
=â◊º~, ǨO®„â◊Ü«µ, ǨO°`Œ~„`Œ∞_«∞, P„t
`Œ∞_«∞, Pnè#∞_«∞
depict =i‚~K«∞, q=i~K«∞, z„u~K«∞
depicture z„u~K«∞
depilation O’=∞xO°¥‡Å#~
depilatory O’=∞Ǩi
deplano ã¨~„QõǨÏ~Qå, ã¨~H˜∆ǨΠQõuÖ’
deplete MÏm Kıã≤#, H©∆}, `ŒiyáÈܵ#
depletion `ŒQÆ∞æ^°Å, `ŒO°∞Qõ∞, H©∆}`Œ
deplorable ^°Ü«µhÜ«µ"≥∞·#, qKÍO°HíO°
"≥∞·#, â’K«hÜ«µ
deplore Qõi›~K«∞, ^°¥+≤~K«∞, x~k~K«∞
deploy xܡ∂y~K«∞, O°~Qõ~Ö’H˜ k~K«∞,
qã¨Îi~ǨKıÜ«µ∞, =ӺǨÏ~ UO°ÊO°∞K«∞
deployment (Ãã·<®ºÅ) "≥ØǨÏi~ѨÙ,
=ӺǨÏO°K«#† Ãã·#º qã¨ÎO°}
deplume DHíÅ∞Ç‘Hí∞

depolarize

153

derangement

=∞~^°y~Ǩ*ËÜ«µ∞† ^è°O° `Œyæ~K«∞† ã¨fiO°
™®÷ܵ `Œyæ~K«∞
depressant LǨâ◊=∞#Hßi
depressed Ç‘_ç`Œ. ~ classes ^°o`Œ
=O®æÅ∞, Ç‘_ç`Œ =O®æÅ∞. ~ market =ã¨∞Î
¿ã=ÅHí∞ qÅ∞=ÖËx qǨ}˜
HíO°}~
depression
që®^°~, xO®â◊, Hí∞~yáÈ
deport ^Õâ◊ |Ç≤Ï+¨¯ $`Œ∞x KıÜ«µ∞
=_«~, ÇÍÜ«µ∞Qõ∞~_«~† Pi÷Hí =∂~^°º~.
deportation ^Õâ◊ |Ç≤Ï뮯O°~
~ of freezing point Ѷ¨∞hÉèí=# ™®÷#
deportee ^Õâ◊|Ç≤Ï+¨¯ $`Œ∞_«∞
x=∞fl`Œ
deportment #_«=_ç† Çı+¨Éèß+¨Å∞, „Ǩ=
deprivation
H’Ö’Ê=_«~† #+¨ì~† ™œHí
O°Î#, Ǩ^°úu
O®ºÅ `˘Åy~ѨÙ
depose `Àã≤ѨÙK«Û_«~, Hß^°x K‹Ç¨Ê_«~,
deprive
áÈQ˘@∞ìHÁ#∞† J~^°Hí∞~_Í
™®Hí∆ º~ K‹Ç¨Ê_«~, JkèHßO°~ #∞~z `˘Å

Ü
µ
«
∞,
xO’kè
~K«∞† ^ÀK«∞HÁ#∞† ÖËH∞í ~_Í
y~K«_«~
KıÜ«µ∞
deposit ^è°O®=`Œ∞Î, [=∞. ~ account
depth Qõ~cèO°`Œ, Ö’`Œ∞
_çáål>ò MÏ`Í, [=∞MÏ`Í. ~ base
depurate â◊∞kúKıÜ«µ∞
_çáål@¡ ѨÙ<®k, _çáål@¡ |Å~
deputation „ǨuxkèQå Ǩ~Ǩ_«~, |^°∞
deposition ÇÍV¥‡Å~, Çı∞@ÇıÜ«µ_«~,
Å∞Qå Ǩ~Ǩ_~« , LǨxÜ«∂=∞Hí~. ~ alxHı∆Ǩ}~
lowance LǨxÜ«∂=∞Hí Éè`
í ºŒ ~. ~ pay
depositary ã¨O°∞Hí∞Å y_«¤~y, ^è°O°‡HíO°Î
LǨxÜ«µ∞HíÎ Çı`Œ#~
deposit xHı∆Ǩ~
deputationist LǨxÜ«µ∞Hí∞Î_«∞
depot ã¨O°∞Hí∞ xÅ=Kı¿ã KÀ@∞, |ã¨∞ûÅ∞,
depute |^°∞Å∞QåǨ~ѨÙ, „ǨuQåǨ~ѨÙ
ÇÍǨÏ<®Å#∞ xeÇ≤ L~z, â◊∞„ÉèíǨOÕÛ deputize „ǨuxkèQå =º=ǨÏi~K«∞,
KÀ@∞
|^°∞Å∞ Ǩ~ѨÙ
depravity <ˇ·uHí Ǩ`Œ#~
deputy LǨ, `Í`ͯeHí „Ç¨uxkè. ~ acdeprecate K«∞ÅHí#KıÜ«µ∞, xO®â◊Híe
countant LǨQõ}®kèHßi. ~ minister
y~K«∞, x~k~K«∞
LǨ=∞~„u. ~ speaker LǨã¨ÉèßǨu,
depreciate qÅ∞= `Œyæ~K«∞, ^è°O° =∞~^°
Láå^è°ºHí∆∞_«∞
y~K«∞
derail Ǩ>ÏìÅ∞ `ŒÇ¨C, ^®i`ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞
depreciation (Ü«µ~„`ÍÅ) JO°∞Qõ∞^°Å, derailment Ǩ>ÏìÅ∞ `ŒÇ¨Ê_«~, ^®i
(=∂O°Hí~) qÅ∞= `ŒQõæ_«~, `ŒO°∞Qõ∞^°Å,
`ŒÇ¨Ê_«~
O°ÇÍ}®Ö’/ ÇÍ_«∞HíÖ’ HíeQÕ #+¨ì~
derange HíÅ`ŒÃÑ@∞ì, K‹ÖÏ¡K‹^°O°∞KıÜ«µ∞,
depredation ^ÀÇ≤_ô,
HÁÅ¡Q˘@ì_«~†
"≥„O≥uÎ~K«∞
^è°fi~ã¨~
deranged „Hí=∞O `ŒÇ≤Ê#
depredator ^ÀÇ≤_ô^®O°∞, q^è°fi~ã¨Hí∞_«∞
derangement Jã¨Î=ºã¨Î`Œ, `ÍO°∞=∂O°∞,
depress J^èO
·≥ º° ǨO∞° K«∞, xO°∞`ÍûǨÏǨO∞° K«∞†
JǨq<®ºã¨~
depolarize qHíi¬~K«∞, K‹^°O°Q˘@∞ì
depoliticisation O®[H©Ü«µ q"≥ØK«#~
deponent ™®H˜∆, ÇÍV¥‡Åq∞KıÛ =ºH˜Î
depopulate [<®Éèß `Œyæ~K«∞
depopulation [<®Éèß `Œyæ~K«_«~, xO°˚h

154

derasinate
derasinate ÃÑHíe~K«∞†
derate OÕ@∞ `Œyæ~K«∞
deregulate xÜ«µ~„`Œ}

xO°¥‡e~K«∞

#∞~z q=∞∞H˜Î
KıÜ«µ∞, xÜ«µ~„`Œ}Å#∞ ZuÎÇıÜ«µ∞
deregulation xÜ«µ~„`Œ}#∞
ZuÎ
ÇıÜ«µ_«~, xÜ«µ~„`Œ} ã¨_«e~ѨÙ
derelict land LǨܡ∂y~K«_«~ =∂<Ëã≤#
Éèí¥q∞/ „áå~`Œ~, L^®II áå`Œ O≥·ÖËfi O°Ç¨Ï
^®O°∞Å∞, LǨܡ∂Qõ~Ö’ ÖËx á¶åºHíìsÅ∞
"≥∞∞II
derelict Ǩi`ŒºHí∞Î_«∞† L¿ÑH˜∆~K«∞
dereliction J„â◊^°ú, q_çzÃÑ@ì_«~, L¿ÑHí∆
derequisition ™®finè#
ǨO°∞K«∞HÁ#fl
Pã≤Îx q_«∞^°Å KıÜ«µ_«~
deride ZQõ`ÍoKıÜ«µ∞, JǨǨ㨺~ KıÜ«µ∞
derision QÕe, ZQõ`Ío, JǨǨ㨺~
deritus O®à◊§/ "≥∞∞Hí¯Å J=âıë®Å∞
derivation L`ÍÊ^°#† L`ŒÊuÎ, â◊|ÌO°¥Ç¨
™®^è°#
derivational xë®Êk`Œ. ~ history
xë®Ê^°# K«i„`Œ. ~ path xëêÊ^°#
=∂O°æ~. ~ tree O°¥Ç¨™®^è°# =$Hí∆~
derivative L`ŒÊ#fl~, `Œkú`Œ~. ~
mortage O≥~_«= `Œxv, J#∞|~^è°
`ÍHí@∞ì. ~ suffix xë®Ê^°Hí „Ç¨`ŒºÜ«µ~
derive L`ÍÊk~K«∞, ™®kè~K«∞, â◊|Ì
=Ùº`ŒÊuÎ K‹Ç¨C, xâ◊Ûܵ~K«∞, TÇ≤Ï~K«∞
derived L`ŒÊ#fl. ~ unit L`ŒÊ#fl
„Ǩ=∂}~. ~ form L`ŒÊ#fl O°¥Ç¨~. ~
title ™®kè~z#/ á⁄~k# ǨÏHí∞¯
derm (Ö’) K«O°‡~
dermal K«O°‡ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
dermatitis K«O°‡â’^ä°, K«O°‡Ñ¨Ù <˘Ç≤Ê
dermatologist K«O°‡O’Qõ xѨÙ}∞_«∞
dermatology K«O°‡O’Qõ q*Ï˝#~
dermatomycosis `Í=∞O°

deserving

dermatosis K«O°‡ qHí$u
dermis K«O°‡~
derogate `Œyæ~K«∞, #¥º#ǨO°K«∞,

JǨܫµ
â◊ã¨∞û Híey~K«∞
derogation `Œyæ~K«_«~
derogatory x~^®Ñ¨Ó~°fi"≥∞·#
derrick |O°∞=ÙÅ∞ Z`ËÎ z#fl Ü«µ~„`Œ~
derringer z#fl Ç≤™ÈÎÅ∞
desalinization Å=} ǨÏO°}~
descant „âÍ=º`Œ, áå@
descendant L`ŒÎO®kèHßi, =~â◊ã¨∞÷_«∞,
ÇÍO°ã¨∞_«∞
descended L^°¥ƒù`Œ, J=`Œi~z#
descendible ã¨~„Híq∞~K«^°y#
descending order J=O’ǨÏ} „Hí=∞~
descending rhythm J#∞Ö’=∞ ÅÜ«µ
descent J=O’ǨÏ}, kQõ*ÏO°_«~, Ǩ`Œ#~
deschooling áåOî°º „Ǩ}®oHß uO°™®¯O°
ÇÍ^°~
describe =i‚~K«∞, q=O°~Qå K‹Ç¨C, Qõ∞}
q=O°} KıÜ«µ∞, O°¥Ñ¨ÙHí@∞ì
description =O°‚#, q=O°}
descriptive =O°‚<®`Œ‡Hí, q=O°}®`Œ‡Hí. ~
grammar =O°‚<®`Œ‡Hí ÇͺHíO°}~. ~
order =O°‚# „Hí=∞~. ~ adequacy
=O°#‚ ã¨=∞„Qõ`.Œ ~ adjective =O°<‚ å`Œ‡Hí
qâı+¨}~
desecrate JǨq„`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞
desecration JǨq„`Œ~KıÜ«µ_«~
desensitisation „QåǨÏHí`Œ `Œyæ~K«_«~
desert q_çz ÃÑ>˜ìáÈ=Ù, `Œºl~K«∞†
Z_Íi. ~ wind Z_Íi Qåe
desertification =∞O°∞Éèí¥g∞HíO°}
desertion Ǩi`ͺQõ~, ǨÖÏÜ«µ#~
deserve JO°›`Œ Híey#
deserving JO°›"≥∞·#

desiccate
desiccate hO°∞ fã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞, xO°˚bHíi~K«∞
desiccator xO°˚bHíO°}˜
desiderate H’O°∞, ÖË^°x ÉÏ^è°Ç¨_«∞
desideratum ֒Ǩ~, HÁO°`Œ† H’O°^°y#

=ã¨∞Î=Ù
Ǩ^ä°Hí~ÇıÜ«µ∞, L^ÕÌt~K«∞† O°¥Ç¨
O°K«#, PHí$uO°K«#, HíÅÊ#, L^ÕÌâ◊º~,
q<®ºã¨~
designataion Ǩ^°q (¿ÑO°∞), Ǩϟ^®,
Jaè^®#~
designate ¿ÑO˘¯#∞, Qõ∞iÎ~Ѩ٠Híey
L~_«∞† xÜ«µ∞Hí∞Î_≥· W~Hß Ç¨^°q KıǨ@ìx
designated court xiÌ+¨ì <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~
designed PHí$uKıã≤#
designedly L^ÕÌâ◊ѨÓO°fiHí~Qå
designer xO®‡`Œ, #=∞¥<® HíO°Î
designing JK«∞ÛǨx† l`Œ∞ÎÅ=∂i/HíǨ>˜
Jܵ#
desipience JÅÊ`Œfi~, HÁ~>ˇ`Œ#~
desirability ÇÍ~Kè«hÜ«µ`Œ, J¿ÑHí∆}©Ü«µ`Œ
desirable J¿ÑHí∆}©Ü«µ, ÇÍ~Kè«hÜ«µ. ~
tenant Éèí¥™®fiq∞
desire H’iHí, ÇÍ~Kè«, ÇÍ~zè~K«∞
desired JaèÅ+≤`Œ, H’i#, ÇÍ~zè`Œ. ~
result H’i# Ѷ¨e`Œ~
desirous J¿ÑHí∆QõÅ, WK«ÛùQõÅ, ÇÍ~Kè«QõÅ
desist xO’kè~K«∞, PѨÙ
desk ™⁄O°∞Qõ∞Å|Å¡, O®`Œ|Å¡, Çı∞*Ï
desolation kHí∞¯=∂e# ã≤÷u, X~@i
`Œ#~, xã¨ûǨÜ«µã≤÷u
despair <ˇ·~åâ◊º~, xOÕfi^°~
despatch Ǩ~ѨÙ, *ÏsKıÜ«µ∞, O°ÇÍ}®
KıÜ«µ∞. ~ note ã¨O°∞Hí∞`Àáå@∞ Ǩ~¿Ñ
ÖËY. ~ rider L`ŒOÎ ®Å#∞, ã¨~^ÕâÍÅ#∞,
=ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ#∞ ÇÍ>˜ Qõ=∂ºxH˜ KıOÕÛ =ºH˜Î.
~ advice Ǩ~Ç≤#@∞ì J~k~z# ã¨=∂
KÍO°~
design

155

desturctive

despatches
desperado

JkèHßO° ÖËYÅ∞
^°∞™®ûǨÏã≤, PHí`Íܵ,

`ˇ~Ǩi
`ˇy~z#, xO®â◊`À Hí∂_ç#†
Pâ◊ÖËx, LáåÜ«µ~ÖËx, J™®^è°º
desperately `ˇQõ∞=`À, <ˇ·O®â◊º~`À
despersion Ǩ$^ä°Hí¯O°}~, ÇıO°∞ǨO°K«@~
despicable hK«, xHí$+¨ì, ¿ÇÏÜ«µ
despise `Œ$}©Híi~K«∞, xO°ã¨# Éèß=~`À
K«¥K«∞, O’Ü«µ∞
despoil ^ÀÇ≤_ôKıÜ«µ∞, HÁÅ¡Q˘@∞ì
despondency <ˇ·O®â◊º~, q+¨}‚`Œ
despondent q+¨}‚
despot xÜ«µ~`Œ, xO°~Hí∞â◊/ =ºH˜Î/ áåÅ
Hí∞_«∞
despotism xÜ«µ~`Œ$`Œfi~, xO°~Hí∞â◊`Œfi~
dessert J~`Œº MÏ^°º~
destabilise Jã≤÷O°Ç¨O°K«∞
destination ÅHí∆ º~, Qõ=∞º~
destine UO°ÊO°K«∞, qkè~K«∞, xOÕÌt~K«∞,
xO°‚ܵ~K«∞
destiny `ŒÅO®`Œ, qkè, ^≥·=~
destitute xO°∞¿Ñ^°, JÉèßQõº, J<®^ä°,
P„â◊Ü«µ O°Ç≤Ï`Œ ^°i„^°. ~ of property
Pã≤Î Ç‘Ï#∞_«∞. ~ person xO®„â◊Ü«µ∞_«∞
destroy <®â◊~KıÜ«µ∞, qzÛù#fl~ KıÜ«µ∞,
^è°fi~ã¨~ KıÜ«µ∞, J~`Œ~KıÜ«µ∞
destroyed #+¨ì"≥∞·#, ^è°fi~ã¨"≥∞·#
destroyer Ü«µ∞^°ú<ÒHí, q<®â◊Hí∞_«∞
destroying <®â◊~KıÜ«µ_«~
destructible <®â◊~KıÜ«µ^°y#
destruction <®â◊~, q^è°fi~ã¨~
desturctive q^è°fi~ã¨Hí. ~ activity
q^è°fi~ã¨Hí K«O°º. ~ wave q<®â◊Hí
`ŒO°~Qõ~
desperate

desuetude
desuetude J„Ǩܡ∂Qõ/
desultary xÅHí_«ÖËx,

J#∞Ǩܡ∂Qõ/ ã≤÷u
„Hí=∞Ǩ^°úu ÖËx,
ã¨~|~^è°~ÖËx, Jã¨~|^°ú
detach q_«Q˘@∞ì, q_«nÜ«µ∞
detached view xi¡Ç¨Î/ J<®ã¨HíÎ ^°$HíÊ^ä°~
detachment xi¡Ç¨Î`Œ,
q_çáÈ=_«~.
retina ~ <Ë„`ŒÇ¨@Å~ q_çáÈ=_«~
detail `ŒcûÅ∞, q=O°~† ǨxHı>Ïܵ~K«∞,
q=i~K«∞
detailed ã¨=∞„Qõ"≥∞·#, q=O°}®`Œ‡Hí"≥∞·#,
ǨxH˜ Hı>Ïܵ~z#. ~ account ã¨q=
O°} MÏ`Í. ~ analysis ã¨=∞„Qõ qâı¡
+¨}. ~ estimates ã¨q=O°"≥∞·# J~K«
<®Å∞. ~ heads ji¬HíÅ∞, ã¨q=O°"≥∞·#
Ǩ^°∞ÌÅ∞. ~ inspection ã¨q=O°"≥∞·#
`Œxv. ~ instructions ã¨q=O° P^Õ
âÍÅ∞. ~ report ã¨q=O° xÇıkHí
detain xO°ƒ~^è°~Ö’ L~K«∞, xO’kè~K«∞,
PÇ≤ÃÑ@∞ì
detained xO’kè~z#, xO°ƒ~kè~z#,
PÇ≤ÃÑ>˜ì#
detainee xO°ƒ~kè`Œ∞_«∞, |~n
detect PK«¥H©fÜ«µ∞, Hí#∞Q˘#∞, HíxÃÑ@∞ì
detection (Ǩi)â’^è°#, PK«¥H©, PO®
detective _ç>ˇH˜ìDZ, Ǩ`ËÎ^®O°∞, JǨO®^è°
Ǩiâ’^è°Hí∞_«∞
detector â’^è°x, â’^è°Hí∞_«∞
detente L„kHíÎ`ŒÅ ã¨_«e~ѨÙ, ã¨Üˇ∂^è°º:
™®=∞O°ã¨º~
detention xO°ƒ~^è~
° , (áåOîâ° ÍÅÖ’) ÃÑ`· OŒ °
QõuH˜ Ǩ~ǨHíáÈ=_«~. preventive ~
xÇÍO°Hí xO°ƒ~^è°~
detenue |~k, JqKÍi`Œ xO°ƒ~kè`Œ∞_«∞,
O®[H©Ü«µ Mˇ·n
deter xO’kè~K«∞, J_«¤y~K«∞, PѨÙ, xÇÍ
i~K«∞

156

detract

detraction

JǨH∆ßÅHí~, =∞∞iH˜x `˘Å
y~Kık, â◊∞„Éèí~ Kı¿ãk
deteriorate `ŒQõ∞æ, H©∆}˜~K«∞, H©∆}˜~Ǩ
KıÜ«µ∞, K‹_«Q˘@∞ì, Ç‘Ï#ã≤÷u <˘~^°∞,
Qõ∞}~ K‹_«∞, qÅ∞=`ŒQõ∞æ
deterioration H©∆}`Œ, Hí∆Ü«µ~, Ǩ`Œ#~,
^≥|ƒu#_«~, „H˜Ü«∂â◊H˜Î Ç‘Ï#`Œ. ~ index H©∆}`Í㨥zHí
determinable xâ◊Ûܵ~Ǩ^°y#, xO°ú
i~Ǩ^°y#
determinant xO®‚Ü«µHí~, xO®úO°Hí~,
xÜ«µ~„u~Kı J~â◊~
determination ã¨~HíÅÊ~,
ѨÓxHí,
x+¨¯O°¬, (^°$_è°) xâ◊ÛÜ«µ~, (<®ºÜ«µ) xO®ú
O°}
determinative xO®‚Ü«µHí"≥∞·#
determine xO°Ü
‚ µ~K«∞, ã¨~HíeÊ~K«∞, xO°ú
i~K«∞, ã¨=∂Ç≤ÎKıÜ«µ∞, xâ◊Ûܵ~K«∞
determined xtÛ`Œ, ã¨=∂ǨÎ, xO°¥Ç≤`Œ
determinedly xtÛ`Œ~Qå, Ǩ@∞ì^°ÅQå
determinism xÜ«µuÇÍ^°~, xO®‚Ü«µHí
Ǩ^°úu. economic ~ Pi÷Hí xÜ«µu
ÇÍ^°~. linguistic ~ Éèßë®xÜ«µuÇÍ^°~
determinist xÜ«µuÇÍk
detersive Ǩiâ◊∞„ÉèíǨiKı
detest Jã¨Ç≤Ϻ~K«∞HÁ#∞, ^Õfi+≤~K«∞
detestation U=y~ѨÙ, O’`Œ, ^Õfi+¨~
dethrone Qõ^≥Ìk~K«∞, Ǩ^°q #∞~_ç/
ã≤~Ǩã¨#~ #∞~_ç `˘Åy~K«∞
detonate ÃÑ^°ÌQå ¿ÑÅ∞Û, q™ÈÊù>˜~K«∞
detonation q™ÈÊù@#~
detonator q™ÈÊù@Hí~
detour K«∞@∞ì^®i
detoxication xifi+‘HíO°}
detract JǨHíi¬~K«∞, Q“O°= ֒Ǩ~KıÜ«µ∞,
`ŒHí∞¯=KıÜ«µ∞, x~k~K«∞

detraction

detergent

MϺu֒Ǩ~, JǨHíO°¬},
Q“O°=֒Ǩ~, „â◊^°ú H’Ö’Ê=_«~
detractor JǨHíO°¬Hí∞_«∞, ^®i `ŒÇ≤Ê~Kı
=ºH˜Î, Q“O°=֒Ǩ~ Híey~Kı =ºH˜Î
detrain O≥·Å∞kQõ∞/ O≥·Å∞ #∞~z k~ѨÙ
detribalize yi[#`Œfi~ qzÛù#fl~ KıÜ«µ∞
detriment „Ǩܡ∂[<®ÅHí∞ Éèí~Qõ~ Híe
y~K«_«~, #+¨ì(ǨO°K«_«~), K‹O°∞ѨÙ, Ǩx
detrimental Ǩx, q<®â◊HO
í "° ∞≥ #· , Jܡ∂
Qõ∞º_≥·#
detrition JO°∞Qõ∞^°Å
detritus Jiy# O®à◊§ Qõ∞@ì
deuce _«¥ºãπ, O≥~_«∞ K«∞Hí¯Å ¿ÑHí =∞∞Hí¯,
áåzHí, =∞Ǩ=∂i, HÁ~>ˇÇx¨ † >ˇxflãπÖ’
„Ǩ`ŒºO°∞÷Å∞ ã¨=∞ Lr˚Qå L~_Ë ^°â◊
devaluation =∞¥Åº #¥ºhHíO°}, JǨ
=∞¥Åº#~, qÅ∞= `Œyæ~ѨÙ
devalue qÅ∞= `ŒQõ∞æ/ `Œyæ~K«∞
devastate q^è°fi~ã¨~ KıÜ«µ∞, ã¨O°fi<®â◊~
KıÜ«µ∞, áå_«∞KıÜ«µ∞
devastation q<®â◊~, Éèßs #+¨ì~
develop Jaè=$kú/ „Hí=∞=$kúKıÜ«µ∞, L#fl
uH˜ K‹Ç¨C
developable Jaè=$kú KıÜ«µ^°y#
developed Jaè=$kúK‹~k#
developing Jaè=$kú K‹~^°∞`Œ∞#fl, =O°ú
=∂#. ~ countries Jaè=$kú K‹~^°∞
`Œ∞#fl/ `Œ$fÜ«µ „ǨǨ~K« ^ÕâÍÅ∞
development „ǨQõu, Jaè=$kú† #¥`Œ#
ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@#/ Ǩi}®=∞~
developmental ѨÙO’Qõ=∞#jÅ
deviance =„Hõ`«, JuiHõÎ`«
deviant JuiHíÎ. ~ behaviour JuiHíÎ
„Ǩ=O°Î#
deviate =∂O°æ~`ŒÇ¨C,
^®i`˘Å∞Qõ∞,
=∂O®æ=ã¨O°}~ KıÜ«µ∞

157

devotion

„Hí=∞Éèí~Qõ~, qK«Å#~† `˘Å
Qõ_«~, JǨã¨O°}~, Ju„Hí=∞}~† `ŒÇ¨C,
Éèı^°~, =º`ͺã¨~† LÅ¡~Ѷ≤∞~K«∞, "≥·^˘Åy
áÈ=Ù, kâ◊=∂O°∞Û. standard ~ „Ǩ=∂}
qK«Å#~
deviationism LÅ¡~Ѷ¨∞#ÇÍ^°~
device LáåÜ«µ~, ǨiHíÅÊ#, ™®^è°#~,
ǨiHíO°~, Ü«µ∞H˜Î, Ǩ^°úu
devil ^°Ü«µº~, Ç≤âÍK«~† ^°∞+¨∞ì_«∞,
„Hí∂O°∞_«∞. printer's ~ JK«∞Û `ŒÇ¨C,
=∞∞„^®O®Hí∆ã¨~
devil's advocate Hí∞`ŒO°¯ÇÍk
devilish ÃÑ·âÍzHí, ÃѶ∞ÏO°"≥∞·#
devilism ÃÑ·âÍzHí`Œfi~, ^®O°∞}„Ǩ=O°Î#
devilment ^°∞O®‡O°æ~, „H“O°º~, ^®O°∞}
^°$â◊º~
devilry ^®#=`Œfi~
devious =„Hí"≥∞·#, á⁄O°Ç¨_ç#, =~K«Hí
devisable gÅ∞<®=∂ ^®fiO® W=fi^°y#
devise gÅ∞<®=∂ ^®fiO® Pã≤Îx á⁄~^Õ
=ºH˜Î
devisor gÅ∞<®=∂ ^®`Œ, gÅ∞<®=∂ HíO°Î
devitalize xsfiO°ºÇ¨O°∞K«∞, x„™®Î}~KıÜ«µ∞
devoid qÇ‘Ï#"≥∞·#, ÖËx, O°Ç≤Ï`Œ, Ö’Ç≤~
z#
devolute JǨÊy~K«∞, JkèHßO°q∞K«∞Û,
ã¨~„Híq∞~ǨKıÜ«µ∞
devolution ã¨~„Híq∞~K«_«~, „Hí=∞H©∆}`Œ.
~ of property Pã≤Îã¨~„Hí=∞}~. ~
rules Pã≤Î ã¨~„Hí=∞} xÜ«µ=∂Å∞
devolve ã¨~„Híq∞~K«∞, „áåÇ≤Î~K«∞
devote „â◊^°ú=Ç≤Ï~K«∞, JiÊ~K«∞, qxܡ∂
y~K«∞, x+¨ª=Ç≤Ï~K«∞, ã¨=∞iÊ~K«∞
devotedly nHí∆Qå, ÉèíH˜ÎqâÍfi™®Å`À
devotee ÉèíHí∞Î_«∞, ^®ã¨∞_«∞
devotion nHí∆, ǨO®Ü«µ}`Œfi~, J~H˜`Œ
Éèß=~. ~ of duty HíO°Î=º x+¨ª
deviation

158

devour
devour Hí|o~K«∞, #=∞ÅHí∞~_Í
devout =∞`Œ x+¨Q
ª Åõ , Ǩq„`Œ"∞≥ #· ,

q∞~Qõ∞
ÉèHí QΘ Åõ ,

„â◊^®úà◊∞
dew =∞~K«∞ a~^°∞=Ù, `Œ∞ë®O°~. ~
point =∞~K«∞ UO°Ê_Ë LëÈ‚„Qõ`Œ
dewalp Qõ~Qõ_ÀÅ∞
deworming á⁄@ìÖ’x ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞Å#∞ xO°¥‡

e~K«@~
"≥·^°Qõúº~, <ËO°∞Ê, <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~,
ÖÏѶ¨∞=~, (ǨÏã¨Î) H“â◊Å~† K«`Œ∞O°`Œ. ~
test H“â◊ŠǨsHí∆
dextrose K«H≥¯O°
dextrous ǨÏã¨ÎH“â◊Å~ QõÅ, ^°Hí∆
diabetes K«H≥¯O° Çͺkè, =∞^è°∞Çı∞ǨÏ~. ~
insipidus Ju=∞¥„`ŒÇͺkè. ~ mellitus =∞^è°∞Çı∞ǨÏ~
diabetic =∞^è°∞Çı∞Ç¨Ï O’y
diablerie Kı`Œ|_ç, ÉÏ}®=∞u, =∞~„`Œ
q^°º
diabolic O®Hí∆ã¨, „Hí∂O°"≥∞·#
diabolism ÃÑ·âÍzHí „Ç¨=O°Î#, Ç≤âÍK«Ñ¨Ó[
diabolize Ç≤âÍpHíi~K«∞
diachronic aè#flHßeHí
diacritic JkèHí zǨÏfl~
diacritical Éèı^®xfl 㨥z~Kı
diadem H˜s@~, O®[=∞Hí∞@~
diagnose Çͺkè xO®úO°} KıÜ«µ∞, O’Qõ
x^®#~ KıÜ«µ∞
diagnosis O’Qõx^®#~, Çͺkè xO®úO°},
O’Qõ xO°‚Ü«µ~
diagnostic O’QõxO®úO°} Kı¿ã
diagonal qHíO°‚~
diagram OÕMÏz„`Œ~
dialect =∂~_«eHí~. ~ atlas =∂~_«eHí
OÕMÏǨ>ÏÅ∞.~ area =∂~_«eHí „Ç¨^âÕ ~◊ .
~ borrowing =∂~_«eHß ^®#~. ~
dexterity

dictation

=∂~_«eHí Éèßë® qã¨ÎO°
}®^谺ܫµ#~
dialectical =∂~_«eHí"≥∞·#. ~ method
^°fi~^°fi `Íi¯Hí Ǩ^°úu. ~ materialism
Qõu `Íi¯Hí Éè“uHí ÇÍ^°~
dialectics Qõu`Íi¯HíÇÍ^°~
dialectology =∂~_«eHí Éèßë® q*Ï˝#~
dialogic ã¨~Éèß+¨}®`Œ‡Hí~
dialogue (ǨO°ã¨ÊO°) ã¨~Éèß+¨}, ã¨~Éèß+¨
}®`Œ‡Hí O°K«#
dialysis O°HíÎâ◊∞kú (zH˜`Œû)
diameter Çͺã¨~
diametrical ã¨~ѨÓO°‚"≥∞·#† 㨥>˜Üˇµ·#
diaphonous ã¨fiK«Ûù"≥∞·#, áåO°^°O°≈Hí"≥∞·#
diaphragm L^°O°q`Í#~
diarchy ^°fi~^°fi ǨiáåÅ#, ^°fi~^°fi
„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~
diarise ^≥·xHí
diarrhoea Ju™®O°~, hà◊§ qOÕK«<®Å
Çͺkè
diaspora =Åã¨áÈܵ# *Ïux Qõ∞i~z#
J^谺ܫµ#~
diathesis „Ǩ=$uÎ
diatomic kfiǨO°=∂}∞Hí
diatribe f„=q=∞O°≈, ^°¥+¨}, x~^°
dibble `Œ=ÙfiH’Å, áåO°† Qõ∞#Ǩ~`À =∞>˜ì
`Œ=Ùfi
dice áåzHí, `ŒO°∞Qõ∞, `Œ∞O°∞=∞∞
dichotomization kfi^èßHí}~
dichotomy ^≥· finèÉèß=~
dichroism kfi=O°‚`Œ
dichromic kfi=O®‚`Œ‡Hí
dictaphone _çHßìá¶È<ü
dictate K‹Ç≤Ê O®Üµ~K«∞, P*Ï˝Ç≤~K«∞
dictated peace |Å=~`ŒÑ¨Ù âÍ~u
dictation LHíÎÖËY#~, qxO®Ü«µ@~
geography

dictator
dictator xÜ«µ~`Œ, xO°~Hí∞â◊∞_«∞
dictatorial xO°~Hí∞â◊"≥∞·#
dictatorship xÜ«µ~`Œ$`Œfi~. ~ of
proletorit Hßi‡Hí=O°æ xÜ«µ~`Œ$`Œfi~
diction Ǩ^°ã¨O°o, â◊|Ìã¨~Ǩ^°
dictionary H’â◊~, xѶ¨∞~@∞=Ù
dictum 㨥H˜Î ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
didactic ã¨~^ÕâÍ`Œ‡Hí, „Ǩܡ∂[<®`Œ‡Hí
didactic realism BǨ^ÕtHí ÇÍã¨ÎqHí`Œ
didapper h>˜H’_ç
diddle "≥Øã¨y~K«∞
die PO°∞ K«∞Hí¯Å áåzHí† K«xáÈ=Ù, =∞O°

}˜~K«∞
[Qõ"≥∞∞~_ç, "≥∞∞~_ç =∞x+≤†
Jaè=$kú xO’^è°Hí∞_«∞
die hard ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°~Qå áÈ>Ï¡_«∞, cèHí
O°~Qå áÈ>Ï¡_«∞
dielectric q^°∞ºxflO’^è°Hí"≥∞·#,
q^°∞º
^®fiǨÏHí~ Hßx
diet O®[H©Ü«µ „Ǩuxkè ã¨Éèí ([áå<ü)†
áÈ+¨HßǨO°~. balanced ~ ã¨~`Œ∞e`Í
ǨO°~
dietary Ǩ^ä°ºã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
dietetics PǨO° xÜ«µ~„`Œ} âÍG~
dietician PǨO° âÍGA˝_«∞
dieting PǨ~° xÜ«µ~„`Œ}, Ǩ^ä°º~ áå>˜~
K«_«~
differ aè<®flaè„áåÜ«µ~`À L~_«∞, Éèık~K«∞
difference =º`ͺã¨~, qÉèı^°~, aè<®flaè
„áåÜ«µ~
differenciation qÉèı^°#~
different W`ŒO°, J#º, aè#fl
differentia Çͺ=O°Î#~
differential J=HíÅ, Éèı^®`Œ‡Hí. ~ coefficient J=HíÅ# Qõ∞}Hí~. ~ gravimetric analysis Éèı^®`Œ‡Hí
ÉèßO°
qâı¡+¨}~. ~ growth Éèı^®`Œ‡Hí=$kú
die hard n.

159

digress

differentiated J=Híe`Œ
differentiation J=HíÅ#~,

`Ë_Í, qÉèí[

hHíO°}
differnetiate Éèı^°~ K«¥Ñ¨Ù/ Qõ∞iÎ~K«∞
difficult ^°∞+¨¯O°"≥∞·#, H˜¡+¨ì"≥∞·#, Hí+¨ì™®^è°º

"≥∞·#
difficulty `Œ~>Ï,
diffidence ^è≥·O°º~

Hí+¨ì~
KÍÅq∞, a_çÜ«µ~,
ã¨~H’K«~, P`Œ‡qâÍfi㨠֒Ǩ~
diffident P`Œ‡qâÍfiã¨~ ÖËx, ^è≥·O°º~ÖËx
diffraction q=O°Î#~, q^°à◊#~. ~
colour q^°o`Œ =O°‚~
diffuse ÇͺÇ≤~Ǩ*ËÜ«µ∞, "≥^°[Å∞¡, qã¨Î
i~K«∞
diffused ǨiÇͺǨÎ, qH©O°‚
diffusion qã¨ÎO°}~, ÇͺÇ≤Î, ÇͺǨ#~,
qã¨Î $u
diffract Hß~ux qâı¡+≤~K«∞
dig (<ËÅ#∞) `Œ=Ùfi† Y##~KıÜ«µ∞
digest ™®O®~â◊~, Hí∞¡Ç‘ÎHíi~z# O®`Œ†
rO°‚~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞
digestable rO°‚ܡ∂Qõº"≥∞·#
digestibility rO°‚ ܡ∂Qõº`Œ
digestion ǨK«#~, rO°‚„H˜Ü«µ
digestive rO°‚Hßiܡµ·#. ~ gland rO°‚
„Qõ~kä
digit J~Qõ∞o, ÇıÅ∞, J~H≥
digital ã¨~YºÅHí∞/ J~H≥ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~
z#
digitigrade =∞∞xÇıà◊§ÃÑ· #_çKı
diglossia kfiÉèß+≤`Œ
dignitary =∂#hÜ«µ =ºH˜Î, L#fl`ÍkèHßi
dignity Ǩï~^®(`Œ#~), ǨO°∞=Ù, Q˘Ç¨Ê
^°#~, Ѷ¨∞#`Œ, Q“O°=~
dignity of labour „â◊=∞ Q“O°=~
digress q+¨Ü«∂~`ŒO°~ KıÜ«µ∞

digression
digression JÇÍ~`ŒO° „Ǩã¨~Qõ~
dihedral kfi=∞∞Y"≥∞·#
dike HßÅ∞=, Hí~^°Hí~, JQõ_«Î
dilapidate áå_«∞ÃÑ@∞ì, <®â◊~KıÜ«µ∞†

tkäÅ=∞Qõ∞, rO°‚=∞Qõ∞
dilapidation tkäÖÏ=ã¨÷, rO®‚=ã¨÷
dilate L|∞ƒ, qã¨Îi~K«∞
dilation qã¨ÎO°}~, q™®ÊùO°}~, PÅ㨺~
dilatoriness HßÅÜ«∂Ǩ#~ Kı¿ã `Œ`ŒÎ fi~
dilatory qÅ~|Hí. ~ motion qÅ~|#
„Ǩuáå^°#. ~ tactics HßÅÜ«∂Ǩ#

Ü«µ∞Hí∞ÎÅ∞
dilemma ã¨~kQõú`Œ, ã¨~kQåú=ã¨÷
dilettante Hí஄Ç≤Ü«µ∞_«∞, O°ã≤Hí∞_«∞
diligence *ÏQõO°¥Hí`Œ, „â◊^°ú
diligent „â◊^°úQõÅ, *ÏQõO°¥Hí. ~ search

„â◊^®úѨÓO°fiHß<Ëfi+¨}
dilly-dally =$^äß HßÅÜ«∂Ǩ# KıÜ«µ∞,
*ÏQõ∞KıÜ«µ∞, á⁄^°∞ÌáÈHí uO°∞Qõ∞
diluent qb#Hßi, ǨÅ∞K«|O°Kı
dilute ǨÅK«|O°K«∞, hO°∞QåO°∞Û, Qõ∞}®xfl
`Œyæ~K«∞
diluted ã¨[Å~, h>˜`À Híeã≤#k
dilution qbhHíO°}~, Qå_è°`Œ `Œyæ~K«_«~,
ǨÅK«# KıÜ«µ_«~
diluvial [ńǨà◊Ü«µ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
dim ã¨iQå HíxÇ≤~K«x, =∞ã¨Hí, HÍ~u
Ç‘Ï#, Jã¨Ê+¨ì
dimension HÁÅ`Œ, Ǩi=∂}~, Ǩiq∞u
dimensional Ǩi=∂}®`Œ‡Hí, q∞fÜ«µ
dimensionless q∞u O°Ç≤Ï`Œ
dimer ^°fi º}∞Hí~
dimerization ^°fi º}¥HíO°}~, J}∞O°¥Ç¨
Hí`Œ
diminish H©∆}˜~K«∞, `ŒQõ∞æ, `Œyæ~K«∞, `Œyæ
áÈ=Ù, `ŒO°∞Qõ∞, ã¨~„QõÇ≤Ï~K«∞

160

dip-needle

diminishing „Hí=∞~Qå H©∆}˜ã¨∞Î~_«_«~. ~
cost „Hí=∞H©∆} =∞¥Åº~. law of ~
returns „Hí=∞H©∆} ã≤^®ú~`Œ~ „ǨuѶ¨Å~
diminition „Hí=∞H©∆}`Œ, `ŒQõ∞æ^°Å. ~ of
profit ÖÏÉèíH©∆}`Œ
diminution `ŒO°∞Qõ∞^°Å
diminutive ÅѶ¨∞∞, ã¨fiÅÊ
dimissory ÃãÅqKıÛ
dimorphic kfiO°¥Ç¨
dimorphism kfiO°¥Ç¨`Œ
dimple |∞Qõæ/ K«∞|∞Hí~ g∞k ™⁄@ì† =Å

Ü«∂HßO°~Qå ÖËKı Jņ ™⁄@ìÅ∞ Ǩ_Ë@∞¡
KıÜ«µ∞
din Z_«`ˇQõx QÀÅ/ O˘^°, K‹=ÙÅ∞ k"≥∞‡
uÎ~K«∞
dingle Ö’Ü«µ, HÁ~_«H’#
dinky J~^°"≥∞·#, ã¨fiK«Ûù"≥∞·#, W~ÃÑ·#
dinner q~^°∞
dinosaur O®Hí∆ã¨|e¡
dioecious UHíe~QõHí
dionysian ÉèßÇÍÇıâ◊~
dioxide ^®fi º=∞¡[x`Œ~
dip =∞∞#Hí† =∞∞~K«∞, =∞∞#∞Qõ∞
diplomacy ^Ò`Œº~,
q^ÕâÍ~QÆhu,
H“â◊ź~, HßO°º^°Hí∆`Œ
diplomat ^°¥`Œ, ^Ò`ŒºÇı`ŒÎ, ^Ò`Œº „Ǩu
xkè, O®Ü«µÉÏi, =º=ǨO°^°Hí∆∞_«∞
diplomatic ^Ò`Œº ã¨~|~kè. =º=ǨO°^°Hí∆
~ agent ^Ò`Œº „Ǩuxkè. ~ body
^Ò`Œº=O°æ~. ~ corps ^Ò`Œº^°à◊~. ~
immunity ^Ò`Œº„ǨuǨuÎ/ ã¨~O°Hí∆}. ~
privileges ^Ò`Œº qâı+¨ ǨÏHí∞¯Å∞. ~
protection ^Ò`Œºã¨~O°Hí∆}
diplopia XHí =ã¨∞Î=Ù O≥~_«∞Qå Híx
Ç≤~K«_«~
dip-needle J=áå`Œ 㨥z

dipole
dipole kfi„^è°∞=~
dipsesis qǨs`Œ"≥∞·# ^®Ç¨Ï~
dipsomania `ÍQõ∞_«∞ Ç≤zÛ
diptheria Hí~Oî°ã¨iÊ, J~Qõ∞>˜ÇÍѨÙ
dire JkèHí"≥∞·#, f„="≥∞·#, qǨ`Œ¯O°"≥∞·#,
ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°"≥∞·#. ~ consequences f„=
Ѷ¨e`ÍÅ∞/ Ǩi}®=∂Å∞. ~ necessity

J`ͺ=â◊ºHí`Œ
direct P^Õt~K«∞, xOÕÌt~K«∞, =∞∞MÏ=∞∞d,
„Ǩ`ŒºHí∆, ã¨O®ã¨i. ~ affinity „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆
("≥·ÇÍÇ≤ÏHí) ã¨~|~^è°~. ~ case HíO°Î $
HßO°Hí~. ~ democracy „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆ „Ǩ*Ï
™®fi=∞º~.~election „Ǩux^è°∞efl <ËO°∞Qå
Z#∞flH’=_«~. ~ export <ËO°∞Qå q^Õj
HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞^®O°∞Hí∞ ã¨O°∞Hí∞ J=∞‡_«~. ~
fertilizers 㨥>˜ ZO°∞=ÙÅ∞. ~ marketing <ËO°∞Qå J=∞‡@~. ~ object
„Ǩ`ŒºHí∆HíO°‡. ~ proportion J#∞
Ö’=∂#∞áå`Œ~. ~ speech „Ǩ`ŒºH∆ß#∞
HíO°}, „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆ ã¨~ÇÍ^°~
direction kHí∞¯, kâ◊† ^°O°≈Hí`Œfi~
directional kâÍ`Œ‡Hí
directive principle P^Õâ◊Hí 㨥„`ÍÅ∞,
=∂O°æ^°O°≈Hí 㨥„`ÍÅ∞, xOÕÌâ◊Hí 㨥„`ÍÅ∞
directive P^Õâ◊~, L`ŒÎO°∞=Ù
directly <ËO°∞Qå, 㨥>˜Qå, „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆~Qå
director xO®fiǨÏHí∞_«∞, ã¨~KÍÅHí∞_«∞,
㨥„`Œ^èßO°∞_«∞
directorate ã¨~KÍÅHí HßO®ºÅÜ«µ~
directory ã¨=∂KÍO° „Qõ~^ä°~
dire straits JkèHí Híë®ìÅ∞
dirge që®^° wuHí
dirigible KÀ^°hÜ«µ"≥∞·#
dirt =∞>˜ì, =∞∞iH˜, ^è°¥o, =∂e#º~,
|¥`Œ∞
dirty `Œ∞K«Ûù"≥∞·#, Jã¨Ç¨Ïº"≥∞·#

161

disaster

dirty linen =ºH˜ÎQõ`Œ q+¨Ü«∂Å∞
disability |ÅÇ‘Ï#`Œ, Jâ◊HíÎ`Œ, J#O°›`Œ,
(J~Qõ) "≥·Híź~, Jܡ∂Qõº`Œ. ~ benefits qHíÖÏ~Qõ∞Ö‰õΩ Kı¿ã Çı∞Å∞
disable J#O°∞›xQå KıÜ«µ∞, Jâ◊Hí∞ÎxQå

KıÜ«µ∞
disablement Pâ◊HíÎ`Œ, J~QõÇ‘Ï#`Œ
disaccord Jã¨=∞‡u
disadvantage J##∞Hí∂Å`Œ, #+¨ì~
disadvantageous J##∞Hí∂Å"≥∞·#,

#+¨ì

^®Ü«µHí
disaffected O®[º=ºuOÕH˜, xO°#∞O°HíÎ
disaffection O®[º„^ÀǨÏ~, JqâÍfiã¨~
disaffirm uO°Qõ^À_«∞, `ŒÅH˜~^°∞Å∞KıÜ«µ∞
disafforest J@g xO°¥‡Å#~ KıÜ«µ∞
disagree Éèık~K«∞, Jã¨=∞‡u `ˇÅ∞ѨÙ, ã¨i

Ǩ_«HíáÈ=Ù, UH©Éèíq~K«HíáÈ=Ù
disagreement qÉèı^°~, Jã¨=∞‡u
disallow xO®Híi~K«∞, `Àã≤ѨÙK«∞Û
disallowance xO®Hí$u
disappear Hí#∞=∞O°∞QõQ∞õ , HíxÇ≤~K«H∞í ~_Í
áÈ=Ù
disappearance J~`ŒO®ú#~
disappointment PâÍÉèí~Qõ~
disapprobation J#~wHßO°~
disapproval J<®"≥Ø^°~, xO®Hí$u
disapprove uO°ã¨¯i~K«∞, ã¨=∞‡u~K«Hí
áÈ=Ù
disarmament xO®Ü«µ∞nèHíO°}. ~ conference xO®Ü«µ∞nèHíO°} =∞Ǩã¨Éèí
disarrange `ÍO°∞=∂O°∞ KıÜ«µ∞, zHßHí∞
ǨO°∞K«∞
disarray J=º=ã¨÷, „Hí=∞O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
disassociator J™®Ç¨ÏK«O°º~, qܡ∂[#~
disaster qǨ`Œ∞Î, =∞∞ǨC, ^°∞O°^°$+¨ì~,
q<®â◊~

162

disavow
disavow `Œ#Hí∞

ã¨~|~^è~° ÖË^#° ∞, Ǩi`Œº

l~K«∞
Ãã·xHí∞Å#∞ `˘Åy~K«∞, ¿ã<®
^°à®Å#∞ qzÛù#fl~KıÜ«µ∞
disbelief JǨ#=∞‡Hí~
disburse |>Ïfi_Í KıÜ«µ∞, Ǩ~Ç≤}©KıÜ«µ∞,
WK«∞Û
disbursement Ǩ~Ç≤}©, |>Ïfi_Í
disc Qõ∞~„_«>a
˜ à◊§, K«„Hí~, a~|~. ~ optic <Ë„`Œa~|~
discard =keÇıÜ«µ∞, ǨxH˜O®^°x fã≤
ÇıÜ«µ∞, =ke~K«∞HÁ#∞, Ǩi`Œºl~K«∞,
qã¨iÇıÜ«µ∞
discern ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå, „QõÇ≤Ï~K«∞, qÇız~K«∞,
Ǩije~K«∞, qKÍi~K«∞
discernible ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå JQõǨ_Ë
discernment qÇıK«#, 㨥Hí;ǨijÅ#,
qÇıHí~, `ˇeq
discharge <ˇO°ÇıO°∞Û, q_«∞^°ÅKıÜ«µ∞,
L^ÀºQõ~ #∞~z `˘Åy~K«∞, HíO°Î=º xO°fi
ǨÏ}KıÜ«µ∞, qã¨O°˚#~, „™®=~, L`ŒûO°æ~,
q_«∞^°Å. ~ immersion heater q^°∞º
xfl=∞[˚# `ÍǨHí~. menstrual ~ O°∞`Œ∞
„™®=~. ~ of duty HíO°Î=º xO°fiǨÏ}/
q_«∞^°Å/ <ËO®O’Ǩ} #∞~z q=∞∞H˜Î. ~
of electricity q^°∞º^°∞`ŒûO°æ~. ~ spark
q^°∞º`ü ã¨∞Êùe~Qõ~. ~ tube L`ŒûO°æ
<®oHí
disciple t+¨∞º_«∞, J#∞Ü«∂ܵ
disciplinable „Hí=∞tHí∆}®O°›"≥∞·#
disciplinarian „Hí=∞tHí∆}ǨO°∞_«∞
disciplinary „Hí=∞tHí∆}®`Œ‡Hí. ~ action
„Hí=∞ tHí∆} K«O°º. ~ committee „Hí=∞
tHí∆} ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~
discipline „Hí=∞tHí∆}, J#∞âÍã¨#~, „Hí=∞
|^°ú`Œ
disband

discourtesy

disclaim ǨÏHí∞¯ =^°Å∞HÁ#∞
disclaimer ÉÏ^è°º`Œ/ ã¨~|~^è°~

ÖË^°x

„ǨHí>˜~K«_«~† Y~_«#
`ˇeÜ«µ*ËÜ«µ∞, "≥Å¡_ç~K«∞, „ǨHí
>˜~K«∞
disclosure "≥Å¡_ç
discolour ÇÍ_ç#, O°~Qõ∞=∂ã≤#
discolouration q=O°‚`Œfi~
discomfit F_ç~K«∞, Éèí~QõǨO°∞K«∞
discomfiture Éèí~Qõáå@∞, J==∂#~,
H˜~K«Ç¨O°K«_«~, ǨO®Éèí=~
discomfort J™œHíO°º~
disconcert ÉÏ^è°Ç¨_«∞, ã≤Qõ∞æǨ_«∞, a_çÜ«µ
Ǩ_«∞
disconsolate xO°∞`ÍûǨÏǨ_«∞
discontent Jã¨~`Œ$Ç≤Î
discontinuance =∂xÇıÜ«µ_«~, qO°=∞}
discontinue HÁ#™®y~K«Hí∞~_«∞, PѨÙ,
xeÇ≤ÇıÜ«µ∞, ã¨Î~aè~Ǩ KıÜ«µ∞
discontinuous =º=Ç≤Ï`Œ"≥∞·#. ~ element =º=Ç≤Ï`Œ Éèßë®~â◊~
discord Jã¨=∞‡u, "≥·=∞#㨺~, `ŒQõ=Ù,
JǨ„â◊∞u
discount `Œyæ~ѨÙ, =∞∞^°O®† `Àã≤ѨÙK«∞Û
discounted bill K‹e¡~Ѩ٠`Ën Hí~>ı
=∞∞~^Õ `Œyæ~ѨÙ`À fã¨∞Hí∞<Ë qx=∞Ü«µ
aÅ∞¡
discountenance
xO°∞`ÍûǨÏǨO°∞K«∞,
P"≥Øk~K«Hí∞~_«∞
discourage xO°∞`ÍûǨÏǨO°K«∞, J^è≥·O°º
ǨO°K«∞
discourse „Ǩã¨~Qõ~, JaèÉèß+¨}, Pq+¨¯
O°}, L#fl`Œ™®÷ܵ K«O°Û, =º=ǨO°
Y~_«~. ~ analysis =º=ǨO° Y~_«
qâı¡+¨}
discourtesy J=∞O®º^°
disclose

discover
discover Hí#∞Q˘#∞, Pq+¨¯i~K«∞
discovert JqÇÍÇ≤Ï`Œ ã≤÷u, "≥·ÇÍÇ≤ÏHí

ã¨~|~^èßÅ∞ ÖËx
JǨMϺu Híey~K«∞, #=∞‡Hí
áÈ=Ù, JǨMϺu, J„Ǩu+¨ª
discreditable Å*Ï˚HíO°"≥∞·#
discrepancy =º`ͺã¨~, `Ë_Í, Éèı^°~
discrepant Jã¨~^°Oƒ° "
ù ∞≥ #· , Jã¨~Qõ`"Œ ∞≥ #· ,
ǨO°ã¨ÊO° qO°∞^°ú"≥∞·#
discreteness Jã¨~ÅQõfl`Œ, qÉèı^°Hí`Œ,
qK«Hí∆}
discretion qÇıK«#, qÇıHí~, qK«Hí∆},
=ºH˜ÎQõ`Œ xO°‚Ü«µ~
discretionary qK«Hí∆}®Ñ¨ÓO°fiHí.
~
power qK«Hí∆}®kèHßO°~
discriminate ǨHá
∆í å`Œ~`À =º=ǨÏi~K«∞,
Éèı^°Éèß=~K«¥Ñ¨Ù
discrimination Éèı^°Éèß=~, qÇıK«#,
qK«Hí∆}, ǨHí∆áå`Œ "≥·Yi
discursive q=O°}®`Œ‡Hí
discuss K«iÛ~K«∞. ~ at length ã¨∞n
O°…~Qå K«iÛ~K«∞
discussion ã¨=∂Ö’K«#~, K«O°Û
disdain U=y~ѨÙ, O’`Œ
disease Çͺkè. coeliac ~ Hí∞H˜∆Çͺkè,
L^°O°O’Qõ~. deficiency ~ PǨO°Ö’Ǩ
Çͺkè. endemic ~ ™®÷xHíO’Qõ~. epidemic ~ J~@∞O’Qõ~ ™®~„Hßq∞Hí
Çͺkè. specific ~ qt+¨ìO’Qõ~, „Ǩ`˺Hí
O’Qõ~
disembarass W|ƒ~k#∞~z `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞,
zHí∞¯#∞~z `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞HÁ#∞
disembark H˜~kH˜ k~K«∞ (q=∂#~/
F_«/ O≥·Å∞ #∞~z) kQõ∞
disembarkation (|ã¨∞û/ O≥·Å∞/ F_«
=~>˜ ÇÍ>˜ #∞~z) „Ǩܫ∂}˜Hí∞Å∞
kQõ_«~
discredit

163

disgustful

^ÕÇ¨Ï O°Ç≤Ï`Œ"≥∞·#, ^ÕǨÏ~
#∞~_ç ÇıO°Qõ∞
disembowel Hí_∞« ѨÙpÅ∞Û, ¿ÑQõ∞Å∞ fÜ«µ∞
disembroil q=∞∞H˜Î KıHí∂O°∞Û
disenchant „Éèí=∞áÈQ˘@∞ì
disenchantment „Éèí=∞O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
disencumber ÉÏ^°O° |~n ÖËHí∞~_Í
KıÜ«µ∞
disengage q=∞∞Hí∞Î_«Qõ∞† q_«nÜ«µ∞, ÇıO°∞
KıÜ«µ∞
disentangle ÇıO°∞KıÜ«µ∞, (zHí∞¯) q_«
nÜ«µ∞
disenthral ÉÏ^è° #∞~z q=∞∞H˜Î Híey~K«∞
disentitle ǨÏHí∞¯ `˘Åy~K«∞
disentune ã¨=∂kè ã≤÷u #∞~z "≥eH˜
fÜ«µ∞
disequilibrium Jã¨=∞`“ź~
disestablish =º=ã¨÷Hí∞ Éèí~Qõ~ Híey~K«∞
disfavour J<®^°O°}, Jx+¨ì~
disfigure qHßO°~ KıÜ«µ∞, qO°¥Ç¨~KıÜ«µ∞
disfluency ^èßO®à◊~Qå =∂>Ï¡_Ö
« áË È=_«~
disfranchise áœO°ã`
¨ fiŒ ~/ F@∞ǨÏHí∞¯ O°^∞° Ì
KıÜ«µ∞
disfranchisemen áœO°ã`
¨ fiŒ ~/ F@∞ǨÏHí∞¯
O°^°∞Ì K‹Ü«µº_«~
disgorge HíH˜¯ÇıÜ«µ∞, ^˘~ye~z#^®xfl
WzÛÇıÜ«µ∞
disgrace J==∂#~, =∂#Ǩx, JQ“O°
q~K«∞
disgruntle xO®â◊Ǩ_«∞,
Jã¨~`Œ$Ç≤ÎH˜
Ö’<ˇ·#
disgruntled Jã¨~`Œ∞+¨ì"≥∞·#
disguise „ǨK«Ûù#fl`Œ, =∂O°∞Çı+¨~
disgust qã¨∞Qõ∞, U=y~ѨÙ, „ǨuHí∂Å
Éèß=~
disgustful p^°O° Híey~Kı
disembodied

disharmonise

ÅÜ«µ `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞, „â◊∞u
Hí@∞=ÙQå KıÜ«µ∞
disharmony JǨ„â◊∞u, Jã¨=∞`“ź~
dishearten J^è≥·O°ºÇ¨O°K«∞, xO°∞`ÍûǨÏ
ǨO°K«∞
dishing ֒ǨÅ∞~K«∞† =_ç¤~K«∞. ~ out
`˘Åy~K«∞, áåO°ÇıÜ«µ∞, Ǩ_ËÜ«µ∞
dishonest x*Ïܵf ÖËx, HíǨ@ |∞kúQõÅ
dishonesty ^°Qå, "≥Øã¨~, HßǨ@º~,
HíǨ@~
dishonour J=∞O®º^°, J<®^°O°}, xO®
^°O°}† uO°ã¨¯O°}
dishonourable J==∂#HíO°"≥∞·#, hu
ÉÏǨϺ"≥∞·#
disillusion „Éèí=∞Å∞`˘ÅQõ∞
disinclination L¿ÑHí∆, qO°H˜Î
disinclined q=∞∞Y`Œ
disinctive „Ǩ`˺Hí"≥∞·#, qt+¨ì"≥∞·#. ~
word Éèı^° 㨥K«Hí Ǩ^°~
disinfect „H˜q∞ã¨~ǨO°~KıÜ«µ∞
disinfectant „H˜q∞ ã¨~Ǩi}˜, (O’Qõ)
„H˜q∞<®â◊x/ <®â◊Hí~
disinfection O’Qõ „H˜q∞ xO°¥‡Å#~
disinflation „^°Ç’ºÅƒ}
O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~/
xÜ«µ~„`Œ}
disingenuous xQõ¥_è°, HíǨ@, l`Œ∞ÎÅ
=∂i, =„Hí|∞kú
disinherit ÇÍO°ã¨`Œfi~ O°^°∞ÌK‹Ü«µº_«~
disintegrate Jã≤÷O°Ç¨O°K«∞, qzÛ#fl~
K‹~^°∞, q_çáÈ=Ù
disintegration qzÛùuÎ, qѶ¨∞@#~, qKıÛù
^°#. ~ of rocks tÖÏ qѶ¨∞@#~, tÖÏ
qzÛùuÎ
disinterest J<®ã¨H˜Î, xi¡Ç¨Î`Œ
disinvest ÃÑ@∞ì|_«∞Å∞
xeÇ≤ÇıÜ«µ∞/
`Œyæ~K«∞/ "≥#H˜¯ fã¨∞HÁ#∞
disharmonise

164

disorderly

disinvestment

ÃÑ@∞ì|_«∞Å LǨã¨~ǨÏ

O°}
disjoin ÇıO°∞KıÜ«µ∞
disjunction qKıÛù^°~
dislexia *Ï˝#֒Ǩ~
dislocate (H©Å∞) `˘Åy~K«∞,

165

disorganization
disorganization J=º=ã¨÷
disorganize „Hí=∞~ `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞,

„Hí=∞

O°Ç≤Ï`Œ=∞Qõ∞
disorganized behavior

„Hí=∞O°Ç≤Ï`Œ

„Ǩ=O°Î#

H©Å∞*ÏO°_«~, ™®÷#„Éèí~â◊~,

disorientation ã≤÷u„Éèß~u
disown `Œ#kHß^°#∞, J~wHíi~K«Hí∞~_«∞
disparage K«∞ÅHí#KıÜ«µ∞, J==∂x~K«∞,

™®÷#K«∞ºuKıÜ«µ∞, áåO°^ÀÅ∞,
Hí∂ÅQ˘@∞ì
disloyal JqâÍfiã≤, O®[ÉèíH˜Î O°Ç≤Ï`Œ
disloyalty O®[„^ÀǨÏ~, ™®fiq∞„^ÀǨÏ~
dismal xO°∞`ÍûǨÏ~ Híey~Kı, x¿ã[
Î "≥∞#· ,
"≥Å"≥Åɒܵ#, "≥Åã≤áÈܵ#, aè#fl
"≥∞·#, q+¨}‚"≥∞·#, ^°∞ód`Œ"≥∞·#, qKÍO°
㨥K«Hí"≥∞·#
dismantle T_«nÜ«µ∞, Hí∂ÅQ˘@∞ì, fã≤
ÇıÜ«µ∞, áå_«∞KıÜ«µ∞ LǨã¨~ǨÏi~K«∞
dismay q„Éèí=∞~, Pâ◊ÛO°º~, kQõ∞Å∞
Ǩ_Ë@∞ì KıÜ«µ∞
dismayed qã≤‡`Œ, ÇÍ#Hí∞e`Œ
dismember =∞∞Hí¯Å∞KıÜ«µ∞, qÉèíl~K«∞
dismiss |O°ÎO°Ñ¶π KıÜ«µ∞, "≥à◊§Q˘@∞ì, `˘Å
y~K«∞, O°^°∞ÌKıÜ«µ∞, ^®ÇÍ HÁ>˜ìÇıÜ«µ∞
dismissal |O°ÎO°Ñ¶π, `˘Åy~ѨÙ, Hıã¨∞
HÁ>˜ìÇı`Œ
dismortgage `ÍHí@∞ì/ `Œ#MÏ q_çÇ≤~K«∞
dismount kQõ∞, k~ѨÙ
disnomy J=º=ã¨÷
disobedience Jq^èıÜ«µ`Œ
disobey [=^®@∞
disoblige =∂@ =∞xfl~K«HíáÈ=Ù
disorder „Hí=∞
Éèí~Qõ~/O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~,
JâÍ~u, J=º=ã¨÷
disorderly z~^°O° =~^°O°Qå L#fl, „Hí=∞
O°Ç≤Ï`Œ

JQ“O°=ǨO°K«∞, Ç‘Ï#ǨO°K«∞, #¥º#
ǨO°K«∞, `ŒHí∞¯=KıÜ«µ∞
disparate Jã¨=∂#, aè#fl, O°HíO°HßÅ,
ã¨iã¨=∂#~ Hßx, ÇıO≥·#
disparity `Ë_Í, J~`ŒO°~, ÃÇÏK«∞Û`ŒQõ∞æÅ∞,
Jã¨=∂#`Œ, =º`ͺã¨~
dispassionate L^ÕfiQõ/ L„^ÕHí O°Ç≤Ï`Œ,
xë®ÊH˜∆Hí
dispatch Ǩ~ѨÙ, Ǩ~Ç≤~K«∞, *ÏsKıÜ«µ∞,
O°ÇÍ}®KıÜ«µ∞. ~ note ã¨O°∞Hí∞ q=O®
Å∞#fl ÖËY
dispel JáÈÇ¨Ï `˘Åy~K«∞, ã¨~^ÕǨÏ
x=$uÎKıÜ«µ∞
dispensable J=ã¨O°~ÖËx, ã¨_«e~K«
^°y#, =^°eÇıÜ«µ^°y#
dispensary Pã¨Ê„u,
B+¨^èßÅÜ«µ~,
zH˜`ÍûÅÜ«µ~
dispensation ǨxKı¿ãfO°∞, qkè q^èß#~,
q∞#Ǩܵ~Ѩن ǨiáåÅ#† q`ŒO°}
dispense =º=ǨÏi~K«∞, (<®ºÜ«µ) =º=
ǨO®Å∞ #_çÇ≤~K«∞, Ǩ~K«∞, Ǩ~Ç≤}©
KıÜ«µ∞, ã¨O°Ñ¶¨O® KıÜ«µ∞, ã¨Ç¨ÏHíi~K«∞,
HíeÇ≤ÇıÜ«µ∞, =ºÜ«µ~KıÜ«µ∞
dispeople xO®‡#∞+¨º~ KıÜ«µ_«~
dispersal "≥^°[Å¡_«~, K‹^°O°Q˘@ì_«~
dispersant qHı∆ǨHí~
disperse q_çáÈ=Ù, ÇıO°∞ ÇıO°∞ kHí∞¯ÅHí∞
"≥à◊∞§, K‹^°O°Q˘@∞ì, K‹ÖÏ¡K‹^°O°∞KıÜ«µ∞
dispersed K‹ÖÏ¡K‹^°O°Üµ#

™®÷#K«Å#~

Híey~K«∞
dislocation

ɡ}Hí_«~
dislodge

dispute

disperse system qHı∆Ǩ =º=ã¨÷
dispersing agent qHı∆Ǩ HßO°Hí~
dispersion qHı∆Ǩ}, "≥^°[Å¡@~
dispirit J^è≥·O°ºÇ¨O°∞K«∞, xO°∞`ÍûǨÏǨO°∞K«∞,

Ç≤iH˜=∞~^°∞áÈÜ«µ∞
displace ™®÷#„Éè~
í â◊~, ™®÷<®~`ŒO~° , L^®fi
ã¨#, `˘Åy~ѨÙ
displacement xO®fiã¨#, ã¨÷Å~ =∂O°∞Ê.
~ titration ™®÷#„Éèí~â◊`Í~â◊=∂Ǩ#~
display (=ã¨∞Î) „Ǩ^°O°≈#
displease <˘Ç≤Ê~K«∞, H’Ǩ~ `ˇÇ≤Ê~K«∞,
Jã¨Ç¨Ïº~ Híey~K«∞
displeasure Jã¨~`Œ$Ç≤Î, zO®Hí∞
displume DHíÅ∞ Ç‘Hí∞
disport E^°=∂_«∞, P@ÖÏ_«∞
disposable ÇÍ_çáåOÕ¿ã, áåO°ÇıÜ«µ`Œy#
disposal Ǩi뮯O°~, qã¨O°˚#, `˘Å
y~K«_«~, áåO°ÇıÜ«µ_«~, `ŒO°e~K«_«~.
at some one's ~ XHíi ¿ã=Ö’, XHíi
LǨܡ∂Qõ~Ö’. ~ by confiscation
[ѨÙÎ`À Ǩi뮯O°~. disposed income
=ºÜ«∂O°› P^®Ü«µ~
dispose J=∞∞‡, YO°∞ÛÃÑ@∞ì, qxܡ∂
y~K«∞, Ǩi+¨¯i~K«∞
disposition =∞<À"≥·Yi, z`ŒÎ=$uÎ, J=∞
iHí, ã¨fiÉèß=~, `Œ`Œfi~. ~ board
q=O°} Ǩ@~
dispossess Jnè#~ #∞~z `˘Åy~K«∞
dispossession HíÉÏ˚`˘Åy~ѨÙ, L^®fiã¨#
disproportionate Jã¨=∞,
q+¨=∞,
Jã¨=∂#`Œfi~, =º`ͺã¨~ QõÅ
disprove Hß^°x O°∞A=ÙKıÜ«µ∞, Y~_ç~K«∞
disputable qÇÍ^®ã¨Ê^°"≥∞·#
disputation ÇÍ^°#, K«O°Û, `ŒO°¯~,
`ŒQå^®
dispute qÉèı^°~, J#~wHßO°~, `ŒQõ=Ù,
qÇÍ^°~† `ŒQõ=ÙÖÏ_«∞, qÉèıkK«∞

disqualification
disqualification J#O°›`Œ, Jܡ∂Qõº`Œ
disqualify J#O°∞›xKıÜ«µ∞, JO°›`ŒÖË^°#∞
disquiet HíÅ=O°Ç¨O°∞K«∞
disregard J=∞O®º^°, xO°¡Hí∆ º~, L¿ÑHí∆
disreputable #=∞‡^°Qõx, Q“O°q~Ǩ^°Qõx
disrepute JǨH©iÎ
disrespect JQ“O°=~
disrobe q=G#∞KıÜ«µ∞
disrupt Éèí~Qõ~/ J~`ŒO®Ü«µ~/ qѶ¨∂`Œ~

Híey~K«∞
disruptible q^è°fi~ã¨hÜ«µ, K‹O°K«^°y#
disruption Éèí~Qõ~, J~`ŒO®Ü«µ~
dissatisfaction Jã¨~`Œ∞+≤ì, Jã¨~`Œ$Ç≤Î
dissect qKıÛùk~K«∞, qÉèíl~K«∞
dissection H’`Œ, qÉèí[#, Kèı^°#~, H’ã≤

q_«nÜ«µ_«~
dissemble ^®K«∞, =∂O°∞Çı+¨~ Hí@∞ì,
#>˜~K«∞
disseminate ÇͺÇ≤ÎKıÜ«µ∞, qã¨Îi~K«∞,
K«Å∞¡, „Ǩã¨O°}KıÜ«µ∞
dissemination ÇͺÇ≤Î,
„Ǩ™®O°~,
„ǨKÍO°~, qã¨ÎO°}
dissension Jaè„áåÜ«µÉèı^°~, qÇÍ^°~,
qO’^è°~
dissent aè<®flaè„áåÜ«µ~,
Jã¨=∞‡u†
aè<®flaè„áåÜ«µ~ „ǨHí>˜~K«∞, Jaè„áåÜ«µ
Éèı^°~ „ǨHí>˜~K«∞
dissenter Jã¨=∞‡uÇÍk
dissentient J~wHíi~K«x, "≥∞*Ïi>©
Jaè„áåÜ«∂xfl XǨÊx
dissenting Jã¨=∞‡u. ~ judgement
Jã¨=∞‡`Œ"≥∞·# fO°∞Ê
dissention HíÅǨÏ~, `ŒQõ=Ù, aè<®flaè
„áåÜ«µ~
dissent note Jã¨=∞‡u/ aè<®flaè„áåÜ«µ
Ǩ„`Œ~
dissertation ã≤^®ú~`Œ Çͺã¨~, ã¨=∞„Qõ

166

dissolve

ǨijÅ#
dissever q_«nÜ«µ∞
dissidence Jã¨=∞‡u, =ºuOÕHí`Œ
dissident Jã¨=∞‡`Œ∞_«∞, =ºuOÕH˜, Jã¨~
`Œ$Ç≤Î QõÅ =ºH˜Î. ~ writers xO°ã¨# O°K«

ܵ`ŒÅ∞, uO°∞Qõ∞ÉÏ@∞ O°K«Üµ`ŒÅ∞
dissimilar áÈeHíÖËx, aè#fl"≥∞·#
dissimilation q+¨g∞Éèí`«fi~,

#>˜~K«∞, =∞#ã¨∞#∞ `ˇeÜ«µ

hÜ«µHíáÈ=Ù
dissimulation #>˜~K«_«~,

dissolvent HíiQÕ@∞¡ Kı¿ã =ã¨∞Î=Ù
dissonance J„âÍ=º`Œ
dissuade xÇÍi~K«_«~
dissymmetry q+¨=∞`Œfi~, J™œ+¨ª=~
distal J„Qõ, ^°¥O°Ñ¨Ù
distance ^°¥O°~. ~
education

^°¥O°q^°º
q+¨g∞

HíO°}~
dissimulate

167

dissolvent

Éèß=QÀǨ#~,
ÇÍã¨ÎÇÍxfl =∞O°∞Qõ∞ǨO°K«_«~
dissipate "≥^°[Å∞¡, K‹^°O°Q˘@∞ì, `˘Å
y~K«∞
dissipated K‹ki#, =$^äßѨÙKıÛ, ^°∞sflu
QõÅ
dissipation qKıÛù^°# á⁄~k#, ^°∞sflu,
K‹^°O°Q˘@ì_«~, ^°∞O°fi ºÜ«µ~
dissociable qܡ∂[hÜ«µ
dissociate `ˇQõ`ˇ~ѨÙÅ∞
Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞,
ã¨~|~^èßxfl =^°eÇıÜ«µ∞
dissociated q_çáÈܵ#
dissociating qܡ∂[Hí
dissociation qܡ∂[#~, qÉèíHíÎ`Œ, ÇıO°∞
Ǩ_«_«~, qÉèí[#~, qܡ∂Qõ~. ~ of
sensibility Éèß=~ #∞~_ç PÖ’K«##∞
ÇıO°∞KıÜ«µ_«~
dissolubility O°^°∞Ì KıÜ«µ^°y#, qb#~
Hß^°y#
dissolute K‹_çáÈܵ#, Ǩ`Œ#"≥∞·áÈܵ#
dissolution O°^°∞Ì, HíO°Qõ_«~
dissolve =∞∞y~K«∞, =∞¥ã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞, O°^°∞Ì
KıÜ«µ∞† xsfiO°º~KıÜ«µ∞, „H˜Ü«∂â◊¥#º~
KıÜ«µ∞† Híiy~K«∞, HíiyáÈ=Ù, ÇıO°∞
KıÜ«µ∞, q_«nÜ«µ∞, K‹^°O°Q˘@∞ì, qb#~
JQõ∞

distant ã¨∞^°¥O°.

~

assimilation ^°¥O°

ã¨g∞HíO°}~
distaste JO°∞z
distemper _çÃãì~ǨO∑, QÀ_«ÅHí∞ Çı¿ã lQõ∞
O°∞`À Hí∂_ç# O°~Qõ∞
distend L|ƒ_«~
distention L|ƒ_«~
distill ™®O°~ fÜ«µ∞, |>©ìǨ@∞ì
distillaries |>©ì Ǩi„â◊=∞Å∞
distillate ¿ãfi^°„^°=~
distillation |>©ìǨ@ì_«~, ¿ãfi^°#~. ~
flask ¿ãfi^°# Hí∞Ç≤Ê. fractional ~
áåH˜∆Hí ¿ãfi^°#~. ~ process ¿ãfi^°#
„H˜Ü«µ
distilled |>©ìǨ>˜ì#, =_«Hí>˜ì#, ¿ãfi^°#
„H˜Ü«µ ^®fiO® ÇıO°∞Kıã≤#. ~ water
¿ãfi^°#[Å~, ã¨fiK«Ûù[Å~
distiller ™®O®|>©ì^®O°∞
distinct „Ǩ`˺Hí ÅHí∆}®Å∞ Híey#, ã¨∞ã¨Ê+¨ì
"≥∞·#, qt+¨ì"≥∞·#. ~ claim „Ǩ`˺Hí
ǨÏHí∞¯. ~ culture „Ǩ`˺Hí ã¨~㨯 $u.
~ designation aO°∞^°∞, „Ǩ`˺Hí`Œ,
qt+¨ì`Œ
distinction qÅHí∆}~, q=Hí∆`Œ, "≥·t+¨ì º~,
=º`ͺã¨~, Éèı^°~
distinctive feature Éèı^°Hß~â◊~, qt+¨ì
ÅHí∆}~, aè#fl"≥∞·# J~â◊~
distinguish „Ǩ`˺Hí, q~Qõ_ç~K«∞

ditch

„Ǩ`˺H˜~z#, „Ǩ=∞∞Y,
„Ǩ`˺Hí"≥∞·#, q~Qõ_ç~z#. ~ jurist
„Ǩ=∞∞Y <®ºÜ«µâÍGÇı`ŒÎ
distort =„H©Híi~K«∞
distorted =„H©Hí$`Œ
distortion qO°¥Ç¨}~, =„H©HíO°}, ÉÏ}©
=∂O°∞Ê
distortionist =º~Qõº
z„`ŒHßO°∞_«∞,
=„HíÉèß+¨º~ K‹¿ÑÊ =ºH˜Î
distract ǨO°^èߺ#~ HíÅ∞Qõ*ËÜ«µ∞
distraction ǨO°^èߺ#~, qHíO°¬}, ÇͺHí∞
Å`Œ, J#º=∞#㨯`Œ
distrain [ѨÙÎKıÜ«µ∞, ÉÏH© O®|@∞ì
distrainor [ѨÙÎ^®O°∞
distraint ÉÏH© O®|@ì_«~, [ѨÙÎ
distress =º^è°, ^°∞O°=ã¨÷, PǨ^°. ~ loans
`ŒH߯g O°∞}®Å∞
distribute Ǩ~Ç≤}© KıÜ«µ∞, Ǩ~K«∞† `ŒO°
e~K«∞
distributee ÉèßQõã¨∞÷_«∞
distribution
Ǩ~ǨHí~,
Ǩ~Ç≤}©,
Ǩ~K«_«~† `ŒO°e~K«_«~† ÇͺÇ≤Î. ~ of
powers JkèHßO®Å Ǩ~Ç≤}©
distributor Ǩ~Ç≤}©^®O°∞
distributory Ç≤Å¡HßÅ∞=,
#nâÍY,
LǨ#k
distrust JqâÍfiã¨~, JǨ#=∞‡Hí~
disturbance Qõ~^°O°QÀà◊~,
JÅ¡i,
JâÍ~u, Qõ_«a_«
disturbed ÇͺHí∞ÅǨ_ç#
disunion qKıÛù^°~, qܡ∂Qõ~
disutility xO°∞Ǩܡ∂y`Œ
ditch #>ıì>˜Ö’ =∞∞~K«∞, "≥Øã¨~KıÜ«µ∞†
QÀ`Œ∞Å∞ `Œ=Ùfi, O’_«∞¤ „ǨHí¯# `Œqfi#
HßÅ∞=, Hí~^°Hí~, Q˘Üµº, JQõ_«Î
distinguished

168

dither
dither `Œ_«ÉÏ@∞,
dithering =}˜Hı,

=}∞Hí∞, Tyã¨ÖÏ@
Tyã¨ÖÏ_Ë, Qõ~^°O°QÀà◊

Ǩ_Ë
diuresis Ju=∞¥„`ŒÇͺkè/ „™®=~
diuretic =∞¥„`Œ „™®= „¿ÑO°Hí"≥∞·#
diurnal ǨQõ>˜, O’AÇÍs
divalent kfiã¨~ܡ∂[Hí, kfi|~^è°Hí
diver Ö’Ü∂`ŒQå_«∞
diverge ÇͺÇ≤~K«∞, ^®i`ŒÇ¨C, JǨã¨

i~K«∞
divergence

ÇͺÇ≤Î, JǨã¨O°}~, Hı~„^°

ǨO®V∞‡Y`Œ
diverse aè#fl"≥∞·#, qq^è°
diversification qqnèHíO°}, qã¨ÎO°},
qã¨Î $fHíO°}. concentric ~ UHíHı~„^°Hí
=㨥Î`ŒÊuÎ qã¨ÎO°}. conglomerate ~
ã¨~Ѷ¨∞>˜`Œ qqnèHíO°}. horizontal ~

ã¨=∞`Œ∞Å qã¨ÎO°}
diversion =∞Å∞ѨÙ,
q+¨Ü«∂~`ŒO°~,
=∞o§~ѨÙ
diversity aè#fl`Œfi~, aè#flO°¥Ç¨`Œ, |Ǩï
=∞∞Y`Œ, qÉèı^°Hí, "≥·q^è°º~. unity in ~
aè#fl`Œfi~Ö’ UHí`Œfi~
divert =∞o§~K«∞, uǨC, =∂O°∞Û
divestment ÃÑ@∞ì|_«∞Å LǨã¨~ǨÏ~°},
`˘Åy~ѨÙ
divide qÉèíl~K«∞, q_«nÜ«µ∞, H’Ü«µ∞
dividend ÖÏÉèß~â◊~, ã¨~=`ŒûO®~`Í#
K‹e¡~Kı ÖÏÉèß~âÍÅ∞. interim ~ ã¨~=
`ŒûO°~ =∞^è°ºÖ’ K‹e¡~Kı ÖÏÉèß~â◊~
divider qÉèß[Hí~, qÉèßyx
divination Éèíq+¨º^°ÌO°≈#~, Éèíq+¨ºÇÍ}˜
divine k=º. ~ laws ^≥·=xÜ«µ=∂Å∞. ~
origin k=º=∞¥ÅHí`Œ. ~ right ^≥·=
^°`ÍÎkèHßO°~
divinity k=º`Œfi~, ^≥·=`Œfi~
divisibility qÉèß[º`Œ

divisible pool qÉèß[ºxkè
divisible qÉèß[#ܡ∂Qõº
division qÉèí[#, qÉèßQõ~.

doldrums

~ bench
<®ºÜ«µ=∞¥O°∞ÎÅ ^è°O®‡ã¨#~. ~ of
labour „â◊=∞(â◊H˜Î) qÉèí[#. ~ of powers JkèHßO° qÉèí[#. ~ by dichotomy ^≥· finèHíO°} qÉèí[#
divisive qÉèíl~Kı, ÇıO°∞Ǩ_Ë
divorce q_ÍHí∞Å∞
divulge "≥Å¡_ç~K«∞, |Ü«µ@ÃÑ@∞ì
dizziness ã¨∞ã‘Î, Jã¨fiã¨÷`Œ, #Å`Œ
docile ™®^è°∞, ã¨∞ÅÉèí
dock É’#∞, Ѷ¨∞@ì~, OÕ=Ù
docker OÕ=Ù Hßi‡Hí∞_«∞
docket q+¨Ü«µã¨¥z, q=O®ÅǨ>˜ìHí
doctrinaire ã≤^®ú~`ŒÇı`ŒÎ
doctrine ã≤^®ú~`Œ~. predestination ~
HíO°‡ ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
document ^°™®ÎÇıA, („Ǩ=∂}) Ǩ„`Œ~
documentation „Ǩ=∂} Ǩ„`ŒO°K«#
dodecagon ^®fi^°â◊ Éèí∞l
dodge @ÖÏܵ~ѨÙ, "≥Øã¨~† "≥Øã¨y~K«∞,
@ÖÏܵ~K«∞
dodger "≥Øã¨Hßi, ^®@Çı¿ãÇÍ_«∞
dodgy „Ǩ=∂^°HíO°"≥∞·#
dogdays Çıã¨qÖ’ =∞s Çı_çO’AÅ∞
dogged Ǩ@∞ì^°QõÅ, "≥∞∞~_ç, Hí+¨ì™®^è°º
"≥∞·#, x|ƒO°"≥∞·#
dogma Ç≤_çÇÍ^°~, q`Œ~_«ÇÍ^°~, ǨÏOî°
ÇÍ^°~, xtÛ`Íaè„áåÜ«µ~
dogmatic Ç≤_çÇÍk
dogmatise ǨÏsîHíi~K«∞, ^°∞O°aè=∂#~
Híey~K«∞
dogmatism n. =∞¥_è°qâÍfiã¨~
doldrums ã¨Î|ú`Œ, =∂~^°º~, xO°∞
`ÍûǨÏ~, xâ◊ÛÅ`Œfi~. in the ~ xâ◊ÛÅ
ã≤÷uÖ’

dole
dole Éèí$u, aèHí∆, U_«∞Ê
doleful ^°∞óYHíO°"≥∞·#
doliform *Ï_ô PHßO°~
dollar J"≥∞iHí<ü <®}ˇ~, HíO≥hû. ~ diplomacy _ÍÅO∑ ^Ò`Œº~. ~ imperialism _ÍÅO∑ ™®„=∂[ºÇÍ^°~
dollop Hí|à◊~
dolour <˘Ç≤Ê, Çı^°#, ^°∞óY~
dolorology ÉÏ^èß xÇÍO°} âß„ã¨ÎO
dolt [_«∞_«∞, =∞¥O°∞ö_«∞
domain O®R~, O®[º~, JkèHßO° Ǩikè,

ã¨~™®÷#~
Qõ∞=∞‡@~. volcanic ~ ÖÏÇÍ
Qõ∞=∞‡@~. plug ~ z#fl Qõ∞=∞‡@~
domestic ^ÕjÜ«µ, Qõ$Ç¨Ï ã¨~|~^è°. ~
division of labour W~>˜ Ǩ#∞ÅÖ’
„â◊=∞â◊H˜Î qÉèí[#. ~ financial institutions ^ÕjÜ«∂i÷Hí ã¨~ã¨÷Å∞. ~ industry ã¨fi^Õj Ǩi„â◊=∞. ~ institution ^ÕjÜ«µ ã¨~ã¨÷. ~ investment
ã¨fi^Õj/ ™®÷xHí ÃÑ@∞ì|_«∞Å∞. ~ labour
Çı`Œ# O°Ç≤Ï`Œ ¢ã‘Î „â◊=∞. ~ laws ã¨fi^Õj
K«>ÏìÅ∞. ~ market ã¨fi^Õj qǨ}˜. ~
money supply ã¨fi^Õj „^°=º ã¨O°Ñ¶¨O®.
~ policy P~`ŒO°~yHí q^èß#~,
^ÕjÜ«∂~Qõ q^èß#~. ~ violence Qõ$ǨÏ
Ç≤Ï~ã¨
domestication =∞zÛHí
domestic menial Qõ$ǨÏǨiKÍO°Hí∞_«∞
domicile âÍâ◊fi`Œ xÇÍ㨠„Ǩ^Õâ◊~. ~ of
choice SzÛùHí ã≤÷O° xÇÍã¨~
domiciled ã≤÷O° xÇÍã¨~ á⁄~k#
domiciliary W~>˜ =^°Ì [iQÕ, xÇÍã¨
ã¨÷Å ã¨~|~kè
dominant „Ǩ|Å"≥∞·#, PkèǨ`Œº~QõÅ,
ÃÑ`ŒÎ#~ =Ç≤Ï~Kı, |Å"≥∞·#. ~ caste
dome

169

dotage

ÃÑ`ŒÎ~^®s ‰õΩÅO. ~ culture PkèǨ`Œº
ã¨~㨯 $u. ~ firm „Ǩ|Å ã¨~ã¨÷
dominant „Ǩ|Å"≥∞·#, „Ǩ^èß#"≥∞·#. ~
heritage J#∞Éè’QõǨÏHí∞¯ QõÅ Éèí¥q∞
dominate JkèHßO°~ K‹ÖÏܵ~K«∞, „Ǩ|
Å"≥∞· L~_«∞
domination PkèǨ`Œº~, Juâ◊Ü«µ`Œfi~
dominion JkèxÇıâ◊(O®[º~). ~ status
JkèxÇıâ◊ „ǨuǨuÎ
don <®Ü«µHí∞_«∞, ^°∞ã¨∞ÎÅ∞ ^è°i~K«∞
donation qO®à◊~, K«~^®
donee qO®à◊„QõÇ‘Ï`Œ/ ã‘fiHíO°Î
donnish `ˇe"≥·#, Qõ~cèO°"≥∞·#
donor ^®`Œ
doodle yÅ∞Hí∞, =~HíO° >˜~HíO°Qå O®Ü«µ∞
doom <®â◊~, J~`Œ~
dooms day „Ǩà◊Ü«µk#~, J=™®# k#~
door keeper „ǨfǨi
doped =∞`Œ∞ÎHí∞ Qõ∞O≥·#
doping =∂^°Hí, L„`ËÊO°Hí, L`ËÎ[Hí
dormancy ã¨∞áåÎ=ã¨÷
dormant ã¨∞ǨÎ"≥∞·#, „H˜Ü«∂O°Ç≤Ï`Œ, LǨ
ܡ∂QõO°Ç≤Ï`Œ, „ǨK«Ûù#fl"≥∞·#, x„^®}"≥∞·#,
J}˜y L~_Ë, J~`Œs¡#~Qå L#fl. ~
capital LǨܡ∂QõO°Ç≤Ï`Œ =∞¥Å^è°#~.
~ volcano x„^®}®yfl ǨO°fi`Œ~
dormitory =ã¨u (Qõ$ǨÏ~), â◊Ü«µ
<®QåO°~
dorsal "≥#∞HíÉèßQõ~, Ѩ$+¨ªÉèßQõ~
dorsoventral Ѩ$ëȪ^°O°
dosage xO°‚ܵ~z# "≥Ø`Í^°∞
dose "≥Ø`Í^°∞
dossier q=O°} Ǩ„`Œ~, ã¨~|~kè`Œ =º=
ǨO° 㨥„`Œ~
dot K«∞Hí¯, ÉÁ@∞ì, a~^°∞=Ù
dotage =∞<À ^ÒO°ƒÅº~

dotard
dotard =∞u `ŒÇ≤Ê# =∞∞^°∞ã¨e
dotting test ™®=∞~°÷º ǨsHí∆
double O≥~_ç~`ŒÖˇ·#,
O≥~_ç~`ŒÅ∞,
kfi|~^è°~. ~ articulation kfi™®÷<À
KÍÛO°}. ~ dealing HíǨ@ =O°Î#. ~
decomposition LÉèíÜ«µ qܡ∂Qõ~,
^°fi~^°fi qܡ∂Qõ~. ~ entendre
^°fi~^®fiO°÷~. ~ manure salt Ü«µ∞Qõ‡
Å=}®Å ZO°∞=Ù. ~ option „HíÜ«µ
q„HíÜ«µ qHíÅÊ~. ~ precipitation
^°fi~^®fi=Hı∆Ǩ}. ~ refracting kfi=„H©
Éèí=#. ~ salt Ü«µ∞Qõ‡Å=}~. ~ standard ^°fi~^°fi „Ǩ=∂}~
doubles [~@ „H©_ÍHßO°∞Å∞
doubling time kfiQõ∞}`Í =º=kè
doubt ã¨~^ÕǨÏ~
doubtful ã¨~â◊Ü«∂ã¨Ê^°
douch Q˘@ì~`À Hí_«∞Qõ∞
douse =∞∞~K«∞, áÈÜ«µ∞, „^°=~Ö’

=∞∞#∞Qõ∞,
dovetail Qõ∞kQõ∞K«∞Û, J`Œ∞Hí∞, XHí^®x
HÁHí>˜ KıO°∞Û
dower ÉèíO°}~, ¢ã‘Î^è°#~, =O°Hí@fl~
downcutting J^è°óHí∆Ü«µ~
downfall Ǩ`Œ#~, H©∆}`Œ
down graded „âı}˜/J~`Œã¨∞÷ `Œyæ#
download ã¨=∂KÍO®xfl |kbKıÜ«µ∞
downmarket =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ#∞ K“HíQå JÇı∞‡
qǨ}˜
downpayment áåH˜∆Hí K‹e¡~ѨÙ
downpour Hí∞~Éèí =O°¬~
downraid Hí~ÃÑh ÇÍ>ÏÅ#∞ JkèHí
"≥∞∞`ŒÎ~Ö’ HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞ KıÜ«µ_«~
downright ã¨Ê+¨ì"≥∞·#, ÉÏǨ@"≥∞·#
downstream #n „ǨÇÍǨÏѨ٠kQõ∞=
ÉèßQõ~

170

drained weight

downtime

=$^äß Jܵ# L`ÍÊ^°#

ã¨=∞Ü«µ~
ÇÍ}˜*Ϻ^°∞Å∞, Hı~„nHí$`Œ
"≥∞·# #QõO° ÉèßQõ~
downtrodden J}Qåi#, Ç‘_ç`Œ. ~
masses J@ì_«∞Qõ∞ =O®æÅ „Ǩ[Å∞
downturn J=∞‡HßÅ, ÖÏÉèßÅ H©∆}`Œ
downward J^è’=∞∞Y. ~ displacement J^è’=∞∞Y ™®÷#„Éèí~â◊~
dowry =O°Hí@fl~† JO°}~. ~ death
=O°Hí@fl =∞O°}~
doyen „Ǩ=∞∞Y∞_«∞, <®Ü«µHí∞_«∞, P^°∞º_«∞,
„áåO°~ÉèíHí∞_«∞
doze Hí∞xH˜áå@∞¡ Ǩ_«∞, `Œ¥Qõ∞
dozing H’_çHí∞#∞Hí∞
draconian H˜O®`ŒHí"≥∞·#, J=∂#∞+¨"≥∞·#.
~ laws H˜O®`ŒHí K«>ÏìÅ∞, J=∂#∞+¨
K«>ÏìÅ∞
draft z`Œ∞΄Ǩu, =∞∞™®Üµ^®. ~ bill
=∞∞™®Üµ^® aÅ∞¡. ~ communique
=∞∞™®Üµ^® Ǩ„`Œ~
drafter =∞∞™®Üµ^®Å∞ `ŒÜ∂
« O°∞Kı¿ã =ºH˜Î
drafting committee O°K«<® ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~
draft proposal =∞∞™®Üµ^® „Ǩuáå^°#
drag c@, ǨQõ∞Å∞, D_«∞Û, T_«∞Û, ÖÏQõ∞,
á⁄_çy~K«∞
dragoman ^°∞ÉÏã≤, J#∞ÇÍ^°Hí∞_«∞
dragon O≥Hí¯Å∞#fl ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO° ã¨O°Ê~. ~
fly `Œ¥hQõ
drain HßÅ∞=, <®à◊~, Q˘@ì~, HßOÕ@∞ì
KıÜ«µ_«~, xO°~`ŒO° =ºÜ«µ~. brain ~
Çı∞^èß=ÙÅ∞ q^ÕâÍÅHí∞ =Å㨠áÈ=@~
drainage =∞∞O°∞Qõ∞h>˜ HßÅ∞=, Hßi
áÈ=@~, [ÅxO°æ=∞#~
drained liquid `˘Åy~z# „^°=~
drained weight hO°∞ `˘Åy~z# ÉèßO°~
down town

draining
draining =∞∞O°∞Qõ∞ áåO°∞^°Å Ǩx
draining time ([Å) xO°æ=∞# HßÅ~
drama <®@Hí~, O°¥Ç¨Hí~
dramtics O°~Qõã¨÷Å âÍG~
dramatist <®@Hí O°K«Üµ`Œ
dramatization <®@H©HíO°}
dramaturgist <®@Hí O°K«Üµ`Œ/„Ǩܡ∂HíÎ
dramaturgy #@#âÍG~
dramshop áå#âÍÅ
drape `ˇO°, ÃÑ·Qõ∞_«¤, |@ìÅ`À HíǨC
draper |@ìÅ Çͺáåi
drapery |@ìÅ ÇͺáåO°~, =„™®ÎÅ~Hí

O°}~
Qõ∞H≥¯_«∞, ÇÍÜ«µ∞ gzHí, ÇÍÜ«µ∞
„ǨÇÍǨÏ~. ~ cattle |O°∞=ÙÅ∞ ÖÏQÕ
Ǩâ◊∞=ÙÅ∞
draughter #=∞¥<® wKı =ºH˜Î
draughtsman OÕMÏHíO°Î, 㨥„`Œ„QåÇ≤Ï
drawback ֒Ǩ~, HÁO°`Œ, Ö’@∞
drawee ã‘fiHíO°Î, _«|∞ƒ fã¨∞HÁ<Ë =ºH˜Î
dread JuÉèíÜ«µ~, ÃѶ∞ÏO°~, ÉèíÜ«∂=ǨÏ~,
ÉèíÜ«µÇ¨_«∞, ɡ^°∞O°∞
dreadful ÉèíÜ«∂#Hí
dream HíÅ, ã¨fiǨfl~, HíÅQõ#∞, TÇ≤Ï~K«∞
dreamer ™®fiÇ≤flHí∞_«∞
dreary xO°∞`ÍûǨÏHíO°
dredge `Œ=Ùfi, `ŒÇıfi Ü«µ~„`Œ~
dredger „_≥·_«˚O∑, `ŒÇ’fi_«∞
dredging ѨÓ_çHí fÜ«µ_«~, `Œ=fiHí~,
J^°Ì_«~
dreikanter „u=∞∞Y tÅ
drench `Œ_«∞ѨÙ, =∞∞~K«∞
dress code =G^èßO°} x|~^è°#
dressing =∞~^°∞Ǩ>©ì ÇıÜ«µ@~. ~ down
Qõ>˜ìQå =∞~^°e~K«@~
dressup `ŒÜ«∂O°∞KıÜ«µ_«~, ã¨~ã≤^°ú~
KıÜ«µ_«~
draught

171

drove

ÉÁ@∞¡ ÉÁ@∞¡Qå HßO°∞, "≥∞Å¡
"≥∞Å¡Qå `«#∞fl
dried â◊∞+¨¯"≥∞·#, Z~_ç#, hO°∞ÖËx. ~
milk áåÅá⁄_ç
drift HÁ@∞ìHÁx
áÈ=Ù† Qõu=∂O°∞,
QåeÇÍ@~, *ÏO°∞. ~ way =∞~^°#∞
`ÀÖË =∂O°æ~
drill HíÇÍ`Œ∞, <®QÕ>˜ KÍÅ∞† ^°∞<Ëfl/ q`ËÎ
ǨiHíO°~, XHí *Ïu H’u† „_çÅ∞¡Qõ∞_«¤†
ɡ*Ï˚Å∞ KıÜ«µ∞, Ü«µ~„`Œ~`À q`ŒÎ<®Å∞
K«Å∞¡/ <®@∞
drilling `Œ=fi@~, O°~„^è°~ KıÜ«µ_«~
drip „ã¨q~K«_«~† qã¨∞Qõ∞ ѨÙ>˜ì~Kı =∞x+≤†
ÉÁ@∞¡ ÉÁ@∞¡Qå HßO°∞
drip irrigation a~^°∞¿ã^°º~
drive „¿ÑO°Híâ◊H˜Î. acquired ~ ã¨~áåk`Œ
„¿ÑO°Híâ◊H˜Î. innate ~ âÍsO°Hí „¿ÑO°Híâ◊H˜Î
driver KÀ^°Hí∞_«∞, |~_ç (#_ç¿Ñ)ÇÍ_«∞
drizzle `Œ∞~ǨO°, [Å∞¡
drollery #O°‡ z„`Œ~
droll K˘~Qõ HßO°∞Û
droop ÇıÖÏ_«∞, =~yáÈ=Ù, Hí∞~yáÈ=Ù
drop ÉÁ@∞ì, a~^°∞=Ù, K«∞Hí¯, `˘Åy~ѨÙ
droplet 㨥Hí;a~^°∞=Ù
dropper K«∞Hí¯Å∞ Çı¿ã ǨiHíO°~
droppings ǨHí∆∞Å O≥@ì
dropshipment =ã¨∞Î ™®=∞„yx L`ŒÊuÎ
^®O°∞ <ËO°∞Qå MÏ`Í^®O°∞_çH˜ Ǩ~Ç≤~
K«_«~
dropsy L|∞ƒÇͺk, [Ö’^°O°~
dross =∞_礆 K‹`ŒÎ, HíbÎ Híe¿Ñ =ã¨∞Î=Ù
drought HíO°∞=Ù, =O®¬Éèß=~, J<®=$+≤ì.
~ conditions ɡ@ì/ J<®=$+≤ì Ǩi
ã≤÷`Œ∞Å∞. ~ prone HíO°∞=Ù Ç‘_ç`Œ. ~
resistant h>˜ Z^°Ì_çx `Œ@∞ìHí∞<Ë
drove =∞~^°, Ǩâ◊∞=ÙÅ Qõ∞~ѨÙ
dribble

172

drover
drover Ǩâ◊∞=ÙÅ Çͺáåi/
drove road =∞>˜ìO’_«∞¤
drown =∞∞#∞Qõ∞
drowse x„^°=∞`Œ∞Î
drowsiness =∞Qõ`Œ, =∞`Œ∞Î
drudge "≥>˜ìKÍH˜i, Ö’Ü«µ,

HßǨi

W+¨ì~ÖËx Ǩx

|Å=~`Œ~Qå KıÜ«Ú
drudge "≥>˜ì
drudgery ("≥>˜ì) KÍH˜s,
drug B+¨^è°~, =∞~^°∞.

Q˘_«∞¤KÍH˜s
~ addiction
=∞`Œ∞Î =∞~^°∞Å =ºã¨#~. ~ resistence
=∞~^°∞Å∞ ǨxKıÜ«µHíáÈ=_«~. ~
therapy =∞~^°∞Å`À "≥·^°º~
druggist =∞~^°∞Å∞ JÇı∞‡ =ºH˜Î
drugs =∂^°Hí „^°ÇͺÅ∞
drum Éèıi. ear ~ HíO°‚Éèıi
drumstick =∞∞#QõHßÜ«µ
drunk `ÍQõ∞É’`Œ∞, `Íy#"≥∞·Hí~
drunken H≥·ÃÑH˜¯#, `Íy# "≥∞·Hí~Ö’ L#fl
drunkennsess `ŒÇ¨Ê`Íy# ã≤÷u
dry Z~_çáÈܵ#, r=~ÖËx, á⁄_ç,
J<®„O°Ì, â◊∞+¨¯, xO°˚Å. ~ dock h>˜
"≥Å∞ǨŠ<ÒHí xi‡~K«∞/ =∞O°=∞‡`Œ∞ Kı¿ã
OÕ=Ù. ~ farming "≥∞@ì =º=™®Ü«µ~.
~ goods á⁄_ç/„^°=O°¥Ç¨~Ö’ ÖËx
=ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞. ~ land "≥∞O°Hí. ~ quality
JO°ã≤Hí`Œ. ~ region â◊∞+¨¯ „áå~`Œ~.
~ subject Pã¨H˜ÎHíO°~ Hßx J~â◊~. ~
zone á⁄_ç „áå~`Œ~, =∞^°º x¿+^è°~ QõÅ
„áå~`Œ~
dryad =$Hí∆H˜, =$Hí∆^Õ=`Œ
drying PǨO° Ǩ^®O®÷Å#∞ Z~_«Éˇ>˜ì
xÅfiKı¿ã Ǩ^uú° , „^°=â’+¨}~. ~ agent
„^°=â’+¨Hí~
dryup =>˜ìÇıO°∞
dual ^°fi~^°fi, =∞∞MÏ=∞∞d. ~ alliance

dullard

kfiǨHí∆"≥∞·„u. ~ consciousness ^°fi~^°fi
Kı`Œ#. ~ citizenship ^°fi~^°fi áœO°
ã¨`fiŒ ~. ~ fight ^°fi~^°fi Ü«µ∞^°~ú , =∞∞MÏ
=∞∞d áÈ>©. ~ nature ^≥· finèÉèß=~
dualism ^≥· fi`Œ~
dub ¿ÑO°∞ ÃÑ@∞ì, ¿ÑO°∞=K«∞Û, ¿ÑO°∞Ǩ_«∞,
=∞∞„^°Ç¨_«∞, HíÅ∞Ѩن HÁ`ŒÎ ^è°fi#∞Å#∞
KıO°∞Û
dubbing PO’Ǩ}, J#∞HíO°}† `ÀÅ∞Hí∞
Ѩӿã, lQõ∞O°∞/ PHíO°¬Hí ^è°fi#∞efl KıO°Û_«~
dubious JÇÍã¨Î="≥∞·#, x*ÏܵfÖËx,
#=∞‡^°Qõx, ã¨~^ÕǨã¨Ê^°"≥∞·#, ѨÓiÎQå
qâ◊fiã≤~K«ÖËx, ã¨~ѨÓO°‚ O°Hí∆}ÖËx,
YzÛ`Œ~ Hß#>˜ì, Jã¨~`Œ∞+¨ì"≥∞·#, Jx
tÛ`Œ"≥∞·#, _ÀÖÏÜ«µ=∂#"≥∞·#, ã¨~â◊
Ü«∂`Œ‡Hí"≥∞·#
dubitation ã¨~â◊Ü«µ~
dubitative ã¨~â◊Ü«∂`Œ‡Hí, ã¨~^ÕǨã¨Ê^°
duchess „ǨÉèí∞Ǩufl
duct ÇÍÇ≤ÏHí, <®à◊~, Q˘@ì~. ~ less
q<åà◊, <®à◊O°Ç≤Ï`Œ
ductile `Í~`Œ=, ™®Qõ∞, fQõÖÏQå ™®Qõ∞
ductility `Œ#º`Œ, ™®QÕ Qõ∞}~, `Í~`Œ=`Œ
dud x„+¨Êܡ∂[Hí∞_«∞, xO°O°÷Hí∞_«∞
dudgeon H’áÈ„kHíÎ=∞Qõ∞
due Ü«µ∞HíÎ"≥∞·#, W=fi^°y#, JO°›"≥∞·#, ÉÏH©
L#fl, `Œy#. ~ care `Œy# *Ï„Qõ`ŒÎ. ~
date Qõ_«∞=Ù `Ën. ~ debt O®=Åã≤#
ÉÏH©
due place ã¨=∞∞z`Œ ™®÷#~
dues ÉÏH©Å∞, |HßܵÅ∞
duet Ü«µ∞Qõà◊w`Œ~
duffer "≥∞∞^°∞Ì, =∞~^°|∞kú
duke „ǨÉèí∞=Ù. ~ dom „ǨÉèí∞ áåe`Œ
„áå~`Œ~
dullard =∞~^°|∞kú, "≥∞∞^°∞Ì, [_«∞_«∞

173

dulocracy

dysentery

=∞∞^°æO®

dutiful HíO°Î=ºÇ¨O®Ü«µ}
duty ã¨∞~Hí~, Ǩ#∞fl† ÉÏ^è°º`Œ, HíO°Î=º~
dutyfree ã¨∞~Hí~/ Ǩ#∞fl qkè~K«x/ÖËx
dwarf á⁄>˜ì, ÇÍ=∞#, Hí∞|˚`ÍO°, =∞O°∞

JÇÍHí¯Üµ#, =∂#Ê_ç#,
=∂>Ï¡_«ÖËx, xâıÛ+¨ì
dummy „ǨuO°¥Ç¨~, #H˜b, k+≤ìÉÁ=∞‡.
~ candidate J<®=∞Hí JÉèíºi÷, ¿ÑHß
@Ö’ <®Å∞QÀKıܵ
dump Hí∞ǨÊ, =∂oQõ† K‹`ŒÎáÈQõ∞, `ŒHí∞¯=
^è°O°Hí∞ ZQõ∞=∞u KıÜ«µ_«~, Hí∞=∞‡i~K«∞,
k=∞‡i~K«∞, [=∞KıÜ«µ∞, x~ѨÙ, Hí∞ǨÊ
É’Ü«µ∞
dunce "≥∞∞^°∞Ì, =∞¥O°∞ö_«∞
dune Wã¨∞Hík|ƒ
dungeon pHí>˜HÁ@∞ì, <ËÅ=∂oQõ
duodenum P~„`Œ=∞¥Å~, ¿ÑQõ∞ "≥∞∞^°Å∞
dupe =~z~K«∞, "≥Øã¨y~K«∞
duplex [q∞e, O≥~>˜`À Hí∂_ç#
duplicate #HíÅ∞, „Ǩu, #=∞¥<®, ã¨^$° â◊,
=∞O’† #HíÅ∞ KıÜ«µ∞, „ǨuO®Ü«µ∞
duplicating #HíÅ∞ fÜ«µ_«~
duplicator #HíÅ∞ f¿ã =ºH˜Î/Ü«µ~„`Œ~
duplicity =~K«#, "≥Øã¨~, HíǨ@~, Hí∞>˜
ÖÏK«O°}
durability =∞xflHí, ã≤÷O°`Œ
durable assets nO°…HßeHí Pã¨∞ÎÅ∞
duramater "≥∞^°_«∞ "≥Å∞Ǩe á⁄O°
durance *ˇ·Å∞ tHí∆
duration HßÖÏ=kè, HßÅǨiq∞u, Qõ_«∞=Ù
durative aspect J=kèHß~â◊~
duress K‹O°(™®Å), xO°ƒ~^è°~, |Å=~`Œ~
dust Híã¨∞=Ù, ^°∞=∞¥‡^è°¥o. ~ devil ã¨∞_ç
Qåe. ~ storm Qåe `Œ∞á¶å#∞ P~nè
dusty â◊∞+¨¯, xO°∞`ÍûǨÏHí~°, Jã¨Ê+¨ì
duteous <®ºÜ«µ|^°ú, q#„=∞

Qõ∞A˚ (#Hí∆`Œ~)
dwarfism =∞O°∞Qõ∞A˚`Œ#~
dwell x=ã≤~K«∞, nO°…~Qå „Ç¨ã¨~y~K«∞,
HÁ#™®Qõ∞
dwelling units xÇÍã¨Qõ$ǨÅ∞
dwindle `ŒQõ∞æ, ã¨~H’z~K«∞, Hí∞~Qõ∞,
dyad kfi|~^è°#~
dye O°~Qõ∞, J^°ÌHí~, J^°ÌHí~ O°~Qõ∞, =O°‚
„^°=º~, O°~Qõ∞Å^°∞Ì, O°~Qõ∞ÇıÜ«µ∞
dyeing O°~Qõ∞ÇıÜ«µ_«~, O°~[#~
dyer J^°ÌHí~ Çı¿ãÇÍ_«∞
dying =∞O°} ã¨~|~kè. ~ declaration
=∞O°} ÇÍV¥‡Å~. ~ intestate gÅ∞
<®=∂ O®Ü«µHí∞~_Í =∞O°}˜~K«_«~
dyke Hí@ì, Hí~^°Hí~
dynamical Qõu âÍ¢ã‘ÎÜ«µ
dynamic atomism QõujÖÏ}∞ÇÍ^°~
dynamics QõuâÍG~
dynamism K«Å#jÅ`Œ, „H˜Ü«∂jÅ`Œ,
Ǩïë®O°∞
dynamite ¿ÑÅ∞_«∞ Ǩ^®O°÷~
dynamiter ¿ÑÅ∞_«∞ ™®=∞„y LǨܡ∂
y~Kı JuÇÍk
dynasty O®[=~â◊~, ™®„=∂[º~
dysarthria ^°∞O°∞KÍÛO°}
dyschromatopsia O°~Qõ∞Å∞ Qõ∞iÎ~K«ÖËHí
áÈ=_«~
dyscrasia qHí$u, qHßO°~
dyseneia ã¨iQåæ =∂@Å∞ ǨÅHíÖËHí
áÈ=_«~
dysentery O°HíÎ qOÕK«<®Å∞, |~Hí qOÕK«
<®Å∞, lQõ@ qOÕK«<®Å∞, j`ŒÉèık,
„QõǨÏ}˜

dulocracy ÉÏx㨠ǨiáåÅ#
duly 㨄Hí=∞~Qå, ã¨iQå
dumb =∞¥Qõ
dumbell =∞∞^°æO°~. ~ shaped

HßO°
dumb found

174

dysesthesia
dysesthesia ÉÏ^è° f„=`Œ `ŒQõæ_«~
dysfunction ã¨iQåǨx KıÜ«µHíáÈ=_«~
dysgeusia O°∞z `ˇÅ∞ã¨∞H’HíáÈ=_«~
dysmenorrhoea |Ç≤Ï+¨∞ª<˘Ç≤Ê
dysmnesia *Ï˝Ç¨Híâ◊H˜Î ֒Ǩ~
dyspareunia "≥∞·^ä°∞# ã¨=∞Ü«µ~Ö’ <˘Ç≤Ê
dyspepsia JriÎ, JrO°‚~ rO°‚â◊H˜Î #t~z

ecclesiastic

dyspeptic JrO°‚Çͺkè ã¨~„Híq∞~z#
dysphagia q∞~QõÖËHíáÈ=_«~
dyspnea PÜ«∂ã¨~
dystocia Hí+¨ì"≥∞·# Hß#∞Ê
dystopia ™®÷#„Éèí~â◊~
dystrophy Hí~_«O®Å |ÅÇ‘Ï#`Œ
dysuria =∞¥„`Œqã¨O°˚# ^À+¨~

áÈ=_«~

Ee
„Ǩu XHí¯O°¥, „Ǩun. ~ other
XHíiHÁHíO°∞, ǨO°ã¨ÊO°~
eagerly P`Œ∞O°`ŒQå
eagerness `ŒÇ¨Ï`ŒÇ¨Ï, P`Œ∞O°`Œ
eagle eyed xt`Œ ^°$+≤ìQõÅ, Qõ^°ÌK«¥Ñ¨ÙQõÅ
eagre ÃÑ^°Ì JÅ, LÃÑÊ#
earhead Hí~H˜
earl W~w¡+¨∞ „ǨÉèí∞=Ù
earliest =∞∞#∞=∞∞~^°>˜, „áåp#`Œ=∞. ~
opportunity "≥∞∞@ì"≥∞∞^°>˜ J=Hßâ◊~
early monsoon time `˘ÅHíiÇÍ#HßO°∞
earmark Hı>Ïܵ~K«∞, „Ǩ`˺H˜~K«∞
earn (ǨxKıã≤) ã¨~áåk~K«∞
earned income Pi˚`Í^®Ü«µ~† ã¨~áå
k~z# _«|∞ƒ
earnedleave Pi˚`Œ ÃãÅ=Ù
earnest =∞#óѨÓO°fiHí, Ǩ@∞ì^°Å QõÅ. ~
effort =∞#óѨÓO°fiHí Ü«µ`Œfl~
earning P^®Ü«µ~, ã¨=∞∞áåi˚`Œ~
earth Éè¥
í q∞, =∞>˜.ì ~ crust Éè¥í Ǩ@Å~,
Éèí¥q∞á⁄O°. ~ colours =∞$uÎHß=O®‚Å∞.
~ quake Éèí¥Hí~Ǩ~. ~ station
Éèí¥Hı~„^°~. ~ summit ^è°O°}© tYO®„Qõ
ã¨Éèí. ~ worm ÇÍ#áå=∞∞, HíO≥~@∞
fQ≥#∞ =∞>˜ìÖ’ ѨÓ_«∞Û
earthen =∞$}‡Ü«µ. ~ dam =∞>˜ì P#Hí@ì
earthenware =∞>˜ìáå„`ŒÅ∞
each

earthly Ö“H˜Hí"≥∞·#
earth work =∞>˜ìǨx
easement J#∞Éè’QõǨÏHí∞¯, J#∞Éèí=~Ö’
L#fl ǨÏHí∞¯. ~ law J#∞Éè’Qõ âÍã¨#~.
~ of access „ǨÇıâÍ#∞Éè’Qõ~. ~ right

J#∞Éèí=~Ö’ L#fl~^°∞# ã¨~„Híq∞~Kı
ǨÏHí∞¯
easily ã¨∞<®Ü«∂ã¨~Qå, ã¨∞à◊∞=ÙQå
eastern rains `Œ¥O°∞ÊÇÍ#Å∞
easy market ã¨∞ÅÉèí qǨ}˜
easymoney ã¨∞ÅÉèí „^°=º~
eaves W~>˜K«¥O°∞, =∞∞~EO°∞
eaves dropper á⁄~z q<Ë =ºH˜Î
ebb ã¨=∞∞„^°Ñ¨Ù áå@∞. ~ tide ã¨=∞∞
„^°~Ö’ "≥#H˜¯áÈÜ˵ JÅ
ebony #Å¡Kı==∂#∞
ebriety =∞`Œ∞Î
ebullient LO°HíÅ∞Çı¿ã, á⁄~QÕ, LaHı
ebullition =∞ã¨Å@~, =∞O°Qõ_«~
eburnation `ŒO°∞}®ã≤÷ ^°$_è©HíO°}
ecbolic QõO°ƒù„™®=Hí~
eccentric K«Ç¨Åz`ŒÎ"≥∞·#,
Jã≤÷q∞`Œ,
q~`ˇ·#, qǨs`Œ, J™®^èßO°}
eccentricity `ŒÅuHí¯, qǨs`Œ =∞#ã¨`
Î fiŒ ~
ecchymosis Híq∞eáÈ=_«~
ecclesiastic („H≥·ã¨Î=) =∞`À^Àºy, á¶åks,
ѨÙO’Ç≤Ï`Œ

ecclesiatical
ecclesiatical (H≥·ã¨Î=)

=∞`Œ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#,
^èßi‡Hí, k=º
echelon JkèHßO°/ <®Ü«µHí`Œfi ™®÷ܵ† „âı}©
=ӺǨÏ~
echo „Ǩu^è°fix, „Ǩu„â◊∞u, J#∞HíO°}
echoed „ǨuѶ¨e~z#, ѨÙ#O°∞^®…>˜`Œ
echymosis K«O°‡~Ö’x O°Hí΄™®=~
eclampsia „Ǩ㨥uÇÍ`Œ~, Qõ∞„O°Ñ¨ÙÇÍ`Œ~
eclecticism ã¨~=O°} ÇÍ^°~
eclectic method ǨijÅ<®`Œ‡Hí Ǩ^°úu
eclipse „QõǨÏ}~† =∞O°∞Qõ∞ ǨO°∞K«∞
ecofarming ǨO®º=O°}®#∞Hí∂Å ¿ã^°º~
ecofriendly ǨO®º=O°}®#∞Hí∂Å
ecoimbalance ǨO®º=O°}
q+¨Ü«µ
`“ź~, áåO°ã≤÷uHßã¨=∞`Œ∞ź`Œ
ecological ǨO®º=O°} ã¨~|~^è°=∞ܵ#
ecological competition ǨO®º=O°}©Ü«µ
ã¨ÊO°ú
ecological crisis ǨO®º=O°} ã¨~H∆’Éèí~
ecological fallacy ǨO®º=O°} ¿ÇÏ`Ífi
Éèßã¨
ecological invasion ǨO®º=O°}®kèÇ`
¨ ºŒ ~
ecologue *Ï#Ǩ^° â◊$~QåO° Hß=º~
ecology rÇÍ=O°} âÍG~, ǨO®º=O°}
âÍG~. human ~ =∂#= ǨO®º
=O°}~. urban ~ Ǩ@ì} ǨO®º=O°}~
econometrics JO°÷q∞u (âÍG~)
economic Pi÷Hí, K«=H≥·#. ~ development Pi÷Hßaè=$kú. ~ dualism Pi÷Hí
^≥· fiq^è°º~. ~ growth Pi÷Hí=$kú. ~
holding y@∞ìÉÏ@Ü˵º Hí=∞`Œ~. ~ imperialism Pi÷Hí™®„=∂[ºÇÍ^°~. ~
man Pi÷Hí=∂#=Ù_«∞. ~ offences
Pi÷Hí<ËO®Å∞. ~ reforms Pi÷Hí ã¨~㨯O°
}Å∞. ~ sanctions Pi÷Hß~Hí∆Å∞. ~
status Pi÷Hí™®÷ܵ

175

edit

economical

Pi÷Hí q∞`Œ=ºÜ«µ ã¨~|~kè,

á⁄^°∞ÃÑ·#
economically backward

Pi÷Hí~Qå

Ç‹#∞Hí|_ç#
economics JO°÷âÍG~, Pi÷Hí âÍG~
economism Pi÷HíÇÍ^°~
economist Pi÷HíÇı`ŒÎ, JO°÷âÍGÇı`ŒÎ
economize á⁄^°∞ѨÙKıÜ«µ∞, =ºÜ«∂xfl

J^°∞ѨÙKıÜ«µ∞
economy Pi÷Hí=º=ã¨÷. ~ drive q∞`Œ
=ºÜ«µ =º=ã‘÷HíO°} „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~. ~ measure á⁄^°∞ѨÙK«O°º
ecophoria *Ï˝Ç¨#â◊H˜ÎH˜ Ǩ^°∞#∞ÃÑ@ì_«~
ecosystem ǨO®º=O°} =º=ã¨÷. atmospheric ~ ÇÍ`Í=O°}Qõ`Œ ǨO®º=O°}
=º=ã¨÷. marine ~ ã¨=∞∞„^° ǨO®º=O°}
=º=ã¨÷
ecriture O°K«#, â‹·e
ecstasy P#~^®kèHíº~,
J#∞Éèí¥u
™®~„^°`Œ, ǨO°=â◊`Œfi~
ecstatic L`Œ¯~Oî°Ü«µ∞`Œ
ectoderm ÉÏǨϺHí=K«~, Ç≤~_«~ ÃÑ·á⁄O°
ectogenous ÉÏǨϺ
ectomy `˘Åy~K«_«~
ectopia ™®÷#„Éèí~â◊~
ectopion Hí#∞ O≥ǨÊÇ‹#Hí∞¯ uO°Qõ_«~
ectype „ǨuO°K«#, #HíÅ∞
eczema (U#∞Qõ∞) Qõl˚, K«O°‡Çͺkè
edaphic =∞>˜ìH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#
eddy ã¨∞_ç (Qåe), ã¨∞_çQõ∞~_«~
edge J~K«∞, HÁ#, J„Qõ~
edgy P`Œ∞O°`ŒQõÅ
edible u#^°y#, MÏ^°hÜ«µ
edict „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi L`ŒÎO°∞=Ù, P*Ï˝Ç¨„`Œ~, O®[
âÍã¨#~, „ǨÉèí∞`Ífi*Ï˝ Ǩ„`Œ~
edifice Hí@ì_«~
edit Hí∂O°∞Û, Ǩi+¨¯i~K«∞, „ǨK«∞O°}KıÜ«µ∞

edition

=∞∞„^°}, Hí∂O°∞Ê, ã¨~zHí,
ã¨~ѨÙ>˜
editor ã¨~áå^°Hí∞_«∞, ã¨~HíÅ#HíO°Î, Ǩi
+¨¯O°Î
editorial ã¨~áå^°H©Ü«µ~†
ã¨~áå^°Hí
ã¨~|~kè
educability q^®ºO°˚# ™®=∞O°÷º~
educate É’kè~K«∞, <ËO°∞Ê, J=QåǨÏ# Híe
y~K«∞
educational q^®ºã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#. ~ endowment q^®º^è°O°‡xkè. ~ institution q^®ºã¨~ã¨÷
educationist q^®ºÇı`ŒÎ
educative q*Ï˝<®`Œ‡HíÇ‹∞·#, *Ï˝#^®Ü«µHí
Ç‹∞·#
educe `ˇÅ∞ã¨∞HÁ#∞,
|Ü«µ>˜H˜fÜ«µ∞,
O®|@∞ì
educt ÇıO°∞Kıã≤ Ç‹eH˜fã≤# Ǩ^®O°÷~
eerie JǨiz`ŒÇ‹∞·#, ÉèíÜ«µ^°Ç‹∞·#
efface HÁ>˜ìÇıÜ«µ∞, K‹iÇ≤ÇıÜ«µ∞, `Œ∞_çz
ÇıÜ«µ∞, (*Ï˝Ç¨Hí~ #∞~z) `˘Åy~K«∞
effect „ǨÉèß=~, Ѷ¨e`Œ~, Ǩi}®=∞~,
™®=∞O°÷º~, J=∞Å∞Ö’/ PK«O°}Ö’ ÃÑ@∞ì
effecte ^°∞O°ƒÅ, hO°ã¨Ç‹∞·#
effective Hí@∞ìk@ìÇ‹∞·#, HßO°º™®^è°HíÇ‹∞·#,
Ѷ¨Å=~`ŒÇ‹∞·#, ™®O°÷Hí. ~ check
„ǨÉèß=~ QõÅ `Œxv. ~ concentration „ǨÉèßÇÍ`Œ‡HíQå_è°`Œ. ~ control
Ѷ¨Å„Ǩ^°Ç‹∞·# xÜ«µ~„`Œ}. ~ enforcement Ѷ¨Å=~`ŒÇ‹∞·# J=∞Å∞. ~ mass
„ǨÉèßÇÍ`Œ‡Hí „^°=ºO®t
effectively Ѷ¨Å™®^è°Hí~Qå, Ǩ>˜+¨ª~Qå
effectiveness Hí@∞ìk@ìÇ‹∞·#, HßO°º™®^è°Hí†
Ǩ@∞`Œfi~, ™®Ñ¶¨Åº~
effects K«O®ã¨∞ÎÅ∞, ™®=∂#∞Å∞
effectual Ѷ¨Å„Ǩ^°, HßO°º™®^è°Hí
edition

176

effusion

P_«~y (OÕHí∞Å), ^°∞O°ƒÅ,
áœO°∞+¨Ç‘Ï#
efferent JǨÇÍÇ≤Ï
efferent nerves JǨÇÍÇ≤Ï<®_«∞Å∞
effervesce |∞ã¨|∞ã¨á⁄~Qõ∞
effervescence |∞ã¨|∞ã¨/ |∞ã¨∞û=∞x
á⁄~Qõ_«~
effervescent |∞ã¨∞û=∞x á⁄~QÕ
effervescent drink |∞ã¨|∞㨠á⁄~QÕ
áåhÜ«µ~
effete |ÅÇ‘Ï#
efficacious ã¨=∞O°÷`ŒQõÅ, ™®kè~K«QõÅ,
Ѷ¨Å„Ǩ^°
efficacy ™®=∞O°÷º~, ^°Hí∆`Œ, HßO°º™®^è°Hí`Œ
efficiency ^°Hí∆`Œ, <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~, ™®=∞O°÷º~
efficient ã¨=∞O°÷Ç‹∞·#, xѨÙ}
efficiently ^°Hí∆`Œ`À, ã¨=∞O°÷`Œ`À
effigy k+≤ìÉÁ=∞‡, Qõ_ç¤ÉÁ=∞‡
efflorescence |∞_«QõÅ∞
=^°Å_«~,
á⁄~Qõ∞
effloresie qK«∞Û, ѨÓ`ŒÑ¨ÓÜ«µ∞
effluence xO°æ`Œ~, xã¨ûO°}~
effluent „ǨÇÍǨÏ~† |Ç≤Ïó„ǨÇÍÇ≤Ï, |Ü«µ
@Hí∞ „Ǩ=Ç≤Ï~Kı
effluents HíÅ∞+¨Ç¨^®O®÷Å∞
efflux „ǨÇÍǨÏ~, Qõu† HßO°_«~, „™®=~.
~ of time HßÅQõu
effort „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~. bargaining ~ „áÈ`Íû
ǨÏHßÅ#∞ ÉıO°=∂_«∞H’=_«~
effrontery |~_«`Œ#~, JǨÏ~HßO°~,
^°∞™®ûǨÏã¨~
effulgent ^ÕnǨº=∂#Ç‹∞·#, ZHí∞¯=Qå
„ǨHßt~Kı
effused JxÜ«µ`Œ~Qå ÇͺÇ≤ÎK‹~^°∞
effusiometer xã¨ûO°} =∂ǨHí~
effusion xã¨ûO°}~
effeminate

177

effusive
effusive _Í~aHí, Qå~cèO°ºO°Ç≤Ï`Œ
egalitarian ã¨=∂#`Œfi O°Ç≤Ï`Œ qâÍfiã≤.
~ society ã¨=∞ã¨=∂[~
egalitarianism ã¨=∞ã¨=∂[ ÇÍ^°~,

ã¨=∞`ÍÇÍ^°~
egg Qõ∞_«∞¤, J~_«~. ~ cell ¢ã‘Î r=Hí}~
egg donation (xã¨û~`Œ∞ÅHí∞) J~_«

^®#~
egg plant =~QõK‹@∞ì
egg white `ˇÅ¡™⁄#
egg yolk ǨK«Û™⁄#
ego JǨÏ~
egocentralism P`Œ‡ã¨∞Îu,

JǨÏ~Hı~„^°

Hí`Œ
egocentric ™®fiO°÷ѨÓi`Œ, JǨÏ~Hßi. ~
speech JǨÏ~Hí$`Œ „Ǩã¨~Qõ~
egoism JǨÏ~HßO°~, JǨÏ~Éèß=~, ™®fiO°÷

ǨO°`Œfi~
egomania =∞<ÀÇͺkèQå

=∞∞ki# JǨÏ~

HßO°~
egotism JǨÏ~HßO°~,

P`Œ‡ã¨∞Îu ǨO°`Œfi~,
™®fiaè=∂<®uâ◊Ü«µ~
egression xO°æ=∞#~, |Ü«µ>˜H˜áÈÜ˵
=∂O°æ~
either O≥~>˜Ö’ U^À XHí>˜. ~ at all
ÉÁuÎQå
ejaculation (gO°º) ã¨öÅ#~
eject Ç‹à◊§Q˘@∞ì
ejection <ˇ>˜ìÇı`Œ, `˘Åy~ѨÙ
ejectment `˘Åy~ѨÙK«O°º
eke out (ÖËxk) ã¨=∞Hí∂O°∞Û/ |`Œ∞Hí∞ Ç‹à◊§
nÜ«µ∞
ekka z#fl Qõ∞„O°Ñ¨Ù|~_ç/ Z_«¡|~_ç
elaborate qã¨Îi~K«∞, q=i~K«∞, qâ◊nHí
i~K«∞, q_«=∞O°∞K«∞, qâ◊^°Ç¨O°K«∞,
qã¨Î $`ŒÇ‹∞·#

electro-anaesthesia

elaboration qã¨ÎO°}
elan Jq∞`À`ÍûǨÏ~, K«∞O°∞Hí∞^°#~,

ÇıyO°

áå@∞, `˘~^°O°áå@∞
elapse Qõu~K«∞, Qõ_«záÈ=Ù
elastic ã≤÷u™®÷ǨHí, ™®QÕ, ÇͺH’K«Hí
elasticity ÇͺH’K«`Œfi~, ã≤÷u ™®÷ǨHí`Œ
elastomer O°|ƒO°∞
elation LÖÏ¡ã¨~, L`Œ¯~Oî°`Œ
elbow Ç‹ØKıܵ, =∞Å∞ѨÙ, <ˇ>˜ìÇıÜ«µ∞
elect Z#∞flHÁ#∞
election ZxflHí
elective aristocracy xܡ∂l`Œ Hí∞b#

áåÅ#
elector F@O°∞, F@∞¡ Çı¿ã =ºH˜Î
electoral college xܡ∂[HíQõ}~
electorate xܡ∂[Hí=O°æ~, F@O°∞¡
electric q^°∞º`Œ∞ÎHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#. ~
arc furnace q^°∞ºKÍÛǨ HÁeq∞. ~
circuit q^°∞º`Œ∞Î=ÅÜ«µ~. ~ conductor q^°∞º^®fiǨÏHí~. ~ crematorium

q^°∞º^°ÌǨÏ#ÇÍ>˜Hí, q^°∞º`Œ∞ÎHı∆„`Œ~. ~
induction q^°∞º`ü„¿ÑO°}. ~ ray
q^°∞º#‡`Œûº~. ~ shock q^°∞º^®Ñ¶¨∂`Œ~
electrical q^°∞º`üã¨~|~kè. ~ circuit
q^°∞º^°fiÅÜ«µ~. ~ conductivity q^°∞º
^®fiǨÏHí`Œ. ~ energy q^°∞º`ü â◊H˜Î. ~
resistance q^°∞ºxflO’^è°~
electrically charged q^°∞º^®q+¨ì
electro q^°∞º`ü ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#. ~ affinity q^°∞º^°¿ÑHí∆. ~ analytical method
q^°∞ºkfiâı¡+¨} Ǩ^°úu. ~ chemical
potential q^°∞º„^°™®Ü«µ# â◊Hí‡~. ~
chemical series q^°∞º„^°™®Ü«µ# „âı}˜.
~ chemistry q^°∞º„^°™®Ü«µ# âÍG~
electro-anaesthesia q^°∞º`Œ∞Î`À =∞`Œ∞Î
Híey~K«_«~

178

electro-cardiograph
electro-cardiograph

(ѨÙO°∞+¨) q^°∞º`ü

ǨÏ$^°Ü«µÖËdx
electro-coating q^°∞º`ü qÖËǨ#~
electrocute q^°∞º`Œ∞ ^®fiO® =∞O°}tHí∆

J=∞Å∞ǨO°K«∞
electrocuted

electron shall q^°∞º`Œ¯} HíHí∆ º
electrophoresis q^°∞º^®q+¨ìHí}

ã¨~K«

Å#~
electrostatic precepitator

ã≤÷O°q^°∞º

^Œ=Hı∆ǨHí~
q^°∞º^®Ñ¶¨∂`Œ~ =Å¡ =∞O°

}˜~z#
electrocution q^°∞º#‡O°}~
electrode q^°∞º^®ÌfiO°~, q^°∞º„`ŒÊÇÍǨÏ

<®à◊~
electrodynamics q^°∞º`ü QõuâÍG~. ~
extraction q^°∞º`ü x+¨¯O°}~. ~ furnace HíO≥~@∞ HÁeq∞
electro encephalogram (EEG)

q^°∞º`ü =∞ã≤Î+¨¯ ÖËY
encephalograph q^°∞º`ü
=∞ã≤Î+¨¯ÖËdx
electrolysis q^°∞ºkfiâı¡+¨}
electrolyte q^°∞ºkfiâı¡+¨º Ǩ^®O°÷~
electromagnet q^°∞º^°Ü«µ™®¯~`Œ~. ~
magnetic spectrum q^°∞º^°Ü«µ™®¯~`Œ
=O°‚Ǩ@~. ~ magnetic theory q^°∞º
^°Ü«µ™®¯~`Œ ã≤^®ú~`Œ~. ~ motive
force q^°∞ºKÍÛùÅHí |Å~. ~ motive
force series q^°∞ºKÍÛùÅHí |Å„âı}˜
electrometallurgy q^°∞º`ü ֒ǨÏâÍG~
electron q^°∞º`üHí}~
electronegativity O°∞} q^°∞º^®`Œ‡Hí`Œ
electronic government ZÅ„HßìxH±
„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~
electron microscope q^°∞º`Œ¯} 㨥Hí;
^°O°≈<ü
electron orbit q^°∞º`Œ¯} HíHí∆ º. ~
polarisation q^°∞º`Œ¯} „^è°∞=}~. ~
spin q^°∞º`Œ¯} „Éèí=∞}~. ~ transfer
q^°∞º`Œ¯} Ǩi=O°Î#
electro

elite theory

electrotherapeutics

q^°∞º`üzH˜`Íû

âÍG~

elixir J=∞$`Œ~† B+¨^è°~
ellipse J~_ÍHßO°~† nO°…=$`ŒÎ~
ellipsis J^èߺǨO°~. ~ rule J^èߺǨO°
ellipsoid nO°…=$`«ÎÉèí~
elliptical nO°…=$`ÍÎHßO°~. ~ cylinder
nO°…=$`ŒÎ 㨥ÎǨ~. ~ orbit nO°… =$`ÍÎ

HßO° HíHí∆ º

electrotherapy q^°∞º`ü zH˜`Œû
elegance ã¨O°ã¨`Œfi~, ™⁄Qõã¨∞, ÖÏe`Œº~,

h@∞
elegantly

179

elixir

á⁄~Hí~Qå, Åe`Œ~Qå, ã¨O°

ã¨~Qå

elliptic motion nO°…=$`ŒÎQõ=∞#~.
bit nO°…=$`ŒÎ HíHí∆ º
elocution =HíÎ $`Œfi
elongation á⁄_«∞Qõ∞KıÜ«µ_«~,

~ or™®Qõ

nÜ«µ_«~, ns…HíO°}

elegy â’HíHß=º~, që®^°wu
element =∞¥ÅHí~,
=∞¥ÅǨ^®O°÷~,

elopement áåiáÈ=_«~, ÖËzáÈ=_«~
eloquence ÇÍQåú>,˜ ÇÍKÍÅ`Œ, ÇÍHíÊ>˜=∞,

=∞¥Å ^è°O°‡~, =∞¥Å^èß`Œ∞=Ù, Ǩ~K«
Éèí¥`ÍÖ’¡ XHí>˜, J~Qõ~, ÅHí∆}~
elementary „áå^ä°q∞Hí
elements =∞¥ÅHßÅ∞
elenctic Y~_«<®`Œ‡Hí
elephantiasis É’^°O’Qõ~
elevate ÃÑ·H≥`Œ∞Î, „áÈ`ÍûǨÏǨO°K«∞, L^°ú
i~K«∞, ™®÷ܵx/ Ǩϟ^® ÃÑ~K«∞
elevate LK«Ûù`Œ, L#flu, Q“O°=~, sîq,
L#fl`Œ ã≤÷u† Éèí=#~ =∞∞Y ^°O°≈#~
elf =∂~„uHí∞_«∞/ =∂~„uHí∞O®Å∞
elfin á⁄>˜ìÇÍ_«∞, Ǩã≤ÇÍ_«∞† Ç≤âÍK«
ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#
elicit =∂>Ï¡_ç~K«∞, O®|@∞ì, K‹Ç≤Ê~K«∞,
=ºHíÎ~Kıܵ~K«∞
eliminate fã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞,
=keÇıÜ«µ∞,
`ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞
elimination `˘Åy~K«∞,
fã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞,
#t~ǨKıÜ«µ∞
elision ֒Ǩ~
elite L#fl`Œ=O°æ~
elite theory Çı∞^èßq áåÅ# ã≤^®ú~`Œ~

=∂@Hßi`Œ#~
else J>Ï¡HßHí∞#fl. ~ or Jk (ѨÓO’fiH˜Î)
HßHíáÈ`Ë. ~ where J#º„`Í, ZHí¯_≥·<®
ã¨OÕ, =∞O˘HíKÀ@
elucidate qâ◊^°Ç¨O°K«∞, q=i~K«∞, ã¨Ê+¨ì~
KıÜ«µ∞
elude zHí¯HíáÈ=Ù, <ËO°∞Ê`À `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞HÁ#∞
elusive `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞Hí∞ uO°∞Qõ∞`Œ∞#fl, J~`Œ∞
^˘O°Híx, zHí¯x, Ǩ@∞ì^˘O°Híx, *Ïi
áÈÜ˵
eluviation ÃÑ·=∞#∞fl HÁ@∞ìHÁxáÈ=@~†
zH˜¯áÈ=Ù, ã¨#fl|_«∞, â◊∞+≤¯~K«∞
emaciated H©∆}˜~z#,
^°∞O°ƒùÅÇ‹∞·#,
â◊∞+≤¯~z#, zH˜¯áÈܵ#
emaciation â◊∞+≤¯~K«_«~, zH˜¯áÈ=_«~,
Hí$t~K«_«~† HßO°≈fiO’Qõ~
emanate |∞kúѨÙ@∞ì, (PÖ’K«#) HíÅ∞Qõ∞,
LáåÜ«µ~ `Œ@∞ì, |Ü«µ@Ǩ_«∞, [x~K«∞,
L^°ƒùq~K«∞, xO°æq∞~K«∞
emanating power L^°ƒù= ™®=∞O°÷º~
emanation L^°ƒùq~K«_«~, xO°æ=∞#~,
|Ü«µÅÊ_«_«~

emblematic

L^°úi~K«∞, q=∞∞H˜Î Híe
y~K«∞, |~^è°q=∞∞H˜Î KıÜ«µ∞, qÇ‹ØK«#
Híey~K«∞
emancipation q=∞∞H˜Î, q_«∞^°Å, ^®ã¨º
qÇ‹ØK«#~, ÅÜ«µ~, t=~
emarginate z=i/ J~K«∞Ö’x Qõ~@∞
emasculate #ѨÙ~ã¨Hí∞x KıÜ«µ∞, hO°
ǨO°K«∞
embalm (â◊ÇÍÅ#∞) Éèí„^°Ç¨O°K«∞, â‹·kä
ÖϺxfl xÇÍi~K«∞
embank Qõ@∞ì xi‡~K«∞/ ÇıÜ«µ∞
embankment (áÈ`Œ) Qõ@∞ì, Hí@ì
embargo x¿+^èß[˝ (ÇͺáåO°) xO’^è°~
embark (q=∂<®xfl/ F_«#∞) ZHí∞¯, Ǩx
KıÜ«µ∞, „áåO°~aè~K«∞, Ç‹∞∞^°Öˇ@∞ì
embarkation (q=∂<®xfl/
F_«#∞)
ZHí¯_»O
embarrass HíÅ=O°ÃÑ@∞ì, W|ƒ~kÃÑ@∞ì,
zHßHí∞ÃÑ@∞ì, WO°∞Hí∞# Ǩ_«ÇıÜ«µ∞
embarrassed HíÅ=O°Ç¨_ç#
embarrassing HíÅ=O°~/ q„Éèß~u HíeÊ~
K«_«~. ~ situation q„Éèß~`Œ Ǩiã≤÷u
embarrassment W|ƒ~k, HíÅ=O°~,
ã¨~Hí@ã≤÷u
embassy ^Ò`Œº/ O®Ü«µÉÏi HßO®ºÅÜ«µ~
embattle Ü«µ∞^®úxH˜ ã≤^°ú=∞Qõ∞
embattled ã¨=∞㨺֒¡ zHí∞¯Hí∞#fl, Híë®ìÖ’¡
Hí∂O°∞Hí∞áÈܵ#
embezzle ^˘~ye~K«∞, JǨǨÏi~K«∞,
Ç‹Øã¨~`ÀKılH˜¯~K«∞HÁ#∞
embezzlement ^è°<®Ç¨Ç¨ÏO°}~, x^è°∞Å
^°∞ifixܡ∂Qõ~, _«|∞ƒHß*ËÜ«µ_«~
emblazn O®[zǨflÅ`À ã≤~Qåi~K«∞
emblem zǨÏfl~, ÖÏ~Kè«#~, =∞∞„^°,
Qõ∞O°∞Î, ^è°fi[~/ Ǩ`ÍHí
emblematic „ǨfHß`Œ‡Hí, P#ÇÍÖˇ·#,
zǨÏflÇ‹∞·#
emancipate

180

embodiment
embodiment J=`ÍO°~/ ÅHí}
∆ ~, Qõ∞}~,
=∞¥iÎ. ~ of knowledge q*Ï˝# =∞¥iÎ
embody O°¥á⁄~k~K«∞, `ŒÜ«∂O°∞KıÜ«µ∞,

KıO°∞Û
embog |∞O°^°Ö’H˜
embolden ^è≥·O°º~

Ǩ_«`ÀÜ«µ∞
WK«∞Û, #=∞‡Hí~ Híe

y~K«∞
H“ye† H“ye~K«∞† Qõ∞~_≥Hí∞
ǨÏ`Œ∞ÎHÁ#∞, ã‘fiHíi~K«∞, Ǩ@∞ìHÁ#∞
embranchment âÍM’ǨâÍYÅ∞ Hß=_«~
embrangle zHßHí∞ǨO°∞K«∞
embrasure H’@QÀ_«ÃÑ· O°~„^è°~
embrology Ç≤~_À`ŒÊuÎ âÍG~
embrittlement ÃÑà◊∞ã¨∞^ÕO°_«~
embrocate `À=∞∞, O°∞^°∞Ì, =∞O°Ì#KıÜ«µ∞
embrocation =∞O°Ì#~
embroider Hí∞@∞ìǨxKıÜ«µ∞,
JÅ∞¡†
㨥k`À Kıã≤# Je¡Hí Ǩx
embroidery Híã‘^®/ |∞>ı^®O°∞ Ǩx
embroil zHí∞¯Ö’¡Ç¨_«∞, HíÅ=O°Ç¨_«∞, qÇÍ
^°~Ö’ zHí∞¯HÁ#∞, [Qõ_~« Ö’ `ŒÅ^°¥O°∞Û,
ã¨~kQõÌ~Ö’ Ǩ_«∞
embryo Ç≤~_«~. ~ transfer Ç≤~_«~
=∂iÊ_ç. ~ transfer technology
Ç≤~_« „ǨÇıâ◊# „Ǩ„H˜Ü«µ
embryology Ç≤~_À`ŒÊuÎ/ Ç≤~_«Ç¨i}®=∞
âÍG~
emend Ǩi+¨¯i~K«∞, ã¨=i~K«∞, á⁄O°
áå@∞¡ k^°∞Ì, `ŒÇ¨CÅ∞ ã¨ik^°∞Ì
emerald =∞O°Hí`Œ~. ~ green =∞O°Hí`Œ
ǨÏi`Œ~, QõO°∞_« ǨK«ÛO°~Qõ∞
emerge L^°Üµ~K«∞, L^°ƒùq~K«∞, HÁ`ŒÎQå
|Ü«µÅÊ_«∞
emergence L^°ƒù=~, #¥`Œfl O°¥Ç¨ =ºH©Î
HíO°}~
emergency J`Œº=ã¨O° Ǩiã≤u
÷ , J`ŒºÜµHí
Ǩiã≤÷u
embrace

empiric

empirical

L^®æq∞/ xO°æ=∞#
Ǩi}®=∞ÇÍ^°~
emeritus Q“O°ÇÍKÍO°∞º_«∞
emersion „QõǨÏ}~ q_«∞ѨÙ
emetic ==∞#Hßi, ÇÍ~uHíÅ∞Qõ*Ë¿ã
emigrant „ǨÇÍã≤, =Å㨠Njo§# =ºH˜Î
emigration =Åã¨, „ǨÇÍã¨~, ^ÕâÍ~`ŒO°
Qõ=∞#~
eminence B#fl`Œº~, ¿ÑO°∞„Ǩu+¨ªÅ∞
eminent ã¨∞„Ǩã≤^°úÇ‹∞·#, „ǨMϺ`ŒÇ‹∞·#
emissary P~`ŒO°~yHí ^°¥`Œ, O°Ç¨Ï㨺
„Ǩuxkè
emission L^®æO°~, „Ǩã¨O°}, ã¨öÅ#~
emission standard L^®æO° „Ǩ=∂}~
emit „Ǩã¨i~K«∞
emitted L^®æi`Œ
emitter L^®æi}˜, „Ǩ™®O°Hí~
emmenia (|Ç≤Ï+¨∞ª ã¨=∞Ü«µ~Ö’) O°HíÎ
„™®=~
emmetropia ™®=∂#º^°$+≤ì
emolument O®|_ç, P^®Ü«µ~
emotion PÇıâ◊~, =∞<À^ÕfiQõ~
emotive language ÉèßÇÍÇıâ◊ Éèß+¨
empathy `Í^®`Œ‡º~, ã¨Ç¨#∞Éèí¥u
empericism J#∞Éèí¥uÇÍ^°~
emperor ™®O°fiÉè“=∞∞_«∞, K«„Hí=iÎ, ™®„=∂
*Ϻkè<Ë`Œ
emphasis J=^èßO°}, U=HßO°~, L^®…
@#, <˘H˜¯K‹Ç¨Ê_«~
emphasize <˘H˜¯K‹Ç¨C, L^®…>˜~K«∞
emphatically ^°$_è°~Qå, Qõ>˜ìQå
emphysema TÇ≤iu`Œ∞ÎÅÖ’x ÇÍÜ«µ∞
QÀà®Å ÇÍѨÙ
empire ™®„=∂[º~, ǨÏ^°∞ÌÅ∞ ÖËx Jkè
HßO°~
empiric J#쐊=
í ã≤^,Ì° „ǨÜ∂ˇ Qå`Œ‡Hí, J#∞
ÉèíÇÍ^èßO°

empirical

emergent evolution

J#∞Éèí=~ÃÑ· P^èßO°Ç¨_ç#,
J#∞ÉèßqHí† x^°O°≈# ѨÓO°fiHíÇ‹∞·#. ~
formula J#∞ÉèßqHí 㨥„`Œ~. ~ law
™®fi#∞Éèí= ѨÓO°fiHí <®ºÜ«µ~/ 㨥„`Œ~
empiricism J#∞Éèí=ÇÍ^°~
empiricist J#∞Éèí=ÇÍk
employ xÜ«µq∞~K«∞, xܡ∂y~K«∞, LǨ
ܡ∂y~K«∞HÁ#∞
employee L^˼y. ~ participation
xO°‚Ü«∂Å∞ fã¨∞H’=_«~Ö’ Hßi‡Hí∞Å,
L^ÀºQõ∞Å áå„`Œ
employees's buyout L^ÀºQõ∞Å∞ ZHí∞¯=
ÇÍ>ÏÅ∞ HÁx ã¨~ã¨÷ÃÑ· xÜ«µ~„`Œ}
™®kè~K«_«~
employer Ü«µ[=∂x. ~ strategies
Ü«∂[=∂#º =ӺǨÅ∞
employment Láåkè, Çı`Œ#~`À Hí∂_ç#
Ǩx. ~ agency/ exchange Láåkè
HíÅÊ# Hı~„^°~. ~ exchange offices
L^ÀºQõ 㨥K«Hí HßO®ºÅÜ«∂Å∞. ~ protection L^ÀºQõ∞Å O°Hí∆}. ~ seasonal
HßeH’^Àºy`Œ
empoison q+¨~ÃÑ@∞ì, K‹O∞° K«∞, K‹_Q
« ˘@∞ì,
áå_«∞KıÜ«µ∞
emporium q„HíÜ«µ Hı~„^°~, =O°ÎHí ã¨÷Å~,
ÇͺáåO° Éèí~_ÍO°~
empower JkèHßO°~ WK«∞Û
empowerment JkèHßO° ã¨~áå^°#. ~
strategies JkèHßO° ã¨~áå^°# =ӺǨÅ∞
empress ™®„=∂l˝
emptiness â◊¥#º`Œ, MÏm, xO°O°÷Hí`Œ
empty L`ŒÎ, MÏm, =>˜ì, iHíÎ
empyema p=∞∞KıO°_«~
emulate J#∞Híi~K«∞, J#∞ã¨i~K«∞
emulsification `ŒOm
° HíO}
° , áåÜ«µã‘HOí }
°
emulsifier `ŒO°mHßO°Hí~, áåÜ«µã‘HßO°Hí~

181

enchant

emulsifying agent `ŒO°mHßO°Hí Ǩ^®O°÷~
emulsion `ŒO°à◊Ǩ^®O°÷~, áåÜ«µã¨~, O°™®

Ü«µ#~
enable ™®^è°º=∞Ü˵º@∞¡ KıÜ«µ∞, â◊H˜Î Híe
y~K«∞
enact K«@ì~KıÜ«µ∞,
âÍã¨#~KıÜ«µ∞,
#>˜~K«∞
enactment K«@ì~, âÍã¨#~
enamel Z<®q∞Öò, ^°~`ÍÅg∞k/ Ç≤~Qå}˜
ÃѷѨÓ`Œ† ѨÓ`ŒÑ¨ÓÜ«µ∞
enamoured =ÅÇ≤~Kı, =∞O°∞Å∞Q˘ÖËÊ
enantimorphism „ǨuO°¥Ç¨`Œ
enantiomorph „ǨuO°¥Ç¨~, „Ǩua~|~
enantiomorphic „ǨuO°¥áå`Œ‡Hí
enantiotropy O°¥Ç¨Ç¨i=O°Î#~
en bloc Jhfl XHí¯>˜Qå, =∞¥Hí∞=∞‡_çQå
encamp q_çkKıÜ«µ∞, =∞Hß~ÇıÜ«µ∞
encampment (Ãã·xHí) taO°~, Ãã·xHß
ÇÍã¨~
encapsulated á⁄O°`À
P=$`ŒÇ‹∞·#,
K«∞@¥ì á⁄O°Å∞#fl
encapsulation ã¨~ѨÙ>©HíO°}~
encashment #Qõ^°∞Qå =∂O°∞ÛHÁ#_«~
encephalic Ç‹∞^°_«∞H˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#
encephalitis Ç‹∞^°_«∞ÇÍѨ٠Çͺkè
encephalogram =∞ã≤Î+¨¯ÖËY, =∞ã≤Î+¨¯
z„`Œ~
encephalograph =∞ã≤Î+¨¯ÖËY#~, =∞ã≤Î+¨¯
z„`Œ}
encephalomyelitis Ç‹∞^°_«∞/ Ç‹#∞fláå=∞∞
<˘Ç≤Ê
encephalon Ç‹∞^°_«∞
encephalopathy =∞ã≤Î+¨¯qHí$u
enchain Q˘Å∞ã¨∞`À |~kè~K«∞, â◊$~YÖÏ
|^°∞ú}˜‚ KıÜ«µ∞
enchant =∞~„`Œ=∞∞Qõ∞ú}˜fl KıÜ«µ∞, =â◊
ǨO°K«∞HÁ#∞

enchantment
enchantment =jHíO°}
encircle K«∞@∞ì=∞∞@∞ì, ǨiÇı+≤ì~K«∞
encirclement K«∞>˜ìÇı`Œ, K«„Hí|~^è°~
enclave q^Õâ◊~Ö’ L#fl ã¨fi^Õâ◊ ÉèßQõ~
enclose [`ŒKıÜ«µ∞, ǨO°K«∞, K«∞@∞ìHÁ#∞
enclosed P=$`Œ
enclosure P=O°}~, [`ŒKıã≤#k
encode ã¨~Hı`Œ xO®‡}~
encomium ã¨∞u
Î , á⁄Qõ_,Ϋ H©O#ΰ ~, „Ǩâ~◊ ã¨
encompassed Çͺ=$`Œ, K«∞@∞ì=∞∞>˜ì#
encore Ǩ^Õ Ç¨^Õ „Ǩ^°i≈~K«_«~
encounter Z^°∞O°Qõ∞, Z^°∞O˘¯#∞† Z^°∞

O’¯Å∞, Z^°∞O°∞ HßÅ∞ÊÅ∞
encouragement „áÈ`ÍûǨÏ~, L`ËÎ[#~
encroach J<®ºÜ«µ~Qå P„Híq∞~K«∞/ „ǨÇı

t~K«∞
encroacher ^°∞O®„Hí=∞}^®O°∞
encroachment J„Hí=∞ „ǨÇıâ◊~,

HíÉÏ˚,
™®finè#~, Ju„Hí=∞}, ^°∞O®„Hí=∞}
encrustation J=t+¨ì Ǩ@~
encryption ã¨~Hı`Œ xH˜∆ǨΠã¨~^Õâ◊~
enculturation xO°~`ŒO° ã¨~㨯 $fHíO°}
encumber Qõu xO’^è°~KıÜ«µ∞, ÉèßO°~
ÇıÜ«µ∞
encumbered `ÍHí@∞ì ÉèßO°~ L~z#,
O°∞}„Qõã¨Î
encumbrance O°∞}ÉèßO°~, zHí∞¯. ~
certificate O°∞}ÉèßO° „^è°∞=Ǩ„`Œ~
encyclopaedia q*Ï˝# ã¨O°fiã¨fi~/ H’â◊~
end J~`Œ~, J~`Œº
endanger JáåÜ«µ~ Híey~K«∞
endangered
species
J~`Œi~Kı
„Ǩ=∂^°~ L#fl r=*Ï`Œ∞Å∞
end consumer L`ŒÊuÎx LǨܡ∂y~Kı
=ºH˜Î
endear W+¨ì~ Híey~K«∞, Jaè=∂#~ OÕH≥
uÎ~K«∞

182

endoskeleton

endearingly QÀ=∞∞Qå
endeavour Hí$+≤, „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~,

ã¨<®flǨÏ~,
„ǨÜ∂« 㨆 „â◊q∞~K«∞, Hí+Çì¨ _¨ ∞« , áÈ>©Ç_¨ ∞« ,
„Ǩܫµ`Œfl~KıÜ«µ∞
endemic qt+¨ì=∞ܵ#, qÅHí∆}=∞ܵ#,
UHí„Ǩ^âÕ Q◊ `õ ,Œ ã¨Å÷ qt+¨,ì ™®÷xHí. ~ disease ™®÷#ǨO°Çͺkè
endocardium Qõ∞~_≥ ֒Ǩe á⁄O°
endocarp J~`ŒóHí=K«~
endocrine J~`Œ„™®û=, q<®à◊„Qõ~kä,
J~`Œó„™®q. ~ glands J~`ŒO°∞‡Y
„Qõ~^ä°∞Å∞
endocrinology J~`Œ„™®û=
q*Ï˝#
âÍG~, q<®à◊„Qõ~kä âÍG~
endoderm J~`ŒO°`ŒfiK«~, Ç≤~_«~ ֒Ǩe
á⁄O°
endodermis J~`Œâ◊ÛO°‡~
endogamy ã¨*Ïu qÇÍǨÏ~
endogenous J~`ŒO®˚`Œ~, â◊sO°~Ö’
[x~z#
endometrium QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ~ ֒Ǩe á⁄O°
endoparasite J~`ŒóǨO®#flrq
endophasia Ãã·QõÅ ^®fiO® Éèß= „Ǩ™®O°~
endophyte ǨO®#flrq
endoplasm J~`Œs˚=„^°=º~
endorse PÇ‹Øk~z, ã¨~`ŒHí~KıÜ«µ∞,
ã¨=∞‡u~K«∞, J~wHíi~K«∞† PÇ‹Ø^°~,
ã¨=∞‡u
endorsed PÇ‹Øk~z#
endorsement PÇ‹Ø^°~, ã¨=∞‡u O®`Œ,
Ǩ„`Œ~ Ç‹#∞Hí Ç‹·Ñ¨Ù O®`Œ
endorser Ç‘>© ÖËYHí∞_«∞
endoscope Hí∞ǨÏO®~`ŒO°ÌO°≈x
endoscopy Hí∞ǨÏO®~`ŒO°ÌO°≈#~
endoskeleton J~`ŒóHí~Hßà◊~, Z=∞∞HíÅ
Qõ¥_«∞

endothelial
endothelial <®à◊~ ֒Ǩe á⁄O°
endothermic L+¨„‚ QåǨÏHí, `ÍǨK¥
« +¨H~í ,
Çı_çx q∞~QÕk. ~ reaction L+¨‚

„QåǨÏHí „Ç¨uK«O°º
endothermicity L+¨‚„QåǨÏHí`Œfi~
endotoxin rÇÍ~`Œã¨÷ q+¨Ç¨^®O°÷~
endotracheal âÍfiã¨<®à®ÅÖ’x
endow ^®#~ KıÜ«µ∞, WK«∞Û
endowment ^è°O°‡xkè, ^®#~. ~ fund
^è°O®‡^®Ü«µ xkè. ~ speech ^è°O°‡xkè
„Ǩã¨~Qõ~
end-product J~uÇ‹Ø`ŒÊuÎ
endrin ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞=∞~^°∞, „H˜q∞ã¨~ǨO°Hí
O°™®Ü«µ#~
ends „Ǩܡ∂[<®Å∞. serve their own ~
ã¨fi„Ǩܡ∂[<®Å#∞/ ™®fiO®÷xH˜ LǨܡ∂
y~Kı. ~ and means ÅH∆ߺÅ∞, ™®^è°
<®Å∞, Pâ◊Ü«∂Å∞, =∂O®æÅ∞
endurance ã¨Ç¨Ï# â◊H˜Î, FO°∞Ê
endure ã¨Ç≤Ï~K«∞, Éèíi~K«∞, FO°∞Û† KÍÖÏ
HßÅ~Qå L~_«∞
end user K«O°Ç‹ØǨܡ∂HíÎ
enema L^°O° â◊∞kú
energetic â◊H˜Î=∞~`ŒÇ‹∞·#
energetics â◊H˜ÎâÍG~
energism â◊H˜ÎÇÍ^°~
energy â◊H˜Î, q^°∞º`Œ∞Î, |eq∞. ~ barrier â◊H˜ÎxO’^è°~. ~ constant â◊H˜Î
ã≤÷O®~Hí~. ~ level â◊H˜Î™®÷ܵ. ~ resonance J#∞#^°# â◊H˜Î. ~ spectrum
â◊HΘ =O°Ç‚ @¨ ~. ~ translational ™®÷<®~
`ŒO°} â◊H˜Î
enervate |Å~H’Ö’Ê=Ù
enfant terrible JÅ¡iÇ≤Å¡ÇÍ_«∞, Qõ_«∞
Qåæܵ
enfeeblement |ÅÇ‘Ï#`Œ, xã¨û`Œ∞Î=

183

enlarging

J=∞Å∞ ǨO°K«∞, PK«O°}Ö’H˜
`ˇK«∞Û, |Å=~`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞. ~ a right
ǨÏHí∞¯ J=∞Å∞ǨO°K«∞
enforcement J=∞Å∞, ^®ÇÍÇıÜ«µ_«~,
[ѨÙÎKıÜ«µ_«~, PK«O°}
enfranchise F@∞ǨÏHí∞¯ WK«∞Û, q=∞∞Hí∞x
Î
KıÜ«µ∞, ¿ãfiK«ÛùxK«∞Û
engage ǨxÖ’ xÜ«µq∞~K«∞
engaged xÜ«µq∞`Œ∞_≥#
· , ǨxÖ’ x=∞Qõ∞fl_≥·
L~_ç#† (>ˇeá¶È<ü) LǨܡ∂Qõ~Ö’ L#fl,
ÃÑo§Kıã¨∞H’= xâ◊Ûܵ~z#
engagement ã¨=∞Ü«µ xÜ«µ=∞~, qÇÍǨÏ
xtÛ`ÍO°÷~† O’AÇÍs HßO°º„Hí=∞~
engender HßO°}=∞Qõ∞
english mortgage J_«∞=∂#~
engorge P|Qåu#∞
engorged Laƒ#
engraft J~@∞Hí@∞ì, W=∞∞_«∞Û, HíÅ∞ѨÙ
engram r= O°™®Ü«µ# Éèı^°~
engraved „ǨQå_è°Ç‹∞·#
=∞∞„^°Çıã≤#,
K‹H˜¯#, =∞∞„k~z#
engraver #y+‘Å∞ K‹Hı¯ teÊ
engraving #y+‘ K‹Hí¯_«~ Ǩx
engross x=∞Qõfl~KıÜ«µ∞, â◊∞^°ú„Ǩu O®Ü«µ∞
engulf =∞∞~K«∞, q∞~yÇıÜ«µ∞
enhance =$kúKıÜ«µ∞,
JkèHí~KıÜ«µ∞,
Ç‹∞O°∞Qõ∞Ǩ_«∞, Ç‹∞O°∞Qõ∞ǨO°∞K«∞
enigma O°Ç¨Ï㨺~, ã¨=∞㨺, Qõ¥_谄Ǩâ◊fl
enigmatic ã¨=∞™®º`Œ‡Hí, xQõ¥_è°, uHí=∞Hí
ÃÑ>ıì
enigmatist uHí=∞Hí ÃÑ>ıì =ºH˜Î
enjoin P^Õâ◊~ *ÏsKıÜ«µ∞, xÜ«µq∞~K«∞
enlace H“ye~K«∞HÁ#∞
enlarge á⁄_çy~K«∞, qã¨Îi~Ǩ*ËÜ«µ∞
enlargement qã¨ÎO°}, Ǩi=O°ú#~
enlarging qѨÙbHíO°}
enforce

enlighten

qâ◊^°Ç¨O°K«∞, ã¨Ê+¨ì~KıÜ«µ∞,
`ˇeÜ«µ*ËÜ«µ∞, „Ǩɒ^èß`Œ‡Hí~ KıÜ«µ∞
enlightenment qâ◊nHíO°}, „Ǩɒ^èß`Œ‡
Hí`Œ, *Ï˝<À^°Ü«µ~
enlist Ǩ>©ìÖ’KıO°∞Û, ÉèísÎKıÜ«µ∞, ã¨Ç¨ÏHßO°~
á⁄~^°∞. ~ support =∞^°Ì`Œ∞ á⁄~^°∞
en masse J~`Í Híeã≤, HíÅã≤Hí@∞ìQå,
=∞¥Hí∞=∞‡_çQå, ã¨~Ѷ¨∞>˜`Œ~Qå
enmeshed zHí∞¯HÁ#fl
enmity â◊„`Œ∞`Œfi~, qO’^è°~, Ç‹·O°~
ennoble L#fluxHíey~K«∞, Ѷ¨∞#`Œ#∞
KıHí∂O°∞Û, Ǩ^°g=$kú KıÜ«µ∞, „Ǩu+¨ª Híe
y~K«∞
ennui Qå¡x, xO°∞`ÍûǨÏ~, =∂#ã≤HíÇ‹∞·#
JÅã¨`Œfi~
enophthalamos Hí#∞Qõ∞_«∞¤
Ö’xH˜
áÈ=_«~
enormity Jq∞`Œ`Œfi~, ã¨∞xã¨Î $u
enormous JǨiq∞`ŒÇ‹∞·#, q™®ÎO°Ç‹∞·#.
~ crime ÃѶ∞ÏO°<ËO°~
enquire qKÍO°}[O°∞ѨÙ
enquiry ã¨~â’^è°#, qKÍO°}, ^°O®ºÑ¨ÙÎ,
ÇÍHí|∞, ǨijÅ#
enragement O≥zÛáÈ=_«~, H’áÈ„kHíÎ`Œ
enrapture ǨO°=∂#~^°~ Híey~K«∞,
áåO°=â◊º~ Híey~K«∞
enrich =$kúKıÜ«µ∞, ^è°#=~`Œ∞xKıÜ«µ∞,
ã¨∞ã¨~Ǩ#fl~KıÜ«µ∞
enriched isotopes ã¨~=iú`Œ ã¨=∞™®÷
hÜ«∂Å∞
enrichment ã¨∞ã¨~Ǩ#fl`Œ
enroll #Ç‹Ø^°∞ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞, *Ïa`ÍÖ’
ZH˜¯~K«∞, ã¨Éèí∞ºxQåKıO°∞, ÉèísÎKıÜ«µ∞
enroute =∂O°æ=∞^è°º~Ö’
ensanguined O°HíÎÉÏ~^è°#
enshrine „Ǩu+≤ª~K«∞, Ǩq„`Œ™®÷#=∞Qõ∞
enlighten

184
enshround =∞O°∞Qõ∞ǨO°K«∞,

entertainer

entertainment

Hí#|_«Hí∞~_Í

entertainment q<À^°~.

KıÜ«µ∞
ensilage ǨK«ÛQõ_ç¤
enslave ÉÏxã¨Qå KıÜ«µ∞
enslaved ÉÏxã¨Qå Kıã≤#
ensnare =ÅÖ’ Çıã¨∞HÁ#∞
ensue O®É’=Ù, ã¨~Éèíq~K«∞
ensuing year O®É’Ü˵ ã¨~=`ŒûO°~
ensure Ǩg∞WK«∞Û, Qõ>˜ìǨO°K«∞
ensuring ã≤÷O°Ç¨O°K«_«~, KıHí∂O°Û_«~
entail JxÇÍO°º~KıÜ«µ∞,
J=Hßâ◊~

HíeÊ~K«∞, ÇÍO°ã¨`ŒfiѨ٠ǨÏHí∞¯ HíeÊ~K«∞†
J<®º„Hß~`Œ~ HßHí∞~_Í K«¥K«∞, Ǩi
q∞`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞
entailed ã¨~„Híq∞~Ǩ*Ëã≤#
entailment
ÇÍO°ã¨`Œfi
xO°¥Ç¨}/
xO°‚Ü«µ~, J#∞|~^®O°÷~
entangle zHí∞¯Ö’¡ Ǩ_«ÇıÜ«µ∞, zHí∞¯HÁ#∞,
zHí∞¯#Ǩ_«∞, ã¨=∞㨺֒ Ǩ_«^ÀÜ«µ∞
entanglement zHí∞¯, ã¨=∞㨺
entente ™®=∞O°ã¨ºÉèß=~, Ç‹∞·„u
enter „ǨÇıt~K«∞, PO°~aè~K«∞, „áåO°~
aè~K«∞, MÏ`ÍѨÙã¨ÎHí~Ö’H˜ ZH˜¯~K«∞/
#Ç‹Ø^°∞KıÜ«µ∞. ~ into contract
Hß~„>ÏHí∞ì Hí∞^°∞O°∞ÛHÁ#∞
enteric P~„`Œã¨~|~kè
enteritis P~„`Œ„ǨH’Ǩ~, ¿ÑQõ∞<˘Ç≤Ê
enterogastric P~„`Œ ~ [Oî°O°
enterogenous ¿ÑQõ∞#∞~z ѨÙ>˜ì#, P~„`Œ
[#º
enteropathy P~„`ŒqHí$u
enterprise ™®Ç¨Ïã¨~† Hí~ÃÑh, ÇͺáåO°~†
`Œ`ŒÊO°`Œ
entertain q<À^°Ç¨O°K«∞, Jukä ã¨`ͯO°~
KıÜ«µ∞, ã‘fiHíi~K«∞
entertainer =∞<ÀO°~[#~/ q<À^°~ Híe
y~Kı =ºH˜Î

~ allowance
q<À^° |`ˇÎ~
enthral PHíi¬~K«∞, ã¨Ç‹Ø‡Ç≤Ï~ǨKıÜ«µ∞
enthusiasm L`ÍûǨÏ~
enthusiast L`ÍûÇ≤Ï
enthusiastic L`ÍûǨÏÉèíi`ŒÇ‹∞·#
entice „Ǩ֒ÉèíÃÑ@∞ì, =∞ÉèíºÃÑ@∞ì, PHí
i¬~K«∞
enticement ZO°, „Ǩ֒Éèí~
enticer „Ǩ֒ÉèíHí∞_«∞, Pâ◊K«¥Ç≤ PHíi¬~Kı
=ºH˜Î
enticing â◊$~QåO°Ç‹∞·#, ã¨O°ã¨Ç‹∞·#, #Ü«µ
=~K«HíÇ‹∞·#, =∞<ÀǨÏO°Ç‹∞·#
entire xâı≈+¨† xdÅ, ã¨HíÅ, ã¨=∞ã¨Î,
JY~_«, J~`Í, Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~, ѨÓiÎ
entirely ѨÓiÎQå
entireness ã¨=∞ã¨Î~, ã¨~ѨÓO°‚`Œ
entirety ã¨=∞„Qõ`Œ, ã¨~ѨÓO°‚`Œ
entitle JkèHßO°q∞K«∞Û, ǨÏHí∞¯ HíÅ∞Qõ
KıÜ«µ∞, ǨÏHí∞¯ Híey L~_«∞
entomic H©@Hí ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#
entomologist H©@Hí ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#
entomologist H©@Hí âÍGÇı`ŒÎ
entomology H©@Hí âÍG~
entrails ¿ÑQõ∞Å∞
entrammel zHí∞¯Ö’¡ WiH˜~K«∞, „Ǩu
|~^è°~ Híey~K«∞
entrancement Ç‹∞·=∞O°∞ѨÙ
entrant „ǨÇıâ◊Hí∞_«∞ ֒ǨeH˜áÈÜ˵/ =KıÛ
=ºH˜Î
entrap zHí∞¯Ö’ ÃÑ@∞ì, É’#∞Ö’ÃÑ@∞ì
entreat Çı_«∞HÁ#∞, Ü«∂z~K«∞
entreaty Çı_«∞H’Å∞, ܡ∂K«, |uq∞ÖÏ@,
q#u
entrepot ZQõ∞=∞u ã¨O°∞Hí∞#∞~K«∞ y_«¤~y.
~ trade <ÒHß y_«¤~y ^°Qõæi HÁ#∞QÀà◊∞¡
J=∞‡HßÅ∞

185

environmentally friendly

ÇͺáåO° ã¨=∂O°~ÉèíHí∞_«∞,
áåi„âÍq∞HíÇı`ŒÎ, =º=™®÷ǨHí∞_«∞
entrepreneurial ÇͺáåO° ™®=∞O°÷º~
entrepreneuship =º=™®÷ǨHí`Œ
entropy Jܡ∂=∞Ü«µ ã≤÷u, [_À+¨‚`Œ
entrust JǨÊy~K«∞
entrustement JǨÊy~`Œ
entry PO’Ǩ}, „ǨÇıâ◊~, KıiHí, #Ç‹Ø^°∞,
„ǨÇıâÍO°›`Œ, ã¨=∂KÍO°~. ~ norms
„ǨÇıâ◊ x|~^è°#Å∞. ~ tax „ǨÇıâ◊
ã¨∞~Hí~
enucleation ã¨=∞¥Å~Qå fã≤ÇıÜ«µ_«~
enumerate Z~K«∞, ÖˇHí¯ÃÑ@∞ì† =∂O°∞Ê/
|^°ÖÏܵ~Ѩ٠Ǩ^°∞Ì
enumerative universals Qõ}<®`Œ‡Hí
™®O°fi„uHßÅ∞, ™®O°fi„uHí „Ç¨u*Ï˝ ÇÍHíº~
enumerator ǨiQõ}Hí∞_«∞
enunciate Ǩ^°úu„ǨHßO°~ K‹Ç¨C, ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå
LK«Ûi~K«∞, q=i~K«∞, „Ǩuáåk~K«∞,
„ǨHí>˜~K«∞
enuresis ǨHí¯Ö’ =∞¥„`Œ qã¨O°˚#
enviable J㨥ܫµ Híey~Kı, J¿ÑHí∆}©Ü«µ
Ç‹∞·#, Pt~K«^°y#
envious J㨥ܫµÇ¨_«∞
environment Ǩiã¨O° (ÇÍ`Í=O°}) ~,
ǨO®º=O°}~. ~ interests ǨO®º=O°}
„Ǩܡ∂[<®Å∞
environmental ǨO®º=O°} ã¨~|~kè. ~
balance ǨO®º=O°} ã¨~`Œ∞Å#~/ Ǩi
ã≤÷u/ ã¨=∞`“ź~. ~ pollutant Ǩiã¨O°
HßÅ∞+¨ºHßO°Hí~
environmentalism Ǩiã¨O° „áå^èß#º
ÇÍ^°~
environmentalist ǨO®º=O°}Çı`ŒÎ
environmentally friendly ǨO®º=O°}
¿ãflǨÏje
entrepreneur

environmental psychology

Ǩiã¨O°
ã¨~|~kè =∞#ã¨Î`Ífi^谺ܫµ#~
envisage TÇ≤Ï~K«∞, ǨiH˜~K«∞, Z^°∞
O˘¯#∞
envoy O®Ü«µÉÏi, ^°¥`Œ, „Ǩuxkè
enwind ÃÑ#ÇıÜ«µ∞
enzyme H˜}fi~
eolith O®uǨx=∞∞@∞ì
eon =∞ǨÜ«µ∞Qõ~, ã¨∞nO°…HßÅ~
epee (ÃѶxû~Q∑Ö’) HíuÎ
ephemeral JâÍâ◊fi`Œ, JÖÏÊÜ«µ∞+¨¯Ç‹∞·#,
Hí∆}Éèí~Qõ∞O°
epic WuǨã¨~, ѨÙO®}~
epicedium â◊‡âÍ#w`Œ~, qÖÏǨw`Œ~
epicene LÉèíÜ«µe~y. ~ plural LÉèíÜ«µ
e~Qõ/ |Ǩï=K«#~
epicentre Éèí¥Hí~Ǩ# Hı~„^°~. ~ of
earth quake Éèí¥Hí~Ǩ Hı~„^°~
epics ѨÙO®}ıuǨ™®Å∞
epicure Éè’[#„Ç≤Ü«µ∞_«∞, Éè’QõǨO®Ü«µ
}∞_«∞
epidemic J~@∞Çͺkè. ~ disease
™®~„Hßq∞Hí/ ÇͺǨHí*Ï_«º~
epidemiological ™®~„Híq∞Hí Çͺ^è°∞Å
J^谺ܫµ<®xH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#
epidemiology ™®~„Híq∞Hí O’Qõ q*Ï˝#~
epidemologist ™®~„Hßq∞Hí Çͺkè âÍG
A˝_«∞
epidermis ÉÏǨϺK«O°‡~† K«O°‡~ ÃÑ·á⁄O°
epigenesis HÁ`ŒÎ „H˜q∞ ѨÙ@ì_«~
epiglottis LǨlǨÏfi, Hí~^°=∞¥Å~
epigon(e) J#∞HíO°Î
epigram 㨥H˜Î, K«`Œ∞O’H˜Î, ã¨~H˜∆ǨÎO°K«#
epigraph tÖÏâÍã¨#~
epigraphist ѨÙO®ÖËY# q*Ï˝x
epigraphy âÍã¨<®^谺ܫµ#~, „áåp# eÇ≤
âÍG~
environmental psychology

186

epixylous

epilate O’=∂Å#∞ `˘Åy~K«∞
epilation O’=∞KıÛù^°#, Ç‹~„@∞HíÅ

`˘Å

epoch Ü«µ∞Qõ~, â◊Hí~, HßÅ~
eponym =ºHí∞ÎÅ #∞~z „Ǩ^ÕâÍÅHí∞

=∂i# ¿ÑO°∞

y~ѨÙ
epilepsy

187

epoch

=∞¥O°Ûù, ã¨Ê $ǨÏ`ŒÇ¨Ê_«~, JǨ

™®‡O°~
epileptic fit =∞¥O°Ûù
epilogue LǨã¨~ǨO°~,

z=i=∂@,

ÉèíO°`ŒÇÍHíº~
epipetalous ѨÙ=ÙfiÅ OÕHí∞ÅÃÑ· ѨÙ>˜ì#
epiphenomenalism J#∞Ѷ¨∞@#ÇÍ^°~
epipholoedal K‹@∞ì ɡO°_«∞ LǨi`ŒÅ~ÃÑ·

ÃÑiQÕ
epiphora HíhflO°∞ ZHí∞¯=Qå HßO°_«~
epiphyllous PHí∞ÅÃÑ· ÃÑiQÕ
epiphysis Z=∞∞Hí HÁ#ÉèßQõ~
epiphytic =$H∆’Ǩrq
episepalous O°Hí∆Hí Ǩ„`Œ~ÃÑ· L~_Ë
episode LáåMϺ#~, ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@#, LǨHí^ä°,

L^°~`Œ~, ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@# J~`ŒO®æ^ä°
episodic way Hí^ä°# su
epistaxis =∞∞Hí∞¯#∞~z O°HíÎ~ HßO°_«~
epistemological dualism *Ï˝<®`͇Hí
^≥· fi`ŒÇÍ^°~
epistemology *Ï˝#g∞=∂~ã¨
epistle L`ŒÎO°~, ÖËMÏO°¥Ç¨ O°K«#, ^è°O°‡
Ǩ„`Œ~
epistolary ÖËYÅ ^®fiO® K‹Ç≤Ê# Hí^ä°
episiotomy ÉèíQõKıÛù^°#
epitaph z=i=∂@, ã¨=∂kè g∞k O®`Œ
epithelium LǨ`ŒÅ~
epithet qâı+¨}~, aO°∞^°∞, Qõ∞}ÇÍK«Hí~
epitome áåO° (ã¨~„QõǨÏ~), ™®O®~â◊~,
ã¨~Hı∆Ǩ~
epitomization ã¨~„QõÇ‘ÏHíO°}~, ™®O®~â◊
Hí^ä°#~
epixylous K‹Hí¯ÅÃÑ· L~_Ë

eponymous XHí =ºH˜Î Qõ∞O°∞ÎQå ¿ÑO°∞ÃÑ>˜ì
equal n@∞, ã¨=∂#, ã¨i. ~ opportunity ã¨=∂<®=Hßâ◊~. ~ pay ã¨=∂#
Çı`#Œ ~. ~ protection of laws ã¨=∂#

Ç‹∞·# O°Hí∆} HíeÊ~Kı K«>ÏìÅ∞
equalise ã¨=∂#~ KıÜ«µ∞
equalising ã¨=∂#~ KıÜ«µ_«~
equalitarianism ã¨O°fi=∂#=

ã¨=∂

#`Œfi~
equality ã¨=∂#`Œfi~, ã¨=∂#`Œ. ~ before law K«@ì~ ^°$+≤ìÖ’ ã¨=∂#`Œ
equanimity ã¨=∞^°$+≤ì,
ã¨=∞|∞kÌ,

âÍ~`Œ~, ã¨=∞Éèß=~, âÍ~u
equatarianism ã¨=∞`ÍÇÍ^°~
equate ã¨=∂#=∞x Éèßq~K«∞, ã¨=∂#~
KıÜ«µ∞, ã¨=∞^°$+≤ì`À K«¥K«∞, ã¨=∞ǨO°K«∞,
ã¨=∞~KıÜ«µ∞
equation ã¨g∞HíO°}~, ã¨=∂#`Œ
equator Éèí¥=∞^è°ºOÕY
equatorial Éèí¥=∞^è°ºOÕYHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~
z#. ~ region Éèí¥=∞^è°º OÕMÏ
„áå~`Œ~. ~ zone Éèí¥=∞^è°º OÕMÏ
=∞~_«Å~
equilateral ã¨=∞ÉÏǨï
equilibrium ã¨=∞`“źã≤÷u, ã¨=∂# ã≤÷u,
ã¨=∞`“ź~, ã¨=∞ã≤÷u, ã¨=∞`Œ∞Å#~,
ã¨=∞`Œ¥Hí~. ~ approach ã¨=∞`Í
Ǩ^°úu
equine Jâ◊fi ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#
equinox q+¨∞=`Œ∞Î
(O®„u~|Qõà◊∞§
ã¨=∞~Qå L~_Ë O’A)
equinoxes q+¨∞=`Œ∞ÎÅ∞: ǨQõÅ∞, O®„u
ã¨=∂# Ǩi=∂}~Ö’ L~_Ë k<®Å∞.
=∂iÛ 21, ÃãÃÑì~|O°∞ 22

equip ã¨=∞Hí∂O°∞ÛHÁ#∞
equipage ã¨O°~*Ï=∂
equipartition ã¨=∞qÉèí[#~
equipment ǨiHíO°~, ™®^è°#

erosion

™®=∞„y,

ã¨O°~*Ï=∂
^è°O°‡Ç‹∞·#, ã¨=∞^è°O°‡, <®ºÜ«µ
|^°ú. ~ allocation <®ºÜ«µ|^°ú Hı>Ï
ܵ~ѨÙ
equitably ^è°O°‡ (|^°ú) ~Qå
equity ã¨=∂#`Œfi~, ã¨=∞^è°O°‡~. ~ capital ã¨=∂# =∞¥Å^è°#~. ~ dividend
ã¨=∂# ÖÏÉèß~â◊~. ~ jurisprudence
ã¨=∞^è°O°‡ <®ºÜ«µâÍG~
equivalence ã¨=∞`Œ∞ź`Œ, ã¨=∂#`Œ
equivalent ã¨iã¨=∂#~, ã¨=∂#Ç‹∞·#,
Jã¨Ê+¨ì~, ã¨~kQõú~, `Œ∞źNj∞·#. ~ rank
ã¨=∂#Ǩϟ^®. ~ temperature `Œ∞Ö’º
ëÈ‚„Qõ`Œ. ~ weight `Œ∞źÉèßO°~
equivocation ã¨~kQõú`Œ
eradicate `Œ∞_çzÃÑ@∞ì, xO°¥‡e~K«∞,
<®â◊#~KıÜ«µ∞
eradication xO°¥‡Å#~
erase `Œ∞_çzÇıÜ«µ∞, fã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞
erasure K‹iÇ≤Çı`Œ, O°^°∞Ì
erect xÅɡ@∞ì, ™®÷Ç≤~K«∞, <ˇÅHÁÅ∞Ê,
u#flQå xÅ∞=Ù, xi‡~K«∞
erection L`Í÷#~, ™®÷Ǩ#, xO®‡}~, <ˇÅ
HÁÅÊ_«~
eremphobia UHß~`ŒÉèíÜ«µ~
erg Z_ÍiÖ’x Wã¨∞Hí Ö’Ü«µ
ergonomics ã¨=∞O°÷`Í J^谺ܫµ#~
ergophobia Ǩx J~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
eristic ÇÍ^°Híà◊
erode H’Ü«µ∞, H’ã¨∞HíáÈ=Ù
erosion („Hí=∞) Hí∆Ü«µ~, H’`Œ, JO°∞Qõ∞^°Å,
XO°Ç≤_ç. soil ~ Éèí¥q∞ H’`Œ
equitable

188

erotic
erotic HßÇ‹Ø`ËÎ[Hí,
erotica „Ǩ}Ü«µ/

HßÇ‹ØnÌǨHí
â◊$~QåO°/ ã¨~|~kè

™®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
erotomania

=∞^°Ç≤zÛ† qǨs`Œ Hß=∞

ÇÍ~Kè«
err á⁄O°áå@∞/ `ŒÇ¨CKıÜ«µ∞
errant =„Hí=∂O°æ~, ™®Ç¨Ïã¨Ü«∂„`Œ
errata `Œá⁄ÊǨCŠǨ>˜ìHí
erratic xÜ«µ=∞O°Ç≤Ï`Œ, JxÜ«µ`Œ, J=º=

ã≤÷`Œ, JǨã¨=º
erring `ŒÇ¨CKıÜ«µ_«~
erroneous á⁄O°áå>ˇ·#, `ŒÇ¨C_«∞. ~
statement `ŒÇ¨C_«∞ „ǨHí@#
error `ŒÇ¨C, á⁄O°áå@∞, ^À+¨~. absolute ~ xO°¿ÑHí∆ ^À+¨~. ~ prone

`ŒÇ¨CKı¿ã
erstwhile
erudition

XHíǨÊ>˜, áå`Œ, Wk=O°Hí>˜
Pi˚`Œ, áå~_ç`Œº~, ã¨~z`Œ

*Ï˝#~
erupt ¿ÑÅ∞, ǨQõ∞Å∞, [O°∞Qõ∞, |^°ÌÅQõ∞,
q™ÈÊù@#~ K‹~^°∞, Ç≤Ï~™®`Œ‡Hí~Qå
=∂O°∞, qO°∞K«∞Hí∞Ǩ_«∞
eruption q™ÈÊù@#~, ǨQõÅ@~. drug
~ =∞~^°∞=Å¡ =KıÛ ^°^°∞ÌO°∞¡
erythema K«O°‡~ Z„O°|_«_«~/ Hí~^°_«~
erythrocyte Z„O° O°HíÎHí}~
escalation „Hí=∞~Qå ÃÑO°Qõ_«~
escapade ǨÖÏÜ«µ#~, q=∞∞H˜Î
escape `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞HÁ#∞, áåiáÈ=Ù, ǨÖÏ
Ü«µ#~ z`ŒÎy~K«∞
escape velocity ǨÖÏÜ«µ# ÇıQõ~
escaping electron ǨÖÏÜ«µHí q^°∞º
`Œ¯}~
eschatology =∞O°}®#~`ŒO° r=K«i„`Œ
escheat (ÇÍO°ã¨∞Å∞ ÖËHíáÈ=_«~ =Å¡)
„ǨÉèí∞`ÍfixH˜ Pã≤Î

etch

K«@ì|^°úÇ‹∞·# Ü«µ[=∂x ÖËx
ã≤÷O®ã¨∞ÎÅ∞
eschew ǨiǨÏi~K«∞, `˘ÅyáÈ=Ù, ^°¥O°
=∞Qõ∞
escort O°Hí∆Hí^°à◊~, ÇÍǨÏ#„âı}˜, Ç‹~@
áÈ=Ù, Ç‹~|_ç~K«∞
escrow „Ǩu|~^è° Ç¨ÏHí∞¯Ç¨„`Œ~/ ^°™®ÎÇıA
esophagitis J#flÇÍÇ≤ÏHí <˘Ç≤Ê
esophagus J#fl/ PǨO° ÇÍÇ≤ÏHí
espionage Qõ¥_è°K«O°º~, ÇıQõ∞Ǩ^°úu
esplanade #_çKı=∂O°æ~
espouse ã¨Ç¨ÏK«iQå/ ã¨Ç¨ÏK«O°∞xQå ã‘fiHí
i~K«∞, ÃÑ~_Í¡_«∞
esprit de corps Qõ∞~ѨÙÖ’x =ºHí∞ÎÅ
=∞^è°º L~_Ë ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`Œ`Œfi~/ UHí`ÍÉèß=~
essay Çͺã¨~, ™®^è°#, „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~
essayist Çͺã¨HíO°Î
essence =∞∞MϺ~â◊~, ™®O®~â◊~
establish ™®÷Ç≤~K«∞, xO°¥Ç≤~K«∞
estate Pã≤Î, ã¨~Ǩ^°, Éèí¥ã¨~ǨuÎ. ~ duty
ã¨~Ǩ^° Ǩ#∞fl
esteem Q“O°=~, „Ǩu+¨ª
estimate J~K«<®ÇıÜ«µ∞,
`δKǰ,
=∞k~K«∞† J~K«<®
estoppel J_«∞¤, „Ǩu|~^è°Hí~, ã¨fiK«Ûù~
^°~Qå UO°ÊO°K«∞HÁ<Ë x¿+^è°~, ÇÍ^°
x¿+^è°~
estrange ÇıO°∞KıÜ«µ∞, q_«nÜ«µ∞, q=∞∞
Y`Œ/ qO’^è°~ Híey~K«∞
estray `ŒÇ≤ÊáÈܵ# Ǩâ◊∞=Ù
estuaries #n=∞∞MÏÅ∞
estuarine creeks LǨCh>˜ HíÜ«µºÅ∞
estuary #n=∞∞Y^®fiO°~, LǨCHíÜ«µº
et al W~Hß, W`ŒO°∞Å∞, „ǨÉèí$`Œ∞Å∞, W`Œ
O®Å∞ Ç‹∞∞^°Öˇ·#q
etch K‹Hí∞¯ (#=∞¥<®) `ŒÜ«∂sKıÜ«µ∞
escheats

189

etched
etched K‹H˜¯#, JK˘ÛuÎ#
eternal J#â◊fiO°, J#~`Œ.

flame

JY~_«*’ºu
x`Œº`Œfi~, âÍâ◊fi`Œ`Œfi~
KÍÖÏ `ËeH≥·#, ã¨∞Hí∞=∂O°Ç‹∞·#,
^Õ=`Í/ YQÀà◊ ã¨~|~kè
ethical <ˇ·uHí, huã¨~|~^è°=∞ܵ#. ~
values <ˇ·uHí qÅ∞=Å∞
ethics huâÍG~
ethnic xiÌ+¨ì*ÏuH˜/ Éèß+¨Hí∞ ã¨~|~kè~
z#. ~ conflict *Ï`Œ∞Å qÇÍ^°~. ~
group *Ïu ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~. ~ problem
*Ïu ã¨=∞㨺
ethnicity ã¨fi*ÏfÜ«µ`Œ, ã¨fiHí∞b#`Œ
ethnocentrism ã¨fi*Ïu
ã¨~㨯 $u
ÇͺNjØǨÏ~
ethnography =∂#=*Ïu âÍG~
ethnological =∂#=*Ïu
âÍ„™®ÎxH˜
K‹~k#
ethnology =∂#=*Ïu âÍG~
ethnomusicology aè#fl*Ï`Œ∞Å ã¨~w`Í
^谺ܫµ#~
ethogram [~`Œ∞ „Ǩ=O°Î# qâı¡+¨}
ethology [~`Œ∞ Ǩi}®=∂^谺ܫµ#~
ethos jÅ~: Hí∞Å~, =O°æ~, *Ïu, Ǩ^°úu,
ÅHí∆}®Å∞
etiology O’QÀ`ŒÊuÎ âÍG~
etiquette të®ìKÍO°~† =∞O®º^°, iÇÍA
etude J#∞jÅ#~, J^谺ܫµ#~
etymology =Ùº`ŒÊuÎ (âÍG~)
eucalyptus hÅyi`ˇ·Å =$Hí∆~
eugenics ã¨∞[## ã¨~`Œu q*Ï˝#~,
#O°=~â◊ â◊∞kú âÍG~. negative ~
QõO°ƒùã¨÷ tâ◊∞=٠֒ǨxÇÍO°}. positive
~ QõO°ƒùã¨÷ tâ◊∞ ÇÍ~Kè«hÜ«µ`Í xO°‚Ü«µ~
eukaryote Hı~„^°Hí Ü«µ∞`Œ rq
eternity
ethereal

„Ǩâ◊~ã¨Å`À
=∞∞~K‹`Œ∞Î,
ã¨∞Îu~K«∞, á⁄Qõ_«∞
eulogy ã¨∞Îu, „Ǩâ◊~ã¨, „Ǩâ◊ã≤Î, á⁄Qõ_«Î
eumelanic H©∆O°^®Å A@∞ìO°~Qõ∞
eunomy ã¨∞ǨiáåÅ#
eunuch HÁ*Ï˚, #ѨÙ~ã¨Hí∞_«∞
eunuchism #ѨÙ~ã¨Hí`Œfi~
euphemism ã¨Éè’ºH˜Î, =∞$^°¥H˜Î, tëÈìH˜Î
euphony „âÍ=º`Œ
euphoria LÖÏ¡ã¨ã≤÷u
euro Ü«µ¥O’Ç≤Ü«µ<ü Ü«µ¥xÜ«µ<ü ÇÍi
<®}ˇ~† SO’áåHí∞/ SO’áå ã¨=∂*ÏxH˜
ã¨~|~kè~z#
europa Qõ∞O°∞„QõǨÏ~
euroxic ZHí∞¯= „áå}ÇÍÜ«µ∞_«∞ Éèíi~K«
QõÅ
euryhaline ZHí∞¯= Å=} âÍ`Íxfl
Éèíi~K«QõÅ
euryphagic |Ǩïq^èßǨO®Å∞ ÇÍ_Ë
eurythermal LëÈ‚„Qõ`ŒÖ’
=∂O°∞Ê
Éèíi~K«_«~
euteetic ã¨∞ÅÉèí „^°gHíO°}~
euthanasia ÉÏ^èßxÇÍO°}
H’ã¨~
K«~Ǩ_«~
eutrophia ™®^èßO°} áœ+≤ìHßǨO°~
euyecious KÍÖÏ xÇÍ™®Å∞ QõÅ
evacuant OÕK«Hí~
evacuate MÏmKıÜ«µ∞/ Kıܵ~K«∞, O°H˜∆`Œ
™®÷<®ÅHí∞ `ŒO°e~K«∞
evacuation XHí „áå~`Œ~ #∞~_ç „Ç¨[Å
`ŒO°e~ѨÙ, â◊¥hºHíO°}~, Qåe ÖËHí∞~_Í
KıÜ«µ_«~
evacue xO®fiã≤`Œ∞_«∞. ~ property xO®fi
ã≤`Íã≤Î
evade `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞HÁ#∞,
@ÖÏܵ~K«∞,
ZQõÇıÜ«µ∞
eulogise

~

evade

evanescent
evanescent JâÍâ◊fi`ŒÇ‹∞·#, Hí∆}˜Hí
evangel ã¨∞ÇÍO®Î „Qõ~^ä°~
evaporate PqiK‹~^°∞, Ǩiâ’+≤~K«∞
evaporation ÉÏ+‘ÊÉèí=#~,
WQõ∞O°

ɡ@ì_«~, PqO°=_«~, Ǩiâ’+¨}~
evaporator Ǩiâ’+¨Hí~
evasion ZQõÇı`Œ† `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞H’=@~
evasively ã¨~kQõú~Qå, `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞HÁ~@¥
evenhanded LÉèíÜ«µÇ¨H∆ßÅHí∞ <®ºÜ«µ~
KıÜ«µ_«~† ã¨=∞`Œ∞ź
event ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@#, L^°~`Œ~
event history analysis ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@<®`Œ‡Hí
K«i„`Œ qâı¡+¨}
eventually „Hí=∞~Qå, z=iH˜, PYO°∞#
ever ZšǨC_«∞
evergreen ã¨`Œ`ŒÇ¨Ïi`Œ
everlasting âÍâ◊fi`Œ, x`Œº, J#~`Œ, zO°~
rqܡµ·#
ever since JǨÊ>˜#∞~z
evict (K«@ìã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~`À) Ç‹à◊§Q˘@∞ì/ `˘Å
y~K«∞, Éı^°YÅ∞ KıÜ«µ∞
eviction Ç‹à◊§Q˘@ì_«~, `˘Åy~K«_«~. ~
proceedings `˘Åy~Ѩ٠K«O°ºÅ∞
evidence ™®Hí∆ º~
evident ã¨Ê+¨ì, =ºHíÎ
evidentiary status „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆™®÷ܵ
evidently „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆~Qå, xã¨û~^ÕǨÏ~Qå
evil K‹_«¤, ^°∞+¨ì. ~ doer JǨHßi. ~
intent ^°∞O°∞^ÕÌâ◊~. necessary ~ qHí$
uÖ’ J=ã¨O°~. ~ propensity ^°∞+¨ì
„Ǩ=$uÎ
evince 㨥z~K«∞, ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå HíxÇ≤~Ǩ
KıÜ«µ∞, =ºH©ÎHíi~K«∞
evirate áœO°∞+¨Ç‘Ï#∞}˜‚ KıÜ«µ∞, =∞Qõ`Œ#~
áÈQ˘@∞ì
evisceration â◊sO°Hí∞ǨÏO°~Ö’x J=Ü«µ
=KıÛù^°#~

190

exanimate

evocation Ç≤Å∞ѨÙ, ǨsH∆ßkèHßO°~
evodeviant Jã¨Ç¨Ï[ rq
evoke OÕH≥`Œ∞Î, Ç≤Å∞K«∞, qÇÍ^®xfl

ÃÑ·
<®ºÜ«µ™®÷<®xH˜ fã¨∞HÁx =K«∞Û, P=∞~
„`Œ}~KıÜ«µ∞
evolution „Hí=∞qHßã¨~, „Hí=∞~Ö’ ã¨~Éèí
q~Kı =∂O°∞Ê/ Ǩi}®=∞~
evolutionary Ǩi}®=∂`Œ‡Hí. ~ theory
r=Ǩi}®=∞ÇÍ^°~
evolve O°¥á⁄~k~K«∞
evolved
constitution
Ǩi}q∞`Œ
O®*Ϻ~Qõ~
ex =∂r
exacerbate ÃÑiyáÈÜ˵@@∞¡KıÜ«µ∞
exacerbation (Çͺkè) „ǨH’Ǩ~, [|∞ƒ
=∞∞^°O°@~
exact |Å=~`Œ~Qå Kıܵ~K«∞, ã¨i
Jܵ#, YzÛ`ŒÇ‹∞·#. ~ science qã¨Ê+¨ì
âÍG~
exaction |ÖÏ`ͯO°~Qå
Kıܵ~K«∞
H’=_«~, |Å=~`ŒÑ¨Ù =㨥Å∞
exactitude xiÌ+¨ì`Œ
exactly YzÛ`Œ~Qå
exaggerate ZHí∞¯=Kıã≤ K‹Ç¨C
exalt á⁄Qõ_«∞, ÃÑ^°ÌkKıÜ«µ∞, L#fl`Œ
™®÷#~Ö’ L~K«∞
exaltation L#fl`Œã≤÷u, Q˘Ç¨Ê^°#~
examination ǨsHí∆. ~ in chief <®ºÜ«µ
ÇÍk `Œ# „Ǩtfl~z ™®Hí∆ º~ K‹ÇÊ≤ ~K«@~.
~ medico legal <®ºÜ«µ ~ Ç‹·^°ºÇ¨sHí∆.
~ sputum Lq∞‡Ç¨sHí∆, HíѶ¨ ǨsHí∆. ~
stool =∞ÅǨsHí∆
examine ǨsH˜∆~K«∞, qKÍi~K«∞
examinership ǨsHí∆Hí Ǩ^°q
example L^®Ç¨ÏO°}, `ÍO®¯}~
exanimate =∞$`Œ, xs˚=, „áå}O°Ç≤Ï`Œ

191

exanthema
exanthema
exasperate

™ÈÊù@Hí [fiO°~
O≥K«ÛQ˘@∞ì, qã≤y~K«∞,

Çıkè~K«∞
excathedra JkèHßO° ѨÓO°fiHí~Qå
excavate `ŒqfifÜ«µ∞, Ç‹eH˜fÜ«µ∞
excavation `Œ=fiHí~, L`Íö`Œ#~
excavators „áåp# tkäÖÏÅ H’ã¨~

`Œ=fi
HßÅ∞ [i¿ÑÇÍO°∞, L`Íö`ŒHí∞Å∞
excel JkèQõq∞~K«∞,
=∞∞~^°∞Hí∞áÈ=Ù,
q∞~K«∞
excellence „âı+¨ª`Œ, L`Œ¯ $+¨ì`Œ, ã¨=∞O°÷`Œ,
„áåâ◊ã¨Îº~, L`ŒÎ=∞`Œ, â͡Ѷ¨∞º`Œ
excellent L`ŒÎ=∞, „âı+¨ª, k=º
excellently Éèı+¨∞Qåæ
except q∞#Ǩ, `ŒÇ¨Ê, JǨÇÍ^°~Qå
excepted q∞#Ǩܵ~z#, =i˚~z#
exception JǨÇÍ^°~, q∞#Ǩܵ~ѨÙ,
J™®=∂#º~
exceptional J™®=∂#ºÇ‹∞·#, „Ǩ`˺Hí`Œ
QõÅ, q∞#Ǩܵ~z#
exceptionally J™®=∂#º~Qå
excerpt ã¨~„QõǨÏ~, ™®O®~â◊~, L^°úO°}
excess q∞ug∞i#, Ju, q∞~z#,
ZHí∞¯=, JkèHí(Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~). ~ capacity
JkèHí ™®=∞O°÷º~. ~ demand JkèHí
_ç=∂~_«∞. ~ supply JkèHí ã¨O°Ñ¶¨O®
exchange =∂O°Hí~, =∂iÊ_ç, qx
=∞Ü«µ~† K«^O° ~° Qõ~Ö’ ǨO㰠ʨ O°~ áå=ÙÅ
|e. ~ control =∂O°HíѨ٠xÜ«µ~„`Œ}.
~ of contracts =∂iÊ_ç Kıã¨∞Hí∞<Ë
XǨÊ~^° Ǩ„`ÍÅ∞. ~ of fire Z^°∞O°∞
HßÅ∞ÊÅ∞. ~ rate =∂O°HíѨ٠OÕ@∞. ~
rate mechanism =∂O°Hí~ OÕ@∞
q^èß#~
exchangeability
qx=∞Ü«µÜˇ∂Qõº`Œ,
=∂iÊ_çH˜ gÅ∞Qå L~_«@~

excruciate

exchangeable =∂iÊ_ç KıÜ«µ^°y#
exchequer Y*Ï<®, H’âÍQåO°~
excipient PHı∆Ǩ} `ˇÅ∞ѨÙ, JÉèíº~`ŒO°~

`ˇÅ∞ѨÙ
=ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ `ŒÜ«∂sÃÑ· Çı¿ã Ǩ#∞fl†
â◊GzH˜`Œû. ~ duty L`ÍÊ^°# ã¨∞~Hí~,
PÉϯs ã¨∞~Hí~. ~ sleuth PÉϯs
Qõ¥_è°KÍi
excission qKıÛù^°#~
excitation L`ËÎ[#, „¿ÑO°}, J^°#ѨÙâ◊H˜Îx
KıO°Û_«~. ~ energy L`ËÎ[# â◊H˜Î
excite L^ÕfiQõǨ_«∞, L`ËÎ[ǨO°∞K«∞
excited L`ËÎl`Œ. ~ state „¿Ñi`Œ/ L`ËÎ
l`Œ ã≤÷u
excitement PÇıQõ~, L^ÕfiQõ~
excitent L`ËÎ[Hí~
exciting L`ËÎ[Hí, L„^ÕHí~ Híey~Kı,
L`ÍûǨÏHíO°Ç‹∞·#
exclude `˘Åy~K«∞, `Àã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞, ǨiǨÏ
i~K«∞, q∞#Ǩܵ~K«∞, q_çzÃÑ@∞ì
exclusion `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«_«~, =keÃÑ@ì_«~. ~
principle =O°˚# xÜ«µ=∞~
exclusive „Ǩ`˺HíÇ‹∞·#, Ǩiq∞`ŒÇ‹∞·#,
qt+¨ìÇ‹∞·#. ~ distributor XHı XHí
Ǩ~Ç≤}©^®O°∞_«∞. ~ economic zone
„Ǩ`ËHßi÷Hí =∞~_«Å~. ~ powers „Ǩ`˺
HßkèHßO®Å∞
exclusively „Ǩ`˺Hí~Qå
excommunicate Ç‹eÇıÜ«µ∞, |Ç≤Ï+¨¯
i~K«∞
excrement qã¨O°˚#, =∞Å~, ÃÑ~@, O≥@ì
excrescence JÇÍ~Kè«hÜ«µ =$kú
excreta qã¨O°˚Hí Ǩ^®O®÷Å∞
excrete qã¨i˚~K«∞, qã¨O°˚#
excretion qã¨O°˚#
excruciate ÉÏ^è°/ =º^è° Híey~K«∞/
ѨÙ>˜ì~K«∞
excise

excuria
excuria H’O°∞ì Ç‹Å∞ǨÅ
excursion q<À^°/ q*Ï˝# ǨO°º@#
excursus JÇÍ~`ŒO° „Ǩã¨~Qõ~
excusable Hí∆q∞~K«^°y#, Hí∆=∂O°›Ç‹∞·#
excuse Hí∆=∂Ǩ}H’O°∞† q∞+¨, ™®Hí∞, <ˇÇ¨~
exdividend ÖÏÉèí~Ö’ ÇÍ>ÏÖËx
execute J=∞Å∞ [O°∞Ѩن =∞O°}^°~_«#

J=∞Å∞ [O°∞ѨÙ
execution J=∞Å∞, Li, =∞O°}tHí∆†
(HßO°º) xO°fiǨÏ}, J=∞Å∞ [O°Ç¨_«~
execution petition J=∞Å∞ [O°Ç¨=Å
ã≤~kQå H’OÕ Js˚
executive J=∞Å∞Kı¿ã, xO°fiÇ≤Ï~Kı† xO°fi
ǨÏ}®kèHßi, HßO°ºxO®fiǨÏHí=O°æ~. ~
committee HßO°º=O°æ~. ~ director
É’O∑¤ PѶπ _≥·O≥HíìO°¡Ö’ XHíO≥·# ѨÓiÎHßÅѨÙ
L^Àºy. ~ order JkèHßiHí L`ŒÎO°∞=Ù.
~ powers HßO°ºxO°fiǨÏ}®kèHßO®Å∞. ~
privilege „Ǩ`˺Hí HßO°ºxO®fiǨÏHí}®kè
HßO°~
executor HßO°ºxO°fiǨÏ}®kèHßi, J=∞Å∞
^®O°∞
exegesis Éèß+¨º~, ÇͺYº
exegete ÇͺMϺ`Œ, Éèß+¨ºHßi
exemplary P^°O°≈„áåÜ«µÇ‹∞·#, J#∞HíO°}
ܡ∂QõºÇ‹∞·#
exemplary P^°O°≈, =∂O°æ^°O°≈Hí, J#∞
HíO°} ܡ∂QõºÇ‹∞·#. ~ damage #+¨ìǨi
ǨO° ^è°<®xH˜ q∞~z# #+¨ì~
exemplon P^°O°≈/ J#∞ã¨i~K«^°y# =ºH˜Î
exempt q∞#Ǩܵ~K«∞. ~ gifts Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~
=_ô¤x K‹e¡~Kı „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi ÃãHí∂ºi>©Å∞. ~
gilts P^®Ü«µ Ǩ#∞fl #∞~z q∞#Ǩ
ܵ~Ѩ٠WzÛ =_ô¤ Ç‹∞∞`ÍÎxfl K‹e¡~Kı
„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi ÃãHí∂ºi>©Å∞
exempted q∞#Ǩܵ~z#

192
exemption

exhume

exile

q∞#Ǩܵ~ѨÙ, q∞#Ǩܵ~

exile

K«_«~
exercise
qxܡ∂Qõ
Çͺܫ∂=∞~.
breathing ~ âÍfiã¨Hí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
Çͺܫ∂=∞~. post partum ~ „Ǩ㨥u

Çͺܫ∂=∞~
exert LǨܡ∂y~K«∞, „â◊q∞~K«∞, qx
ܡ∂y~K«∞, „Ǩܫµufl~K«∞
exertion „â◊=∞, Ǩx
exfiltration hO°∞ |Ü«µ@Hí∞ HßO°_«~
exfoliation Hí}®Å∞ O®eáÈ=_«~
ex gratia ǨiǨO°~
exhalation TÇ≤iq_«=_«~, xâÍfiã¨~
exhale TÇ≤iq_«∞K«∞, qâ◊fiã≤~K«∞
exhaust JܵáÈ=Ù, JÅã≤áÈ=Ù, =>˜á
ì È=Ù
KıÜ«µ∞, MÏm JܵáÈ=Ù
exhaustion JÅã≤áÈ=_«~, x„™®Î}, MÏm
JܵáÈ=_«~. ~ of ore ^èß`Œ∞ x뮯
ã¨#~
exhibit K«¥ÃÑ@∞ì† H’O°∞ìÖ’ ™®Hí∆ º~Qå
^®YÅ∞ Kıã≤# Ǩ„`Œ~, W`ŒO° =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞
exhibition (=ã¨∞Î) „Ǩ^°O°≈#
exhibitionism „Ǩ^°O°≈<®`Œ‡Hí „Ç¨=O°Î#,
P_«~|O° ã¨fiÉèß=~
exhibitionist ^ÕÇ¨Ï „Ǩ^°O°≈# Kı¿ã =ºH˜Î,
^®~aèHí∞_«∞
exhibitor „Ǩ^°O°≈Hí∞_«∞
exhilarant LÖÏ¡ã¨HßO°}~
exhort L^Àƒkè~K«∞, „¿ÑOÕÇ≤~K«∞, „áÈ`Œû
Ç≤Ï~K«∞, É’kè~K«∞
exhortation
L^Àƒ^è°,
„¿ÑOÕǨ},
„áÈ`ÍûǨÏ~
exhumation áåu# â◊ÇÍxfl ÃÑ·H˜
fÜ«µ_«~, ÃÑ· O®à◊§#∞ `˘Åy~K«_«~
exhume `Œqfi|Ü«µ@Hí∞ fÜ«µ∞, ѨÓ_çÛ#
â◊ÇÍxfl Ç‹eH˜fÜ«µ_«~

xO®fiã≤`Œ∞_«∞, x뮯ã≤`Œ∞_«∞, ^Õâ◊
|Ç≤Ï뮯O°~ KıÜ«µ∞
exilement ^Õâ◊|Ç≤Ï+¨¯O°}
exima HíO®Ê}˜, XHí K«O°‡ Çͺkè
exim bank J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ ÇÍ}˜*Ϻ=ã¨
O®Å∞ fOÕÛ ÉÏ~Hí∞
exim policy (export import policy)

ZQõ∞=∞u kQõ∞=∞`Œ∞Å q^èß#~
exist |`Œ∞Hí∞ (rq~z) L~_«∞
existence LxH˜, ã≤Îu, Jã≤Î`Œfi~, rq`Œ
HßÅ~
existentialism Jã≤Î`ŒfiÇÍ^°~
existential sociology Jã≤`
Î fiŒ ÇÍk ™®=∂
lHí âÍG~
exit xO°æ=∞#~, Ç‹à˧^®i
exit polls „Ǩ*Ïaè„áåÜ«µ ¿ãHíO°}
exobiology „QõǨ~`ŒO° r=âÍG~
exocrine |Ç≤Ï„™®ûq
exodus ÃÑ^°Ì ã¨~YºÖ’ „Ǩ[Å =Åã¨,
=∞ǨxO°æ=∞#~, =∞Ǩ „ǨÇÍǨÏ~
ex-officio L^ÀºQõHßO°}~`À Ǩ^°gs`ͺ.
~ member JkèHßO° Ǩ^°qs`ͺ
ã¨Éèíº`Œfi~† Ǩ^°q ^®fiO® ã¨Éèí∞º_«∞
exogamy |Ç≤ÏifiÇÍǨÏ~
exogenous |Ç≤ÏO®˚`Œ
exonerate <ËO®O’Ǩ} #∞~z q=∞∞H˜Î
KıÜ«µ∞, xO’Ì+≤Qå xO°‚ܵ~K«∞/ „ǨHí
>˜~K«∞, JǨÇÍ^°∞ fã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞, ѨÓp
`ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞
exorbitant J`ŒºkèHí. ~ price J`ŒºkèHí
^è°O°
exorcism ^°Ü«∂ºÅ#∞ =^°ÅQ˘@ì_«~,
LKÍÛ@#
exosphere ÇÍ`Í=O°}~ z=i á⁄O°
exostosis Z=∞∞Hí
J™®^èßO°}~Qå
á⁄_«∞K«∞HÁx O®=_«~

193

expenditure

exothermal L+¨‚Ç‹ØK«Hí
exothermic L+¨Ç
‚ Ø‹ K«H,í `ÍǨHÇ∆ı H¨ í Çı_xç
Ç‹eÃÑ>ıì. ~ reaction L+¨‚ Ç‹ØK«Hí K«O°º
exotic J™®^èßO°}, JǨiz`ŒÇ‹∞·#. ~
foods q^ÕjÜ«µ PǨO° Ǩ^®O®÷Å∞. ~
species qÅHí∆} ã¨r= *Ï`Œ∞Å∞
exotoxin |Ç≤Ïs˚= q+¨~
expand qáåÊO°∞, qã¨Îi~K«∞, ÇͺH’z~K«∞
expansion
qã¨ÎO°},
á⁄_çy~ѨÙ,
ÇͺH’K«~. ~ isothermal ã¨Ç‹ØëÈ‚„Qõ`Í

ÇͺH’K«~
expansionism qã¨ÎO°} ÇÍ^°~
ex parte UHíǨH©∆Ü«µ, ǨO’Hí∆
expatiate q=O°~Qå K‹Ç¨C, ÇͺMϺx~K«∞
expatriation ã¨fi^Õâ◊/ `ͺQõ~/ |Ç≤Ï+¨¯ $u
expect Z^°∞O°∞K«¥K«∞,
=∞∞~^°∞Qå

TÇ≤Ï~K«∞, Pt~K«∞, HßK«∞HÁx L~_«∞
expectant Z^°∞O°∞K«¥¿ã, „Ǩã¨q~K«É’Ü˵
expectation Pâ◊~ã¨, xsHí∆}
expected value J¿ÑH˜∆`Œ qÅ∞=
expected yield J¿ÑH˜∆`Œ kQõ∞|_ç
expectorant Híá¶È`ÍûO°Hí~
expectoration Híá¶åxfl L=∞‡_«~
expediency „Ǩܡ∂[#Hßi`Œfi~
expedient Lz`Œ ÖÏÉèí™®>˜ LǨܡ∂QõHí~
expedite `ŒfiO°Ç¨O°K«∞, ÇıyO°Ç¨O°K«∞. ~
action j„Ѷ¨∞K«O°º fã≤HÁ#∞
expediting ÇıyO°Ç¨O°K«@~
expedition (™®Ç¨Ïã¨) Ü«∂„`Œ, ^°~_«
Ü«∂„`Œ
expeditiously j„Ѷ¨∞~Qå
expel Ç‹à◊§Q˘@∞ì, |Ç≤Ï+¨¯i~K«∞
expend YO°∞ÛÃÑ@∞ì
expenditure =ºÜ«µ~, YO°∞Û† =ºÜ«µ~
Kıã≤# _«|∞ƒ

expense

YO°∞Û, =ºÜ«µ~. ~ account
ǨxH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z YO°Ûܵ# Ç‹∞∞`ÍÎxfl
`ˇe¿Ñ MÏ`Í. productive ~ L`Íû^°Hí
=ºÜ«µ~. trade ~ =O°ÎHí =ºÜ«µ~
expensive YO°∞Û`À Hí∂_«∞HÁ#fl† =ºÜ«µ
Éèíi`ŒÇ‹∞·#, Ys^≥·#
experience J#∞Éèí=~† Ö“H˜Hí*Ï˝#~
experiment „Ǩܡ∂Qõ~
experimental „Ǩܡ∂Qå`Œ‡Hí. ~ error
„Ǩܡ∂Qõ^À+¨~
experimentalism „Ǩܡ∂QõÇÍ^°~
experimental method „Ǩܡ∂Qõq^èß#~
expert xѨÙ}∞_«∞, ã¨=∞O°∞÷_«∞, Hí∞â◊Å∞_«∞,
<ËO°Êi, k@ì
expertise <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~, xѨÙ}=O°æ~, „Ǩ`˺Hí
*Ï˝#~
expiate „áåÜ«µtÛ`ŒÎ~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞, ǨâÍÛ
`ÍÎǨ~ „ǨHí>˜~K«∞
expiration =∞∞y~ѨÙ, ã¨=∂Ç≤Î, =∞O°}~.
~ of sentence tH∆ßHßÅ ã¨=∂Ç≤Î
expire K«xáÈ=Ù, =∞∞yÜ«µ∞
expiry ã¨=∂Ç≤Î, =∞∞y~ѨÙ, HßÅ~ fi
áÈ=_«~, =∞O°}~
explain q=i~K«∞, JO°÷~K‹Ç¨C, ÇͺMϺ
x~K«∞
explanation ã¨~*Ïܵ+‘
explanatory q=O°}®`Œ‡Hí
explication qâ◊nHíO°}
explicit qâ◊^°~, ã¨Ê+¨ì~
explicitly ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå, q=O°~Qå
explicitness ã¨Ê+¨ì`Œ
explode ¿ÑÅ∞, q™ÈÊù>˜~K«∞
exploit ^ÀK«∞HÁ#∞/ ^ÀÇ≤_ç KıÜ«µ∞
exploitation ^ÀÇ≤_ç
exploitative system ^ÀÇ≤_ç =º=ã¨÷
expense

194

exposure

exploiting HÁÅ¡Q˘@ì_«~, ^ÀÇ≤_ç KıÜ«µ_«~
exploration J<Ëfi+¨}, â’^è°#
exploratory J<Ëfi+¨}®`Œ‡Hí
explore J<Ëfi+≤~K«∞, Ç‹`Œ∞Hí∞, ^Õ=ÙÖÏ_«∞
explosion ¿ÑÅ∞_«∞. population ~

[#ã¨~MϺ q™ÈÊù@#~
explosive q™ÈÊù@Hí~
explosives ¿ÑÅ∞_«∞ Ǩ^®O®÷Å∞
exponent ÇͺMϺ`Œ,
q=O°}HíO°Î,
Ѷ¨∂`Í~Hí~
export ZQõ∞=∞u, =ã¨∞Î ¿ã=Å∞. exportpromotion ZQõ∞=∞`Œ∞Å#∞
„áÈ`Œû
Ç≤Ï~K«∞. ~ licence ZQõ∞=∞uH˜ J#∞
=∞u. ~ of capital ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ZQõ∞=∞u.
~ oriented units (EOUS) ZQõ∞=∞u
Hí~ÃÑhÅ∞. ~ profitability ZQõ∞=∞`Œ∞Å
ÖÏÉèí^®Ü«µHí`Œ. ~ quota ZQõ∞=∞`Œ∞Å
H’>Ï, ZQõ∞=∞`Œ∞ÅÃÑ· J#∞=∞u~z#
Ǩikè
exporter ZQõ∞=∞u^®O°∞
expose |Ü«µ@ÃÑ@∞ì, Ç‹Å¡_ç~K«∞, |Ç≤Ï
O°~QõǨO°K«∞, |Ç≤ÏO°æ`ŒÇ¨O°K«∞, qâ◊^°
ǨO°∞K«∞
exposing J~Qå~Qõ „Ǩ^°O°≈#
exposition q=O°}, ÇͺMϺ#~, „Ǩu
áå^°#
ex post facto Qõ_«z# ^®xx Qõ∞i~z
PÖ’z~K«_«~
expostulate =∞~^°e~K«∞, ¿ãflǨÏѨÓO°fi
Hí~Qå xO°ã¨# `ˇÅ∞ѨÙ
expostulation =∞~^°e~ѨÙ, Ç≤Ï`ÀǨ^â
Õ ~◊
exposure Ç‹Å¡_ç, |Ç≤ÏO°~Qõ ǨO°K«_«~,
|Ç≤ÏO°æ`Œ ǨO°K«_«~, Ç‹Å∞Qõ∞Ö’xH˜
`Ë=_«~, |Ü«µÅ∞ ǨO°K«_«~, JáåÜ«∂xH˜
J=Hßâ◊~ W=fi_«~, ^ÕÇ¨Ï „Ǩ^°O°≈#,
qâ◊^°Ç¨O°Û_«~, J=QåǨÏ#

expound
expound JO°÷q=O°}KıÜ«µ∞, q=i~K«∞
expression Jaè=ºH˜Î, =ºH©ÎHíO°}, `ˇeÜ«µ

*ËÜ«µ_«~, Ç‹Å¡_ç
expressionism Éèß= „ǨHí@# ÇÍ^°~
expressionist qÉèß=Hí∞_«∞
expressionless xifiHßO°
exprobration ^°¥+¨}
expropriate ǨÏHí∞¯ ™®finè#~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞
expropriation ǨÏHí∞¯ ™®finè#`Œ, ^°∞ifix
ܡ∂Qõ~, ǨÏO°}~
expulsion |Ç≤Ï+¨¯O°}, Ç‹à◊¡Q˘@ì_«~, `˘Å
y~K«_«~
expunge `˘Åy~K«∞, ǨiǨÏi~K«∞. ~
from records iHßO°∞¤Å #∞~z `˘Å
y~K«_«~
expurgate HíuÎi~K«∞
exquay JÇı∞‡ÇÍO°∞ Éèi
í ~Kı ã¨O∞° Hí∞ qÅ∞=
exquisite KÍÖÏ J~^°Ç‹∞·#/ ã¨∞xfl`ŒÇ‹∞·#,
<ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~`À `ŒÜ«∂O°∞Kıã≤#
exrights =∂O≥¯>’¡ <ËO°∞Qå J=∞‡_ÍxH˜
ÃÑ>ıì ÇÍ>ÏÅ∞
exservice men =∂r Ãã·xHí∞Å∞, =∂r
O°Hí∆} ^°à’^ÀºQõ∞Å∞
exship <ÒHß O°ÇÍ}® KÍs˚Å∞ J=∞‡Hí~
^®O°∞ Éèíi~Kı ã¨O°∞Hí∞ qÅ∞=
exstock ã¨O°Ñ¶¨O® Kı¿ã ã¨O°Hí∞ „Ǩã¨∞Î`Œ
^è°O°Å∞
extempore Pâ◊∞=ÙQå
extend á⁄_çy~K«∞, ÇͺÇ≤~ǨKıÜ«µ∞
extended family L=∞‡_ç Hí∞@∞~|~
extennate `ŒÇ¨CÅ∞ HíÇ≤ÊѨÙK«∞Û, <ËO° f„=
`Œ#∞ `Œyæ~K«∞
extension á⁄_çy~ѨÙ, HÁ#™®y~ѨÙ, qã¨Î
O°}, ÇͺÇ≤Î, qã¨Î $u. ~ education
qã¨ÎO°} q^°º

195

extortion

ÃÑ^°ÌZ`Œ∞Î#, ZHí∞¯=Qå, qã¨Î $`Œ
Ç‹∞·#, qâÍÅÇ‹∞·#. ~ service qã¨Î $`Œ
¿ã=
extent qã¨Î $`Œ, ÇͺÇ≤Î
extenuate `Œyæ~K«∞, ã¨#flyÅ¡*ËÜ«µ∞
exterior ÉÏǨϺ, Ç‹Å∞ǨŠL#fl
extern |Ç≤Ï+¨¯i~K«∞, „ǨÇıt~K«O®^°x
x¿+kè~K«∞
external |Ü«µ>˜, q^Õj. ~ affairs
q^Õj =º=ǨO®Å∞. ~ cardiac massage Kèßfx =∞iú~K«@~. ~ commercial borrowings (ECBs) q^Õj
ÇÍ}˜[º O°∞}®Å∞. ~ economics and
diseconomics |Ç≤ÏO°æ`Œ
P^®Ü«µ
=ºÜ«∂Å∞. ~ liabilities W`ŒO°∞ÅHí∞
fO°Û=Åã≤# JǨCÅ∞
extinct Å∞ǨÎÇ‹∞·#, xO°¥‡ÅÇ‹∞·#. ~ animals J~`Œi~z# [~`Œ∞*ÏÖÏÅ∞
extinction qÅ∞ǨÎ`Œ, ÖËHí∞~_Í áÈ=_«~
extinguish ÖËHí∞~_Í KıÜ«µ∞, PiÊÇıÜ«µ∞,
`Œ∞_çzÇıÜ«µ∞, xO°¥‡e~K«∞, <®â◊#~
KıÜ«µ∞, â◊q∞~Ǩ*ËÜ«µ∞, Ǩ_«Q˘@∞ì, O°^°∞Ì
KıÜ«µ∞
extinguisher POÕÊ. fire ~ =∞~@ÖÏOÕÊ
™®÷#~
extinguishment PiÊÇıÜ«µ_«~, xO°¥‡
Å#~, O°^°∞ÌKıÜ«µ_«~
extirpate ã¨=∞¥Å~Qå <®â◊#~ KıÜ«µ∞,
ã¨O°fi<®â◊#~ KıÜ«µ∞
extol á⁄Qõ_«∞, HÁxÜ«∂_«∞, H©iÎ~K«∞
extort |Å=~`Œ~Qå fã¨∞HÁ#∞, AÅ∞~
KıÜ«µ∞
extortion |Å=~`ŒÑ¨Ù =㨥Å∞. day
light ~ Ǩ@ìǨQõÅ∞ ^ÀÇ≤_ô. ~ money
Ç‘_ç~z fã¨∞Hí∞#fl _«|∞ƒ
extensive

extortioner
extortioner |Å=~`Œ~Qå fã¨∞Hí∞<Ë =ºH˜Î
extortionist ɡki~z _«|∞ƒ J_çQÕ =ºH˜Î
extra Ju, W`ŒO°, Jf`Œ, JkèHí, J^°#ѨÙ
extra-cellular Hí}ÉÏǨϺ,
Hí}®xH˜

Ç‹Å∞ǨÅ
Qõ∞~A, ã¨~áåk~K«∞, ¿ÑO˘¯#∞,
L^®Ç¨Ïi~K«∞, L^®Ç¨Ïi~z# ÉèßQõ~,
L^®Ç¨Ï$u, ™®O°~
extractabilty x+¨¯O°¬}©Ü«µ`Œ. ~ of
metal Ö’Ç¨Ï x+¨¯O°¬}~
extraction á⁄~^°_«~, Ç‹eH˜fÜ«µ_«~,
Ç‘Hí_«~, fÜ«µ_«~
extradiate áåiáÈܵ =zÛ# =ºH˜Îx
uiy JǨÊy~K«∞
extradition „Ǩ`ŒºO°Ê}, „Ǩuã¨=∞O°Ê},
uiy JǨÊy~K«@~. ~ treaty ^À+¨∞Å
JǨÊy~`ŒÃÑ· O≥~_«∞ ^ÕâÍÅ XǨÊ~^°~
extra-galactic áåÅѨÙ~`ŒH˜
P=Å
Ç‹·Ñ¨Ù#fl
extra-marital affairs qÇÍ¿ÇÏ`ŒO°
ã¨~|~^èßÅ∞
extramural P=O°}ı`ŒO°, qâ◊fiq^®ºÅ
Ü˵`ŒO°. ~ gang |Ü«µ@Ǩx Kı¿ã
Mˇ·nÅ∞
extraneous ã¨~|~^è°~ÖËx, J#ºÇ‹∞·#. ~
matter J#ºq+¨Ü«µ~
extraordinary J™®^èßO°}Ç‹∞·#. ~
general meeting (EGM) J™®^èßO°}
ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~
extrapolation ÉÏǨϺ Qõ}#~ xHı∆Ǩ~
extrateritorial ã¨fi^ÕâÍkèHßO° ǨikèH˜
Ö’|_«x. ~ jurisdiction Ju„áå^ÕtHí
Ǩikè. ~ loyalty q^ÕâÍxH˜ q^èıÜ«µ`Œ
extraterrestrial „QõǨ~`ŒO°
extravagance Ju=ºÜ«µ~, ^°∞ÉÏO®
(YO°∞Û)
extract

196

eyrie

q∞ug∞i#, qǨ
s`Œ, JxÜ«µ~„u`Œ
extravaganza H’ÖÏǨÏÅ, P_«~|O°
„Ǩ^°O°≈#
extravasation Ǩi„™®=~
extreme f„=, z=i, Hí_«Ç¨>˜
extremism JuÇÍ^°~, f„=ÇÍ^°~
extremist f„=ÇÍk, JuÇÍk
extremity Ç‹·Ç¨s`Œº~
extricate O°H˜∆~K«∞, q_çÇ≤~K«∞, `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞,
|Ü«µ@Ǩ_«∞
extrication Ç‹eH˜f`Œ, q_«∞^°Å
extrinsic |Ü«µ>˜, Ç‹Å∞Ǩe, ã¨~|~^è~
° ÖË,
q*ÏfÜ«µ
extrovert |Ç≤ÏO°∞‡Y∞_«∞
extrude |Å=~`Œ~Qå |Ü«µ@Hí∞ ÖÏQõ∞
exuberance Juâ◊Ü«µ~, „ǨHíO°¬
exuberant ã¨=∞$^°,ú JY~_«Ç∞‹ #
· , ã¨~Ǩ#fl
exudate O°ã≤, ÇÍѨن â’^ä°„™®=~
exude „Ǩ^°i≈~K«∞, Ç‹Å∞=O°∞Û
exult P#~k~K«∞, ã¨~`À+≤~K«∞
exultation „ǨǨÏO°¬~, „|Ǩ‡#~^°~
exviate HíuÎi~z# â◊sO° ÉèßQåÅ∞
exvoto Ç‹∞∞Hí∞¯|_ç, JO°Ê}
eye <Ë„`Œ~, Hí#∞fl, K«¥Ñ¨Ù. ~ ball Hí#∞
Qõ∞_«∞¤. ~ brow Hí#∞ÉÁ=∞‡. ~ lash
Hí#∞O≥Ç¨Ê Ç‹~„@∞Hí. ~ lid Hí~>˜O≥ǨÊ.
~ orbits JH˜∆Hí∂áåÅ∞, Híà◊§ Qõ∞~@Å∞.
~ opener Híà◊∞§ `ˇiÇ≤~Kı, Qõ∞}áåOî°~
<ËOÕÊ. ~ piece ^°¥O°^°i≈x Hí@Hí~. ~
sight Hí~>˜K«¥Ñ¨Ù. ~ sore Híà◊§HíÅHí,
Híà◊§=∞~@, ÉÏkè~Kı, Jã¨Ç¨ÏºÇ‹∞·#, Híà◊∞§
Hí∞>ıì. ~ wash Ç‹Øã¨~, ^°Qå. ~
witness „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆™®H˜∆
eye rhyme <Ë„`Œ„áåã¨
eyrie Qõ^°ÌQõ¥_«∞

197

fable

extravagant qâ◊$~YÅ,

fading

Ff
fable Hí@∞ìHí^ä°,
fabric =º=ã¨÷,

HíeÊ`ŒHí^ä°, J^°∞ƒù`ŒHí^ä°
<®}ºÇ‹∞·# Qõ∞_«¤, Je¡Hí,
K«„@~, <Ëã≤#|@ì, (Éèí=#) xO®‡}~
fabricate ã¨$+≤ì~K«∞, HíeÊ~K«∞, xi‡~K«∞
fabrication Hí∂@ã¨$+≤ì, Hí@∞ìHí^ä°, Hí$„u=∞
HíÅÊ#. ~ of evidence ^˘~Qõ ™®Hí∆ º~
ã¨$+≤ì~K«_«~
fabricator HíeÊ~Kı =ºH˜Î, xO®‡`Œ
fabulist Hí@∞ìHí^ä°Å∞ K‹¿ÑÊ/ J|^®úÖÏ_Ë
=ºH˜Î
fabulous #=∞‡O®x, J^°∞ƒù`ŒÇ‹∞·#, Hí^ä°Ö’¡
L~_ËÖÏ~>˜, =∞ǨÏ`ŒÎO°Ç‹∞·#
facade =∞∞YÉèßQõ~, Éè=
í #~ Ç‹∞∞`Œ~Î =∞∞Y
ÉèßQõ~, Qõ$ǨÏ=∞∞Y~
face n. =∞∞Y~. loose ~ J==∂#~
á⁄~^°_«~. on the ~ of it ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå.
put a good ~ on ^è≥·O°º~Qå xÅ|_«∞.
~ save =∂@ ^°H˜¯~K«∞. ~ to relations =∞∞MÏ=∞∞d ã¨~|~^èßÅ∞. ~
value =∞∞YqÅ∞=, ÃÑ·qÅ∞=, <®=∞
=∂„`Œ qÅ∞=, =∞∞„k`Œ qÅ∞=
face v. Z^°∞O˘¯#∞, XHí kâ◊Qå K«¥K«∞
face lift =∞∞Y~Ö’ =∞∞_«∞`ŒÅ∞ áÈQ˘>ıì
zH˜`Íû q^èß#~. non-surgical ~
â◊GzH˜`Œû KıÜ«µHí∞~_Í =∞∞Y~ =∞∞_«
`ŒÅ∞ áÈQ˘>ıì q^èß#~
face pack =∞∞YÖËǨ#~
facet ^°â◊, ÅHí∆}~, Ѷ¨ÅHí~, ÃÑ>ˇì
facial =∞∞Y ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#. ~ expressions =∞∞Y~Ö’ HíxÇ≤~Kı ÉèßÇÍÅ∞. ~
features =∞∞YHí=oHíÅ∞
facies =∞∞YÇ‹·Yi. ~ leonine ã≤~ǨHí$u
QõÅ =∞∞Y~
facile ã¨∞ÅÉèí~Qå ™®kè~z#, <ËO°∞ÊQõÅ,

=∞$^°∞Ç‹·#, `ËeHíܵ#, ã¨O°à◊=∞ܵ#
facilitate ã¨∞ÅÉèí~KıÜ«µ∞, ã¨^°∞áåÜ«µ~
HíÅ∞Qõ*ËÜ«µ∞
facing Z^°∞O°∞, Z^°∞O’¯=_«~
facsimile YzÛ`ŒÇ∞‹ #
· „ǨuO°¥Ç¨~, #HíÅ∞,
#=∞¥<®. ~ signature ã¨~`ŒHí~ „Ǩu
O°¥Ç¨~, #HíÅ∞ `ŒÜ«∂O°∞KıÜ«µ∞
fact ÇÍã¨Î=~. ~ finding x[xO®úO°}
faction ÉèßQõ~, (peHí) =O°æ~† =∞∞Oîß
factionalism =∞∞Oîß`Œ`Œfi~
factionalist =∞∞Oîß^®O°∞
factor J~â◊~, HßO°Hí~, =∞¥ÅHí~,
Ǩ^®O°÷~. anti-anaemic ~ O°HíÎÇ‘Ï#`Í
xÇÍO°Hí (Ǩ^®O°÷~). anti-neurotic ~
<®_ôÇı^°# xÇÍO°Hí (Ǩ^®O°÷~). antisterility ~
=~^è°º`Œfi xÇÍO°Hí
(Ǩ^®O°÷~). diabetogenic ~ =∞^è°∞
Çı∞Ç¨Ï HßO°Hí~. environment ~ ǨO®º
=O°} HßO°Hí~. growth ~ =$kú
HßO°Hí~. host ~ Pu^äıÜ«µ HßO°Hí~. ~
of production L`ŒÊuÎ HßO°Hí~
factory HíO®‡QåO°~
factual ÇÍã¨Î=Ç‹∞·#
facultative SzÛùHí, Ç‹·HíeÊHí. ~ parasite Ç‹·HíeÊHí ǨO®#flrq
faculty ™®=∞O°÷º~, xQõ¥_è°â◊H˜Î, „áåg}º~,
|∞kú, q*Ï˝# qÉèßQõ~, (qâ◊fiq^®ºÅ
Ü«∂Ö’¡) HÁxfl âÍYÅ ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~. psychology ~ Çı∞^äßâ◊HÍκ^谺ܫµ# (âÍG~)
fad ÇͺNjØǨÏ~, ÇıÅ~Ç‹„i
fade ÇÍ_çáÈ=Ù, =∂ã≤áÈ=Ù, Ç‹Åã≤áÈ=Ù,
ã¨#flyÅ∞¡, „Hí=∞~Qå J~`Œi~K«∞
faded ÇÍ_çáÈܵ#
fading =O°‚Hí∆Ü«µ~, O°~Qõ∞ áÈ=_«~

faecal

=∞Åã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#
=∞Å~. retention of ~ =∞Å~
xezáÈ=_«~
fag _ôÖÏǨ_«∞, JÅã≤áÈ=Ù, Hí+≤ì~zǨx
KıÜ«µ∞. ~ end q∞ye#/ z=i ÉèßQõ~
fagged JÅã≤áÈܵ#
faggot Hí>ˇìÅ Ç‹ØѨÙ
fail qѶ¨Å=∞Qõ∞, F_çáÈ=Ù, ǨO®[Ü«µ~
á⁄~^°∞, =∂@ xÅɡ@∞ìH’ÖËHíáÈ=Ù,
ǨsHí∆ `ŒÇ¨C
failing ^°∞O°ƒÅ, qѶ¨Å=∞=Ù`Œ∞#fl
failure ǨO®[Ü«µ~, Éèí~Qõ~, F@q∞, JǨ
[Ü«µ~, kÇÍÖÏ, Ç‹·Ñ¶¨Åº~, `ŒÇ¨Ê_«~.
circulatory ~ O°Hí΄Ǩ™®O° Ç‹·Ñ¶¨Åº~.
heart ~ ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ ã¨Ê~^°# Ç‹·Ñ¶¨Åº~.
hepatic ~ HßÖËÜ«µ „H˜Ü«∂ ֒Ǩ~.
peripheral circulatory ~ ǨinèÜ«µ
O°HíÎ „Ǩã¨O°} ֒Ǩ~. renal ~ =∞¥„`Œ
Ç≤~_« „H˜Ü«∂֒Ǩ~
faint ^°∞O°ƒÅÇ‹∞·#, =∞¥iÛùÖË¡. ~ hearted
Ç≤iH˜
faint glow =∞~^°nÇ≤Î
fair ã¨∞~^°O°Ç‹∞·#, K«Hí¯<ˇ·#, <®ºÜ«µÇ‹∞·#,
^è°O°‡Ç‹∞·#, Lz`ŒÇ‹∞·#, ã¨~`Œ, uO°∞<®à◊∞§.
~ colour `ˇÅ¡O°~Qõ∞, âıfi`Œ =O°‚~. ~
play xë®ÊH˜∆Hí =º=ǨO°~. ~ price
ã¨O°ã¨Ç‹∞·# ^è°O°, K“Hí ^è°O°. ~ rent `Œy#
ÉÏ_«∞Qõ, ã¨=∞∞z`Œ H“Å∞. ~ report
ã¨=∞∞z`Œ xÇıkHí. ~ sex ¢ã‘ÎÅ∞. ~
share ã¨O≥·# ÉèßQõ~. ~ wage `Œy#
Çı`Œ#~
fairly widespread KÍÖÏ=O°Hí∞ qã¨Î $
`Œ~Qå
fairness x+¨ÊHí∆áå`Œ~, <®ºÜ«µ=O°Î#
fairnose Ç≤~_ç/á⁄_ç Ǩ^®O°÷~
fairy tale J^°∞ƒù`ŒHí^ä°, *Ï#Ǩ^° ™®Ç¨Ïã¨
Qå^ä°
faecal
faeces

198

false

[iy# Ǩx, <ˇO°Çıi#
x[~
faith (=∞`Œ) qâÍfiã¨~, ^èŒ~°‡O ~ and
credit ǨO°Ç¨u, qâÍfiã¨~. ~ healing
#=∞‡Hí~ =Å¡ O’Qõ~ #Ü«µ~ Hß=_«~.
in bad ~ ^°∞O°∞^ÕÌâ◊~`À. in good ~
ã¨^°∞^ÕÌâ◊~`À
fake #H˜b, Hí∞ǨÏ<®
fake shares #H˜b ¿+O°∞¡
falcate HÁ_«=e =Öˇ X~Ѩ٠uiy#
falcato secund XHíÇ‹·Ñ¨Ù X~Ѩ٠uiy#
falcon Qõ^°Ì, _ËQõ
falconry _ËQõÅHí∞ Çı@Ö’ tHí∆} W=fi@~
fall n. Ǩ_«_«~, Ǩ`Œ#~, `ŒQõ∞æ^°Å† PHí∞
O®Å∞ HßÅ~. ~ short of HÁO°`ŒÇ¨_«∞
fall v. Ǩ_«∞, O®Å∞, `ŒQõ∞æ, ã¨~Éèíq~K«∞,
kyáÈ=Ù
fallacious „Éèí=∞[#HíÇ‹∞·#, JÇÍã¨Î=Ç‹∞·#
fallacy JÇÍã¨Î=~, Hí∞`ŒO°¯~, „Éèí=∞,
`ŒÇ¨C_«∞ Éèß=~, q∞^èߺ¿ÇÏ`Œ∞=Ù. ~ of
composition ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Éèßã¨. ~ of
mal-observation Hí∞ǨijÅ<®Éèßã¨. ~
of ambiguity Jã¨Êë®ìO®÷Éèßã¨
falling rhythm J#∞Ö’=∞ ÅÜ«µ
fallopian tube ¢ã‘Î c[ ÇÍÇ≤ÏHí
fall out qO’^èÇ
° _¨ ∞« † ã¨~Éè=í ~, J=áå`Œ~.
radio-active ~ OÕ_Ü
ç ∂ˇ ^èßi‡Hß=áå`Œ~
fallow Ǩâ◊∞=ÙÅ HÁ=Ùfi† c_«∞. ~ land
Tã¨O°Hı∆„`Œ~, ÉÏ_«=Éèí¥q∞
falls [Åáå`Œ~
false J|^°Ç
ú ∞‹ #· , Hí$„u=∞Ç‹∞#· . ~ charge
Jã¨`ͺO’Ǩ}. ~ hood Jã¨`Œº~,
J|^°ú~. ~ hypothesis JÜ«µ^äßO°÷
„áåHí¯ÅÊ#. ~ prestige |¥@HíѨÙ
„Ǩu+¨ª. ~ pride |¥@HíѨ٠Jaè*Ï`Œº~,
^°∞O°aè=∂#~
fait accompli

falsification
falsification Kè«^°‡HíO°}~, Hí∂@ã¨$+≤ì
falsify `ŒÇ¨CQå HíeÊ~zO®Üµ, J|núHí

i~K«∞, Ç‹Øã¨y~K«∞
`˘„@∞Ǩ_«∞, PyáÈ=Ù, |ÅÇ‘Ï#
Ǩ_«∞, ã¨~H’z~K«∞
fame H©iÎ, „Ǩu+¨ª, „Ǩã≤kú
familiar ã¨∞Ǩiz`Œ
familiarity ǨiK«Ü«µ~, ¿ãflǨÏ~
familiarize Ǩiz`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞
family Hí∞@∞~|~. ~ court Hí∞@∞~|
<®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~. ~ heirloom áåO°~
ǨO°º~Qå ã¨~„Híq∞~Kı =ã¨∞Î ™®=∞„y.
joint ~ ã¨=∞+≤ì Hí∞@∞~|~. ~ planning Hí∞@∞~| xÜ«µ~„`Œ}. ~ physician Hí∞@∞~| Ç‹·^°∞º_«∞. ~ tree
=~â◊=$Hí∆~
famine HíO°∞=Ù, Hß@Hí~
famish PHíe`À ÉÏ^è°Ç¨_«∞
fanatic =∞¥_è°qâÍfiã≤
fanaticism J¿ÇÏ`Œ∞Hí qâÍfiã¨~, =∞`Œ
=∞∫_è°º~
fancy q<À^°HíO°Ç‹∞·#, J`Œº=ã¨O°~Hßx†
Ç‹ØA, Ç‹ØǨÏ~, HíÅÊ#, „Éèí=∞
fanfare J@ìǨã¨~, PO®ƒù@~, Ç‹·Éèí=~
fang H’O°
fantasia PHßâ◊ ™œ^è° xO®‡}~
fantasm O°¥Ç¨~ÖËx PHßO®xfl TÇ≤Ï~K«∞
H’=_«~
fantastic q~`ˇ#
· , qz„`ŒÇ∞‹ #· , KÀ^°ºÇ‹∞#· ,
ÖËxáÈx, Jã¨Ç¨Ï[Ç‹∞·#, Jã¨~^°O°ƒùÇ‹∞·#,
J^°∞ƒù`Í=ǨÏÇ‹∞·#, #=∞‡â◊Híº~Qåx
fantasy HíÅÊ<®â◊H˜Î, ã¨fiǨfl~, „Éèí=∞, qǨ
s`Œ Éèß=#, ÇÍã¨ÎÇÍf`Œ Qå^ä°
farandole O≥·`Œ∞Å #$`Œº~
farce „ǨǨÏã¨#~, Ǩ㨺O°¥Ç¨Hí~
farfetched ã¨∞^°¥O°
falter

199

fault

farinaceous Ç≤~_ç`À Kıã≤#
farm Hí=∞`Œ~, ¿ã^°ºÑ¨Ù Éèí¥q∞
farrow D`Œ, D#∞, Hß#∞ѨÙ,

Ç≤Å¡Å∞

ÃÑ@∞ì
K«O°‡~H˜~^°, Hí~_«O®Å K«∞@¥ì
L~_Ë á⁄O°
fasciculus Hí~_«O°/ <®_ô`Œ~„f ã¨=∞∞
^®Ü«µ~
fascinate PHíi¬~K«∞, W+¨ì~ Híey~K«∞,
„Éèíq∞~ǨKıÜ«µ∞
fascination Ç‹ØǨÏ~
fascism xÜ«µ~`Œ$`Œfi~
fashion su, q^è°~, ÇÍ_«∞Hí, <®QõiHí~
fast LǨÇÍã¨~, Å~Y}~, XHí¯á⁄^°∞̆
=_çQå, ÇıQõ~Qå, ^°$_è°~Qå, aQõ∞=ÙQå
fasten Hí@∞ì, |~kè~K«∞
fastidious XHí Ǩ>Ïì# #K«Ûx
fastidiousness ã¨∞ÅÉèí~Qå
Ç‹∞K«ÛHí
áÈ=_«~
fasting xO°â◊#~
fatal „Ǩ=∂^°HíO°Ç‹∞·#, ѨÓiÎQå =ºuOÕHí
Ç‹∞·#
fatalism qkè xÜ«µu ÇÍ^°, HíO°‡ÇÍ^°~
fatalist qkèÇÍk, xÜ«µuÇÍk
fatality qkèqÖÏã¨~, ^°∞O°^$° +¨~
ì , „áåO°|~ú
fate qkè, „áåO°|ú~, J^°$+¨ì~, ^°∞O°^°$+¨ì~,
J~`Œ~
fathom h>˜Ö’`Œ∞#∞ `ˇe¿Ñ „Ǩ=∂}~,
xÅ∞=ÙÖ’`Œ∞
fatigue PÜ«∂ã¨~, JÅã¨@, x„™®Î},
|_«eHí
fatty acids HÁ=Ùfi P=∂¡Å∞
fatuous `ˇeq `ŒHí∞¯Ç‹·#
fauces Q˘~`Œ¥, <ÀO°¥ Híe¿ãKÀ@∞,
J~ye
fault `ŒÇ¨C, á⁄O°áå@∞, `ŒÇ≤Ê^°~, „Éèí~â◊~
fascia

200

faulting
faulting Éèí¥=∞∞ºÇ¨i`ŒÖÏxfl
faulty goods ^≥|ƒu#fl/

ǨQõÅHÁ@ì_«~
K‹_çáÈܵ#

=ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞
fauna [~`Œ∞ *ÏÅ~/ ã¨=∞∞^®Ü«µ~
fauvism =#ºÇÍ^°~
faux pas [O°QõQõ¥_«x ÃÑ^°Ì á⁄O°áå@∞
favour P^°O°~, ǨHí∆áå`Œ~, ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~,

Jaè=∂#~, LǨHßO°~
favourableness ã¨∞=∞∞Y`Œ
favourably ™®#∞Hí∂Å~Qå, ã¨∞=∞∞Y~Qå
favouritism (P„t`Œ) ǨHí∆áå`Œ~
faze J=O’^è°~ Híey~K«∞
fealty qâÍfiã¨~Qå L~_«∞
fearful cèHíO°
feasibility ™®^è°º`Œ, ã¨~Éèß=º`Œ. ~ report ™®^èߺ™®^èߺŠxÇıkHí. ~ study
™®^è°hÜ«µ`Í^谺ܫµ#~
feasible PK«O°} ܡ∂Qõº~, ™®^è°º~
feast q~^°∞
feat J^°∞ƒù`ŒHí$`Œº~, J™®^èßO°} HßO°º~
feature O°¥Ñ¨ÙOÕY, PHí$u, ÅHí∆}~, XHí
„áå~`ŒÑ¨Ù Éè“uHí P=O°}Ѩ٠Qõ∞O°∞ÎÅ∞†
„Ǩ`˺Hí Çͺã¨~/ „Ǩ^°O°≈#/ HßO°º„Hí=∞~†
„Ǩ^°i≈~K«∞
febrifuge [fiO° ã¨~Ǩi
febrile [fiO°~`À Hí∂_ç#, [fii`Œ
fecundate ™®O°=~`Œ~KıÜ«µ∞, Ѷ¨Å=~`Œ~
KıÜ«µ∞
fecundation Ç≤~_À`ŒÊuÎ
fecundity JkèH’`ŒÊuÎ, [##â◊H˜Î, Ç≤~_À
`ŒÊuÎ â◊H˜Î
federal ã¨=∂Yº (O°¥Ç≤), |ǨïHı~„^°Hí.
~ government ã¨=∂Mº „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~
federalism ã¨=∂Yº Ǩ^°úu
federation ã¨=∂Yº
feeble Jã¨Ê+¨ìÇ‹∞·#, |ÅÇ‘Ï#Ç‹∞·#, xsfiO°º,

fender

hO°ã¨, ^°∞O°ƒÅ~. ~ mindedness
^°∞O°ƒÅ =∂#ã≤Hí ã≤÷u
feed Çı∞`Œ, u~_ç, PǨO°~, uxÇ≤~K«∞,
u~_çÃÑ@∞ì
feedback „ǨuѨÙ+≤ì
feeding PǨO°q∞=fi_«~ ([~`Œ∞=ÙÅHí∞)
Çı∞Ǩ_«~. bottle ~ ã‘™®áåe=fi_«~.
breast ~ `Œe¡áåe=fi_«~. infant ~
tâ◊∞áÈ+¨}. intravenous ~ ã≤O°Å
^®fiO® áÈ+¨Hí Ǩ^®O®÷xfl â◊sO°~Ö’ ZH˜¯~
K«_«~
feeler ã¨Êi≈Hí, ã¨ÊO®≈~Qõ~
feeling J#∞Éèí¥u, ã¨Ê~^°#, ã¨~Çı^°#
feign #>˜~K«∞, HíeÊ~K«∞, ã¨$+≤ì~K«∞,
<ËO°~Ç‹ØѨÙ, Hí∞~>˜™®Hí∞ K‹Ç¨C
felicitate ã¨<®‡x~K«∞, ã¨`Œ¯i~K«∞, Jaè
#~k~K«∞
felicitation ã¨`ͯO°~. ~ function
ã¨<®‡<À`Œû=~
fellow ¿ãflÇ≤Ï`Œ∞_«∞, ã¨Ç¨ÏK«O°∞_«∞, Ǩi
â’^è°Hí∞_«∞
fellowship qt+¨ì ã¨Éèíº`Œfi~, ã¨Ç¨ÏÇÍã¨~,
¿ãflǨÏ~
fellow traveller ã¨Ç¨ÏQåq∞
fellow writer ™®>˜/ ™È^°O° O°K«Üµ`Œ
felon ÃѶ∞ÏO®Ç¨O®kè† QÀO°∞K«∞@∞ì
felony (f„=Ç‹∞·#) <ËO°~
femerity ^°¥Hí∞_«∞, xOÕ›`Œ∞Hí`Œ
feminism ¢ã‘Î (ѨÙO°∞+¨ ã¨=∂#`Œfi) ÇÍ^°~
feminist ¢ã‘Î (ѨÙO°∞+¨ ã¨=∂#`Œfi) ÇÍk.
~ criminology =∞Ç≤Ïà® <ËO° J^è°º
Ü«µ#~. ~ criticism ¢ã‘ÎÇÍ^° q=∞O°≈
feminity ¢ã‘Î`Œfi~
feminization ¢ã‘Î`ŒfiHíÅÊ#
femur `˘_« Z=∞∞Hí
fence Hí~K‹, ^°_ç
fender O°Hí∆Hí~, O°Hí∆Hí∞_«∞

feneration
feneration =_ô¤H˜ JǨC W=fi_«~
fenestra O°~„^è°~, QõÇÍHí∆~
fenugreek Ç‹∞~`Œ∞Å∞
feral child [~`Œ∞=ÙÅ∞ ÃÑ~z# a_«¤
feretory ^èß`Œ∞QõO°ƒù~, *Ï˝Ç¨Hí zǨÏfl ¿Ñ>˜Hí
ferment ѨÙeÜ«µÉˇ@∞ì
fermentation ѨÙeÜ«µÉˇ@ì_«~, H˜}fi#~
ferocious „Hí∂O°Ç‹∞·#, xO°ÌÜ«µ
ferret out Ç‹eH˜fÜ«µ∞, J<Ëfi+≤~K«∞
ferriage Ǩ_«= O°∞ã¨∞~, Hı=Ù
ferric W#∞=∞∞Hí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
ferropaper ֒ǨÏ=∞∞„^°} Hßy`Œ~
ferrous W#∞=∞∞, W#∞=∞∞Hí∞ ã¨~|~

kè~z#
`Œ∞ǨC O°~Qõ∞ QõÅ, `Œ∞ǨC
ÖÏ~>˜
ferry O°Ç¨Ï^®i Ǩ_«=, |Å¡Hí@∞ì, OÕ=Ù
fertile ™®O°=~`ŒÇ‹∞·#, ã¨~`Í# ܡ∂Qõº
Ç‹∞·#
fertility „Ǩ[## â◊H˜Î, QõO°ƒù^èßO°} â◊H˜Î.
~ clinic ã¨~`Í# ™®Ñ¶¨Åº Hı~„^°~. ~
rate Hß#∞ÊÅ OÕ@∞
fertilization QõO°ƒù^èßO°}† Ѷ¨ÅnHíO°}~
fervent W+¨ì~QõÅ, J¿ÑHí∆QõÅ, „â◊^°úQõÅ
fervour J`Œ∞º`ÍûǨÏ~
fester ri‚~K«∞, Hí∞à◊∞¡, ÉÏkè~K«∞, p=∞∞
Ǩ@∞ì
festival Ǩ|ƒ~, Ǩ~_«∞Qõ, L`Œû=~
festivity ã¨~|O°~, P#~^°~
festschrift Jaè#~^°# ã¨~zHí
fetalization QõO°ƒùã¨÷ ^°â◊Ö’<Ë J=Ü«µÇÍÅ
ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å PyáÈ=_«~
fete Ǩ~_«∞Qõ, =#Éè’[#~† Q˘Ç¨Ê q<À^°~
fetid ^°∞O°æ~^è°~
fetish k=º/ J„áåHí$`Œ =ã¨∞Î=Ù
fetishism =ã¨∞ÎHß=∞∞Hí`Œ
fetor ^°∞O°æ~^è°~
ferruginous

201
fetters ã¨~H≥à◊∞¡
feud J~`ŒóHíÅǨÏ~,

fiction

Hí∞@∞~| HíÅǨÏ~,
O°∞ã¨∞=∞∞
feudal Éèí¥™®fi=∞º ã¨~|~kè. ~ lords
Éèí¥™®fi=∞∞Å∞, *ÏwO®ÌO°∞Å∞. ~ system
Éèí¥™®fi=∞º =º=ã¨÷
feudalism [g∞~^®s Ǩ^°úu, ÃÑ`ŒÎ~^®s
Ǩ^°úu, Éèí¥™®fi=∞º =º=ã¨÷
feudatory Jnè#, ™®=∞~`ŒÇ‹∞·#, *ÏwO°∞,
[g∞<®Ìs
feul W~^è°#~
fever [fiO°~. enteric ~ ã¨xfláå`Œ [fiO°~.
filarial ~ É’^° [fiO°~. intermittent
~ J~`ŒO®Ü«µ~`À =KıÛ [fiO°~. malarial ~ K«e [fiO°~. puerperal ~
„Ǩ㨥u/ ÉÏe~`Œ [fiO°~. rheumatic
~ H©à◊¡ÇÍѨ٠[fiO°~
feverishness `ÍǨ~, [fiO° ÅHí∆}~
fiasco Ç‹·Ñ¶¨Åº~, ǨO®[Ü«µ~, Ǩ™®ºã¨Ê^°
Ç‹∞#· K«Oº° , ÃÑ∞¶ ÏO°ÇO¨ ®[Ü«µ~, Éè~í Qõáå@∞
fibre Ç‘K«∞, áÈQõ∞, <®O°, `Œ~`Œ∞=Ù, `Œ~u.
~ muscle Hí~_«O°Ñ¨Ù áÈQõ∞. ~ nerve
<®_ô `Œ~u. ~ glass QåA<®O°. ~
optics ã¨=∂KÍO®xfl QåA<®O° ^®fiO®
„Ǩ™®O°~ Kı¿ã Ǩ^°úu. ~ reinforced
plastics QåA<®O° áå¡ã≤ìH±
fibroid QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ~Ö’x Hí}˜u. ~ tumour `Œ~`Œ∞Ü«µ∞`Œ xO®‡}~ QõÅ Hí}˜u
fibrositis `Œ~f Çı^°#
fibrous `Œ~`Œ∞Ü«µ∞`Œ† <®O°=~>˜, Ç‘K«∞QõÅ
fibrous tissue `Œ~`Œ∞Ü«µ∞`Œ Hí}*ÏÅ~
fibula HßeÖ’
Ç‹Å∞Ǩe Z=∞∞Hí,
|Ç≤ÏO°˚~Ѷ≤∞Hí
ficker q∞}∞Hí∞ q∞}∞Hí∞=∞#∞
fickle K«~K«Å, K«Ç¨Å
fickleness ã≤÷O°~Qå L~_«x, K«~K«Å
fiction HíÅÊ#, ã¨$[<®`Œ‡Hí O°K«#

fictional
fictional HßÅÊxHíÇ‹∞·#, Hí^äß`Œ‡HíÇ‹∞·#
fictitious HíeÊ`ŒÇ‹∞·#, JÇÍã¨ÎqHíÇ‹∞·#
fictitious account ^˘~QõÖˇHí¯
fiddle HßÖÏxfl =$^äßKıÜ«µ∞, =ºO°÷ ã¨~Éèß

+¨}KıÜ«µ∞, ÇÍÜ«µ∞b#~, Ѷ≤_ËÅ∞
fideism #=∞‡Hí~ =∞∞Yº~ J<Ë ÇÍ^°~
fidelity qâ◊fiã¨hÜ«µ`Œ
fiduciary qâÍfiã¨áå„`ŒÇ‹∞·#. ~ capacity #=∞‡Híã¨∞Îx Ǩϟ^®. ~ character
qâ◊fiã¨hÜ«µ „Ǩ=O°Î#. ~ duties qâÍfiã¨
|^°ú q^è∞° Å∞. ~ issue |~QåO°~ =∞^°`Ì ∞Œ
ÖËx Hßy`ŒÑ¨Ù HíO≥hû. ~ limit qâÍfiã¨
Ǩiq∞u. ~ money qâÍfiã¨|^°ú „^°=º~.
~ relation #=∞‡Hí~ g∞^° P^èßO°Ç¨_«¤
ã¨~|~^è°~. ~ reserve qâÍfi㨠|^°ú
xkè
field Ǩ~@á⁄Å~, Hı∆„`Œ~. ~ bean
zHí∞¯_«∞HßÜ«µÅ∞. ~ channels Ǩ~@
É’^≥Å∞. ~ of vision ^°$+≤ìHı∆„`Œ~
fiend „Hí∂O°∞_«∞, ^°Ü«µº~, ^°∞+¨ì^Õ=`Œ,
Ç‹∞·Hí~ Híq∞‡# =ºH˜Î
fiendish Ju„Hí∂O°Ç‹∞·#
fierce f„=Ç‹∞·#, ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°Ç‹∞·#
fiercely „H’^è°Ñ¨ÓO°fiHí~Qå, „ǨK«~_«~Qå
fierceness f„=`Œ, ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°`Œfi~, L„Qõ`Œ
fiery [fie~Kı, ÉèíQõ ÉèíQõ =∞~_Ë, ã¨∞Êù@
Ç‹∞·#, `Ë*’=~`ŒÇ‹∞·#, Ѷ¨∂>ˇ·#, PÇıâ◊
ѨÓi`Œ
fifth column Ǩ~K«=∂~Qõ (^°à◊~)
fig Ju났~_ǰ
fight [>©ì, HÁ>Ï¡@, [Qõ_«~, Ü«µ∞^°ú~
KıÜ«µ∞, áÈO®_«∞
fig leaf HíÇ≤Ê Ñ¨ÙK«Û_«~† „Ǩܫµ`Œfl ѨÓO°fi
Hí~Qå ^®zÃÑ@ì_«~
figurative language PÅ~HßiHí Éèß+¨,
Híq`Í`Œ‡Hí Éèß+¨
figure =∞¥iÎ, O°¥Ç¨~, â◊sO®HßO°~. ~

202

financial

head <®=∞=∂„`ŒÑ¨Ù <®Ü«µHí∞_«∞. ~ of
speech JÅ~HßO°~
filament 㨥Hí;`Œ~`Œ∞=Ù, Hıã¨O°~
filaria É’^° (Çͺkè)
file ^®YÅ∞ KıÜ«µ∞, ^°G~, PHí∞O®Üµ,
Ǩ~H˜Î. ~ a petition Js˚ ^®YÅ∞KıÜ«µ∞
filial ÃÑ^°ÌÅ ÉÏ^è°º`ŒHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
filiality Ç≤`Œ$Éèß=#
filiation =~â◊„Hí=∞~, Ѩل`Œ`Œfi~
filibuster HßÅÜ«∂Ǩ# „Ǩã¨~Qõ~
filiform `Œ~`Œ∞O°¥Ç≤, ^®O°~ =~>˜
fillip „¿ÑO°}, „áÈ`ÍûǨÏ~
filter =_«áÈ¿ã ™®^è°#~† =_«áÈÜ«µ∞. ~
cloth QåÅ# =G~. ~ paper =_«áÈ`Œ
Hßy`Œ~. ~ paper pulp =_«áÈ`Œ
Hßy`Œ~ Qõ∞A˚. ~ photometer xO°æÅ#

Hß~u =∂ǨHí~
filterable =_«áÈÜ«µ ^°y#
filth O’`ŒÑ¨Ù>˜ì~Kı =∞e#~
filtrate =_«áÈã≤# „^°=~, Qåe`Œ~
filtration =_«áÈ`Œ, QåÅ#O
final `Œ∞k. ~ cause J~u=∞HßO°}~.
~ demand J~u=∞ JÉèíºO°÷#. ~
hearing `Œ∞k qKÍO°}
finalism áåO°º~uHí ÇÍ^°~
finance „^°=º~, q`ŒÎ~. ~ bill Pi÷Hí
aÅ∞¡, q`ŒÎâÍã¨#~. ~ company

ÃѶ·<®<üû Hí~ÃÑhÅ∞, Pi÷Hí O°∞}®Å∞ WKıÛ
Hí~ÃÑhÅ∞. ~ house O°∞}®eKıÛ ã¨~ã¨÷.
~ ministry Pi÷Hí =∞~„u`Œfi âÍY
financial „^°=º/ q`ŒÎ ã¨~|~^èÇ
° ∞‹ #· , Pi÷Hí
=#O°∞ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#. ~ accountant Pi÷Hí =#O°∞Å Qõ}Hí∞_«∞. ~ adviser Pi÷Hí ã¨ÅǨ^®O°∞. ~ crisis
Pi÷Hí ã¨~H∆’Éèí~. ~ instrument „^°=º
™®^è°#~. ~ sector Pi÷Hí ¿ãÇÍO°~Qõ~.
~ year Pi÷Hí ã¨~=`ŒûO°~

finding
finding Hí#∞HÁ¯#fl q+¨Ü«µ~, xO°‚Ü«µ~
find spot ^˘iH˜# KÀ@∞
fine art Åe`ŒHíà◊
fine coating ǨÅ∞K«x ѨÓ`Œ, 㨥Hí;
ÖËǨ#~. ~ porosity 㨥Hí;ã¨pÛù„^°`Œ,
~ texture <åE‰õΩ <Õ`«
fine rate =_ô¤H˜ „áåuǨkHí Jܵ# OÕ@∞
finger plan #QõO®xfl P#∞HÁx Ç‹Åã≤#

HÁ`ŒÎ Ǩ@ì}®Å∞
finicky KÍ^°ã¨Î~
fink KÍ_ôÅ∞ K‹Ç¨C
fire xǨC, Jyfl. ~ clay |~Hí=∞>˜ì, Jyfl
=∞$uÎHí. ~ extinguisher =∞~@ÖÏOÕÊ
Ü«µ~„`Œ~. ~ proof Jyfl xO’^è°Hí~
firing |>©ì/ `Œ∞áåH˜ HßÅ∞Ê
firm Ǩ>˜+¨ªã¨~ã¨÷† ã≤÷O°Ç‹∞·#, ^°$_è°Ç‹∞·#†
„Hí=∞~Qå ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞. ~ market ã≤÷~°
qǨ}˜. ~ opinion xtÛ`Íaè„áåÜ«µ~
firmness Ãã÷ÂO°º~, Qõ>˜ì^°#~, Ǩ@∞ì^°Å
first `˘e, Ç‹∞∞^°>˜, „áåO°~ÉèíѨÙ. ~ aid
„Ǩ^ä°=∞ zH˜`Œû. ~ coating `˘e ѨÓ`Œ.
~ person narrative L`ŒÎ=∞ ѨÙO°∞+¨
Hí^ä°#~
fiscal q`ŒÎ ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#. ~ policy q`ŒÎ
q^èß#~, H’â◊ q^èß#~
fish glue KıǨ lQõ∞O°∞
fishing KıǨÅÇı@
fission J}∞ qKıÛù^°#/ qzÛùuÎ/ qÉèí[#
fissionable qÉèí[# ܡ∂QõºÇ‹∞·#, qzÛùuÎH˜
J#∞Ç‹·#
fissure peHí, ǨQõ∞Å∞, <ˇiÜ«µ
fist Ç≤_çH˜e
fistula <®à◊„=}~. ~ in ano ÉèíQõ~^°O°~.
visisco vaginal ~ =∞¥„`Íâ◊Ü«µ/
ܡ∂x <®à◊„=}~
fit =∞¥O°Ûù† LǨܫµ∞HíÎ

203

flame

fitch qzÛùHí
fitment Qõ$ǨϟǨHíO°}
fitness ܡ∂Qõº`Œ, JO°›`Œ, ^°$_è°`Œfi~.
physical ~ âÍsO°Hí ^°$_è°`Œfi~
fix ã≤÷O°Ç¨O°K«∞, ™®÷Ç≤~K«∞, xO°‚ܵ~K«∞†

Jܡ∂=∞Ü«µ~, Z@¥`ÀK«x ã≤÷u
fixation Ѷ¨∞hHíO°}, ™®÷Ü∂HíO°}, ã≤÷s
HíO°}
fixative ã≤÷O°Hßi, ã≤÷O°~Qå L~Kı
fixed xÜ«µq∞`Œ, ã≤÷O°. ~ asset ã≤÷O®ã≤Î.
~ cost ã≤÷O°=ºÜ«µ~. ~ deposit
xÜ«µq∞`Œ HßÖÏxH˜ xÅfiKı¿ã ÃÑ·Hí~. ~
form ã≤÷O° ™®Ç≤Ï`Œº O°¥Ç¨~. ~ investment ã≤÷O°Ç‹∞·# ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç. ~ orbit
ã≤÷O°HíHí∆ º. ~ star xâ◊ÛÅ #Hí∆„`Œ~
fixing ã≤÷O°Ç¨O°K«_«~, x~°úi~K«_«~, J=∞
O°Û_«~, áå`Œ_«~
fixture ™®÷Ç≤`Œ =ã¨∞Î=Ù („H©_«Ö’¡) xs‚`Œ
HßÅ~
fixtures ™®÷=O®Å∞ (Éèí=<®Å∞, J_«=ÙÅ∞,
O’_«∞¡ Ç‹∞∞IIq), ay~ѨÙÅ∞, J=∞iHíÅ∞
flabelliform qã¨#Hí„O°ÖÏQõ∞~_Ë
flaccid ay`ŒÇ≤Ê#, Ǩ@∞ìã¨_«e#
flag bearer Ǩ`ÍHí^èßi, =∞∞YºÇ‹∞·# =ºH˜Î
flagellation ^°~_ç~K«_«~
flagellum HíâÍÉèí~
flagitious ^°¥+≤~K«^°y#, ^®O°∞}Ç‹∞·#
flagrant ÃѶ∞ÏO°Ç‹∞·#
flagship (<ÒHß^°à◊~Ö’) „Ǩ^èß#Ç‹∞·# <ÒHí
flake ÃÑK«∞Û, ¿Ñ_«∞
falke white =∞~K«∞ `ˇÅ∞ѨÙ, `Œ∞ë®O°
âıfi`Œ~
flame =∞~@, *ÏfiÅ. ~ proof Jyfl xO’
^è°Hí~. ~ spectrophotometer *ÏfiÖÏ
=O°‚Ǩ@ Hß~u=∂ǨHí~. ~ spectrum
*ÏfiÖÏ =O°‚Ǩ@~. ~ test *ÏfiÖÏ Ç¨sHí∆

flandrian
flandrian =∞~K«∞#^°∞Å #∞~_ç <Ë>=
˜ O°H∞í
QõÅ HßÅ~. ~ trangression =∞~K«∞

Híiy ã¨=∞∞„^° =∞@ì~ ÃÑO°Qõ_«~
ǨHí¯, áåO°≈fi~, O≥~_«∞Ç‹·Ñ¨ÙÖÏ
L~_«_«~† Éèí=#~, HÁ~_« Ç‹∞∞. ÇÍ>˜
ǨHí¯ÉèßQõ~† ǨHí¯#/ ™®Ü«µ~Qå =K«∞Û
flap ^°à◊~, O≥Hí¯
flare up ÇͺÇ≤~K«∞, qâÍÅ=∞Qõ∞
flash Ç‹∞O°∞ѨÙ, JHí™®‡`Œ∞ÎQå HíeQÕ Éèß=~
flashback HßÅ„Hí=∞ =º`ŒºÜ«µ~
flashy Ç‹∞i¿ã
flat =∞~„^°~. ~ colour =∞~„^° =O°‚~.
~ foot K«^°∞<ˇ·# áå^°~. ~ rate
xs‚`ŒÇ‹∞·# OÕ@∞
flatogen Hí_«∞ѨÙ|ƒO°~ Híey~Kı Ǩ^®O°÷~
flatter ѨÓiÎ #+¨ì~/ F@q∞† Jq^èıÜ«µ`Œ†
á⁄Qõ_«∞
flattery Ç‹∞O°Ç‹∞K«∞Û =∂@Å∞, =∞∞Yã¨∞Îu
flatulence Hí_«∞Ѩ٠L|ƒO°~
flatus Jáå# ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù, Ç≤`ŒÎ~
flat yield ÃÑ@∞ì|_«∞ÅÃÑ· =KıÛ =_ô¤
flauid ÇÍ_çáÈÜ˵@@∞¡ KıÜ«µ∞
flavour O°∞z, ã¨∞ÇÍã¨#
flavouring O°∞zx, ã¨∞ÇÍã¨##∞ HíeÊ~
K«_«~. ~ agent O°∞zx, ã¨∞ÇÍã¨##∞
HíeÊ~Kı Ǩ^®O°÷~
flaw ǨQõ∞Å∞, `ŒÇ¨C, |ÅÇ‘Ï#`Œ, ^À+¨~,
á⁄O°áå@∞
flawless ^À+¨ O°Ç≤Ï`Œ
flax JqÃã K‹@∞ì
flay f„=~Qå q=∞i≈~K«∞
flea pit áå`Œ ã≤x=∂ ǨÅ∞
fleas QÀ=∂O°∞¡
fledgling O≥Hí¯Å∞ `˘_«∞Hí∞¯~@∞#fl, O°¥Ñ¨Ù
k^°∞ÌHí∞~@∞#fl
flee áåiáÈ=Ù
flank

204
fleece Lxfl,

floating rate bond

Q˘„O≥ÉÁK«∞Û† Lxfl HíuÎi~K«∞†
^ÀK«∞HÁ#∞, Pã¨∞ÎÅ#∞ Hß*ËÜ«µ∞
fleeing ǨÖÏÜ«µ#~
fleet <ÒHß^°à◊~, F_«Å ÉÏO°∞
fleeting #t~K«∞, x`Œº~ Hßx
fleming ^Õâ◊xÇÍã≤
flex =~Qõ∞, =~K«∞, =~K«_ÍxH˜ gÖˇ·#
q^°∞º^®fiǨÏHí `Œ~„u. ~ muscle =~QÕ
Hí~_«O°~
flexibility =â◊º`Œ, Ç‹∞`ŒÎ^°#~, =∞ÅK«
^°y#, ÖÁ~QõnÜ«µ^°y#, X^°∞Qõ∞ÉÏ@∞
flexible Ç‹∞`ŒÎx, #=∞º, =â◊º. ~ constitution J^°$_è° O®*Ϻ~Qõ~
flexi time Hßi‡Hí ã¨∞ÅÉèí „â◊=∞ ã¨=∞Ü«µ~
flexor =∞∞_çKı
flibberti gibbet =^°O°∞É’`Œ∞, x„+¨Ê
ܡ∂[Hí∞_«∞, x~^® „ǨKÍO°Hí∞_«∞
flick XHí¯™®iQå Hí^°Å_«~, ÇıQõ~Qå =ã¨∞Î
=Ù#∞ Çıà◊§`À fÜ«µ_«~, HÁO°_Í#∞/
`Œ∞~_«∞Qõ∞_«¤#∞ XHí z=O° Ǩ@∞ìHí∞x
Qõ>˜ìQå qã¨O°_«~
flicker q∞#∞Hí∞q∞#∞Hí∞ =∞x Ç‹ÅQõ_«~
flickleness K«~K«Å`Œ
flimsy ã¨fiÅÊÇ‹∞·#, ^°∞O°ƒÅÇ‹∞·#, `ËeH≥·#
flinch [~Hí∞
fling qã¨∞O°∞, O°∞=Ùfi
flip flap Tyã¨ÖÏ@
flippant `ˇeq `ŒHí∞¯=Qå =∂>Ï¡_Ë
flirt P#~^°~Qå HßÅ~ Qõ_«∞ѨÙ
float `ËÅ∞, D^°∞, HíO≥hû qÅ∞=#∞
¿ãfiK«ÛùQå ã¨=i~K«∞, ™®÷Ç≤~K«∞, „áåO°~
aè~K«∞, `ˇÇ¨Ê, HÁ@∞ìHÁxáÈ=Ù, ÇÍ>ÏÅ#∞
J=∞‡HßxH˜ ÃÑ@ì_«~, zÅ¡O°
floating loan O°∞}~ q_«∞^°Å KıÜ«µ_«~
floating assets K«O®ã≤Î
floating rate bond ã¨=i~Kı O°∞}Ǩ„`Œ~

floctulation
floctulation 㨥Hí;Hí}®Å Ѷ¨∞hÉèí=#~
flog q=∞O®≈G~, ɡ`ŒÎ~`À/ HÁO°_Í`À

HÁ@ì_«~, q=∞O®≈G~ „Ǩܡ∂y~K«∞,
`ŒÇ¨CǨ@ì>ÏxH˜ J=Hßâ◊~ fã¨∞HÁ#∞
flogging `ŒO°=∞_«~, ɡ`ŒÎ~`À HÁ@ì_«~
flood =O°^°. ~ plains =O°^° Ç‹∞·^®<®Å∞
flooding =∞∞~ѨÙ
floor Éèí¥`ŒÅ~, <Ëņ Éèí=#~Ö’ J~`Œã¨∞Ά
ã¨=∞∞„^°Ñ¨Ù@_«∞Qõ∞, K«O°Û [iQÕ KÀ@∞,
„â’`«Å∞ ‰õÄ~°∞Û<Õ KÀ@∞, O°~Qõã¨÷Å~.
go to the ~ s z„fHíO°}Hí∞ Ç‹à◊∞¡
floor crossing Ѷ≤O®Üµ~ѨÙ
flooring <ËÅ g∞^° |~_«Å∞ ǨO°K«_«~
flora =$Hí∆ *Ï`Œ∞Å∞, ѨÙ+≤Ê~Kı Ç‹∞∞Hí¯Å
*Ï`Œ∞Å∞, XHí „áå~`Œ~Ö’ L#fl =$Hí∆
*ÏÅ~, Ç‹∞∞Hí¯Å ã¨=∞∞^®Ü«µ~. bacterial ~ 㨥Hí;rq ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~. intestinal ~ ¿ÑQõ∞Ö’x 㨥Hí;rq ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~
floriculture ѨÓÅ ÃÑ~ǨHí~, ѨÙ+¨Ê
=O°ú#~
florid Z„O°ÉÏi#
flotilla Ü«µ∞^°ú<®=Å z#fl Qõ∞~ѨÙ. ~
supervisor Ü«µ∞^°ú<ÒHß Ç¨O°ºÇıHí∆Hí∞_«∞
flourish =i÷Å∞¡, =$kúá⁄~^°∞, ÉÏQõ∞Ǩ_«∞,
K«∞O°∞Hí∞Qå L~_«∞, O°≠oÇ≤~K«∞, JÅ~Hí
i~K«∞
flout LÅ¡~Ѷ≤∞~K«∞, xO°¡Hí∆ º~ KıÜ«µ∞
flow „ǨÇÍǨÏ~. menstrual ~ O°∞`Œ∞
„™®=~
flowage Ѷ¨∞#Ǩ^®O°÷ „ǨÇÍǨÏ~
flow chart qq^è° ^°â◊ÅÖ’ „ǨQõux
㨥z~Kı z„`Œ~
flower fossils ѨÙë®Ê=âıë®Å∞
flowing „Ǩã¨$`Œ
fluctuate Tyã¨ÖÏ_«∞,
xÅHí_«ÖËx,
ÃÇÏK«∞Û`ŒQõ∞æÅ∞#fl† =∂O°∞Ê K‹~^°∞

205

focus

ÃÇÏK«∞Û`ŒQõ∞æÅ∞, xÇ‹Øfl#fl
`ÍÅ∞, KÍ~K«Åº~
fluency ^èßO®à◊
fluent ã≤÷O°~Hßxk, xÅHí_«ÖËxk, „ǨÇÍÇ≤Ï
fluffy Ç‹∞`ŒÎx (ÉÁK«∞Û)
fluid „^°=~. ~ cerebro spinal =∞ã≤Î+¨¯
Çı∞O°∞„^°=~. intraocular ~ J~`ŒO°H˜∆
„^°=~. seminal ~ â◊∞„Hí~, gO°º~
fluidity „^°=`Œ, Jã≤÷O°ã≤÷u, „ǨÇÍǨÏã≤÷u.
~ pressure „ǨÇÍǨÏÇ‘_«#~. ~ situation JxtÛ`Œ Ǩiã≤÷u. ~ therapy
<À>˜^®fiO®/ O°HíÎ<®à◊~ ^®fiO® Qõ¥¡H’*ò
h>˜x Å=}®Å#∞ ZH˜¯~Kı zH˜`Œû
fluke J^°$+¨ì~
flume Hí$„u=∞ „ǨÇÍǨÏ~
flunial #^°∞ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
flunkeys <ÒHíO°∞¡
fluorecence „ǨunÇ≤Î
fluorescent „ǨunǨÎ. ~ lamp „ǨunǨÎ
nǨ~. ~ screen „ǨunǨÎÜ«∂#Hí~. ~
tube „ǨunǨΠ<®oHí
fluroscopy „ǨunÇ≤Î ^°O°≈#~
flurry `˘„@∞áå@∞, L„^ÕHí~
flush O≥Hí¯ qzÛ ZyiáÈ=Ù, â◊∞„Éèí~Qå
Hí_«∞Qõ∞, =∞∞Y~ Hí~káÈ=Ù
fluvial action #n „Hí=∞Hí∆Ü«µ~
flux „ǨÇÍǨÏ~, K«Å#~, „Ǩ„ã¨=}~
fly ash ^ä°O°‡Öò q^°∞º`Œ∞Î Hı~„^®Å #∞~z
Ç‹Å∞=_Ë |¥_ç^°
flying saucers ZyOÕ Ç¨à®§Å∞
flying squad PHíã≤‡Hí ǨsH∆ß ^°à◊~
foam #∞O°∞Qõ∞
focal Hı~„^° ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#. ~ length
<®Éèíº~`ŒO°~. ~ point „Ǩ^èß# Hı~„^°~,
^°$+≤ì<®Híi¬~Kı ™®÷#~
focus JkèHı~„^°~, <®aè. primary ~
<®aèHı~„^°~
fluctuation

fodder

Çı∞`Œ, Ǩâ◊∞„Qåã¨~. ~ crops
Ǩâ◊∞„Qå㨠㨙®ºÅ∞
foe â◊„`Œ∞=Ù
foetal Ç≤~_«ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#
foetus Ç≤~_«~, QõO°ƒùã¨÷ tâ◊∞=Ù
foetus in f (o) eto Ǩã≤a_«¤ Hí_«∞ѨÙÖ’
Hí=Å Ç≤~_«~
fog =∞ã¨HíQå L#fl, ^°@ìÇ‹∞·# á⁄Qõ=∞~K«∞
foible z#fl `ŒÇ≤Ê^°~, ֒Ǩ~, ^°∞O°ƒÅ`Œ
foil OÕHí∞, ™®=∞∞ KıÜ«µ_«~Ö’ qxܡ∂y~Kı
ǨÅK«x Híu†Î xO’kè~K«∞, qѶŨ ~ Kıܵ« ∞,
^≥|ƒfÜ«µ∞, F_ç~K«∞, áå_«∞KıÜ«µ∞, K‹_«
Q˘@∞ì
foist ã¨$+≤ì~K«∞, J~@Qõ@∞ì, |<®Üµ~K«∞.
~ a case ^˘~Qõ Hıã¨∞ |<®Üµ~K«∞
foliage (PHí∞) Qõ∞|∞O°∞
foliar PHí∞Å#∞ áÈe#, PHí∞ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~
kè~z#
foliation ã¨^°à◊~
foliose Ǩ„`ÍÉèí~
folk „Ǩ[Å∞, *Ï#Ǩ^°∞Å∞, Qõ∞~Ѩن „Ǩ*Ï
ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~. ~ art *Ï#Ǩ^° Híà◊. ~
dance *Ï#Ǩ^° #$`Œº~. ~ literature
*Ï#Ǩ^° ™®Ç≤Ï`Œº~. ~ lore *Ï#Ǩ^°
q*Ï˝#~, *Ï#Ǩ^° Híà◊. ~ song *Ï#
Ǩ^° w`Œ~. ~ tale *Ï#Ǩ^° Qå^ä°. ~
ways *Ï#Ǩ^°s`Œ∞Å∞
follicle ѨÙ>˜Hí, z#flH’â◊~, „^°ÇÍÅ∞
„ã¨q~Kı z#fl Hí∞ǨÏO°~
follower J#∞Ü«∂ܵ
follow through <ˇ=∞‡kQå Ç‹~|_ç~K«∞
follow up „áåO°~aè~z# ǨxH’ã¨~ Ç‹~@
|_ç Kıܵ~K«∞H’=_«~† zH˜`Íû#~`ŒO°
ǨsHí∆† J#~`ŒO° Ǩi}®=∂Å#∞ ÇÍO°ÎQå
O®Ü«µ_«~. ~ action `Œ^°#~`ŒO° K«O°º
folly `ŒÇ¨C, =∞¥O°ö`Œfi~
fodder

206

foray

„Ǩ[fie~Ǩ*ËÜ«µ∞, O°Qõ∞ÖÁ¯Å∞Ê,
HßǨ_«~ ÃÑ@∞ì
fomentation HßǨ_«~, ѨÙiHÁÅÊ_«~,
„áÈ`ŒûÇ≤Ï~K«_«~, L„^ÕH˜~Ǩ*ËÜ«µ_«~
fomties O’QõÇͺÇ≤ÎKıÜ«µ∞
fondle x=∞∞O°∞, ÇÍ`Œûź~`À `Œ@∞ì
fondling |∞[˚y~K«∞, ÖÏe~K«∞, â◊sO®xfl
ã¨Ê $t~K«∞, X~>˜ g∞^° Kı`ÀÎ O®Ü«µ∞
fondness =∞Hí∞¯=, J#∞O®Qõ~
fontanelle =∂_«∞, `ŒÅg∞k LzÛQõ∞~@
food PǨO°~. ~ allergy PǨO° Ǩ^®O®÷
Å~>ı ã¨iǨ_«HíáÈ=_«~. ~ articles
index PǨO° =ã¨∞Î=ÙŠ㨥z. ~ aversion PǨO° Ǩ^®O®÷Å~>ı U=y~ѨÙ. ~
for thought Ç‹∞^°_«∞Hí∞ Çı∞`Œ. ~
grains u~_ç y~[Å∞. ~ intolerance
PǨO° Ǩ^®O®÷Å~>ı Ǩ_H« áí È=_«~. protective ~ ã¨~O°Hí∆HßǨO°~. supplementary ~ ã¨~ѨÓO°HßǨO°~
food web PǨO° *ÏÅ~
fool hardy JqÇıH˜
fool proof Hí@∞ìk@ì=∞ܵ#† ɡki~ѨÙ
ÅHí∞, ^®_«∞ÅHí∞ ÖÁ~Qõx
foot áå^°~, JHí∆O° Qõ}~, xÜ«µ `ÍHí∆O°
ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~. ~ and mouth disease
QåeHí∞~@∞ Çͺkè. ~ drop ÇıÖÏ_Ë
áå^°~. ~ hold P^èßO°~. ~ rest HßÅ∞
xe¿Ñ KÀ@∞, áê^°Ç‘Oî°~. ~ root
Hß~_«~ Hí∞à◊∞¡ Çͺkè
fora ÇıkHíÅ∞
forage Çı∞`Œ, Ǩâ◊∞„Qåã¨~, PǨO°~ H’ã¨~
^Õ=ÙÖÏ@/ Ç‹^°∞Hí∞ÖÏ@
foramen O°~„^è°~
foray ^ÀK«∞HÁ#∞, ^˘~ye~K«∞, JǨǨÏ
i~K«∞, J„Hí=∞~Qå fã¨∞HÁxáÈ=Ù† JǨ
ǨÏO°}, ^ÀÇ≤_ç, ^®_ç
foment

207

forbearance
forbearance ã¨Ç¨Ï#~, ã¨Ç≤Ï+¨∞‚`Œ
forbid =O°˚#, x¿+^è°~† =^°Ìx P*Ï˝Ç≤~K«∞
forbidden x+≤^°ú, „Ǩu+≤^°ú
force |Å„Ç¨Üˇ∂Qõ~. compressional ~
ã¨~Ç‘_«# |Å~. ~ line |ÅOÕY. tangential ~ ã¨ÊO°≈ OÕMÏ|Å~
forceful „Ǩ|Å, |ÅÇ‹∞·#, â◊H˜Î=∞~`Œ
force majeure J#¥Ç¨Ïº, JxÇÍO°º

Ǩiã≤÷u
forceps „âÍ=}~
fore arm =∞∞~*Ëܵ
fore brain J„Qõ=∞ã≤Î+¨¯~
fore cast =∞∞~^°∞Qå `ˇeã≤HÁ#∞/

^°¥O°~

TÇ≤Ï~K«∞† Éèßq㨥K«#
forecaster Éèßq㨥K«Hí∞_«∞
fore closure q_«∞^°Å Kıã∞¨ H’ÖËHá
í È=_«~,

qÇ‹ØK«# ǨÏHí∞¯ H’Ö’Ê=_«~
fore dune Ö’`Œ@∞ì „áå~`ÍÖ’¡ L~_Ë
Wã¨∞Hí <ËÅÅ∞
fore front =∞∞~^°∞, J„QõÉèßQõ~, =∞∞Yº
Ç‹∞·# ™®÷#~
forego H’Ö’Ê=Ù
foreground ѨÙO’Éèí¥q∞
foregrounding
J™®^èßO°}©HíO°}~,
=„Hí`Œ, ѨÙO°ã¨¯O°}~, JǨiK«Ü∂HíO°}~†
=º=ǨO°~ aè#fl~Qå Kı¿ã Híq`Œfi Éèßë®
„Ǩܡ∂Qõ~
forehead #∞^°∞O°∞, ÅÖÏ@~
foreign W`ŒO°Ç‹∞·#,
q^ÕjÜ«µÇ‹∞·#,
|Ü«µ>˜. ~ affairs q^Õj =º=ǨO®Å∞.
~ aid q^Õj ™®Ü«µ~. ~ body J#º
Ǩ^®O°÷~. ~ collaborator q^Õj
ã¨Ç¨ÏHßi. ~ debts q^Õj O°∞}®Å∞. ~
exchange q^Õj =∂O°Hí~. ~ exchange market q^Õj „^°=º =∂O°Hí
qǨ}˜. ~ language ǨO°Éèß+¨. ~ of-

formation

q^Õj HßO®ºÅÜ«µ~. ~ policy
q^ÕâÍ~Qõ q^èß#~. ~ sales q^ÕâÍÅHí∞
Jq∞‡# =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ ã¨~Yº/ qÅ∞=
foreigner q^ÕjÜ«µ∞_«∞
foreman J[=∂ܵ+‘ Kı¿ã J#∞Éèí=A˝
_≥·# ǨxÇÍ_«∞
forensic <®ºÜ«µã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#. ~ chemistry <®ºÜ«µ–Ç‹·^°º O°™®Ü«µ# âÍG~. ~
medicine <®ºÜ«µã¨~|~^è° Ç‹·^°º âÍG~
foresee =∞∞~^°∞Qå<Ë TÇ≤Ï~K«∞/ J~K«<®
ÇıÜ«µ∞
forest park J@g L^®º#=#~
foreward =∞∞#∞fl_ç
forex q^Õj =∂O°Hí~. ~ market q^Õj
=∂O°Hí qǨ}˜. ~ reserves q^Õj
=∂O°Hí „^°=º xÅ∞=Å∞
forfeit [ѨÙÎ, ™®finè#~, H’Ö’Ê=_«~,
áÈQ˘@∞ìHÁ#∞
forfeiture [ѨÙÎ, H’Ö’Ê=_«~
forge ^˘~QõǨ„`ÍÅ#∞ O°¥á⁄~k~K«∞†
Hí=∞‡O°~ KıÜ«µ∞
forged #H˜b, ^˘~Qõ O®`Œ O®Ü«µ∞
forgery ^˘~Qõ ã¨~`ŒHí~, Hí∂@HíO°}~
forget =∞O°záÈ=Ù, ǨO®Hí∞Ǩ_«∞
forgo =^°∞Å∞HÁ#∞, q_çzÃÑ@∞ì
for hire J^≥ÌHí∞/ H˜O®ÜµH˜/ ÉÏ_«∞QõHí∞
form HßO°~, PHí$u (™®Ç≤Ï`Œº) O°¥Ç¨~,
„H©_Í ™®=∞O°÷º~, „H©_ÍHßO°∞_ç ™®÷ܵ
formal ÖÏ~Kè«#„áåÜ«µ. ~ cause
PHí$uHí HßO°}~. ~ consistency
PHí$uHí ã¨~Qõ`Œ`Œfi~. ~ education
xÜ«µ`Œ q^°º. ~ implication PHí$u
Hß~`ŒO®ƒù=~
formalism O°¥Ç¨ÇÍ^°~
formally ÖÏ~Kè«#„áåÜ«µ~Qå
formation xO®‡}~
fice

formative
formative (O°¥Ç¨) xë®Ê^°Hí
former =∂r, Éèí¥`ŒÑ¨ÓO°fi
formication â◊sO°~ÃÑ· H©@HßÅ∞

áåHí∞
`Œ∞#fl@∞ì~_«_«~
formidable Jâ◊Híº, |bÜ«µ, Híiî#, |Å
=`ŒÎO°, =∞ǨÏ`ŒÎO°=∞ܵ#, ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°,
Z^°∞O°∞ÖËx, ^®@ÖËx, J™®^è°º
formula 㨥„`Œ~
formulation 㨥„fHíO°}, ã≤^®ú~fHíO°}
fornication JqÇÍÇ≤Ï`Œ∞Å =∞^è°º =ºaè
KÍO°~
forsake hà◊√§=^°∞Å∞, q_çzÃÑ@∞ì, Ǩi`Œº
l~K«∞, `Àã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞
forswear ^˘~Qõâ◊Ǩ^ä°~ KıÜ«µ∞, â◊Ǩ^ä°
ѨÓO°fiHí~Qå q_çzÃÑ@∞ì
forte qt+¨ì`Œ, qÅHí∆}`Œ, qâı+¨Qõ∞}~,
^°$_è°`Œfi~, Ç≤_ç#∞~z ã¨Qõ~ =O°Hí∞ QõÅ
HíuÎ ÉèßQõ~
forthwith WHí=∞∞~^°∞, `ŒHí∆}~, Ç‹~@<Ë
fortification
„Ǩ|bHíO°},
O°Hí∆}
(xO®‡})~
fortify |ÅǨO°K«∞, Ǩ>˜+¨ª~KıÜ«µ∞, áÈ+¨Hí
â◊H˜Î =$kúKıÜ«µ∞, Qõ>˜ìǨO°K«∞, ^°$_è°Ç¨O°K«∞
fortitude Ãã÷ÂO°º~, ^è≥·O°º~, ã¨Ç¨Ï#~, =∞<À
x„QõǨÏ~
fortnight O≥~_«∞ ÇÍO®Å HßÅ~, ǨHí∆~
forum ÇıkHí
forward army J„Qõ„âı}˜ Ãã·xHí ^°à®Å∞
forwarder Ǩ~¿Ñ =ºH˜Î
forward integration XHí Hí~ÃÑh ǨxH˜
=KıÛ `ŒH˜¯# Hí~ÃÑhÅ#∞ `Œ#Ö’ HíÅ∞ѨÙ
HÁ#_«~
forward reaction ѨÙO’Qåq∞K«O°º
fossil tÖÏ[~. ~ fuel tÖÏ[ W~^è°#~
fossilization tÖÏrHíO°}
fossorial ÉÁiÜ«µÅ∞ Híey#

208

frantic

„â◊^°ú`À ÃÑ~K«∞HÁ#∞/ áÈ+≤~K«∞,
„áÈ`ŒûÇ≤Ï~K«∞
fostering ã¨~O°Hí∆}, ÃÑ~ǨHí~
fouling =∞e#~ KıÜ«µ∞
founder =º=™®÷ǨHí∞_«∞, ã¨~™®÷ǨHí∞_«∞
founding xO®‡}~
foundling J<®^ä° tâ◊∞=Ù, Ǩi`ŒºHíÎ
tâ◊∞=Ù
found object „áåǨΠ=ã¨∞Î=Ù
foundry ֒ǨÅ∞ Híiy~Kı HÁeq∞, ֒ǨÏ
HßO° Ǩi„â◊=∞
fourth estate Ǩ„uHß O°~Qõ~
fovea ÖÁ`ŒÎ
fowl H’_ç, ǨH˜∆
foxing Ǩã≤q∞ =∞K«Û
fractional P~tHí. ~ crystalization
P~tHí ã¨Ê>˜H©HíO°}~. ~ distillation
P~tHí ¿ãfi^°#~. ~ rendering P~tHí
z„`Œ}. ~ testmeal P~tHí „Ç¨Üˇ∂Qå
ǨO°~
fractionation column J~jHíO°}
ã¨Î~Éèí~
fractography ÉèíQõfl`åǨsHí∆
fracture ǨQõ∞Å∞, qO°∞ѨÙ
fragile ÃÑà◊∞ã¨∞, ã¨∞Å∞=ÙQå qiQÕ,
^°∞O°ƒÅ, ã¨∞xfl`ŒÇ‹∞·#. ~ relationship
Éèí~Qõ∞O° ã¨~|~^è°~
fragility ^ÒO°ƒÅº~, ^°∞O°ƒÅ`Œfi~, ÃÑà◊∞ã¨∞
^°#~
fragrance Ǩi=∞à◊~, ã¨∞ÇÍã¨#
frame K«„@~, „Ǩ}®oHí, Hí@ì_«~, =º=ã¨÷
franchise ÇÍ}˜[º ǨÏHí∞¯/ J#∞=∞u†
F@∞ǨÏHí∞¯. universal adult ~ ™®O°fi
„uHí =ܡ∂[# F@∞ǨÏHí∞¯
frankincenase Qõ∞yæÅ~, ™®~„ÉÏ}˜
frantic L„kHíÎ`Œ, LkfiQõfl, Ç≤zÛ† J`ͺÇıâ◊
ѨÓi`ŒÇ‹∞·#
foster

209

frass
frass H©@HßÅ qã¨O°˚#
fraternal turins O≥~_«∞

J~_ÍÅ #∞~_ç

[x‡~Kı Hí=ÅÅ∞
fraternity ™œ„Éèß`Œ$`Œfi~/ ™È^°O°Éèß=~
fratricide J#∞[/ Éèß`Œ$ ǨÏ`Œº
fraud Hí∂@HíO°}~, =~K«#, Ç‹Øã¨~,

^°Qå
fraudulent =~K«#`À Hí∂_ç#
fraudster Ç‹Øã¨Qå_«∞
fraught with x~_ç#, Hí∂_ç#,
fray [Qõ_«~, áÈ>Ï¡@, áÈO®_«∞
freak Jã¨Ç¨Ï[, K«Ç¨Å, ã¨fiÉèß=

L#fl

qO°∞^°ú,
qz„`Œ=ºH˜Î
free q_«∞^°Å KıÜ«µ∞† ¿ãfiK«ÛùQå L#fl,
=∞∞HíÎ, Jã¨~Ü«µ∞HíÎ, ã¨fi`Œ~„`Œ. ~ acid
Jã¨~Ü«µ∞HßÎ=∞¡~. ~ and fair ¿ãfiK«Ûù,
<®ºÜ«µ|^°úÇ‹∞·#. ~ association ¿ãfiKÍÛù
Ǩ^°ã¨∞ÊùO°}. ~ atmosphere â◊¥#º
ÇÍ`Í=O°} „Ǩ^Õâ◊~. ~ booter ^ÀÇ≤_ç
^˘~Qõ. ~ from want ^®i„^°º xO°¥‡
Å# ™®fi`Œ~„`Œº~. ~ hand drawing
ã¨fiK«Ûù~^° ÖËY#~. ~ hold ã¨~ѨÓO°‚
Ü«∂[=∂#ºÑ¨Ù ǨÏHí∞¯Å∞. ~ hold
property ¿ãfiKÍÛùÜ«µ∞`Íã≤Î. ~ issue
Lz`Œ~Qå Ǩ~Ç≤}© Kı¿ã ÇÍ>ÏÅ∞. ~
on the high sea Jxfl ^ÕâÍÅ <ÒHíÅHí∞
¿ãfiK«Ûù. ~ list ã¨∞~Hí~ ÖËHí∞~_Í kQõ∞
=∞`Œ∞ÅHí∞ J#∞=∞u~z# =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ
*Ïa`Í. ~ living ¿ãfiKÍÛùr=#~†
¿ãfiK«ÛùQå rq~Kı. ~ offer Lz`Œ
Hß#∞Hí: HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞`À áå@∞ J^°#~Qå
WKıÛ. ~ of particular average
F_«Ö’x ã¨O°∞Hí∞ÃÑ· Kı¿ã c=∂. ~ radical ¿ãfiKÍÛù „áåuǨkHí. ~ sample
Lz`Œ #=∞¥<®/ =∂ki/ =∞K«∞Û. ~
state ¿ãfiKåÛùã≤÷u. ~ surface energy

frenzied

¿ãfiKÀÛùǨi`ŒÅ â◊H˜Î. ~ thinking ¿ãfiKÍÛù
Ö’K«#. ~ trade ¿ãfiKÍÛù ÇÍ}˜[º~. ~
verse ¿ãfiKÍÛù Kè«~^°~, =K«# Ǩ^°º~/
Híq`Œfi~. ~ will xO°‚Ü«µ ¿ãfiK«Ûù
free carrier O°ÇÍ}® YO°∞ÛÅ#∞ JÇı∞‡
ÇÍOÕ Éèíi~K«_«~
freedom ¿ãfiK«Ûù, ™®fi`Œ~„`Œº~. ~ of assembly ã¨=∂Çıâ◊ ™®fi`Œ~„`Œ~. ~ of
association ã¨~Ѷ∞¨ xO®‡} ™®fi`Œ~„`Œ~.
~ of speech ÇÍH± ™®fi`Œ~„`Œ~. ~ of
debate K«iÛ~Kı ™®fi`Œ~„`Œº~. ~ of
enterprise ¿ãfiKÍÛù ÇÍ}˜[º~. ~ of
expression Éèß= „ǨHí@# ™®fi`Œ~„`Œº~.
~ of form shapes ¿ãfiKÍÛù O°¥áåÅ∞.
~ of press Ǩ„uHß ™®fi`Œ~„`Œº~. ~ of
religion =∞`Œ ™®fi`Œ~„`Œº~.~ struggle
™®fi`Œ~„`Œº áÈO®@~, ™®fi`Œ~„`Œº ã¨=∞O°~
freelance Jx|^°ú, ¿ãfiK«ÛùQå ǨxKı¿ã. ~
journalism ã¨fi`Œ~„`Œ áå„uHıÜ«µ`Œ
freelancer ã¨fi`Œ~„`Œ Ǩ„uHß O°K«Üµ`Œ/
O®[H©Ü«µÇı`ŒÎ
freely Ü«µ^äıK«ÛùQå
free trade zone ¿ãfiKÍÛù ÇÍ}˜[º
„áå~`Œ~
freeze ã¨Î~aè~Ǩ*ËÜ«µ∞, Ѷ¨∞hÉèíq~K«∞,
xeÇ≤ÇıÜ«µ∞
freezing Ѷ¨∞hÉèí=#~, Ç≤Ïg∞HíO°}~. ~
mixture Ç≤Ïg∞HíO°} q∞„â◊=∞~. ~
point Ѷ¨∞hÉèí=# ™®÷#~
freight O°ÇÍ}® ÉÏ_«∞Qõ. ~ rate O°ÇÍ}®
^è°O°
french bean chã¨∞/ csflã¨∞ J<Ë
zHí∞¯_«∞HßÜ«µ
french polish „ÃѶ~z q∞ã≤q∞
frenzied PÇıâ◊~ QõÅ, Xà◊∞§`ˇeÜ«µx
H’Ǩ~ QõÅ

frequency

`ŒO°K«∞Qå ã¨~Éèíq~K«_«~,
=∞O°Å =∞O°Å K‹Ç¨Ê_«~, áœ#óѨÙ#º~. ~
distribution áœ#óѨÙ#º qÉèß[#~. ~
histogram áœ#óѨÙ#º ™Èáå# z„`Œ~.
~ polygon áœ#óѨÙ#º „Hí=∞Éèí∞l. ~
table áœ#óѨÙ#º Ǩ>˜ìHí
fresco QÀ_«g∞k ÉÁ=∞‡, aèuÎ z„`Œ~
freshers Híà®âÍÅÖ’¡ HÁ`ŒÎQå Kıi#ÇÍà◊∞§
freshness `Í*Ï`Œ#~, #=`Œ, HÁ`ŒÎ^°#~
friable ã¨∞ÅÉèí~Qå á⁄_ç/ #∞Qõ∞æ JÜ˵º
friction Ѷ¨∞O°¬}, O®Ç≤_ç, HÁ>Ï¡@
friendliness q∞„`Œ`Œfi~, ¿ãflǨÏ~, <ˇÜ«µº~
friendship ¿ãflǨÏ~, q∞„`Œ`Œfi~, ™œÇ¨O°ú~
frig HßÅ~ =$^äßKıÜ«µ∞
frigate O°Hí∆} <ÒHí, Ü«µ∞^°ú <ÒHí
fright [_«∞ѨÙ, ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO° =ºH˜Î/ =ã¨∞Î=Ù
frigidity [_«`Œfi~, xO°∞`«∞ûHí`Œ
frigivore Ǩ~_«¡#∞ ux |uHı r=ÙÅ∞
frills Hí∞zÛà◊∞§
fringes „QõǨÅK«∞@∞ì HíxÇ≤~Kı =ÅÜ«∂Å∞
frisk Ç‹^°∞Hí∞, `ŒxvKıÜ«µ∞
frisking `Œ∞o§~`Œ
frivolous JÅÊ, x™®ûO°, K«Ç¨Å, xO°O°÷Hí
Ç‹∞·#, JqÇıHíÇ‹∞·#. ~ complaint Ǩã¨
ÖËx Ѷ≤O®º^°∞
frivolously [ÖÏûQå
frolic zeÇ≤ Kı+¨ìÅ∞ KıÜ«µ∞† Çı_«∞Hí,
ã¨~`À+¨~
from now WǨÊ>˜ #∞~_ç
front =∞∞~^°i ÉèßQõ~, Ü«µ∞^°úÉèí¥q∞,
Hí∂@q∞. ~ line O≥~_«∞ ¿ã#Å∞ `ŒÅ
Ǩ_ç# KÀ@∞. ~ organization J#∞
|~^è° ã¨~ã¨÷
frontage =∞∞~^°∞ „ǨÇıâ◊~
frontal #∞^°∞>˜ Z=∞∞Hí, Å>Ï>Ïã≤÷†
ÅÖÏ@~, #∞^°∞>˜ÉèßQõ~
frequency

210

full blood

frontier ã¨iǨÏ^°∞Ì, ZÅ¡
frost `Œ∞ë®O°~, =∞~K«∞, #∞O°∞Qõ∞. ~
action `Œ∞Ç≤Ï# „H˜Ü«µ. ~ bite =∞~K«∞
^≥|ƒ, K«eHÁO°∞Hí∞_«∞. ~ thrusting

`Œ∞Ç≤Ï<®uH˜∆ǨÎ~
frown =∞∞Y~ z>˜¡~K«∞, H’Ǩ^°$+≤ì
frozen Qõ_«¤Hí>˜ì#, Ѷ¨∞hÉèí¥`Œ. ~ bank
accounts ã¨Î~aè~Ǩ*Ëã≤#
ÉϺ~Hí∞

MÏ`ÍÅ∞
fructify ã¨Ñ¶¨bHí$`Œ=∞Qõ∞
fructose Ǩà◊§Ö’ K«H≥¯O°
frugal á⁄^°∞ѨÙQõÅ, *Ï„Qõ`ŒÎQõÅ, `ŒHí∞¯=
YO°∞ÛKı¿ã
frugality á⁄^°∞Ѩ٠Kıܵ« _«~, `ŒH∞í ¯= YO°∞Û
KıÜ«µ_«~
fruitful Ѷ¨Å„Ǩ^°Ç‹∞·#, ã¨Ñ¶¨ÅÇ‹∞·#
fruitless qѶ¨Å, xO°O°÷Hí
fruit rot _ÍQõ∞ `ˇQõ∞Å∞
frustrate x+¨ÊùÅ~KıÜ«µ∞, xO®â◊ǨO°K«∞,
qã≤y~K«∞
frustration xO®â◊, xã¨Ê $ǨÏ, qã¨∞Qõ∞,
PâÍÉèí~Qõ~
frying Çıܵ~K«_«~
fudge
Ç‹Øã¨y~K«∞,
^®@ÇıÜ«µ∞,
=„H©Híi~K«∞, HíÇ≤ÊѨÙK«∞Û
fuel W~^è°#~, =~@K‹O°Hí∞. ~ gas
W~^è°# ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù
fugacious `ŒHí∞¯=HßÅ~ rq~Kı
fugacity `ŒO°à◊`Œ, ǨÖÏÜ«µ#`Œ
fugitive Hß~kjHí∞_«∞, ǨÖÏܵ`Œ∞_«∞
fulcrum P^èßO°(™®÷#~)
fulfilment ǨiѨÓiÎ, Ѷ¨Åã≤kú
fuliginous =∞ã≤O°~Qõ∞
full bench S^°∞Qõ∞O°∞, J~`ŒHí∞ q∞~z
<®ºÜ«µ=∞¥O°∞ÎÅ∞ QõÅ ^è°O®‡ã¨#~
full blood XHı `Œe¡^°~„_«∞ÅHí∞ [x‡~z#

full capacity

ѨÓiÎáå@=~/ ™ÈÎ=∞`Œ/
L`ŒÊuÎ ™®=∞O°÷º~
fuller's earth K«q>˜=∞>˜ì
full-fledged ǨiѨÓO°‚Ç‹∞·#
full length ѨÓO®‚Hí$u
full strength ѨÓiΠǨ>˜=∞
full time ѨÓiÎHßÅ~
fully ѨÓiÎQå, x~_«∞Qå
fulminate f„=~Qå Y~_ç~K«∞, ¿ÑÅ∞Û.
~ powder q™ÈÊù@Hí K«¥O°‚~
fulminating ǨÏOîß`Œ∞ÎQå „áåO°~ÉèíÇ‹∞·#,
f„=Ç‹∞·#, q™ÈÊù@HíÇ‹∞·#
fulmination Y~_«#, ¿ÑÅ_«~, q™ÈÊù
@#~
fulvous Híq∞e# =<ˇflQõÅ, Ç≤~Qõà◊ =O°‚~
QõÅ
fumarole JyflǨO°fi`Œ aÅ~
fumble `Œ_«|_«∞, *ÏO°q_«∞K«∞
fume á⁄Qõ, q+¨ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù
fumigant á⁄QõÖÏ ÇͺÇ≤~Kı O°™®Ü«µ#
Ǩ^®O°÷~
fumigate ^谥Ǩ#~ "ÕÜ«µ∞, á⁄Qõɡ@∞ì
fumigation á⁄Qõ ÇıÜ«µ_«~, ^谥Ǩ#~
function „ǨÇı∞Ü«µ~, qkè, =$uÎ, „H˜Ü«µ,
HßO°º~† „Ǩ=O°Î#, „Ǩܡ∂[#~. vital
~ r=#„H˜Ü«µ
functional „Ǩܡ∂[<®`Œ‡Hí, „H˜Ü«∂`Œ‡Hí.
~ group „ǨÇı∞Ü«µ ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~/ =O°æ~.
~ language qxܡ∂Qõ Éèß+¨. ~ literacy „Ǩܡ∂[#Hßi JHí∆O®ã¨º`Œ
functional food áœ+≤ìHßǨO°~
functionalism =º=ǨÏO°} ÇÍ^°~, HßO°º
HßO°}ÇÍ^°~
functionary HßO°ºxO®fiǨÏHí∞_«∞
fundamental =∞∫eHí,
„áå^ä°q∞Hí,
„Ǩ^èß#. ~ colours „Ǩ^èß# =O®‚Å∞.
full capacity

211

furuncle

~ duties „áå^ä°q∞Hí q^è°∞Å∞. ~ equation =∞¥Åã¨g∞HíO°}~. ~ particles
=∞¥ÅHí}®Å∞. ~ right „áå^ä°q∞Hí
ǨÏHí∞¯. ~ unit =∞¥Å „Ǩ=∂}~
fundamentalism
ã¨<®`Œ#ÇÍ^°~,
„áå=∂}ºÇÍ^°~, =∞`ŒÇÍ^°~
fundus =∞¥Å~. ~ oculi <Ë„`ŒQÀà◊
=∞¥Å~. ~ of stomach [Oî°O°=∞¥Å~.
~ uteri QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ =∞¥Å~
funeral J~u=∞ ã¨~™®¯O°~. ~ rites
J~`Œº„H˜Ü«µÅ∞
fungal tb~„^è° ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#
fungation Hí∞Hí¯Q˘_«∞Qõ∞
=∂kiQå
L~_«@~
fungibles `Œ¥Kıq, `Œ¥Hí~ Çı¿ãq,
HÁeKıq, ÖˇH˜¯~KÕq
fungicide tb~„^è°<®â◊x
fungus tb~„^è°~
funk ã≤÷u, ÉèíÜ«µ~† Ç‹#∞Hí~[ÇıÜ«µ∞, *ÏO°∞
HÁ#∞, `ŒÇ¨C
funnel QõO®@∞
fur LxflÉÁK«∞Û
furious H’Ǩ~`À x~_ç#, L„QõÇ‹∞·#,
„Ǩ|ÅÇ‹∞·#, „ǨK«~_«Ç‹∞·#
furnace HÁeq∞, |>©ì. ~ products |>©ì
L`ŒÊ<®flÅ∞
furnish ã¨=∞Hí∂O°∞Û, WK«∞Û
furnishings ã¨=∞Hí∂iÛ#q
furniture Qõ$ǨϟǨHíO°}®Å∞, ™®=∂#∞
furor ǨÏ~Qå=∂, Qõ~^°O°QÀà◊~, HíÅ=O°~,
O°Éèíã¨
furrow =∞∞_«`Œ, peHí, <®Qõe KÍÅ∞†
^°∞#∞fl, ^°∞H˜¯KıÜ«µ∞
furtive O°Ç¨Ï™®ºK«O°}
furtively KÍ@∞Qå, O°Ç¨Ï㨺~Qå
furuncle ÃãQõQõ_«¤

212

fury
fury H’Ǩ~, H’áåÇıâ◊~, „H’^è°~
fuscous #Å¡x, =∞∞^°∞O°∞ O°~Qõ∞#fl
fuse Híiy~K«∞, ã¨q∞‡„â◊}~ KıÜ«µ∞
fusibility [fiÅhÜ«µ`Œ
fusible alloy [fiÅhÜ«µ q∞„â◊֒ǨÏ~
fusiform Hí^°∞O°∞ PHßO°~ QõÅ
fusilade
Ç‹Å∞¡=,
XHí¯ÃÑ@∞ì#,

=∂O°}®Ü«µ∞^èßÅ∞ „Ǩܡ∂y~K«_«~
fusion HíO°Qõ_«~, HíÅܵHí, qq^è° =∞¥Å
HßÅ∞ HíÅã≤ áÈ=_«~, qbhHíO°}, UH©
HíO°}

gallup poll

fuss ǨÏ~Qå=∂
futile Ѷ¨e`Œ~ÖËx, Ѷ¨Å=~`Œ~ Hßx, =ºO°÷
futility xO°O°÷Hí`Œ
futurism Éèíq+¨º^®fi^°~
futuristic Éèíq+¨º`Œ∞ÎHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#,

ÉèßqHßÅ ÅHí∆}®Å∞#fl
futurology Éèíq+¨º^°ÌO°≈#~
fuzzy Jã¨Ê+¨ìÇ‹∞·#, 㨥z~K«x, ã¨~^ÕǨ
ã¨Ê^°Ç‹∞·#. ~ area Jã¨Ê+¨ì q+¨Ü«µ~. ~
picture image Jã¨Ê+¨ì z„`Œ„Ǩua~|~.
~ sound Jã¨Ê+¨ì ^è°fix

Gg
gap áÈK«∞H’Å∞/ ™⁄Å∞¡=∂@Å∞
gabble Ç≤zÛ=∂@Å∞ ¿ÑÅ_«~,

ã¨}Qõ_«~,
=^°O°∞, ÇÍQõ∞, Qõ|QõÉÏ =∂>Ï¡_«∞, aQõæ
O°Qå K«^°∞=Ù
gad fly *’sQõ† *’sQõÖÏQõ O˘^°Kı¿ã
=∞x+≤
gadget LáåÜ«µ~, Ü«µ∞H˜Î (Ü«µ~„`Œ~Ö’)
z#fl J=∞iHí/ H©ÅHí~, Ü«µ~„`ŒÇ¨iHíO°~
gaff O°Ç¨Ï™®ºxfl |Ç≤ÏO°æ`Œ~ KıÜ«µ_«~
gag ÇÍHí@∞ì, <ÀO°∞=∞¥ã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞
gagged <À>’¡ U^≥·<® Hí∞H˜¯ =∂>Ï¡_«
Hí∞~_Í KıÜ«µ∞, <ÀO°∞ =∞¥Ü«µ∞
gaggle ÉÏ`Œ∞ÖÏQå JO°∞K«∞† ÉÏ`Œ∞ÅQõ∞~ѨÙ,
QõÅQõÅ =∂>Ï¡_Ë Qõ∞~ѨÙ
gaiety P#~^°~, ã¨~`À+¨~, LÖÏ¡ã¨~
gaily K«∞O°∞Hí∞Qå, P#~^°^®Ü«µHí~Qå
gain á⁄~^°∞, ÖÏaè~K«∞, O®|_ç, ã¨~Ǩ^°,
ÖÏÉèí~, J~â◊~Ö’ ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å. ~ and
loss account ÖÏÉèí #ë®ìÅ MÏ`Í
gainful ÖÏÉèíHíO°, ÖÏÉèí^®Ü«µHí, ÖÏÉèí™®>˜,
ÖÏÉèí„Ǩ^°
gainsay Hß^°x ÇÍk~K«∞, `ŒÇ¨CÖˇ#∞fl
gait #_çKı su. cerebellar ~ z#fl

Ç‹∞^°_«∞ Çͺkè =Å# #_«HíÖ’ =∂O°∞Ê.
scissor ~ Hí`ˇÎO° #_«Hí. waddling ~
ÉÏ`Œ∞#_«Hí ÖÏ~>˜ #_«Hí
gala L`ÍûǨÏѨÓi`Œ ÇÍ`Í=O°}~, P#~^°
=∞Ü«µÇ‹∞·# ã¨=∞Ü«µ~
galactogogue H©∆O°=O°úx
galactose áåÅ K«H≥¯O°
galaxy áåÅѨÙ~`Œ, #Hí∆„`Œ gkè, #Hí∆„`Œ
=∞~_«Å~, =ã¨∞Î ã¨=∞∞^®Ü«µ~, „ǨuÉèß
=~`Œ∞Å ã¨Éèí/ ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~
gall Ç‹∞∞Hí¯Ö’¡ J™®^èßO°} ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å
gallant ™®Ç¨Ï™È¿Ñ`Œ, ^è≥·O°º~QõÅ
gallantry âøO°º~, ™®Ç¨Ïã¨~, ǨO®„Hí=∞~.
~ award âøO°º|Ǩï=∞u
gall-bladder Ç≤`ÍÎâ◊Ü«µ~
gallery „âı}˜Hí, „Ǩ^°O°≈#âÍÅ, ã¨Éèß ã¨÷Å~,
<®@HíâÍÅ, „H©_ÍÇ‹∞·^®#~, J~K‹Å~K‹
Å∞Qå Hí>˜ì# „¿ÑHí∆Hí ™®÷#~
gallop Qõ∞„O°Ñ¨Ù ^Ò_«∞† ÇıQõ~Qå ǨiQ≥`Œ∞Î.
~ rhythm Qõ∞~_≥ ÇıQõ~Qå HÁ@∞ìH’=_«~
gallows LiHí~|~
gallstone Ç≤`ÍÎâ◊Ü«µ~Ö’ O®Üµ
gallup poll #=∞¥<® ZxflHí

galore
galore KÍÖÏ, ZHí∞¯=Qå
galvanise L„kHíÎǨO°K«∞,

L`ÍûǨÏǨ_«∞,
r=~áÈÜ«µ∞, =∞ÖÏ~/ Híà®Üµ ѨÓ`Œ
ѨÓÜ«µ∞
galvanised iron =∞ÖÏ~ѨÓã≤# W#∞=∞∞
galvanism qâı+¨^èß`Œ∞ã¨ÊO°≈, „ǨÇÍǨÏ
q^°∞º`Œ∞Î
galvanometer QåÅfih^°O°≈x
gambit `˘e J_«∞Qõ∞, `˘e Hí^°eHí (K«^°
O°~Qõ~Ö’), Z`Œ∞ÎQõ_«, =ӺǨÏ~
gamble E^°~† E^°=∂_«∞
gambler E^°i, E^°Qõ`ˇÎ, E^°Qå_«∞
gamete c[Hí}~
gamit ã¨~ܡ∂Qõ c[~
gamophobia ÃÑo§ J~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
gamut ã¨iQõ=∞Å∞, ã¨fiO°ã¨Ç¨ÎHí~, Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~
ã¨fiO®Å∞
gang =∞∞Oîß, Qõ∞~ѨÙ, ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~. ~ up
Qõ¥_«∞ѨÙOîß}˜ KıÜ«µ∞, =∞∞OîßHí@∞ì
ganglion <®_ô„Qõ~kä. cervical ~ „w=
<®_ô„Qõ~kä. lumbar ~ Hí>˜ <®_ô „Qõ~kä.
sympathetic ~ ã¨Ç¨#∞Éèí¥`Œ <®_ô
„Qõ~kä
gang rape ™®=∞¥Ç≤ÏHí J`ͺKÍO°~
gangrene Hí∞o¡# ѨÙ~_«∞. diabetic ~
=∞^è∞° Çı∞Ç¨Ï „=}~. septic ~ „H˜q∞Ü«µ∞HíÎ
Ç≤@Hí~
gangster |~káÈ@∞, Qõ¥~_Í
gangue Yx[ =∂e#º~
gangway #_çq∞^®i, Ç‹∞@¡^®i, xK‹Û#
gaol Mˇ·^°∞, K‹O°™®Å, *ˇ·Å∞, |~kMÏ<®.
~ bird *ˇ·Å∞ǨH˜∆
gaoler *ˇ·ÅO°∞, K‹O°™®Å JkèHßi
garb L_«∞ѨÙÅ∞, =∞∞ã¨∞Qõ∞ Çı+¨~
garbage K‹`ŒÎ, =ºO°÷ Ǩ^®O°÷~
garbling Hí_«Qõ_«~, PO°Éˇ@ì_«~, `Œ∞_«

213

gastroscope

=_«~, ^°∞=∞∞‡ ^°∞ÅǨ_«~
garden cultivation `À@ ¿ã^°º~
gargle ѨÙH˜¯e~`Œ
garish q∞Åq∞Å Ç‹∞i¿ã
garland ѨÓÅ=∂ņ ^°~_«ÇıÜ«µ∞
garments ^°∞ã¨∞ÎÅ∞, |@ìÅ∞, =„™®ÎÅ∞
garner ã¨~áåk~K«∞, á⁄~^°∞
garnering Hí∂_«Qõ@∞ì
garnish <À>©ã¨∞ WK«∞Û, =º=ǨO°~Ö’H˜

k~K«∞, _ç„H©^®O°∞ #∞~z O®|@∞ì† JÅ~
Híi~K«∞
garnishee `Œ# O°∞}^®`ŒÃÑ· _ç„H© á⁄~k#
=ºH˜ÎH˜ <ËO°∞Qå K‹e¡~K«=Åã≤# ÉÏH©^®O°∞.
~ order O°∞}„Qõã¨∞Î_ç ÉÏ~Hí∞ MÏ`ÍÅ#∞
xeÇ≤Çı¿ã~^°∞Hí∞ H’O°∞ì WKıÛ L`ŒÎO°∞fi
garrison Ãã·#º~, Ãã·xHí ™®÷=O°~
garrot ã¨=∞∞„^°Ñ¨Ù ÉÏ`Œ∞
garrulous JuÇÍQõ∞_«∞`Œ#~
gas chamber ÇÍÜ«µ∞H’+¨ª~
gaseous ÇÍÜ«µ∞ã¨~|~^è°. ~ state
ÇÍÜ«µ∞ã≤÷u
gasp ÇıQ~
õ Qå TÇ≤iÇ‘Å∞Û (<À>˜`À), TÇ≤
O®_«HíáÈ=Ù
gastrectomy rO®‚â◊Ü«∂xfl fã≤ÇıÜ«µ_«~
gastric rO®‚â◊Ü«µ ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#
gastritis [Oî°O°/ rO®‚â◊Ü«µ O’Qõ~
gastroenteritis HíÅO®, P~„`Œâ’^äŒ
gastroentrologist L^°O°H’â◊Çͺkè xѨÙ
}∞_«∞
gastroenterology rO®‚â◊Ü«∂~`ŒO° Ç‹·^°º
âÍG~
gastrolith ǨHí∆∞Å∞ q∞~QÕ O®Üµ
gastrology áåHíâÍG~
gastronome áåHíxѨÙ}∞_«∞
gastronomy ǨK«#/áåHí <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~
gastroscope rO®‚â◊Ü«µ^°i≈x

gastroscopy
gastroscopy rO®‚â◊Ü«µ/ [Oî°O° ^°O°≈#~
gastrostomy [Oî°O°zÛù„nHíO°}~
gate crash K˘K«∞ÛHí∞áÈ=@~, K˘O°ÉÏ@∞
gate crashed J<®Ç¨˙`Œ∞_«∞
gathering („Ǩ*Ï) ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~
gauche HíÅ∞ѨÙQÀÅ∞`Œ#~ ÖËx =ºH˜Î
gaudiness PO®ƒù@~, P_«~|O°~
gauge HÁÅ`Œ, =∂Ǩ#~. pressure ~

Ç‘_«# =∂ǨHí~
gaunt |ÅÇ‘Ï#∞_«∞/ |ÅÇ‘Ï#∞O®Å∞
gauze =ÅQÆ∞_»¤, QÍAQÆ∞_»¤
gawk q∞„iq∞„i/ `ËiáåO° K«¥K«∞
gay P#~^°~,
PǨ¡^°~, ã¨fie~Qõ
ã¨~ǨO°∞¯_«∞, `Œ`Œû~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#
gazette „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi Ǩ„uHí
gazump UHíǨHí∆~Qå ^è°O° ÃÑ~K«_«~†
ZHí∞¯= ^è°O° WKıÛ =∞O˘HíiÇ‹·Ñ¨Ù Ç‹∞∞Qõ∞æ
K«¥Ç¨_«~
GDP (Gross Domestic Product)

㨥÷Å^Õjܡ∂`ŒÊuÎ
gearing Hí~ÃÑh `ˇK«∞ÛHí∞#fl O°∞}Ç‹∞∞`ÍÎ
ÅHí∞, ÇÍ>ÏÅ Ç‹∞∞`ÍÎxH˜ =∞^è°º L#fl
x+¨ÊuÎ
gelatinous lQõ∞O°∞Qå L~_Ë
Gemini q∞^ä°∞#~, q∞^ä°∞#O®t
gemma zQõ∞O°∞
gemstone qÅ∞Ç‹·# O°`Œfl~/ O®Üµ
gender e~Qõ~. ~ bias ¢ã‘ΠѨÙO°∞+¨ q=
Hí∆`Œ. ~ equality ¢ã‘ΠѨÙO°∞+¨ ã¨=∂#`Œ.
~ oppression =∞Ç≤Ïà◊Å J}zÇı`Œ
gene [#∞º=Ù
genealogy =~âÍ=o, =~â◊ Ǩi}®=∞
„Hí=∞~
genecology Ç‹∞∞Hí¯Å [#∞º ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@#
`ˇe¿Ñ âÍG~

214

genesis

gene expression [#∞ºÅHí∆} =ºH©ÎHíO°}
genepool [#∞ºxkè
general ™®^èßO°}, ™®=∂#º. ~ ability
™®^èßO°} ™®=∞O°÷º~. ~ assembly
™®^èßO°} ã¨Éèí. ~ body meeting ã¨O°fi
ã¨Éèíº ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~. ~ constituency
™®^èßO°} xܡ∂[Hí=O°æ~. ~ discussion ™®^èßO°} K«O°Û. ~ effectiveness
™®^èßO°} „ǨÉèß=âÍe`Œfi~. ~ election
™®^èßO°} ZxflHí. ~ enunciation
™®=∂#º q=O°}~. ~ lien JǨCÅ∞

K‹e¡~Kı =O°Hí∞ O°∞}„QõÇ‘Ï`Œ Pã¨∞ÎÅ#∞
™®finè#~ Kıã¨∞Hí∞<Ë Ç¨ÏHí∞¯. ~ partner
™®^èßO°} ÉèßQõ™®fiq∞. ~ secretary
„Ǩ^èß# HßO°º^°i≈. ~ strike ™®O°fi„uHí
ã¨Ç‹∞‡. ~ will „Ǩ*Ïaè„áåÜ«µO
generalisation ã¨O°fiã¨=∞#fiÜ«µ~, ™®^èß
O°}©HíO°}~
generalissimo O®[H©Ü«∂kèHßO°~ Hí∂_Í
K‹ÖÏܵ~Kı Ãã·<®º^è°ºHí∆∞_«∞
generality ™®^èßO°}`Œ, ™®^èßO°} Éèß=
ÇͺǨHí`Œ
generate L`ŒÊuÎKıÜ«µ∞, L`ÍÊk~K«∞
generation L`ÍÊ^°#~† ѨÙO°∞ë®~`ŒO°~,
`ŒO°~. ~ gap `ŒO®Å =∞^è°º J~`ŒO°~
generative grammar xiÌ+¨ì ÇͺHíO°}~
generic ™®^èßO°}, *Ïu ÇͺÇ≤Î
generosity
B^®O°º~,
L^®O°~,
^®`Œ$`Œfi~, ÃÑ^°Ì=∞#ã¨∞
generous L^®O°, B^®O°º~/ Q˘Ç¨Ê
=∞#ã¨∞û QõÅ
gene [#∞ºHí}~
genesis L`ŒÊuÎ „Hí=∞~, =∞¥Å~, P^èßO°~.
~ therapy treatment [#∞º zH˜`Íû
q^èß#~

genetic

ã¨~|~kè. ~ councelling
[#∞º ã¨~|~kè, Ç≤Ï`ŒÉ’^è°. ~ engineering [#∞ºO°K«#. ~ psychology
[#∞º =∞#ã¨Î`Œfi âÍG~. ~ resistance
[#‡ã≤^°ú Çͺkè xO’^è°Hí â◊H˜Î. ~ resources [#∞º=#O°∞Å∞
geneticism ã¨Ç¨Ï[ „Ǩ=O°Î#
geneticist [#∞ºâÍG xѨÙ}∞_«∞
genetics [#∞ºâÍG~
genial PǨ¡^°HíO°, ã¨~`À+¨HíO°Ç‹∞·#
geniatric =Úã¨e`Œ<®xH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#
geniciology L`ŒÊuÎ âÍG~
genital [#<Ë~„kÜ«µ,
[#<®=Ü«µ=
ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#. ~ organs [#<®=Ü«µ
ÇÍÅ∞
genitalia [#<Ë~„kÜ«∂Å∞. external ~
ÉÏǨϺ [#<Ë~„kÜ«∂Å∞
genitourinary [#<Ë~„kÜ«µ, =∞¥„`Œ
ã¨~|~kè
genocide *Ïu q^è°fi~ã¨~, ™®=∞¥Ç≤ÏHí
ǨÏ`ͺHß~_«
genome qâ◊fi[#∞ºO®t
genotype [#∞ºO°¥Ç¨~
genre Híà®/ ™®Ç≤Ï`Œº „Ǩ„H˜Ü«µ. ~ painting x`Œºr=# z„`Œ}
gentle <ˇ=∞‡kQå, =∞$^°∞=ÙQå. ~ folk
=∞^è°º `ŒO°Qõu, L#fl`Œ `ŒO°Qõ`Œ∞Å „Ǩ[Å∞
gentleness =∞$^°∞`Œfi~,
ÖÏe`Œº~,
=∞O®º^°, ÃÑ^°Ì=∞x+≤ `ŒO°Ç¨
gentry L#fl`Œ=O°æ~, ÃÑ· `ŒO°Qõu
genuflect J}˜y=∞}˜y L~_«∞, Ç‹ØHíiÅ∞¡
genuine ÇÍã¨Î=, ã¨O°Üµ#, ã¨fiK«Ûù, =∞#ó
ѨÓO°fiHí
genuineness Ü«∂^äßO°÷º~, ã¨fiK«Ûù`Œ
genu valgum ֒ǨeH˜ =~y# Ç‹ØHßà◊∞¡,
Qå_ç^° Hßà◊∞¡
genetic [#∞º

215

germ

^˘Ç¨ÊHßà◊∞§ (|Ü«µ>˜H˜
=~y# Hßà◊∞§)
geobiology Éèí¥ rÇÍ^谺ܫµ#~
geocarpic ^°∞~ǨÅ∞ Çı¿ã
geocentric Éèí¥ Hı~„nÜ«µ. ~ theory
Éèí¥Hı~„^°Hí ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
geochemistry Éèí¥O°™®Ü«µ# âÍG~
geochronology Éèí¥ã¨ÎHõ=ܡ∂^谺ܫµ#~
geodesy Éèí¥=∂Ǩ# âÍG~
geographical Éè“QÀoHí,
Éèí¥QÀà◊
ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#
geography Éèí¥QÀà◊ âÍG~
geogrosy Éèí¥ xO®‡}®^谺ܫµ#~
geological Éèí¥q*Ï˝# âÍG ã¨~|~kè. ~
age Éè“=∞HßÅ~
geological time scale Éè“=∞ HßÅ=∂#~
geologist Éèí¥q*Ï˝# âÍGA˝_«∞
geology Éèí¥QõO°ƒù âÍG~, Éèí¥ q*Ï˝#
âÍG~
geomagnetic field Éèí¥=∞ºÜ«µ™®¯~`Œ
Hı∆„`Œ~
geometric shape OÕMÏQõ}˜`Œ/ *Ϻq∞u
O°¥Ç¨~
geometry *Ϻq∞u, Hı∆„`ŒQõ}˜`Œ~, OÕMÏ
Qõ}˜`Œ~
geomorphology Éèí¥ã¨fiO°¥Ç¨ âÍG~
geophagy =∞>˜ì u<Ë JÅÇÍ@∞
geophysics Éèí¥Éè“uHíâÍG~
geopolitical Éè“QÀoHí O®[hu ã¨~|~^è°
Ç‹∞·#
geopolitics Éè“QÀoHí O®[H©Ü«∂Å∞
geostationary Éèí¥ã≤÷O° HíHí∆ º
geotropism Éèí¥Hı~„^®aèã¨O°}~
geriatrician =$^®úǨº zH˜`Íû xѨÙ}∞_«∞
geriatrics =$^°ú Ç‹·^°ºâÍG~
germ „H˜q∞, rÇÍ}∞=Ù
genu varum

germane
germane ã¨~|~kè`ŒÇ‹∞·#, ã¨∞ã¨~Qõ`ŒÇ‹∞·#
germcide O’Qõ „H˜q∞<®â◊Hí~
germicidal O’Qõ„H˜q∞ <®â◊Hí
germinal c[ ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#
germinate L^°ƒùq~K«∞, Ç‹∞∞ÅH≥`Œ∞Î
germination J~Hí∞O°~† J~Hí∞O’`ŒÊuÎ,

c*’`ŒÊuÎ
gerontocracy =$^°∞úÅ „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~
gerontology =ܡ∂=$kú J^谺ܫµ#~
gestalt ã¨=∞„QåHí$u
gestation Ѷ¨Å#^°â◊, QõO°ƒù^èßO°} #∞~z

„Ǩã¨=~ JÜ˵º=O°Hí∞ Ǩ>˜ì# HßÅ~. ~
extrauterine ~ ÉÏǨϺ QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ QõO°ƒù
^èßO°}. period of ~ QõO°ƒù^èßO°} HßÅ~
gesticulate Ãã·QõÅ∞ KıÜ«µ∞
gesticulation J~QõqHı∆Ǩ~,
ǨÏã¨Î
q<®ºã¨~
gesture J=Ü«µ=KÍÅ#~, Éèß=㨥K«#,
Ãã·Qõ, P~yHí~, ã¨~[˝
geyser Çı_çh>˜ |∞Qõæ
GFD (Gross Fiscal Deficit) 㨥÷Å„^°=º
Ö’@∞
ghastly ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°Ç‹∞·#
ghost writer H˜O®Üµ
O°K«Üµ`Œ,
`ˇO°KÍ@∞ O°K«Üµ`Œ
giant nO°…HßÜ«µ∞_«∞† ÃÑ^°Ì PHßO°~/ Ǩi
=∂}~ L#fl =ã¨∞Î=Ù† J™®^èßO°}
Hí$`ͺÅ∞ KıÜ«µQõey# =ºH˜Î. ~ cell
|$ǨÏ`Œ¯}~. ~ size |$ǨÏ`ü Ѩi=∂}O
gibber ÇıQõ~Qå =∂>Ï¡_«∞
giddy `ŒÅ uO°Qõ_«~, Híà◊∞§ uO°Qõ_«~
gift Hß#∞Hí, |Ǩï=∞u
gigantic KÍÖÏ ÃÑ^°Ì^≥·#, J™®^èßO°}®Hí$u
QõÅ
gigantism =∞ǨHßÜ«µ`Œ
giggle H˜ã¨∞Hí∞¯# #=Ùfi, K«Ç¨C_«∞ Kı㨥Î
#=Ùfi

216

gizzard

glacial

gild ѨÓ`ŒÑ¨ÓÜ«µ∞, Ǩ#∞fl (K‹e¡~ѨÙ)
gilder #y+‘Å∞ K‹Hı¯ =ºH˜Î
gill Ç‹∞∞ǨÊ
gilt-edged „âı+¨ªÇ‹∞·#. ~ market „âı+¨ª
Ç‹∞·# qǨ}˜. ~ security „âı+¨ªÇ‹∞·#

glacial

O°Hí∆}
gilts xÜ«µ`ŒHßeHí =º=^è°∞Ö’¡ xO®úi`Œ
=_ô¤x K‹e¡~Kı „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi Ǩg∞ Ǩ„`ÍÅ∞
gim crack PHíO°¬}©Ü«µ~Qå HíxÇ≤~Kı <®ã≤
O°Hí~ =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞
gimmick J™®^èßO°} K«O°º/ =ã¨∞Î=Ù
gingeley #∞=ÙfiÅ∞
ginger JÅ¡~. dry ~ âÁ~iî. green ~
ǨzÛ JÅ¡~. ~ group ã¨fiǨHí∆ q=∞O°≈
Hí∞Å∞
gingivitis Ǩ~>˜ zQõ∞O°∞ÇÍѨÙ
gingivus Ǩ~>˜zQõ∞O°∞
giorn k#Hí$+≤: XHí O’AÖ’ z„u~z#
z„`Œ~Ö’x ÉèßQõ~
gird ã¨ÇÍÅ∞ KıÜ«µ_«~
girdup one's loins Hí+¨ìÇ‹∞·# ÖË^®
„Ǩ=∂^°HíO°Ç‹∞·# ^®xx KıÜ«µ_ÍxH˜ LǨ
„Híq∞~K«∞
giro XHí ÉϺ~Hí∞ MÏ`ÍÖ’ L#fl _«|∞ƒ#∞
=∞O’ ÉϺ~Hí∞Hí∞ |kb Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞
Ç‹ã¨∞Å∞ÉÏ@∞† J<®O’Qõº~`À L#flÇÍiH˜
xO°∞^ÀºQõ∞ÅHí∞ „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~ WKıÛ K‹Hí∞¯
girth Ǩikè, K«∞@∞ìHÁÅ`Œ. abdominal
~ L^°O°Ç¨ikè
gist ™®O®~â◊~, ã¨~„QõǨÏ~
given name Jã¨Å∞¿ÑO°∞, =ºH˜Î <®=∞~,
ÃÑ>˜ì# ¿ÑO°∞
giver ^®`Œ, ^®#~ Kı¿ãÇÍ_«∞
giving into extortion ɡki~ѨÙÅHí∞
ÖÁ~yáÈ=Ù
gizzard J~`ŒO°˚Oî°O°~

217

Ç≤Ï=∞#nÜ«µ. ~

age

Ç≤Ï=∞

Ü«µ∞Qõ~
glaciation =∞~K«∞`À HíǨC
glacier =∞~K«∞k|ƒ, Ç≤Ï=∂h#^°~
galciology Ç≤Ï=∂^谺ܫµ#~
gladden ã¨~`À+¨ÃÑ@∞ì, P#~^°~

glint „ǨHßâ◊~, Ç‹∞O°∞ѨÙ, Hß~u
glitch JÇÍ~`ŒO°~, z#fl ã¨=∞㨺
glittering `Œà◊`Œà◊, `Œà◊∞Hí∞ɡà◊∞Hí∞†

Ç‹∞O°∞

ã¨∞Î#fl
Híe

y~K«∞
gladness ã¨~`À+¨~
glamour PHíO°¬}, ã¨Ç‹Ø‡Ç¨Ï#â◊H˜Î
glance ^°$Hí∞¯. ~ at K«¥Ñ¨Ù qã¨∞O°∞, FO°
Hí~@K«¥K«∞. ~ down ^°$+≤ì=∞o§~K«∞
glancingly Hí∆}˜HígHí∆}~Ö’
gland „Qõ~kä. ductless ~ q<®à◊„Qõ~kä.
endocrine ~ q<®à◊„Qõ~kä. lymphatic
~ â’+¨O°ã¨„Qõ~kä. mammary ~ H©∆O°
„Qõ~kä. salivary ~ ÖÏÖÏ[Å „Qõ~kä.
sebaceous ~ (K«O°‡~Ö’x) `ˇ·Å„Qõ~kä
glans [#<®~Qõ jO°¬~
glare Híà◊∞¡ K‹kOÕ@∞ì Ç‹∞iÜ«µ∞
glasnost ^®Ç¨iHí~ ÖËx [ÇÍ|∞^®s`Œ#~
glass QåA, HßK«~. photochronic ~
Hß~u=O°‚ L`ËÎl`Œ HßK«~. ~ wool
(glass silk) QåA Lxfl/ Ǩ@∞ì
glaucoma h>˜Hßã¨∞Å∞
glaze Ç‹∞O°∞ѨÙ, `Œà◊∞Hí∞
glazed Ç‹∞O°∞Qõ∞ÃÑ>˜ì#. ~ tile Ç≤~Qå}˜

ǨÅHí
^°∞ºuHßO°∞_«∞, QåAǨÅHíÅ∞
J=∞OÕÛ =ºH˜Î
glazing ^°∞ºuHíÅÊ#, QåAǨÅHíÅ∞ J=∞
O°Û_«~/ Ç‹∞O°∞Qõ∞ÃÑ@ì_«~
gleam Ç‹∞O°Ü«µ∞† „ǨHßâ◊~
gleaming xQõxQõ, ^è°Qõ^è°Qõ
glee ã¨~`À+¨~, P#~^°~
glide ã¨∞xfl`Œ~Qå #_«=_«~, *ÏO°∞, áå‰õΩ
glimpse ã¨~„QõǨ=Ö’Hí#~, Hí∆}˜Hí^°$+≤ì,
Jã¨Ê+¨ì Éèß=~
glazier

glue

global J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ, QÀà®HßO°, Éè“QÀoHí,
„ǨǨ~K«ÇͺǨÎ. ~ positioning system
(GPS) LǨ„QõǨÏkHí∂ûz. ~ war
„ǨǨ~K« Ü«µ∞^°ú~. ~ warming Éèí¥q∞

Çı_≥Hí¯@~
globalisation „ǨǨ~pHíO°},

Éè“g∞HíO°},
Éè“QÀmHíO°}, qjfiHíO°}, qâ◊fiÇͺǑÎHíO°}
globe trotter „ǨǨ~K« ǨO®º@Hí∞_«∞
globular QÀà®HßO°
globule („^°=Ǩ^®O®÷Å) K«∞Hí¯, QÀà◊HíO
glomerular O°HíÎHıâ◊<®oHíÅ Qõ∞uÎ
gloom x¿ãÎ[~, xO®â◊, qKÍO°~
glorify H©iÎ~K«∞, „Ǩâ◊~ã≤~K«∞, ZHí∞¯=Kıã≤
K«¥Ñ¨Ù
glorious „Ǩu뮪HíO°Ç‹∞·#,
H©O°ÎhÜ«µ,
qMϺ`Œ
glory H©iÎ, ¿ÑO°∞, „áåÉèí=~
gloss JO°÷~, q=O°}† xQõxQõ
glossary â◊ÉÏÌ=o, â◊|Ìã¨~„QõǨÏ~, Ǩ^°
H’â◊~
glossitis <®eHíѨÓ`Œ, <®Å∞Hí =∞~_«_«~
glossy xQõxQõÖÏ_Ë. ~ magazine Ys^≥#
·
Ѩ„uHõ
glottis Hí~Oî°aÅ~, Hí~Oî°^®fiO°~
glove Kıu `˘_«∞Qõ∞
glow Ç‹Å∞Qõ∞, JkèHí~, Ѷ¨∞#~, ǨinÇ≤Î,
nÇ≤Î. cathode ~ O°∞}„^è°∞= nÇ≤Î. ~
discharge nÇ≤Î L`ŒûO°æ~
glowing tributes Ѷ¨∞#xÇÍà◊∞Å∞
glue lQõ∞O°∞, „Éèß~u Híey~Kı F O°Hí~
=∂^°Hí„^°=º~. ~ sniffing =∂#ã≤Hí
„Éèß~u á⁄~^°_«~

218

glumed wheat
glumed wheat Ü«µ=Å∞
glume THí, á⁄@∞ì
glut =ã¨∞Î ã¨=∞$kú
gluteal Ç≤O°∞^°∞Hí∞ K‹~k#
glutton u~_çáÈ`Œ∞
glyphic art ǨiHíÅÊ# Híà◊, JÅ~HíO°}
glyptography O°`ÍflÅ#∞ K‹Hı¯ Híà®^è°º

Ü«µ#~
gnarled zqH˜áÈܵ#,

ZQõ∞_«∞ kQõ∞_«∞Qå

L#fl
gnat H©@Hí~, ^À=∞
gnawing Ǩà◊∞§ Ǩ@Ǩ@ÖÏ_ç~K«∞
gnome huÇÍHíº~
gnostic *Ï˝#ã¨~|~^è°Ç‹∞·#
goad =∞∞Å∞¡Qõ„O°† á⁄_çz#@∞¡, Ç‹~>Ï_«∞
goal K‹O°™®Å† Mˇ·^°∞ KıÜ«µ∞, |~kè~K«∞.
~ directed behaviour rq`Œ ÅH∆ߺ#∞

™®i „Ǩ=O°Î#
goatee Çı∞Hí Qõ_«¤~ =~>˜ Qõ_«¤~
gobble up ™®fiǨKıÜ«µ∞
go between ^°¥`Œ
goblin z#fl ^≥Ü«µº~
go critical L`ŒÊuÎ „áåO°~aè~K«∞
godfather ã¨~O°Hí∆Hí∞_«∞, =∂Ѷ≤Ü«∂

<®Ü«µ

Hí∞_«∞
god forsaken

PHíO°¬} ÖËx† =∞#ã¨∞

qiKı
go down the drain

=∞>˜ìQ˘@∞ìHí∞áÈ=Ù,

#+¨ìáÈ=Ù
go getter qǨs`ŒÇ‹∞·# J`ͺâ◊ QõÅ
go green ǨO®º=O°}®xH˜ #+¨ì~

=ºH˜Î
Híe
y~K«x =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ L`ÍÊ^°#, ÇÍ_«Hí~
going rate ™®^èßO°} Çı`Œ#~
goitre Q˘~`Œ∞ Hí}˜u, „Qõ~käÇÍѨ٠Çͺkè
gold |~QåO°~, ÃÑ·_ç, qÅ∞Ç‹·# ֒ǨÏ~.
~ bonds |~QåO°~ Ç‹Å g∞^° P^èßO°

government

Ǩ_«¤ Ǩ„`ÍÅ∞. ~ paint |~QåO°∞ O°~Qõ∞.
~ powder |~QåO°∞á⁄_ç. ~ standard ã¨fiO°‚ „Ǩ=∂}~. ~ smith ã¨fiO°‚
HßO°∞_«∞
gonad c[H’â◊~/„Qõ~kä
gong *ËQõ~@
gonorrhoea ÃãQõO’Qõ~
good faith qâ◊fiã¨hÜ«µ`Œ, Qõ>˜ì #=∞‡Hí~,
„ǨQå_è° qâÍfiã¨~
good relations ã¨`Œû~|~^èßÅ∞
goods (`ŒÜ«∂O≥·#) =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞
goofy JǨǨ㨺Nj∞·#
goose skin Xà◊∞¡ QõQõ∞O®Ê@∞
gordian knot zHí∞¯=∞∞_ç/ ã¨=∞㨺/
Ǩiã≤÷u
gorge „^À}˜, WO°∞Hí∞^®i
gorgeous Pâ◊ÛO°ºHíO°Ç‹∞·#† ã¨~`Àë®xfl
ã¨~`Œ$Ç≤Îx WKıÛ
gory O’`ŒÑ¨Ù>˜ì~Kı, Jã¨Ç¨ÏºÇ‹∞·#, xHí$+¨ì
Ç‹∞·#
go slow <ˇ=∞‡kQå Ç‹à◊∞§/ ǨxKıÜ«µ∞,
`Í`ÍûO°~ KıÜ«µ∞
gosmetic rehash ÃÑ·ÃÑ· Ç‹∞O°∞Qõ∞Å∞ kkÌ
ѨÙ#ó„Ǩ^°i≈~K«_«~
gossip Tã¨∞ÖÏ@, =ºO°÷ „Ǩã¨~Qõ~
gouache QõǨÏ# =O°‚ „Ǩ„H˜Ü«µ
gouge JO°ú K«~„^®Hí$u, #MÏHí$u
gourmand u~_çáÈ`Œ∞
gourmet <®}º`Œ/ O°∞K«∞Å∞ ÉÏQå `ˇeã≤#
=ºH˜Î
gout H©à◊¡ÇÍ`Œ~
governance áåÅ#, ǨiáåÅ#/ „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi
q^èß#~
governing body áåÅHí =O°æ~
government „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~. ~ in exile
„ǨÇÍ㨠„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~

governor
governor O®[ºáåÅHí∞_«∞
grab ^°∞O®„Hí=∞}, ã¨`ŒfiO°

xO°‚Ü«µ~†
™®finè#~ Kıã∞¨ HÁ#∞, ǨÏi~K«∞, Hß*Ëܵ« ∞,
P„Híq∞~K«∞
grace XÜ«∂ºO°~, ǨÏ∏Ü«µÅ∞† ÖÏ=}º~
grace period JǨC K‹e¡~K«_ÍxH˜ WKıÛ
J^°#Ѩ٠HßÅ~
gradation „âı}©HíO°}~,
J#∞„Hí=∞~,
™®÷ܵ Éèı^°~, ^°O®˚|~n
graded „âı}©Hí$`Œ. ~ rivers „âı}©Hí$`Œ
#^°∞Å∞
gradient „Ǩ=}`Œ, "åÅ∞
grading „âı}©HíO°}
gradualism „Hí=∞ Ǩi}®=∞ ÇÍ^°~
gradually <ˇ=∞‡kg∞^°,
áÈ#∞áÈ#∞,
O®#∞O®#∞, „Hí=∞~Qå
graduation parade nH∆ß~`ŒO° q<®ºã¨~
graffiti QÀ_«g∞^° O®`Œ
graft Jqhu, J„Hí=∂O°#
˚ , J~@∞Hí@_ì ~« ,
J~@∞Hí@∞ì. bone ~ Z=∞∞Hí J~@∞
Hí@∞ì. corneal ~ â◊∞Hí¡Ç¨@Å~ J~@∞
Hí@∞ì. skin ~ K«O°‡~ J~@∞Hí@∞ì
grafting J~@∞Hí@ì_«~. ~ wax J~@¡
Ç‹∞·#~
grammarian ÖÏHí∆}˜Hí∞_«∞, Ç‹·Ü«∂HíO°
}∞_«∞
grammatology eÇ≤âÍG~
granary áå`ŒO°, Qå^≥, ^èß#ºÑ¨Ù HÁ@∞ì
grandeur Ç‹·Éèí=~, J~QõO°~Qõ Ç‹·Éèí=~,
Qå~cèO°º~, =∞ǨÏ`Œfi~, Sâ◊fiO°º~, â’Éèí
grandiloquent ^èßO®â◊∞kúQõÅ, ^èßO®à◊
grand manner L^®`ŒÎâ‹·e
granite #Å¡O®Üµ
grannular OÕ}∞Ü«µ∞`Œ
grant xkè† =∞~EO°∞ KıÜ«µ∞. ~ in aid
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí xkè

219

green signal

grantor J#∞^®`Œ, J#∞^®#HíO°Î
granulation Hí}®~Hí∞O°}~
granules #¥HíÅ =∂kiQå L~_Ë

OÕ}∞

=ÙÅ∞
grapevine =^°~u
graph OÕMÏz„`Œ~/ Ǩ@~, OÕY
grapheme eÇ≤ zǨÏfl~
graphic arts =∞∞„^°}/ ÖËY# Híà◊
graphology eǨº^谺ܫµ#~
grapple Ǩ@∞ìHÁ#∞†
`Œ~>ÏÅ∞Ǩ_«∞†

ay~K«∞† `ŒÅǨ_«∞† ™®kè~ǨK«¥K«∞
grasp Ǩ@∞ì, „QõǨÏ}â◊H˜Î
grass-root level J@ì_«∞Qõ∞ ™®÷ܵ
grate *ÏeHí† ã¨~Ǩ>˜ aà◊¡
gratification `Œ$Ç≤Î, „ǨuѶ¨Å~
grating *ÏÅHí~
gratis Lz`Œ~, K‹e¡~K«#=ã¨O°~ ÖËx
gratuity Lz`ÍO°÷ áåi`À+¨Hí~
gravel Qõ∞ÅHíO®à◊∞§, Hí~HíO°
gravid QõO°ƒù=uܡµ·#† Ǩi}uK‹~k#
gravimetric ÉèßO°=∂#. ~ analysis
ÉèßO°=∂# qâı¡+¨}~
gravitation Qõ∞O°∞`ÍfiHíO°¬}. ~ force
Qõ∞O°∞`ÍfiHíO°¬} â◊H˜Î
gravity f„=`Œ, PHíO°¬} |Å~
graze Çı∞Ü«µ∞, Çı∞ѨÙ
grazing angle ã¨Ê~°≈HÀ}O
great glaciers =∞~K«∞#^°∞Å∞
great indian bustard |@ìÇı∞HíǨH˜∆
greatly Q˘Ç¨ÊQå, J^°∞ƒù`Œ~Qå, ÃÑ^°ÌQå
greatness Q˘Ç¨Ê^°#~
great power chauvinism J„QõO®[º
^°∞O°Ç¨Ï~HßO°~
greedily P|Qå
greedy J`ͺâ◊QõÅ, Å∞|ú
green signal J#∞=∞u, J~wHßO°~

green vitriol
green vitriol J#flÉèık
green ǨO®º=O°} ǨiO°Hí∆}Hí∞ ã¨~|~kè~
z#, PHí∞ǨK«Ûx. ~ earth âÍ^°fiÅ
Éèí¥q∞. ~ pigmants ǨÏi`Œ =O°‚
„^°ÇͺÅ∞. ~ sand and herbs PHí∞Å∞,

JÅ=∞∞Å∞
green art Ü«µ=# Híà◊, „wHí∞ Híà◊. ~
pottery „wHí∞ Ç≤~Qå}˜
green belt ǨÏi`Œ `ÀO°}~
green book W@b WO®<üÅ PkèHßiHí

Ǩ„`Œ~, <®ºÜ«µ™®÷# xO°fiǨÏ}Hí∞ ã¨~|~
kè~z# x|~^è°#Å∞
green card x=ã≤~K«_ÍxH˜, ǨxKıÜ«µ
_ÍxH˜ JÇ‹∞iHß „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~ WKıÛ J#∞
=∞u Ǩ„`Œ~
green gram ÃÑã¨Å∞
green house effect ǨÏi`ŒQõ$ǨÏ
„ǨÉèß=~
green light J#∞=∞u, J~wHßO°~
green onion Le¡Hß_«
green revolution ǨÏi`Œ qǨ¡=~, =º=
™®Ü«µ~Ö’ JkèH’`ŒÊuÎ ™®^è°#
greeting ǨÅHíi~ѨÙ
gregarious Qõ∞~ѨÙÖ’¡ rq~Kı JÅÇÍ@∞
gregariousness Híeã≤ Ç‹∞Åã≤ L~_«@~
gremlin z#flÉèí¥`Œ~, Hí∆∞„^°^Õ=`Œ
grey book [áå<ü, ɡe˚Ü«µ~ ^ÕâÍÅ
PkèHßiHí xÇıkHí
grey market HÁO°`ŒÅ∞<®fl K«@ì|^°ú~Qå
™®QÕ qǨ}˜
grid `Œ~„f *ÏÅHí~
grievance Hí+¨ì~, W|ƒ~k, ÉÏ^è°, =∞<À
Çı^°#
grievances H’O≥¯Å∞, ™®^è°HíÉÏ^è°HßÅ∞
grievous ÇͺHí∞ÅǨiKı, ÉÏ^èßHíO°Ç‹∞·#,
^®O°∞}

220

grotesque

ground

grill `Œiz `Œiz J_«∞Qõ∞, W|ƒ~kÃÑ@∞ì
grim f„=Ç‹∞·#† x+¨∞ªO°Ç‹∞·#, Híiî#Ç‹∞·#†

ground

HíxHíO°~ÖËx, ^°Ü«µÖËx, ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°Ç‹∞·#,
ÉÏ^èßHíO°Ç‹∞·#, xO°∞`ÍûǨÏHíO°Ç‹∞·#, ^°∞ó
YHíO°Ç‹∞·#, HíÅ`ŒÇ¨iKı
grimace Ç‹H˜¯i~K«∞, =∞∞Y~ z>˜¡~K«∞
HÁ#∞
grime HßÅ∞+¨º~, =∞>˜ìHíǨC
grind #¥O°_«~, O°∞|ƒ_«~, qã¨O°_«~
grip Ǩ@∞ì, JÅ∞=∞∞HÁ#∞, ÇͺÇ≤~K«∞,
J^°∞Ѩ٠(Ö’H˜ fã¨∞HÁ#∞)† Ç≤_çH˜e,
Ǩ~*Ï
grisaille ^è°¥ã¨iHí, UHí =O°‚ z„`Œ~
groan =∞¥Å∞Qõ∞
grocer ǨKÍiHÁ@∞ì/ Ç‹KÍÛÅ HÁ@∞ì/
H˜O®}® HÁ@∞ì/ Ü«µ[=∂x
grocery ǨKÍs/ H˜O®}®/ Ç‹KÍÛÅ HÁ@∞ì
groggy [|∞ƒQå L#fl@∞¡ J#∞HÁ#∞
groin TO°∞ã¨~kè, Qõ[˚
groove Qå_ç, `À@
grope Qõ∞_ç¤Qå Ç‹`Œ∞Hí∞, `Œ_«∞=∞∞ÖÏ_«∞,
J<Ëfi+≤~K«∞
gross f„==∞ܵ#, ѨÓiÎ, U J~âÍxfl
=keÇıÜ«µx† L`ÍÊ^°#/ ã¨~áå^°#
Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~. ~ domestic product 㨥÷Å
^Õjܡ∂`ŒÊuÎ. ~ earnings 㨥÷ÖÏ
^®Ü«µ~. ~ income 㨥÷Å P^®Ü«µ~.
~ interest Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~ =_ô¤. ~ loss
Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~ #+¨ì~. ~ margin Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~
Láå~`Œ~. ~ misconduct ^°∞„+¨Ê=O°Î#.
~
national income 㨥÷Å
*ÏfÜ«∂^®Ü«µ~. ~ national product 㨥÷Å *Ïfܡ∂`ŒÊuÎ. ~ profit
㨥÷Å ÖÏÉèí~, Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~ ÖÏÉèí~. ~ revenue 㨥÷Å P^®Ü«µ~. ~ yield
ã¨~áå^°# Ç‹∞∞`ŒÎ~
grotesque qÅHí∆}Ç‹∞·#

Éèí¥q∞, Éèí¥q∞Hí, <ËÅ, ã¨÷Å~,
„áåuǨkHí, P^èßO°~, HßO°}~. ~
breaking ã¨~K«Å<®`Œ‡HíÇ‹∞·#. ~ decixO°‚Ü«∂Å∞.
sions ã¨~K«Å<®`Œ‡Hí
dumping ~ K‹`ŒÎ áåOÕ¿ã ã¨÷Å~
groundless P^èßO°O°Ç≤Ï`ŒÇ‹∞·#
groundnut ÇıO°∞Ãã#QõHßÜ«µ. ~ kernals
ÇıO°∞Ãã#Qõ ǨǨC
ground water Éèí¥QõO°ƒù [Å~
group =∞∞Oîß, =O°~
æ , |$~^°~, ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~,
Qõ∞~ѨÙ, =ºHí∞ÎÅ/ =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ ã¨=∞∞^®Ü«µ~.
blood ~ O°HíÎ=O°æ~
groupage ã¨O°∞Hí∞ q=O®Å#∞ XHı *Ïa
`ÍÖ’ á⁄~^°∞ǨO°K«_«~
group balance sheet J#∞|~^è°
Hí~ÃÑhÅ Pi÷Hí ã≤÷uQõ`Œ∞ÅÃÑ· `ŒÜ«∂O°∞
Kı¿ã xÇıkHí
grouping ã¨~Ѷ‘∞HíO°}~
grouse Q˘}∞Qõ∞_«∞, XHíO°HíÇ‹∞·# ǨH˜∆
grouting ^°>˜ì~K«_«~
grovel áåHí∞ÖÏ_«∞, J„O°∞Å∞KÍK«∞
grovelling ^Õ=ÙÖÏ@, |u=∞ÖÏ_«_«~
growth =$kú, ÃÑO°Qõ_«~, Z^°Qõ_«~. ~
industry =ã¨∞οã=Å#∞ J~k~Kı Ǩi
„â◊=∞
groyne h>˜=∞>Ïìxfl ÃÑ~K«_ÍxH˜ xi‡~Kı
QÀ_«
grub ÖÏO®fi† u~_ç
grubs Å^≥Ì/ ¿Ñ_« ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞Å∞
grudge ^Õfi+¨~, ǨQõ, Jx+¨ì`Œ
gruel centre Qõ~l Hı~„^°~
gruelly ^®O°∞}~Qå
gruesome ^®O°∞}, ÃѶ∞ÏO°, ÉèíÜ«∂#Hí,
ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°, cè+¨}, ÉÏ^èßHíO°, H˜O®`ŒHí
grumbling Qõ∞#∞ѨÙ
grunt =∞¥Å∞Qõ∞
guarantee Ǩg∞, ѨÓp, Ǩg∞Ǩ„`Œ~. ~

221
money Ǩg∞ O°∞ã¨∞=∞∞
guaranteed wage ǨxÖË#ǨC_«∞

gum

Hí∂_Í
Çı`Œ<®Å∞ K‹e¡~Kı XǨÊ~^°~
guarantor Ǩg∞^®O°∞, ѨÓp^®O°∞
guardian angel ã¨~O°Hí∆Hí ^≥·=~
guard of honour Q“O°= =~^°#~
guava *Ï=∞
gubernatorial O®*Ϻ~Qõ q^è°∞Å∞ xO°fi
iÎ~Kı Ǩ^°=ÙÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#, O®[
„ǨuxkèH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#
guerilla Q≥iÖÏ¡† ǨÏOîß`Œ∞ÎQå ^®_çKı¿ã Pi
`Ëi# =ºH˜Î
guest x=∞~„u`Œ∞_«∞, Jukä
guidelines =∂O°æ^°O°≈Hí 㨥„`ÍÅ∞. legally binding ~ K«@ì|^°ú =∂O°æ^°O°≈Hí
㨥„`ÍÅ∞
guild xQõ=∞~, =$uÎHßO° ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~
guilder ã¨∞=i‚`Œ~, „áåp# HßÅѨÙ
|~QåO°∞ <®}ˇ~
guild socialism =$uÎ ã¨~Ѷ¨∞ ™®=∞º
ÇÍ^°~
guile Ç‹Øã¨~, =~K«#, HíǨ@~
guillotine tO°âıÛù^°Hí Ü«µ~„`Œ~
guilt ^À+¨~, <ËO°~, JǨO®^è°~, ÖÁã¨∞Qõ∞
guilty <ËO°~ Kıã≤#, JǨO®^è° Éèß=~`À
Hí∂_ç#
guinea pig `ÀHíÖËx ã‘=∞Ǩ~kHÁHí∞¯†
„Ǩܡ∂QåÖ’¡ LǨܡ∂QõǨ_Ë =ºH˜Î
guise Çı+¨~, =∂O°∞Çı+¨~, =∞∞ã¨∞Qõ∞.
political ~ O®[H©Ü«µ=∞<Ë =∞∞ã¨∞Qõ∞
gull ™®^èßO°} ã¨=∞∞„^°Ñ¨Ù ǨH˜∆
gullet J#flÇÍÇ≤ÏHí
gullies HßÅ∞=Å∞, JǨ<®oHíÅ∞
gum |~Hí, lQõ∞O°∞† zQõ∞O°∞. ~ eraser
`Œ∞_«∞Ѩ٠O°|ƒO°∞. ~ tempera lQõ∞O°∞
O°~Qõ∞.~ tissue Ǩ~>˜ zQõ∞à◊∞¡, zQõ∞à◊¡Hí∞
ã¨~|~kè~z# Hí}*ÏÅ~

222

gumming up
gumming up JuH˜~ѨÙ
gun cotton `Œ∞áåH© =∞~^°∞. ~ metal
Ѷ≤O°~y֒ǨÏ~. ~ powder `Œ∞áåH˜

=∞~^°∞
gunduction „¿ÑO°}O
guneaworm <®iHí∞O°∞ѨÙ
gunnery â◊`ŒÑ¶≤∞fl q^°º
gush =O°^,° „ǨÇÍǨÏ~, h>˜|∞Qõ,æ

haggle

gutted ^°QõúÇ‹∞·#, `ŒQõ∞Å|_ç#
gutter =∞∞iH˜ HßÅ∞=
gymnasium Çͺܫ∂=∞âÍÅ, `Íe~MÏ<®
gynaecology ¢ã‘Î [#<Ë~„kÜ«µ Ç‹·^°º

âÍG~, ¢ã‘ÎO’Qõ âÍG~

[Å^èßO°†
ZQõl=∞∞‡, J`Œ∞º`ÍûǨÏ~`À =∂>Ï¡_«∞
gusto „Ç‘u, W+¨ì~, Pã¨H˜Î, JaèO°∞z,
L`ÍûǨÏ~
gusty winds ã¨~K«Å# ÇÍÜ«µ∞=ÙÅ∞,
L^°ú`Œ~Qå gKı QåÅ∞Å∞
gut ¿ÑQõ∞, PǨO°<®à◊~, P~„`Œ~

gynandromorph LÉèíÜ«µe~Qõrq
gynandry P_«ÇÍà◊§Ö’ =∞QõÅHí∆}®Å∞
gynecomastia ѨÙO°∞+¨∞ÅÖ’ ã¨Î#=$kú
gynocracy ¢ã‘Î O®[º~
gynocriticism ¢ã‘ÎÅ∞Kıã¨∞ ¢ã‘ÎÇÍ^° q=∞O°≈
gynocritics ¢ã‘ÎÇÍ^°, ¢ã‘Î q=∞O°≈Hí∞Å∞
gynoecium ѨÙë®Ê~_«H’â◊~
gypsum =∞∞Qõ∞æã¨∞#fl~
gyrate ã¨∞_«∞Å∞ uO°∞Qõ∞

Hh
habeas corpus ÃÇÏaÜ«µãπ

HßO°Êãπ, |~kè
`Œ∞x Ǩ[O°∞ ǨO°K«=Åã≤~kQå H’O°∞ì
*ÏsKı¿ã L`ŒÎO°∞=Ù
habit JÅÇÍ@∞
habitat xÇÍ㨙®÷#~
habitual Z_«`ˇQõx, ÇÍ_«∞H≥·#, x`ŒºÇ‹∞·#.
~ offender áå`Œ <ËO°Qå_«∞, JÉèíº™®ÎǨ
O®kè
habitually JÅÇÍ@∞Qå, ™®fiÉèßqHí~Qå
habituate JÅÇÍ@∞Ǩ_«∞/ ǨO°∞K«∞
habituated JÅÇÍ@∞Ǩ_ç#
habituation JÅÇÍ@∞ KıÜ«µ@~
hack HÁ@ì_«~, |¥@∞Hße`À `Œ#fl_«~,
Y~_ç~K«∞, =∞∞Hí¯Å∞KıÜ«µ∞, #O°∞Hí∞
hackneyed JO°÷O°Ç≤Ï`ŒÇ‹∞·#, JiyáÈܵ#
haemarhosis H©Å∞Ö’ O°HíÎ~ KıO°_«~
haematemesis O°H~
Îí ÇÍ~u Kıã∞¨ H’=_«~
haematinic O°HíÎ=iúx
haematite =∞∞_ç W#∞Ǩ Yx[~
haematoma <ˇ`Œ∞ÎO°∞ QÆ_»¤

haematuria =∞¥„`Œ~Ö’ O°HíÎ~
haeamoglobin O°HíÎ=O°‚~
haemolysis O°HíÎ~ qO°Qõ_«~
haemopericardium Qõ∞~_≥

áÈ=_«~

K«∞@¥ì
L~_Ë á⁄O°Ö’¡ O°HíÎ~ KıO°_«~
haemopoiesis O°HíÎHí}’`ÍÊ^°#~, ^°yæ
#ǨC_«∞ O°HíÎ~ Ǩ_«_«~
haemorrhage O°Hí΄™®=~. antepartum
~ „Ǩã¨=ѨÓO°fi O°Hí΄áå=~. cerebral ~
"≥∞^°_«∞Ö’ O°Hí΄™®=~. intestinal ~
P~„`Œ O°Hí΄™®=~. postpartum ~
„Ǩã¨ÇÍ#~`ŒO° O°Hí΄™®=~. uterine ~
QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ O°Hí΄™®=~
haemorrhoids "≥∞∞ÅÅ∞
haemostatis O°HíÎã¨Î~Éèí#
haemothorax LO°óHí∞ǨÏO°~Ö’ O°HíÎ~
KıO°_«~
hag qHßO°"≥∞·# ¢ã‘Î
haggard ^°∞O°ƒÅ, O’Qõ„Qõã¨Î =ºH˜Î
haggle ÇÍ^°~, ÉıO°~† HÁã¨i ÉıO°=∂_«∞

hagiography
hagiography =∞Ǩ`Œ∞‡Å
haiku 5-7-5 ã¨~YºÖ’

rq`Œ K«i„`Œ
„Hí=∞~Qå JHí∆
O®Å∞#fl =∞¥_«∞ áå^®Å [Ǩhã¨∞
Ǩ^°º~. Wk =∞∞HíÎHí~
hail =K«∞Û, „Ǩâ◊~ã≤~K«∞, á⁄Qõ_«∞
hairfollicle O’=∞Hí∂Ǩ~
halcyon P#~^° ã¨=∞Ü«µ~
half life JO°úrq`ŒHßÅ~, JO®úÜ«µ∞=Ù
halftone JO°úã¨fiO°~
half yearly results JO°úã¨~=`ŒûO°
Ѷ¨e`ÍÅ∞
hall mark =Ú„^Œ, "≥∞∞ǨÏO°∞, „Ǩ=∂}
zǨÏfl~
hallophytes LǨCh>˜ "≥∞∞Hí¯Å∞
hallow Ǩq„fHíi~K«_«~, Ǩq„`Œ~KıÜ«µ∞
hallucination =∞u„Éèí=∞,
W~„kÜ«µ
Qõ∞}®ÅHí∞ Jf`Œ"≥∞·# J#∞Éèí¥ux
á⁄~^°_«~. auditory ~ „â◊=}„Éèí=∞.
visual ~ ^°$+≤ì„Éèí=∞
hallucinogene „Éè•=∞Hí~/ „Éèíq∞~Ǩ*Ë¿ãk
hallux Hße ÉÁ@#ÇıÅ∞
hallux valgus HßeÉÁ@# ÇıÅ∞ |Ü«µ
@Hí∞ uiy L~_«_«~
halo ǨiÇı+¨~, K«∞@¥ì L~_Ë "≥Å∞Qõ∞
halophyte LǨC h>˜ "≥∞∞Hí¯
halting =∞lb
ham Ǩ~k =∂~ã¨~
hamlet tÇÍO°∞ „Qå=∞~, =∞[O®, H˜~k
Ǩ֡¡
hamper P@~Hí~, W|ƒ~k, J_«∞¤, J@
Hßܵ~ѨÙ, xO’^èŒO, „Ǩu|~^è°Hí~† J_«∞¤
ѨÙÅ¡ ÇıÜ«µ∞, xO’kè~K«∞, J=O’^è°~ Híe
y~K«∞, „Ǩu|~^è°Hí~Qå xÅ∞K«∞, J_«∞¤
HÁ#∞
hamstring ™®flÜ«µ∞=Ù#∞ Z=∞∞Hí`À Híe¿Ñ
`Í_«∞=~>˜ #O°~

223

harbinger

hand ǨÏã¨Î~. ~ book Kıu ѨÙã¨ÎHí~. ~
cuffs Éı_ôÅ∞. ~ out HíO°Ç¨„`Œ~, „ǨHí
@#, aK«Û~. ~ pick UO°∞HÁ#∞. ~
simian =∞O°¯@ ǨÏã¨Î~. ~ writing

^°ã¨¥Îi, KıO®`Œ
J~Qõ"≥·Híź~, „Ǩu|~^è°Hí~†
J=O’^è°~ Híey~K«∞, P@~Hí~ Híe
y~K«∞
handicraft KıuǨx, ǨÏã¨ÎHíà◊
handiwork KıuǨx,
=∂#=HíeÊ`Œ
=ã¨∞Î=Ù
handle ã¨~ÉÏo~K«∞, =º=ǨO°~ #_ç
Ç≤~K«∞, xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«∞† KıuÇ≤_ç
hang LifÜ«µ∞
hangman `ŒÖÏi, Lif¿ã =ºH˜Î
hangover ÉÏkè~K«∞, Hí+¨ì`ŒO°~KıÜ«µ∞†
^°∞„+¨ÊÉè•=~
hank #¥Å∞Hí~_≥
hanky panky O°Ç¨Ï㨺 ã¨~|~^è°~
haphazard Ǩ^°úu „ǨHßO°~ ÖËx, J#∞
H’x, PHíã‡≤ Hí, Jã¨=Î ºã¨,Î z~^°O=° ~^°O#·≥
hapless ^°∞O°^°$+¨ìHíO°"≥∞·#, ^ÒO®ƒùQõºHíO°
"≥∞·#, J^°$+¨ìÇ‘Ï#"≥∞·#
happening Ѷ¨Åã≤kú, ã¨~Éè•=~, ^°∞O°…@#
happiness ã¨~`À+¨~, ã¨∞Y~
happy augur â◊∞Éèí 㨥K«Hí~, â◊Hí∞#~
hara kiri P`Œ‡Ç¨Ï`Œº
haram (W™®¡~ =∞`Œ PKÍO®Å „ǨHßO°~)
x+≤^®úǨO°~. Wk halal H˜ =ºuOÕHí~
harangue â◊H˜Î=∞~`Œ"≥∞·#, ã¨∞nO°…"≥∞·#
LǨ<®ºã¨~
harass Ç‘_ç~K«∞, `˘~^°O°ÃÑ@∞ì
harassment Çıkè~K«_«~, ÉÏkè~K«_«~.
sexual ~ Öˇ·~yHí Çıkè~ѨÙ
harbinger "≥`
· ÍoHí∞_«∞, J„QõQåq∞, ^°¥`Œ,
Éèíq+¨º 㨥K«Hí~
handicap

harbour
harbour F_«OÕ=Ù† P„â◊Ü«µ~ W=fi_«~. ~
the guilty <ËO°ã¨∞÷xH˜ P„â◊Ü«µ~ W=fi_«~
hard Hí+¨ì"≥∞·#, Híiî#"≥∞·#, ^°$_è°"≥∞·#. ~
and fast rule YzÛ`Œ"≥∞·# xÜ«µ=∞~.
~ cash #Qõ^°∞, O˘Hí¯~. ~ to
comprehend ^°∞„O®æǨϺ~. ~ copy
=∞∞„k`Œ ã¨=∂KÍO°~. ~ currency

224

hawker

harmonise Çı∞à◊q~K«∞, ã¨=∞#fiܵ~K«∞
harmony „Hí=∞|^°ú`Œ, ™®=∞O°ã¨º~, PHí

O°¬}, UHõã¨fi~°O
harness ã¨r˚HíO°}†
harp „uH’}®HßO°

xÜ«µ~„`Œ}Hí∞ `ˇK«∞Û
`Œ~„f ÇÍ^°º~, q=
i~K«∞, K‹Ç¨C, O°Qõ_«KıÜ«µ∞, „Ǩ™®Îq~K«∞
harry qã¨∞Qõ∞ `ˇÇ≤Ê~KıÖÏ J_«Qõ_«~
q^Õj HíOh≥ û† Ǩ~Ç≤}© HÁO°`Œ =Ù#fl q^Õj harshness ǨO°∞+¨`Œfi~, HíO°∞Hí∞^°#~,
=∂O°Hí „^°=º~. ~ earned Híë®ìi˚`Œ. ~
Hßiî#º~
edge painting qt+¨ì z„`Œ}. ~ harvesting =∂㨥à◊∞¡, Ǩ~@H’`ŒÅ∞,
headed ^°$_è°=ºH˜Î`Œfi~QõÅ. ~ hearted
#¥iÊà◊∞§
Híiî# ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ~QõÅ, *ÏeÖËx. ~ hassle free opportunity JÇÍ~`ŒO°~
ÖËx J=Hßâ◊~
hitting Qõ>˜ì^≥|ƒfÜ«µQõÅ,
J`Œº~`Œ
q=∞O°≈<®`Œ‡Hí"≥∞·#. ~ knocks _è°H߯ haste ^°∞_«∞Hí∞`Œ#~, ã¨~ÇıQõ~, P„`Œ~,
=∞∞H©¯Å∞. ~ liner =∂O°∞ÊHí∞ =ºuOÕH˜.
P`Œ∞O°`Œ
~ loan `Œ=∞^Õâ◊~ HíO≥hûÖ’ uiy hatch Hí∞„@/ Ǩ<®flQõ~ Ǩ#∞fl, á⁄^°∞Qõ∞
K‹e¡~Kı +¨O°`Œ∞ÃÑ· =∞O’ ^ÕâÍxH˜ WKıÛ hatchery KıǨÅ/ H’à◊¡ L`ŒÊuÎ Hı~„^°~
O°∞}~. ~ sell |Å=~`Œ~Qå HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞ hatchet z#fl Q˘_«¤e
Kıܵ~Kı Ǩ^°úu.
hatefully Hí~@y~ѨÙQå
hardened criminal |~_«ÉÏi# <ËO° hatred ^Õfi+¨~, ǨQõ, U=y~ѨÙ
Qå_«∞
haughtiness q∞_çÇı∞à◊~, QõO°fi~
hardship Hí+¨ì~, PǨ^°
haul ÖÏHí∞ ZuÎÇıÜ«µ∞, XHíKÀ@∞ #∞~z
hardware Ö’Ç¨Ï =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞, áå„`Œ
W~HÁHí KÀ@∞Hí∞ =∂O°∞Û
™®=∞„y,
Hí~ѨӺ@O∑
ǨiHíO°~. haulage ã¨O∞° Hí∞O°ÇÍ}® Kıܵ« _«~/ =ºÜ«µ~
military ~ >Ϻ~Hí∞Å∞, H˜∆Ǩ}∞Å∞, haulier ÇÍ}˜[ºÇ¨O°~Qå ã¨O°∞Hí∞ O°ÇÍ}®
q=∂<®Å∞ `Œk`ŒO° O°¥áåÅ PÜ«µ∞^è°
Kı¿ã ã¨~ã¨÷/ =ºH˜Î
ã¨~ǨuÎ
haunt "≥~>Ï_«∞, `ŒO°K«∞Qå ã¨~^°i≈~K«∞
hard water Éè•O°[Å~, Híiî# [Å~
have Híey L~_«∞. ~ a human face
hardy ^°$_è°"≥∞·#, ™®Ç¨Ïã≤Hí
=∂#gÜ«µ~Qå Hí#Ǩ_«∞. ~ the ball
hare K‹=ÙÅÇ≤e¡
at once feet J=HßâÍxfl á⁄~^°∞
harelip `˘„i ÃÑ^°q
havoc cÉèí`Œû~, LǨ„^°=~, J`ŒÖÏHí∞
harem [<®<®, O®*Ï~`ŒóѨÙO°~
`ŒÅ~, JkèHí #+¨ì~, q^è°fi~ã¨~
harlot Çıâ◊º
hawk Qõ^°Ì, _ËQõ, Ç‘_ç~Kı =ºH˜Î, ^°∞O®âÍ
ǨO°∞_«∞, O°}’<®‡k
harmone xO®flà◊ „Qõ~^ä°∞ÅÖ’ TOÕ O°ã¨~
harmonic ã¨fiO®`Œ‡Hí~
hawker g^è°∞Ö’¡ uiy =ã¨∞Î=Ùefl JÇı∞‡
=ºH˜Î
harmonious ™®=∞O°ã¨ºÑ¨ÓO°fiHí=∞ܵ#

hawkish generals

Ü«µ∞^Àú<®‡^° ¿ã<®
#∞Å∞
hay (Z~_«∞) Qõ_礆 Qõ_ç¤ ã¨iǨÏ^°∞Ì. ~
fever [Å∞|∞, Ǩ_çâ◊~`À =KıÛ [fiO°~.
~ looked JǨiǨHífi"≥∞·#, ã¨Qõ~
L_çH˜#. ~ stack Qõ_ç¤ÇÍq∞
hazard PǨ^°. occupational ~ =$uÎ
ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·# PǨ^°. radiation ~
qHíO°} ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·# PǨ^°
hazardous „Ǩ=∂^°HíO°"≥∞·#. ~ waste
„Ǩ=∂^°HíO° =ºO°÷ Ǩ^®O®÷Å∞
haze á⁄Qõ=∞~K«∞, Jã¨Ê+¨ì`Œ
hazy Jã¨Ê+¨ì"≥∞·#,
=∞ã¨HíQå L#fl,
=∞|∞ƒQå L#fl, á⁄Qõ Híq∞‡ L#fl
head `ŒÅ, <®Ü«µHí∞_«∞, JkèǨu, âÍMÏkè
Ǩu,
L#fl`ÍkèHßi†
PkèǨ`Œº~
=Ç≤Ï~K«∞. ~ hunt JO°∞›Å H’ã¨~
(=∞∞Yº~Qå =∞O’ ã¨~ã¨÷Ö’) "≥^°∞Hí∞. ~
line =∞∞Yº ã¨=∂KÍO°~, ÇÍO®Îji¬Hí. ~
office „Ǩ^è•#
HßO®ºÅÜ«µ~. ~
quarters „Ǩ^è•#/ Hı~„^° HßO®ºÅÜ«µ~.
~ strong `ŒÅaO°∞ã¨∞. ~ way Jaè=$kú
header paper O®¿ã =ºH˜Î/ ã¨~ã¨÷ ¿ÑO°∞,
zO°∞<®=∂, >ˇeá¶È<ü #~|O°∞¡ =Q≥·O®
ÃÑ·Éè•Qå# =∞∞„k`Œ"≥∞· L~_Ë Hßy`Œ~,
ÖËY
healing touch ã¨ÊO°≈"≥·^°º~
health PO’Qõº~. ~ care PO’QõºO°Hí∆}.
~
centre PO’Qõº
Hı~„^°~.
community ~
ã¨=∂*ÏO’Qõº~.
mental ~ =∂#ã≤HßO’Qõº~. public ~
„Ǩ*ÏO’Qõº~. ~ visitor PO’Qõº qKÍ
O°} HßO°ºHíO°Î
heap `ˇ@∞ì, Hí∞ǨÊ, ^˘~`ŒO°, ^˘~u
heaping ¿ÑO°∞Ê
hawkish generals

225

heat stroke

<®ºÜ«µÇÍ^°∞Å∞ `Œ=∞ ÇÍ^°#Å∞
qxÇ≤~K«_«~† ÇÍ^ÀǨÇÍ^®Å qKÍO°}
^°â◊
hearsay „â◊∞`Œ áå~_ç`Œº~, qxH˜_ç. ~
evidence qxH˜_ç
heart Qõ∞~_≥, ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ~. ~ block
ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ
ã¨Ê~^°<®=O’^è°~.
~
breaking Qõ∞~_≥#∞ ǨQõ∞ÅHÁ>ıì. ~
burn Qõ∞~_≥ =∞~@. ~ failure
ǨÏ$^°Ü«µã¨Î~Éèí#. ~ felt ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ
ѨÓO°fiHí. ~ rending ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ q^®O°Hí
"≥∞·#
hearth JyflQõ∞~_«~, Qå_çá⁄ܵº, xǨC
heartily =∞#™®O®, ǨÏ$^°Ü«µÑ¨ÓO°fiHí~Qå
heat L+¨‚`Œ, Çı_çq∞. ~ capacity
L+¨‚^è•O°}. ~ conduction `ÍǨ
ÇÍǨÏ#~/ ÇÍǨÏHí~. ~ exchanger
L+¨‚qx=∂Ü«µHí~. ~ loss L+¨‚Hí∆Ü«µ~.
latent ~ Qõ∞áÈÎ+¨‚~. ~ of absorption
â’+¨}’+¨‚~. ~ of activation L`ËÎ
[<À+¨‚~. ~ of atomization Hí}©HíO°
}’+¨‚~, ǨO°=∂}¥+¨‚~. ~ of combustion ^°ÇϨ <À+¨~
‚ . ~ of decomposition
qܡ∂QÀ+¨‚~. ~ of fusion QõÅ<À+¨‚~.
~ of reaction K«O’º+¨‚~. ~ proof
Çı_çK˘O°x. ~ resistant L+¨‚xO’^è°Hí.
~ transfer L+¨‚ ™®÷<®~`ŒO°}~. ~
treatment LëȂǨ KÍO°~. ~ vapourisation ÉÏ+‘ÊÉèí= <À+¨‚~
heater `ÍǨHí~, Çı_≥H˜¯~Kı ™®^è°#~
heating bath L+¨‚`ÍǨHí~. ~ capacity
L+¨‚â◊H˜Î, Çı_çKı¿ã â◊H˜Î. ~ coil L+¨‚
Çı+¨ì#~
heatprickle K‹=∞@ HßÜ«µÅ∞
heat stroke =_«^≥|ƒ
hearing

heavy

|O°∞"≥·#. ~ bodied oil Ju
™®~„^° `ˇ·Å~. ~ industry Éè•s Ǩi
„â◊=∞. ~ isotope Éè•O° ã¨=∞™®÷hÜ«µ~.
~ market (UK) ^è°O°Å∞ `Œyæ# qǨ}˜,
(US) ^è°O°ÅÖ’ =∂O°∞ÊÖËx qǨ}˜. ~
paper ^°à◊ã¨i Hßy`Œ~. ~ particle
Éè•O°Hí}~. ~ water Éè•O°[Å~
hackle K‹_Q
¤« å Éè•+¨º~ K‹ÇC¨ , J_«¤ „Ǩâfl◊ Å∞
Çıã≤ Çıkè~K«∞, ZQõ`ÍoKıÜ«µ∞
hectare ã¨∞=∂O°∞ O≥~_«∞#flO° ZHíO®Å
á⁄Å~, 247 Ãã~@¡ Éèí¥q∞
hectic Éè•s. ~ actvity Z_«`ˇQõx HßO°º
HíÖÏáåÅ∞
hedge Hí~K‹, ^°_ç, xÇÍO°} K«O°º† Hí~K‹
ÇıÜ«µ∞, ^°_çQõ@∞ì, ǨiO°H˜∆~K«∞
hedonism ã¨∞YÇÍ^°~
hedonit Éè’QõÖÏÅã¨∞_«∞
heed ÅHí∆ ºÃÑ@∞ì, P^°O°~Qå q#∞
heel =∞_«=∞
heft ^°$_è°"≥∞·#, |Å"≥∞·#, |O°∞"≥·#k, ÃÑ^°Ì
"≥∞∞`ŒÎ~
hefty ZHí∞¯"≥·#, |Å"≥∞·#, ^°$_è°"≥∞·#, Éè•s,
ÃÑ^°Ì "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~
hegemonism PkèǨ`ŒºÇÍ^°~
hegemony PkèǨ`Œº~, ÃÑ`ŒÎ#~
heighten ÃÑ^°ÌKıÜ«µ∞, ÃÑ~K«∞
heinous J=∂#∞+¨, Ju^°∞+¨ì, hK«"≥∞·#,
„Hí∂O°"≥∞·#
heir ÇÍO°ã¨∞_«∞
heliocentric ™œO° Hı~„nÜ«µ~. ~
theory 㨥O°ºHı~„^°Hí ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
heliophobia fHí∆}"≥∞·# Z~_« J~>ı
ÉèíÜ«µ~
hellenisms „wHí∞ Éè•+¨ #∞~_ç JO°∞=Ù
`ˇK«∞ÛHí∞#fl Ǩ^®Å∞
hellenist „wHí∞ <®QõiHí`Íaè=∂x
heavy

226

herding

hereditary

JkèHßO°~, Ü«∂[=∂#º~, tO°
„™®Î}~, xÜ«µ~„u~K«∞
helmet tO°„™®Î}~, tO°ó Hí=K«~
helminth UeHí áå=∞∞ =~>˜ ǨO®#flrq
helotism ÉÏxã¨Å#∞ Kı¿ã q^è•#~
help ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~
helter skelter Jã¨Î=ºã¨Î~(Qå)
hemada Z_ÍiÖ’x Ç‘Oî°Éèí¥q∞
hemisphere JO°úQÀà◊~† "≥∞^°_«∞Ö’x JO°ú
Éè•Qõ~. cerebral ~ =∞ã≤Î뮯O°úQÀà◊~
hemophilia O°HíÎ~ Qõ_«¤Hí@ìx ã≤÷u
hemp [#Ǩ<®O°. indian ~ Éèí~Qõ∞,
Qõ~*Ï(ܵ)
henceforth WHí g∞^°@
henchman #q∞‡#|~@∞, J#∞Ü«∂ܵ,
J#∞K«O°∞_«∞
hen party Hı=Å~ =∞Ç≤Ïà◊Å ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~
hepatic HßÖËÜ«µ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
hepatitis Hß"≥∞O°¡ [|∞ƒ, HßÖËܵ« Ѩ٠Çͺkè.
viral ~ "≥·O°ãπ =Å# =KıÛ HßÖËÜ«µÑ¨Ù
Çͺkè
hepatomegaly HßÖËÜ«µÑ¨Ù ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å
herald "≥·`ÍoHí∞_«∞, KÍ>˜~Kı =ºH˜Î†
„ǨHí>˜~K«∞
herb Qõ∞Ň~, z#fl "≥∞∞Hí¯, =∞¥eHí
herbage c_«∞Ö’ Çı∞ѨÙHÁ<Ë Ç¨ÏHí∞¯
herbarium =∞¥eHß=#~, â◊∞+¨¯=$Híâ
∆ ÍÅ
herbicide Qõ∞Ň<®â◊x
herbivore âÍHßǨi
herculean ZHí∞¯= â◊H˜Î J=ã¨O°=∞∞#fl. ~
effort |$Ǩτ`ŒÊÜ«µ`Œfl~, ÉèíwO°^ä°Ü«µ`Œfl~,
Hí+¨ì™®^è°º"≥∞·# Ǩx. ~ task Q˘Ç¨Ê Ǩx,
Hí+¨ì™®^è°º"≥∞·# Ǩx, =∞ǨÉè•O°"≥∞·#
HßO°º~
herd =∞~^°
herding Ǩâ◊∞áÈ+¨}

hereditary
heredity

helm

P#∞=~tHí, =~âÍ#∞Qõ`Œ
J#∞=~tHí`Œ,
=~â◊
áåO°~ǨO°º~
heresy JǨ^è°O°‡~, <®ã≤ÎHí`Œfi~
heretic JqâÍfiã≤, ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«µ =ºuOÕH˜
heritage Ç≤„`Íi˚`Œ~, ѨÓO°fi ã¨~㨯 $u
herm jO°¬a~|~
hermaphroditism LÉèíÜ«µ e~Qõ`Œfi~
hermeneutic JkèHßO° Ǩ„`ÍÅ JO°÷~
q=i~Kı
hermetic Qåe J~@∞ ™ÈHíx
hermetically Qåe K˘O°#@∞¡
hermit ã¨<®ºã≤
hermitage P„â◊=∞~, ǨO°‚âÍÅ
hernia yÅHí. femoral ~ Qõ[˚H˜~^°,
`˘_«ÃÑ· yÅHí. inguinal ~ Qõ[˚ÃÑ· yÅHí
heroi-comic gO° Ǩ㨺O°™®Å∞ HíÅã≤#
heroism âøO°º~, gO°`Œfi~
heron á⁄_«"≥·#
Hßà◊¥§, "≥∞_«QõÅ
HÁ~Qõ=~>˜ ǨH˜∆
herostratism ¿ÑO°∞, „ǨKÍO°~ H’ã¨~ XHí
=∞∞Yº"≥∞·# =ºH˜Îx K«~Ǩ_«~/ =∞∞Yº"≥∞·#
=ã¨∞Î=Ù#∞ `ŒQõ∞Åɡ@ì_«~
herpes ã¨iÊ ÉÁ|ƒ(Å∞). ~ zoster <®_ô
ã¨iÊ
hesitant Tyã¨ÖÏ_«∞, `Œ@Ǩ>Ïܵ~K«∞,
ã¨~â◊ܵ~K«∞
hesitation ã¨~H’K«~, "≥#∞Hí =∞∞~^®
_«_«~
hetero aè#fl*ÏfÜ«µ, q*ÏfÜ«µ, Jã¨=∞.
~ basic q+¨=∂Hí∆O°. ~ cyclic q+¨=∞
â◊$~YÖÏ=ÅÜ«µ
heterogamy q*Ïu qÇÍǨÏ~
heterogenity q*ÏfÜ«µ`Œ
heterogenous q+¨=∞ *ÏfÜ«µ
heterologous q^è°O°‡

227

high

heterosexual aè#fl e~Qõã¨~ǨO°¯
heterozygote q*ÏfÜ«µ ã¨~Ü«µ∞HíÎ
heuristic ã¨=∞™®º Ǩi뮯O®xfl

c[~
Hí#∞

H’¯=_«~
hexadactylism PO°∞Çıà◊∞§~_«_«~
hexagon +¨_«∞ƒùl
hexagonal +¨>’¯}
heading ji¬Hí
hiatus J~`ŒO°~, MÏm, ã¨~^°∞, qO®=∞~
hibernate ã¨∞áåÎ=ã¨÷Ö’/ x„^®} ã≤÷uÖ’

L~_«∞
ã¨∞áåÎã¨÷, x„^®}ã≤÷u,
„H˜Ü«∂â◊¥#º`Œ, =∞~^°HÁ_ç`Œ#~
hiccups "≥H˜¯à◊∞¡, J_«¤~Hí∞Å∞, JÇÍ~`Œ
O®Å∞, `Í`ͯeHí Hí+¨ì~
hideous ѨÓiÎQå pHßHí∞ `ˇÇ≤Ê~Kı,
^°∞ã¨ûǨÏ
hide out ^®HÁ¯<Ë ã¨÷Å~, O°Ç¨Ï㨺 ™®÷=O°~
hiding power PKÍÛù^°#/ xQõ¥_è° â◊H˜Î
hierarchy JkèHßO° „Hí=∞~, Jkè„Hí=∞~,
„Hí=∂#∞Qõu, „âı}˜
hierglyph z„`ŒeÇ≤
hierodule ^Õ=^®ã≤
higgledy
piggledy
Jã¨Î=ºã¨Î~Qå,
Jܡ∂=∞Ü«µ~
higgling ÉıO°=∂_«_«~, ^è°O° HÁã¨O°_«~
high ÃÑ^°Ì, J„Qõ, JkèHí. ~ command
Jkè뮪#=O°æ~. ~ energy radiation
JkèHí â◊H˜Î qH˜O°}~. ~ flown talk
THí^°~ѨÙ_«∞ LǨ<®ºã¨~. ~ gearing
ÉÏ~Hí∞ O°∞}®Å∞ ÇÍ>ÏÅ "≥∞∞`ÍÎxH˜
q∞~z L~_«@~. ~ handedness
ǨÏ^°∞Ìg∞i „Ǩ=iÎ~K«_«~. ~ landers
ǨO°fi`Œ „áå~`Œ „Ǩ[Å∞. ~ note
`ÍO°ã¨fiO°~. ~ precissional balance
ã¨∞xfl`ŒÑ¨Ù „`Íã¨∞. ~ priority JkèHí
hibernation

highbrow

„áå=∞∞Yº~QõÅ. ~ profile person
L#fl`Œ K«i„`ŒQõÅ =ºH˜Î. ~ quality Çı∞e
„Ǩ=∂}~. ~ resolution qѨÙÅ
qâı¡+¨}
highbrow L#fl`Œ
JaèO°∞K«∞Å∞#fl@∞ì
#>˜~Kı/ W`ŒO°∞Å#∞ H˜~K«Ç¨O°Kı
highfives Kı`Œ∞Å∞ ÃÑ·H≥uÎ K«O°∞K«∞Hí∞<Ë
L`ÍûÇ¨Ï ã¨¥K«#
highlight
„Ǩ=∞∞Y~Qå
¿ÑO˘¯#∞,
Çı∞e`Í=Ù, „Ǩ`˺Hí PHíO°¬}
highseas ã¨=∞∞„^° =∞^è°º~
hightime ã¨=∞ܡ∂z`Œ~, ã¨~^°O’ƒùz`Œ~
hijacker (ÇÍǨÏ<®Å)#∞ ^®i=∞o§~Kı
=ºH˜Î
hijacking (ÇÍǨÏ<®Å) ^®i=∞o§~ѨÙ.
funds ~ x^è°∞Å =∞o§~ѨÙ
hike ÃÑ~ѨÙ,
ÃÇÏzÛ~Ѩن ÃÑ~K«∞,
ÃÇÏzÛ~K«∞
hill fog HÁ~_«=∞~K«∞
hillock k|ƒ, Qõ∞@ì
hindrance J=O’^è°~,
P@~Hí~,
xO’^è°~, ÉÏ^è°Hí~
hingels K«Ç≤Ê, O°HíÎ <®à®ÅÖ’ ÉÁ|ƒÅ∞
hinterland (xÇÍ™®ÅHí∞)
áÈ+¨Hí
„áå~`Œ~, Ö’`Œ@∞ì „áå~`Œ~
hire J^≥Ì, ÉÏ_«∞Qõ, H˜O®Üµ
hired gun H˜O®Üµ ǨÏ~`ŒHí∞_«∞
hireling `˘`Œ∞Î, Hí∂>˜H˜ K‹_«¤Ç¨xKı¿ã =ºH˜Î
hire purchase J^≥Ì/ ÇÍܵ^®Å Ǩ^°úu
HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞
hirsute ÉÁK«∞ÛQõÅ, ã¨~™®¯O° qÇ‘Ï#"≥∞·#
hirsuties JuO’=∞`Œfi~
hispid á⁄>˜ì
A@∞ì, xHí¯ÉÁ_çz#
"≥~„@∞HíÅ∞ HíÅ
histerectomy QõO°ƒùã¨~z `˘Åy~ѨÙ
histogram ™Èáå# z„`Œ~

228

hogget

histology
historian

Hí}*ÏÅ âÍG~
K«i„`Œ ǨijÅHí∞_«∞/ K«i„`Œ

HßO°∞_«∞
„Ǩã≤^°ú"≥∞·#. ~ cost
Jã¨Å∞
=ºÜ«∂xfl
ǨiQõ}#Ö’H˜ fã¨∞HÁx MÏ`ÍÅ#∞ O®¿ã
Ǩ^°úu
historical K«i„`Œ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#. ~
materialism KÍi„`ŒHí Éè“uHíÇÍ^°~. ~
novel KÍi„`ŒHí #=Å
historicism K«i„`Í^谺ܫµ#~
historiology K«i„`Í^谺ܫµ#~
history K«i„`Œ. clinical ~ O’Qõ K«i„`Œ.
dietetic ~ PǨO° K«i„`Œ. menstural
~ O°∞`Œ∞„Hí=∞ K«i„`Œ. obstetric ~
„Ǩ㨥u K«i„`Œ
histrionics Ǩ=Éè•= „Ǩ^°O°≈#
hitch zHí∞¯, J=O’^è°~† Hí∞^°∞ѨÙ`À Hí^°∞Å∞
hitch on `ŒQõ∞Å∞HÁ#∞, =∞∞_ç=_«∞
hitech L#fl`Œ ™®~HıuHí
hit list ǨÏ`ŒºKıÜ«µ=Åã≤# =ºHí∞ΊǨ>˜ìHí
hoard ^®Ñ¨Ù_«∞ xÅfi† J„Hí=∞~Qå xÅ∞=
KıÜ«µ∞
hoarding Hí~K‹, ^˘~Qõ xÅ=, „ǨHí@#
Ѷ¨ÅHí~
hoarseness ÉÁ~Qõ∞O°∞ Q˘~`Œ∞, rO°
hoary áå`Œ^≥·#, P^°O°}©Ü«µ
hoax |¥@Hí~, #H˜b, `ŒÇ¨C^®i Ǩ>˜ì~K«∞
hobby JaèO°∞z, ã¨O°^® Çͺã¨~Qõ~
hobnob Híeã≤ ǨxKıÜ«µ_«~, Hí∞=∞‡Hí∞¯
Hß=_«~
hobnobbing Híeã≤"≥∞eã≤ uO°∞Qõ∞, J<Àº
#º~Qå L~_«∞
hocus pocus Jܡ∂=∞Ü«µ~ KıÜ«µ∞
hogget XHí ã¨~=`ŒûO°~ =Ü«µã¨∞û QõÅ
Q˘„O≥Ç≤Å¡
historic K«i„`Œ
accounting

hold
hold xO°‚ܵ~K«_«~, fO°∞Ê K‹Ç¨Ê_«~, Ǩ@∞ì
H’=_«~. ~ the brief =HßÖÏÎ fã¨∞HÁ#∞
holder ǨÏHí∞¯^®O°∞. ~ for value qx
=∞Ü«µ aÅ∞¡ á⁄~k# =ºH˜Î. ~ in due
course |Ü«∂<®Qå qx=∞Ü«µ aÅ∞¡

á⁄~k# =ºH˜Î
holding ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ÃÑ>˜ì# "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~,
Hõ=∞`«O, ™®Qõ∞Éèí¥q∞. ~ company
W`ŒO° Hí~ÃÑhÅÖ’ ÇÍ>ÏÅ∞ QõÅ Hí~ÃÑh†
Ü«∂[=∂#º Hí~ÃÑh
holiday ÃãÅ=Ùk#~
holism „ѨHõ$u JqÉè•[º=∞x É’kè~Kı
`Œ`Œfi~
holistic JqÉè•[º`Œ`Œfi ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
hollow É’Å∞, `ŒÇ¨C_«∞, PHíeQ˘#fl. ~
relief #`ŒtÅÊ~. ~ ware É’Å∞
™®=∞„y
hollowness („Ǩܡ∂[#) â◊¥#º`Œfi~
holly green x`Œº ǨÏi`Œ(=$Hí∆)
holocaust ã¨O°fi<®â◊#~,
=∞Ǩ|e,
=∂O°}Ǩϟ=∞~
holograph ã¨fiǨϙ®ÎÅ`À O®ã≤# „Qõ~^ä°~,
KıO®`Œ
holy Ǩq„`Œ
holymace Ǩq„`Œ KÍ=∞O°~
homage *’ǨO°∞, „â◊^®ú~[e
home Qõ$ǨÏ~. nursing ~ O’QõǨiK«O®º
Qõ$ǨÏ~. ~ rule movement ã¨fi^Õj
L^°º=∞~
homeopathy Ǩϟq∞Ü«∂Ǩu, L=∂Ǩu
"≥·^°º~
homeostasis ã¨=∞ã≤÷u
homesales ã¨fi^Õâ◊~Ö’ J=∞‡HßÅ∞
homestead WÅ∞¡, W~>˜ P=O°}~
hometown ™⁄~`Œ TO°∞
homicide #O°Ç¨Ï`Œº

229

hood wink

homocentric UHíHı~„^°Hí
homocylic ã¨=∞=ÅÜ«µ
homoeostasis `Œ@ã¨÷ r=ã≤÷u
homoerotism ã¨fi*Ïu Hß=∞#
homogamy ã¨=∞^è°i‡ qÇÍǨÏ~
homogenicity ™®^è°O°‡º`Œ
homogeneity UHí*ÏfÜ«µ`Œ, ã¨*ÏfÜ«µ`Œ
homogenous ã¨*ÏfÜ«µ, UHísu, UHíãu
÷≤
homologous ã¨=∞*Ï`Œ, ã¨~Qõ`Œ
homologue ã¨=∞„âı}©Qõ`Œ
Ǩ^®O°÷~,

™®=∞º~
ã¨=∞^è°O°‡`Œ, ã¨=∞„âı}˜Hí`Œ,
™®^°$â◊º~, ã¨=∞*Ï`Œ`Œfi~
homolytic ã¨=∞qzÛùuÎ
homonym aè<®flO°÷É’^è°Hí Ǩ^°~
homophily ã¨=∞¿ãflǨÏÉè•=~
homophobia ã¨fie~Qõ ã¨~ǨO°¯ ÉèíÜ«µ~
homophone ^è°fi<˺Hí`Œ
homophony ^è°fix UHí`Œ, LKÍÛùO°}ˇ·Hí`Œ
homopolar ã¨=∞„^è°∞=
homo sapiens |∞kúrq, =∂#=Ù_«∞
homosexual ã¨fie~Qõ ã¨~ǨO°¯âÍe
homosexuality ã¨fie~Qõ ã¨~ǨO°¯~
homozygous ã¨=∞Ü«µ∞Qõ‡[~
homy W~>˜x *Ï˝Ç¨Hí~ Kı¿ã
honesty x*솵f
honey comb `Ë<ˇÇ¨@∞ì
honorarium Q“O°=Çı`Œ#~
honour n. Q“O°=~, „Ǩu+¨ª, =∞O®º^°,
K‹Hí∞¯#∞ P"≥Øk~z _«|∞ƒ K‹e¡~K«_«~,
=∂@ xÅ∞ѨÙHÁ#∞
honour v. Q“O°q~K«∞, ã¨<®‡x~K«∞† =∂@
xÅ∞ѨÙHÁ#∞
hooch <®@∞™®O®, Qõ∞_«~ÉÏ
hoodlum XHí =∞∞OîßÖ’x f„= <ËO°ã¨∞÷_«∞
hood wink "≥Øã¨~KıÜ«µ∞, Hí#∞flQõǨC
homology

230

hoof
hoof _≥Hí¯, y@ìÅ∞
hookworm HÁ~H˜ ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞
hooligan ^®^®, Ü«µ∞=OÒ_ç
hooliganism ^®^®yi, ^ÒO°˚#º~
hoover Hí~|ox â◊∞„ÉèíǨO°K«∞
hope Pâ◊
hopeless xã¨Ê $ǨÏK‹~k#
horde Qõ∞~ѨÙ, ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~
horizontal H˜∆u[
ã¨=∂~`ŒO°. ~
integration ã¨=∂# ™®÷ܵ Hí~ÃÑhÅ
qb#~. ~ line H˜∆u[ OÕY
hormesis `ŒHí∞¯= "≥Ø`Í^°∞`À PO’Qåºaè

=$kú
hormone J~`ŒO°æ`Œ „™®=~. ~ replacement J~`ŒO°æ`Œ „™®= ѨÙ#ó™®÷Ǩ#
horn HÁ=∞∞‡, â◊$~Qõ~
hornets' nest Hí~ksQõÅ `Œ∞>ˇì
horoscope [#‡Ç¨„uHí, *Ï`ŒHíK«„Hí~
horrendous ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°"≥∞·#, ÉèíÜ«∂#Hí

"≥∞·#
horrify xO®…~`ŒáÈ=Ù,

xO°∞`ÍûǨÏ~K‹~^°∞,

ÉèíÜ«µÃÑ@∞ì
horrifying ÉèíÜ«µ~/ cèu ѨÙ>˜ì~Kı
hors concours J#O°›`Œ
horsegram LÅ=Å∞
horsepower Jâ◊fi™®=∞O°÷º~
horse trading Qõ∞„O°Ç¨Ê~^ÕÅ∞, HÁ#∞QÀà◊∞¡
horticulture L^®º#âÍG~
hospital
Pã¨∞Ǩ„u.
infectious
diseaseas ~ J~@∞O’QåÅ Pã¨∞Ǩ„u.
leprosy ~ Hí∞+¨∞ªO’Qõ∞Å Pã¨∞Ǩ„u.
maternity ~ „Ǩ㨥u "≥·^°ºâÍÅ.
mental ~ =∂#ã≤Hí "≥·^°ºâÍÅ
hospitalism Pã¨∞Ǩ„u q^è•#~/ xO°fi

ǨÏ}~, JÉèí„^°`Í Éè•=~
hospitality Jukä =∞O®º^°/ ã¨`ͯO°~
hospitalization Pã¨∞Ǩ„uÖ’ KıO°_«~/

HTL

huddle

KıO°Û_«~
Pu^äı~Ú. ~ specific Pu^äıÜ«µ
xtÛ`Œ`Œ
hostage |~n, Qõ$ǨÏxO°ƒ~^è°~
hostile qO’kè, â◊„`Œ∞=Ù
hostile witness Z^°∞O°∞ uiy# ™®H˜∆
hostility =ºuOÕHí`Œ, â◊„`Œ∞Éè•=~, qO’^è°~
hotch potch fO°¥`ˇ#∞fl ÖËx, Jã¨Î=ºã¨Î
hotline xO®@~Hí `Œ~„f=∂O°æ~
hot springs L+¨‚„™È`«ã¨∞ûÅ∞
hound *ÏyÅ~, Çı@Hí∞Hí¯† "≥~>Ï_«∞,
`ŒO°∞=∞∞
hounding Çı>Ï_«∞, „¿ÑOÕÇ≤~K«∞, Lã≤
Q˘Å∞Ê
hourly rate Ǩx Qõ~@Hí∞ Çı`Œ#~ OÕ@∞
hour of crisis ã¨~H∆’Éèí ã¨=∞Ü«µ~, PǨ
`ͯÅ~
house ã¨É.íè ~ committee ã¨É•è ã¨~Ѷ∞¨ ~.
~ gardens Qõ$ǨϟǨ=<®Å∞. ~
journal ã¨fiq+¨Ü«µ. ~ keeping Qõ$ǨÏ
xO°fiǨÏ}, W~>˜x K«Hí¯Éˇ@ì_«~. ~ of
commons ™®=∂#∞ºÅ ã¨Éèí: („a@<üÖ’)
kQõ∞= ã¨Éèí. ~ of lords ZQõ∞= ã¨Éèí
(„a@<À¡) „ǨÉèí∞=ÙÅ ã¨Éèí
household Qõ$Ç¨Ï Ç¨iÇÍO°~. ~ goods
Qõ$ǨϟǨHOí }
° ®Å∞. ~ pest Qõ$Ç¨Ï Ç‘_H« ~í .
~ policy W~_«∞¡ ^≥|ƒu#flǨC_«∞ Ǩi
ǨO°~ K‹e¡~Kı c=∂ ™œHíO°º~, ^®xH˜
ã¨~|~kè~z# c=∂ XǨÊ~^°~
hover QåeÖ’ K«∞@∞ìuO°∞Qõ∞, LǨi
„Éèí=∞}~ KıÜ«µ∞
howl JO°K«∞, Hí∂Ü«µ∞
howler ã¨Ê+¨ì"≥∞·#/ ÃÑ^°Ì `ŒÇ¨C, Hí∂¿ãÇÍ_«∞
howling ÃÑ^°ÌQå JO°=_«~† Ѷ¨∞#q[Ü«µ~
HTL (High Tide Line) ã¨=∞∞„^°~
áÈ@∞Ö’ L#flǨC_«∞ JÅÅ∞ ÇͺÇ≤~Kı
Ǩikè

huddle

host

O°Ç¨Ï㨺 ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~† QõlalQå
áÈQõ∞Ǩ_«∞, HíÅQõ¥O° Qõ~ǨQå HíÅ∞ѨÙ
hue =<ˇfl: O°~Qõ∞, HıHí, JO°∞ѨÙ
huffy H’Ǩ~ `ˇK«∞ÛHÁ<Ë
huge difference qǨs`Œ"≥∞·# `Ë_Í, ǨÏã≤Î
=∞â◊Hß~`ŒO°~
hulk Éè•s F_«
hum O°≠~HßO° ^è°fix, Hí∂xO®Qõ~
human =∂#∞+¨. ~ ecological
triangle =∞x+≤- ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~- Ǩiã¨O®Å
ã¨~|~^è~° . ~ resource management
=∂#= =#O°∞Å Ü«∂[=∂#º~. ~
rights =∂#= ǨÏHí∞¯Å∞. ~ values
=∂#=`ŒfiѨ٠qÅ∞=Å∞
humanising =∂#gHíi~K«@~
humanism =∂#=`ÍÇÍ^°~, =∂#=`Í
^°$+≤ì, =∂#=`Œfi~
humanist feminism =∂#gÜ«µ ¢ã‘Î
ÇÍ^°~
humanistic psychology =∂#gÜ«µ
=∞#ã¨Î`Œfi âÍG~
humanist =∂#=`ÍÇÍk
humanitarianism r=HßO°∞}ºÇÍ^°~
humanities =∂#gÜ«µ âÍ„™®ÎÅ∞
humble q#Ü«µÑ¨ÓO°fiHí=∞ܵ#† H˜~K«
ǨO°K«∞
humbly ã¨q#Ü«µ~Qå
humerus ^°~_« Z=ÚHõ. Éèí¥*Ïã≤÷
humidity P„O°Ì`Œ, QåeÖ’x `Ë=∞
humiliate J==∂# ǨO°K«∞, z#fl|∞K«∞Û
humiliation J==∂#~, ǨO®Éèí=~,
`ŒÅ=~ѨÙ
humour Ǩ㨺~. good ~ ã¨O°ã¨^°$+≤ì.
sense of ~ Ǩ™®ºxH˜ ã¨Ê~k~Kı Qõ∞}~
hump =∞¥Ñ¨ÙO°~
humus PHí∞ÃÑ~@, ǨzÛ ZO°∞=Ù

231

hydro-electricity

hunch Qõ∞_ç¤ #=∞‡Hí~, Qõ¥x
hunch back Qõ¥xÇÍ_«∞
hung assembly U O®[H©Ü«µ

áåsìH©
"≥∞*Ïi>© ÖËx âÍã¨#ã¨Éèí
hunger pain PHíe Ü«∂`Œ#
hunger strike xO®Ç¨O°nHí∆, xO°â◊#nHí∆
hung parliament U O®[H©Ü«µ áåsìH˜
"≥∞*Ïi>© ÖËx áåO°¡"≥∞~@∞
hurdle J_«¤~H˜, P@~Hí~, ã¨=∞㨺
hurl O°∞=Ùfi
hurricane ÃÑ#∞`Œ∞á¶å#∞,
QåeÇÍ#,
=∞ǨK«„HíÇÍ`Œ~
hurriedly K«„O°∞#, `˘~^°O°Ö’
hurt ^≥|ƒ, ÉÏ^è°, QåÜ«µ~† =∞#ã¨∞Hí∞
Hí+¨ì~HíÅ∞Qõ∞/ Híey~K«∞
hush money |Å=~`Œ~Qå O®|@∞ìHÁ#fl
_«|∞ƒ
husk THí
hustler J„Hí=∞ ÖÏÉè•O°˚# Kı¿ã =ºH˜Î
hutch Ǩ~[O°~† z#flÉ’#∞
hyacinth Qõ∞„O°Ñ¨Ù_≥Hí¯
hyaline áåO°^°O°≈Hí~
hyalography QåAÃÑ· K‹Hı¯ Híà◊
hyalophobia QåA J~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
hybrid ã¨~HíO°*Ïu rq/ =~Qõ_«~,
q∞„â◊=∞*Ïu
hybridisation ™®~HíO°º~
hybridism ™®~HíO°º~, ã¨~H©O°‚`Œ
hydel project [Å q^°∞º`ü Hı~„^°~
hydration P„sÌHíO°}~, [Å ã¨~HíÅ#
K«O°º
hydraulic [Å(â◊H˜Î) KÍe`Œ. ~ action
[Ö’fÊ_«# K«O°º
hydraulics „^°=/ [ÅÜ«µ~„`Œ âÍG~
hydrocele =ic[~, |∞_«¤
hydro-electricity [Åq^°∞º`Œ∞Î

232

hydrogen
hydrogen

L^°[x. ~

bomb

L^°[x

ÉÏ~|∞
hydrogenation L^°[hHíO°}
hydrogeologist Éèí¥QõO°ƒù [ÅâÍGÇı`ŒÎ
hydrogeology Éèí¥QõO°ƒù [ÅâÍG~
hydrography Éèí¥[ÖÏ^谺ܫµ#~
hydrological [Åã¨~|~^è°. ~ cycle

[ÅǨi}®=∞K«„Hí~
hydrologist [ÅâÍGÇı`ŒÎ
hydrology [Å^è°O°‡âÍG~
hydrolysis [Åqâı¡+¨}~
hydrolytic [Åqâı¡+¨}©Ü«µ
hydrometer [Å=∂ǨHí~
hydrometerologist [ÅÇÍ`Í=O°} âÍG
Çı`ŒÎ
hydromnios QõO°ƒùã¨~zÖ’ L=∞‡hO°∞
KıiHí
hydronephrosis =∞¥„`ŒÇ≤~_«~Ö’ hO°∞
KıO°_«~
hydropathy [ÅzH˜`Œû
hydrophily [ÅǨO®Qõ ã¨~ǨO°¯~
hydrophobia [ÅÉèíÜ«µO’Qõ~
hydrophobic [ÅÉèíÜ«µ~ Híey#
hydrophyte h>˜"≥∞∞Hí¯Å∞
hydroponics =∞>˜ì ÖËHí∞~_Í "≥∞∞Hí¯Å#∞
ÃÑ~Kı Ǩ^°úu
hydrosphere [ÖÏ=O°}~
hydrostatic [Åã≤÷uHí. ~ pressure
[Åã≤÷uHí Ç‘_«#~
hydrostatics „^°=ã≤÷u âÍG~
hydrotaxis [ńǨuã¨Ê~^°#
hydrotropism [ÖÏ#∞=O°Î#~
hyena ^°∞=∞∞‡ÅQ˘~_ç, HÁO°fláÈ`Œ∞
hygiene PO’Qõº~, PO’QõºâÍG~, áåi
â◊∞^°úº âÍG~. personal ~ =ºH˜ÎQõ`Œ Ǩi
â◊∞„Éèí`Œ

hypnology

hygienics PO’Qõº ǨiO°Hí∆} âÍG~
hygrometer P„O°Ì`Í=∂ǨHí~
hygrometry P„O°Ì`Í =∂Ǩ# âÍG~
hygrophanous hO°∞ÖÏ Hí#|_Ë
hygrophilous `Œ_ç Ǩ^®O®÷ÅÃÑ· ÃÑiQÕ
hylogheism Ǩ^®O°÷~ ^≥·=~ O≥~_«¥

XHí¯>ı J<Ë ÇÍ^°~
r=ÇÍ^°~
~ of creation ã¨$+≤ì
㨥HíÎ~
hyoid bone Hí~Oîßã≤÷ J^è’ǨÏ#ºã≤÷
hypalgesia "≥∞∞^°∞ÌÉÏO°_«~
hyper L„^ÕHí, â◊H˜Î=∞~`Œ"≥∞·#, Juâ◊ܵ`Œ,
JkèHí. ~ acidity [Oî°O®kèHß=∞¡`Œ. ~
activity syndrome JuK‹·`Œ#º ÅHí∆}~
hyperbaton Ǩ^°=º`ŒºÜ«µ~
hyperbole Juâ◊ܡ∂H˜Î
hypercholesteroliemia O°HíÎ~Ö’ Jkè
Hí~Qå HÁ=Ùfi (HÁÖˇã¨ìO®Öò) KıO°_«~
hypergamy J#∞Ö’=∞ qÇÍǨÏ~
hyperiemia JkèHíO°HíÎ`Œ
hypermania JuQå „Ç¨=iÎ~K«_«~
hypermetropia ^°¥O°^°$+≤ì
hyperpyrexia Ju[fiO°~
hyper sensitivity Ju„QåǨÏHí`Œfi~
hypersonics 500 "≥∞QåÃÇÏO∑˚Å Hí#fl
ZHí∞¯= „Ѷ‘H≥fihû Híey# ^è°fix `ŒO°~QåÅ
L`ŒÊuÎ, „Ǩܡ∂y`ŒÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
âÍG~
hypertension O°HíÎáÈ@∞
hyperthyroidism ^ä≥·O®Üµ_ü „Qõ~kä Ju
„H˜Ü«µ
hypertrophy Ju=$kú
hyphae tb~„^è° `Œ~`Œ∞=ÙÅ∞
hypidiomorphic LǨáåO°≈fiHíO°¥Ç¨
hypnology x„^®^谺ܫµ#~
hylozoism Éèí¥`Œ
hymn ÉèíH˜Îw`Œ~.

233

hypnophobia
hypnophobia x„^è•ÉèíÜ«µ~
hypnotic x„^° `ˇÇ≤Ê~Kı ã¨"≥؇ǨÏHí. ~
suggestion `Í`ͯeHí q㨇 $u 㨥K«#
hypochondriasis O’Qõ„Éèí=∞
hypocrisy #@#, HßǨ@º~, q∞^äߺKÍO°~
hypocrite HíǨ>˜, =~K«Hí∞_«∞, #~Qõ<®z,

<®e=∞∞K«∞Û
hypodermic K«O°‡~H˜~k
hypodermis J^è°â◊ÛO°‡~/ J^è°ã¨ÎO°
hypogamy „ǨuÖ’=∞ qÇÍǨÏ~
hypogastric J^è’[Oî°O°~
hypogastrium J^è’[Oî°O° Éè•Qõ~
hypogean Éèí¥QõO°ƒù~Ö’ ÃÑiQÕ
hypoglossal nerve J^è’lǨfi <®_ç
hypoglycemia O°HíÎ~Ö’
Qõ¥¡H’*ò

=∂~^°º~
hypogynous J~_«H’âÍã≤÷û`Œ~
hypolimnion J`ŒºÅÊ
LëÈ‚„Qõ`Œ#∞,

`ŒHí∞¯= Hß~ux Híey# J@ì_«∞Qõ∞ h>˜
á⁄O°Å∞
hypomania JÖ’Ê<®‡^°~
hypopharynx J^è’„Qõã¨x

iconology

hyposmia P„Ѷ¨∂}â◊H˜Î ֒Ǩ~
hypospadias J^è°t≈â◊fl =∞¥„`Œ=∂O°æ~
hypostatization =∂#=`ÍfiO’Ǩ}
hyposthenia |ÅÇ‘Ï#`Œ
hypotension JÅÊO°HíÎáÈ@∞
hypothalamus J^è°óǨO°º~Hí~
hypothesis ǨiHíÅÊ#, „áåHíÅÊ#
hypothetical HíeÊ`Œ~, TǨ`Œ‡Hí, Ǩi

HíeÊ`Œ
hypothication

`ÍHí@∞ì, Hí∞^°∞=, P_»∞

=∂#~
hypothyroid ^ä≥·O®H˜û<ü L`ŒÊuΠ֒Ǩ~
hypothyroidism H©~
∆ ˘„Q≥Ç· Ü
ı µ« Hí`fiŒ ~, ^ä~·≥ å

~Ú_£ „QÆOkä =∂O^ŒºO
PH˜û[<ü âÍ`Œ~ `Œyæ
áÈ=_«~
hysterectomy QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ~ `˘Åy~ѨÙ
hysteresis â‹·käź~
hysteria JǨ™®‡O°~, HßH˜™⁄=∞∞‡, =∞¥O°Ûù
hysterography QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ z„`Œ}
hythergraph <ˇÅã¨i =O°¬áå`ÍxH˜ <ˇÅ
ã¨i LëÈ‚„Qõ`ŒÅ OÕMÏǨ@~
hypoxemia O°HíÎ~Ö’

Ii
iatro chemistry

zH˜`Íû O°™®Ü«µ#

âÍG~
iatrogenic zH˜`Íû „¿Ñi`Œ
ice =∞~K«∞. ~ bath =∞~K«∞`˘>˜ì. ~
cold Ç≤Ï=∞j`ŒÅ~
ice age Ç≤Ï=∞Ü«µ∞Qõ~
iceberg =∞~K«∞HÁ~_«
ice sheet =∞~K«∞ ǨÅHí. ~ shelf =∞~K«∞
Çı∞@. ~ stream Ç≤Ï=∞„ǨÇÍǨÏ~
ichium Pã¨<®ã≤÷
ichthyology [Å [~`Œ∞ âÍG~
ichthyosarcotoxins KıǨ֒¡x q+¨ Ǩ^®

O®÷Å∞
ichthyosis á⁄Å∞ã¨∞Å∞ UO°Ê_Ë K«O°‡Çͺkè
icing Ǩ~K«^®O° ѨÓ`Œ
icon q„QõǨÏ~, „Ǩu=∞, =∞¥iÎ
iconic ã¨O°¥Ç¨"≥∞·#
iconicity ™®O°¥Ç¨º ã¨~|~^è°~, `Íi¯Hí

ã¨~|~^è°~
iconoclasm q„QõÇ¨Ï ^è°fi~ã¨#~
iconoclast q„QõÇ¨Ï q^è°fi~ã¨Hí∞_«∞,

q„QõǨ
O®^è°# =ºuOÕH˜
iconography „Ǩu=∂ (xO®‡}) âÍG~
iconology „Ǩu=∂âÍG~

icterus

ǨK«ÛHß"≥∞O°∞¡. neonatorum ~
„Ǩã¨ÇÍ#~`ŒO°~ tâ◊∞=ÙÅÖ’ ǨK«ÛHß"≥∞O°∞¡
ictus TxHí
idea PÖ’K«#, Éè•=~, Jaè„áåÜ«µ~
ideal „âı+¨ª~, L`ŒÎ=∞~, P^°O°≈=~`Œ~,
P^°O°≈~. ~ choice P^°O®≈=Hßâ◊~
idealism P^°O°≈ÇÍ^°~, Éè•=ÇÍ^°~
idealistic P^°O°≈ѨÓO°fiHí
idealistic approach P^°O°≈ =∂O°æ~
ideational z~`Œ<®`Œ‡Hí
id ego ã¨fi–JǨÏ~
identical ã¨=∞O°¥Ç¨
identification parade (x~k`Œ∞Å)
Qõ∞iÎ~Ѩ٠„Ǩ^°O°≈#
identify v. Qõ∞iÎ~K«∞, `Í^®`Œ‡º~ K‹~^°∞
identity card Qõ∞iÎ~Ѩ٠p>˜/ Ǩ„`Œ~
ideological Ãã·^®ú~uHí. ~ conflicts
Ãã·^®ú~uHí ã¨~Ѷ¨∞O°¬}Å∞. ~ struggle
Ãã·^®ú~uHí áÈO®@~. ~ veneer Ãã·^®ú~
uHí =∞∞ã¨∞Qõ∞
ideology P^°O°≈~, ã≤^®ú~`Œ~† PÖ’K«<®
^è’O°}˜
ideoplastic Éè•= HíeÊ`Œ
idiocy [_«`Œfi~, =∞¥O°ö`Œfi~, `ˇeq=∂e#
`Œ#~
idiokinesis ÇÍO°ã¨`Œfi ÅHí∆}®Ö’¡ =∂O°∞Ê
idiolect =ºH˜Î Éè•+¨
idiom #∞_çHßO°~, *ÏfÜ«µ~
idiosyncrasy qѨs`« „Ѩ=$uÎ
idle money x뮯O°º„^°=º~, ÇÍ_«Hí~ÖËx/
=_ô¤x Pi˚~K«x _«|∞ƒ
idol ^≥=
· q„QõÇϨ ~, ѨÓ[hÜ«µ=ºH˜,Î =ã¨∞=Î Ù
idolator q„QõǨO®^è°Hí∞_«∞
idyllic PǨ¡^°HíO°"≥∞·#, âÍ~uÜ«µ∞`Œ"≥∞·#
iffy ã¨~kQõú
icterus

234

ill-starred

illuminant

igneous rock JyfltÅ
ignite =∞~_ç~K«∞
ignition [ށ#~. ~ mixture [ށ#
q∞„â◊=∞~. ~ temperature [fiÅ<ÀëÈ‚

illuminant
illuminate

„Qõ`Œ
ignominy J==∂#~,

JǨH©iÎ, J„Ǩu+¨ª,
Híà◊~Hí~, =∞K«Û, ǨO®Éèí=~
ignoramus Ǩ~_ç`Œ=∞‡#∞º_«∞, q*Ï˝xÖÏ
#>˜~Kı =ºH˜Î
ignorance J*Ï˝#~, `ˇeÜ«µx`Œ#~
ignore xO°¡Hí∆ º~ KıÜ«µ∞, q㨇i~K«∞, LxH˜
=∞O°záÈ=Ù
ikebena ѨÙ=ÙfiÅ#∞ J=∞OÕÛ Ç¨^°úu
ileus P~„`Í=O’^è°~
ilk =O°æ~, Qõ∞~ѨÙ
ill blood ǨQõ, "≥·O°~
illegal K«@ìqO°∞^°ú"≥∞·#, <®ºÜ«µ|^°ú~ Hßx.
~ contract K«@ì qO°∞^°ú XǨÊ~^°~. ~
gratification Å~K«~, J„Hí=∂O°˚#. ~
partnership J<ˇ·uHí Éè•Qõ™®fi=∞º~
illegitamacy J„Hí=∞
ã¨~|~^è°~,
*ÏO°`Œfi~
illegitimate J„Hí=∞"≥∞·#, x+≤^°ú"≥∞·#
illegitimation J„Hí=∞ã¨~`Í#=∞x „ǨHí
>˜~K«_«~
illfame JǨH©iÎ, ^°∞O°ºâ◊~
ill founded ã¨iܡµ·# ™®Hí∆ º~ÖËx, xO®
^è•O°
illgotten J„Hí=∂i˚`Œ. ~ gains "≥Øã¨
y~z Pi˚~z# ™⁄=∞∞‡
illicit K«@ì|^°ú~Hßx, ^˘~QõKÍ@∞ x+≤^°ú.
~ migration ^˘~QõKÍ@∞ =Åã¨. ~
relation J„Hí=∞ ã¨~|~^è°~
illiteracy xO°Hí∆O®ã¨º`Œ
illogical `ŒO°¯qO°∞^°ú
ill-starred ^°∞O°^°$+¨ìHíO°/ "≥∞·#

„ǨnǨHí~
„ǨHßt~ǨKıÜ«µ∞, "≥ey~K«∞†
(P^蕺u‡Hí) *Ï˝<®xfl Híey~K«∞
illuminated „ǨnǨÎ
illumination „ǨHßâ◊~, "≥Å∞Qõ∞, náå
Å~HíO°}† Ǩ„`ŒO°~[#~, „ǨnǨ#~, Ǩ„`Œ
nǨ#~
illumine „ǨHßt~K«∞, "≥ey~K«∞, qHíã~
≤ Ǩ
KıÜ«µ∞
illusion =∂Ü«µ, „Éèí=∞, PÉè•ã¨, „Éè•~u.
optical ~ ^°$+≤ì„Éè•~u
illusionary „Éè•~u=∞¥ÅHí
illusionism „Éè•~uÇÍ^°~
illustrated ã¨z„`Œ
illustration ^°$ë®ì~`Œ~, ÇͺMϺz„`Œ~,
ÅHí∆ º z„`Œ~
illustrious „ǨMϺ`Œ, „Ǩã≤^°ú, „Ǩ=∞∞Y,
L^®Ç¨ÏO°}„áåÜ«µ"≥∞·#, Z#fl^°y#
ill will ^°∞O°aè„áåÜ«µ~, â◊„`Œ∞`Œfi~, ^Õfi+¨~,
Jܵ+¨ì~
ILO (The International Labour
Organisation) J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ Hßi‡Hí

ã¨~ã¨÷
image ガua~|~,

ã¨~Hı`Œ~, „áåux^è°º~,
Éè•=z„`Œ~, „ǨuO°¥Ç¨~, „ǨuK«Ûù~^°~
imageability =ºHí∞ÎÅÃÑ· qq^è°=ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ
Qå_è° „ǨÉè•=~
imagery =∞#tÛ„`Œ~, „Ǩua~|~
imagiers ^è•i‡Hí tÅ∞ÊÅ∞
imaginary TǨ`Œ‡Hí, HßÅÊxHí, JÇÍã¨Î
qHí
imagination TǨÏ, Éè•=#, HíÅÊ#
imaginative TǨ`Œ‡Hí"≥∞·#
imagism „Ǩua~|ÇÍ^°~
imbalance Jã¨~`Œ∞Å#
imbecile Jâ◊Hí∞Î_«∞, ^°∞O°ƒÅ (=∞#㨯),
=∞¥_è°∞_«∞

235

immobilization

imbecility (=∂#ã≤H)í |ÅÇ‘Ï#`Œ, Jâ◊H`
Îí Œ
imbibe rO°‚~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞, J~`Œóâ’+≤~K«∞,

„QÆÇ≤ÏOK«∞
imbibition J~`Œóâ’+¨}~
imbricate zHí¯x
imbrication J^è°ºÅ~HíO°}
imbroglio H˜¡+¨ì, JxtÛ`Œ

Ǩiã≤÷u, uHí

=∞Hí, á⁄>Ï¡@
IMF (The International Monetary
Fund) J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ „^°=ºxkè
imitation J#∞HíO°}
imitation gold HßH˜ |~QåO°~
immaculate =∞K«ÛÖËx, `ŒÇ¨CÖËx, Ǩi

â◊∞„Éèí"≥∞·#
immature JǨi}`Œ, JǨiǨHífi
immeasurable JQõ}º"≥∞·#, HÁÅ=ÖËx
immediate `ŒHí∆}, P#∞HÁx L#fl. ~
holding company =∞O’ Hí~ÃÑh ÇÍ>Ï

ÅÖ’ ã¨QåxH˜ ÃÑ·Qå `Œ# ™®finè#~Ö’
L#fl Hí~ÃÑh
immediately ã¨^°ºó, `ŒHí∆}
immemorial J<®k,
㨇 $uHí~^°x,
Qõu~z#, ѨÙO®`Œ#"≥∞·#. ~ interest
Qå_è•ã¨H˜Î. ~ love Qå_è°„¿Ñ=∞
immense KÍÖÏ, K‹Ç¨ÊÖË#~`Œ, Jq∞`Œ,
JǨiq∞`Œ, Q˘Ç¨Ê
immerse b#"≥∞·áÈ=Ù, =∞∞#∞Qõ∞
immersed =∞Qõfl"≥∞·#
immersion
x=∞[˚#~
(h>˜Ö’)
=∞∞~K«_«~
immigrant =Åã¨=zÛ#/ q^Õâ◊~Ö’ ã≤÷O°
Ǩ_ç# =ºH˜Î
immigration =Åã¨
imminent Pã¨#fl, `˘~^°O°Qå [O°QõÉ’Ü˵
immiscible Híeã≤áÈx
immobilization ã≤÷sHíO°}

236

immodest
immodest Jqh`Œ, J™œ=∞º
immodesty Jq#Ü«µ~, J™œ=∞º`Œ
immorality ^°∞sflu, huÉÏǨϺ`Œ
immortal J=∞O°Î º, âÍâ◊fi`Œ
immortality J=∞O°`Œfi~
immovable Hí^°eHíHí∞ gÅ∞Hßx.
joint JK«Åã¨~kè. ~ properties

~
ã≤÷O®

ã¨∞ÎÅ∞
immune O°H˜∆`Œ, q=∞∞HíÎ
immunities q∞#Ǩܵ~ѨÙÅ∞, O°Hí∆}Å∞
immunity O°H}
∆í , q=∞∞H˜,Î q∞#Ǩܵ~ѨÙ,

Jã¨~„Hß=∞º`Œ† Çͺkè xO’^è°Hí â◊H˜Î
ÇͺkèxO’^è°Hí â◊H˜Îx Híe
y~K«_«~, >©HßÅ∞ ÇıÜ«µ_«~
immuno-assay „Ǩu[#HßÅ, „ǨuO°Hí∆
HßÅ ™®÷ܵx x~°úi~Kı ǨsHí∆
immuno-chemistry „ǨuO°Hß∆ O°™®Ü«µxHí
âÍG~
immuno-deficiency O’Qõ
xO’^è°Hí
=º=™®÷ "≥·Ñ¶¨Åº~
immuno-diagnostics
ÇͺkèxO’^è°Hí
ÅHí∆} ǨijÅ# Çͺkè
immunological tolerence xO’^è°Hí
Hí∆=∞`Œ
immunology ÇͺkèxO’^è°Hí
zH˜`Íû
q^è•#~
immuno-suppressant „ǨuO°H∆ß xO’
^è°Hí~
immuno-suppression „ǨuO°Hß∆ xO’^è~
°
immuno-therapy Çͺkè xO’^è°Hí zH˜`Œû
immutable =∂O°x, K‹^°O°x, =∂O°∞ÊÖËx
impact „ǨÉè•=~, ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@#, `ÍH˜_ç
impact day ÇÍ>ÏÅ *Ïs Qõ∞i~z
„ǨHí>˜~Kı O’A
impact printer JaѶ¨∂`Œ =∞∞„^®Ç¨Hí~
impair |ÅÇ‘Ï#ǨO°K«∞, qÅ∞= `Œyæ~K«∞,
K‹O°∞K«∞
immunization

imperialism

imperil

impairment |ÅÇ‘Ï#`Œ, Jâ◊HíÎ`Œ
impanel Ǩ>˜ìHíÖ’ KıO°∞Û
impart <ËO°∞Ê Híey~K«∞, É’kè~K«∞,

imperil

`ˇeÜ«µ*ËÜ«µ_«~
impartable K˘Ç≤Ê~K«^°y#, É’kè~K«
^°y#
impartial `Œ@ã¨÷, xë®ÊH˜∆Hí
impartible JqÉè•[º"≥∞·#
impassable „ǨÇıt~K«O®x, =∞¥ã¨∞Hí∞
áÈܵ#, J_«∞¤Ç¨_ç#, ^®@ÖËx, JQõ=∞º
impasse Híiî# Ǩiã≤÷u, ã¨Î~Éèí#, „Ǩu
+¨ì~Éèí#
impassive Éè•=O°Ç≤Ï`Œ
impasto Hí∞~_«Å `ŒÜ«∂sH˜ LǨܡ∂y~Kı
=∞>˜ì
impatience Jã¨Ç≤Ï+¨∞‚`Œ, Jã¨Ç¨Ï#~
impeachment Jaèâ◊~ã¨#,
=∞Ǩaè
ܡ∂Qõ~. ~motion Jaèâ◊~ã¨# fO®‡#~
impecunious `ŒHí∞¯= _«|∞ƒ QõÅ, ¿Ñ^°
impediment J~`ŒO®Ü«µ~, J=O’^è°~
impeding „Ǩu|~^è°Hí"≥∞·#
impel |Å=~`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞, „¿ÑOÕÇ≤~K«∞
impending Pã¨#fl, ã≤^°ú
impenetrability JÉèı^°º`Œ
impenetrable JÉèı^°º, K˘O°ÖËx
imperative =∞∞Yº"≥∞·#,
J`Œº=ã¨O°,
`ŒÇ¨Êxã¨i
imperceptibility Jf~„kÜ«µ`Œ, JQÀK«
O°`Œ
imperceptible Jf~„kÜ«µ, JQÀK«O°,
JQõ=∞º, JQõ∞Ǩ_«x
imperfect induction JǨiѨÓO®‚
Qõ=∞#~
imperforate O°~„^è°~/ zè„^°~ÖËx
imperial ™®„=∂*ϺxH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#
imperialism ™®„=∂[ºÇÍ^°~

=∞∞ǨC`ˇzÛÃÑ@∞ì, JáåÜ«µ~
Híey~K«∞
imperium ã¨~ѨÓO®‚kèHßO°~, Ãã·xHßkè
HßO°~
impermanence JâÍâ◊fi`Œ`Œfi~
impermeable K˘O°ÖËx, K˘O° â◊Híº~Qåx,
ÇͺÇ≤~Ǩ â◊Híº~Qåx
impersonate J#∞Híi~z "≥Øã¨~KıÜ«µ∞,
ÇıO˘Hí =ºH˜ÎQå „Ç¨=iÎ~K«∞
impersonation „ǨuO°¥Ç¨=O°Î#, =∞O’
=ºH˜ÎQå =º=ǨÏi~K«_«~
impertinence J=∞O®º^°, JQ“O°= „Ǩ=
O°Î#, Jq^èıÜ«µ`Œ
impertinent =∞O®º^°ÖËx, Jã¨~|^°ú"≥∞·#,
Jã¨~^°O°ƒù"≥∞·#
imperturbable Hí~QåO°∞Ǩ_«x, K‹^°O°x
impervious K˘O°ÖËx, „ǨÇıt~K«ÖËx,
JÉèı^°º, „ǨÉè•=~ K«¥Ç¨x. ~ rocks
J„ǨÇıâ◊ܡ∂Qõº tÅÅ∞
impetuous PÖ’K«#ÖËx, J<®Ö’z`Œ
impetus „áÈ`ÍûǨÏ~, „¿ÑO°}
impiety áåǨ~, ^è°O°‡O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
impinge „ǨÉè•=~K«¥Ñ¨Ù, _è©HÁ@∞ì
impious JǨq„`Œ"≥∞·#, ^è°O°‡^°¥O°
implant <®@∞, â◊sO°~Ö’ „ǨÇıâ◊ÃÑ@∞ì
implausible #=∞‡â◊Híº~Qåx, #=∞‡ÖËx
implead HíH˜∆^®O°∞Qå KıO°∞
implement J=∞Å∞ǨO°K«∞† ǨiHíO°~,
Ǩx=∞∞@∞ì
implicate WiH˜~K«∞,
WO°∞Hí∞HÁ#∞,
zHí∞¯Ö’¡ÃÑ@∞ì
implication Qõ¥_è•O°÷~, J<®ºO°÷~, zHí∞¯
implicative proposition J~`ŒO®ƒù=
„Ǩu*Ï˝ ÇÍHíº~
implicit ^®y L#fl, 㨥>˜Qå ÖËx. ~
function J=ºHíÎ „ǨÇı∞Ü«µ~

237

impregnation

implicitly 㨥K«#Qå, Qõiƒù`Œ~Qå
implied powers 㨥z`ÍkèHßO®Å∞
implore „áåi÷~K«∞, J_«∞Qõ∞
imply 㨥z~K«∞
imponderable J~K«<®
ÇıÜ«µÖËx,

J#¥Ç¨Ïº
import kQõ∞=∞u. ~ duty kQõ∞=∞u
ã¨∞~Hí~. ~ license kQõ∞=∞uH˜ J#∞
=∞u. ~ quota kQõ∞=∞u Kıã∞¨ Hí∞<Ë =ã¨∞Î
=ÙÅ ã¨~Yº. ~ restrictions kQõ∞=∞u
x|~^è°#Å∞
important =∞∞Yº~, „Ǩ^è•#~
importer kQõ∞=∞u^®O°∞
importune Ç‘_ç~K«∞,
=^°ÅHí∞~_Í
J_«∞Qõ∞
importunity |Å=~`Œ~, ǨÏOî°~
impose qkè~K«∞
impossible J™®^è°º"≥∞·#
imposter =~K«Hí∞_«∞, "≥Øã¨Qå_«∞
impotence #ѨÙ~ã¨Hí`Œfi~
impotent #ѨÙ~ã¨Hí∞_«∞† ã¨Ç¨Ü«µâ◊¥#º,
Kı`ŒQåx
impound ™®finè#~Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞, [ѨÙÎKıÜ«µ∞
impoverish c^°#∞ KıÜ«µ∞, â◊H˜ÎÇ‘Ï#~
KıÜ«µ∞
impoverishment ¿Ñ^°iHí~, ¿Ñ^°`<
Œ ®xH˜
O®=_«~
impracticable PK«O°} ™®^è°º~ Hßx
impractical JÇÍã¨Î="≥∞·#
imprecise Jã¨Ê+¨ì"≥∞·#
impregnable ^°∞OÕƒù^°º, KılH˜¯~K«∞H’ÖËx,
qO°QQõ ˘@ìÖxË , ǨQÅõ x, Ǩ@∞ìH’ÖËx, Z^°∞
O˘¯#ÖËx, J#fiܵ~K«ÖËx, ã¨~ÉÏo~K«
ÖËx
impregnation QõO®ƒù^®#~,
QõO°ƒù~
KıÜ«µ_«~, ѨÓi~K«_«~, K˘O°ÉÏ@∞

impress

PHí@∞ìHÁ#∞, „ǨÉè•q`Œ~KıÜ«µ∞,
=∞∞„^°ÇıÜ«µ∞
impressed force PO’Ç≤`Œ |Å~
impression =∞∞„^°, Éè•=~, „ǨÉè•=~,
J#∞Éè•=#, JK«∞ÛǨx
impressionism J#∞Éè•=`Í ÇÍ^°~,
J#∞Éèí¥u ÇÍ^°~, =∞<À=∞∞„^®ÇÍ^°~
impressionistic criticism P`͇„â◊Ü«µ
q=∞O°≈
imprimatur „ǨK«∞i~K«_ÍxH© J#∞=∞u
imprint =∞∞„^°, Qõ∞O°∞Î, JK«∞Û, J#∞
=∞∞„^°}
imprisonment K‹O°
improbable Jã¨~Éèí=
impromptu Pâ◊∞, J„Ǩܫµ`ŒflѨÓO°fiHí
improper fraction J„Hí=∞ aè#fl~
impropriety J<Òz`Œº~,
`ŒQõxk,
J^è°O°‡~
improve "≥∞O°∞Qõ∞ǨO°∞K«∞
improvement "≥∞O°∞Qõ∞ǨO°K«_«~, ã¨~=
O°ú#~
improvise Pâ◊∞=ÙQåO°z~K«∞
imprudent ^°∞_«∞Hí∞, `ˇeqÖËx, Jq
ÇıHí"≥∞·#
impudence JQ“O°= „Ǩ=O°Î#, hÅ∞Qõ∞_«∞
impudent ã≤Qõ∞æÖËx, Å*Ï˚Ç‘Ï#"≥∞·#
impugn „ǨuÇÍk~K«∞, Y~_ç~K«∞
impulse „¿ÑO°}, „ǨKÀ^°#~, `ÍHí∞_«∞,
Qõuâ◊H˜Î. ~ buying PHíã≤‡Hí HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞.
~ cardiac Qõ∞~_≥`ÍHí∞_«∞. ~ nerve
<®_ô „¿ÑOÕǨ}
impulsion Ü«∂^°$zÛùHí~Qå KıÜ«µ_«~
impulsive ǨÏOîß`Œ∞ÎQå HíeQÕ, =∞∞~^°∞Hí∞
`À¿ã, ÇıQõjÅ"≥∞·#
impune tHí∆ #∞~_ç q∞#Ǩܵ~K«_«~
impurity =∂e#º~
impress

238

inbreeding

imputation PO’Ǩ}, Jaèܡ∂Qõ~
impute PO’Ç≤~K«∞, "≥ØѨÙ
in abeyance =O°Î=∂#~Ö’ ÖËx
inability Jâ◊HíÎ`Œ, Jã¨=∞O°÷`Œ, Kı`ŒHßx

`Œ#~
inaccessible J„áåǨº,

KıO°ÖËx, K˘O°ÖËx,
^°¥O°ÖËx, Éèı^°º~Hßx
inaccuracy ã¨iHßxk, `ŒÇ¨C, `Ë_Í
inactivation xâıÛ+¨ì~Qå/ x„+≤¯Ü«µQå/
xO®fi ºáåO°~Qå L~_«_«~
inactive JKı`Œ#"≥∞·#, x„+≤¯Ü«µ, „H˜Ü«∂
O°Ç≤Ï`Œ. ~ money =ºO°÷, J#∞Ǩܫµ∞HíÎ
^è°#~
inactivity ã¨Î|ú`Œ, [_«`Œ
inadequacy KÍÅx, ã¨iǨ_«x, Jã¨~
ѨÓO°‚, Jã¨=∞„Qõ
inadmissible J~wHíi~K«^°Qõx
inadvertence á⁄O°áå@∞, J*Ï„Qõ`Œ
inadvertent J#∞H’x
inalienable |kbKıÜ«µÖËx,
J<®º
„Hß~`Œ~ KıÜ«µ_ÍxH˜ gÅ∞ÖËx
nane JO°÷~ÖËx, =∞¥O°ö
inanimate xs˚=, [_«"≥∞·#, „áå}~ÖËx
inanition J#fláå#O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
inappropriate Jã¨~^°O°ƒù, ã¨iHßx
inapt JÜ«µ∞HíÎ, `ŒQõx
inattention ǨO®Hí∞, UHß„Qõ`Œ ÖËq∞
inaudibe q#|_«x
inaugural „áåO°~Éèí
inaugurate „áåO°~aè~K«∞
inauspicious Jâ◊∞Éèí
inborn ѨÙ@∞ìHí`À =zÛ#, [#‡ã≤^°ú"≥∞·#
inbred ѨÙ@∞ìHí`À† XHı =~â◊~Ö’x
=ºHí∞ÎÅ ã¨~`Í#~
inbreeding J~`Œó „Ǩ[##~, O°HíÎ
ã¨~|~nèHí∞Å HíÅܵHí =Å¡ ã¨~`Í
<À`ŒÊuÎ

inbuilt
inbuilt ã¨Ç¨Ï["≥∞·#
in camera O°Ç¨Ï㨺 qKÍO°}/ ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~
incandescence „Ǩ[fiÅ#~, `ÍǨnÇ≤Î
incandescent „ǨHßt~Kı, L[˚fiÅ
incantation =∞~„`ÀKÍÛùO°}, PÇÍǨÏ#~
incapable Jã¨=∞O°÷
incarcerate xO°ƒ~kè~K«∞, Mˇ·^°∞KıÜ«µ∞
incarnate J=`Œi~z#
in case XHíÇıà◊
incendiary ^®Ç¨ÏHí, HÁ~ǨÅ∞ `ŒQõÅɡ>ıì
incense ã¨∞ÇÍã¨#, ^谥Ǩ~
incentive „áÈ`ÍûǨÏHí~
inception „áåO°~Éèí~
incessant xO°~`ŒO°~, Z_«`ˇQõx
incest =O°∞ã¨Hßx ¢ã‘ΠѨÙO°∞+¨ ã¨~Qõ=∞~
incharge XHíiH˜ |^°∞Å∞Qå ÉÏ^è°º`ŒÅ∞

xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«_«~
HÁ`ŒÎQå "≥∞∞^°Å∞ÃÑ>ıì, Jã¨~
ѨÓO°‚, Jã≤÷O°
incidence ã¨~Éèí=~, Ǩ`Œ#~, `ÍH˜_ç
incident ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@#
incinerate Éèí㑇Híi~K«∞, |¥_ç^°KıÜ«µ∞
incineration Éèí㑇HíO°}~, HßeÛ |¥_ç^°
KıÜ«µ@~
incinerator Éèí㑇Hßi, HßeÛ |¥_ç^°
Kı¿ãk
incipient PO°~Éèí^°â◊Ö’ L#fl, `˘e
incise Qõ~@∞ÃÑ@∞ì, H’Ü«µ∞, pÅ∞Û,
#O°∞Hí∞, HíuÎi~K«∞
incision Qõ~@∞, H’`Œ
incisive xt`Œ"≥∞·#, f„==∞ܵ#
incisor =∞∞~^°i Ǩ#∞fl, Hí`ˇÎO°Ç¨#∞fl
incite Lã≤Q˘Å∞Ê, „¿ÑOÕÇ≤~K«∞, „áÈ`Íû
Ç≤Ï~K«∞, O≥K«ÛQ˘@∞ì
inclement J<®Ç¨¡^°, j`ŒÅ, Qåe ÇÍ#
Å`À Hí∂_ç#. ~ weather K«eQåÅ∞
Å`À Hí∂_ç# ÇÍ`Í=O°}~
inchoate

239

incorporated

"≥∞∞Qõ∞æ, JaèO°∞z, W+¨ì~†
^蕺ã¨, ÇÍÅ∞
inclusion KıO°∞Ê
inclusive Híeã≤#, Kıi#, Hí∂_ç#,
ã¨~Ѷ¨∞>˜`Œ
incognito =∂O°∞Çı+¨~/ ¿ÑO°∞
incoherence Jã¨~|^°ú
incoherent á⁄~kHíÖËx
incombustible J^®Ç¨Ïº
income P^®Ü«µ~. ~ and expenditure
account P^®Ü«µ =ºÜ«∂Å MÏ`Í. ~
tax P^®Ü«µÑ¨Ù Ǩ#∞fl
incommunicado ã¨=∂KÍO°~
ÖËx
q^è•#~, ã¨~Éè•+¨}®=Hßâ◊~ ÖËq∞
incomparable áÈÅÛ^°Qõx, Jã¨^°$â◊
incompatible Jã¨~Qõ`Œ, qO°∞^°ú, J`ŒHíx
incompitability Jã¨~Qõ`Œ`Œfi~
incomplete Jã¨~ѨÓO°‚
incomprehension JO°÷~ Kıã¨∞H’ÖËHí
áÈ=_«~
incompressibel Jã¨~Ç‘_«º
inconceivable J#¥Ç¨Ïº
incongruent ã¨O°fiã¨=∂#~ Hßx, Jã¨
=∞~[ã¨
incongruous Jã¨~Qõ`Œ"≥∞·#, á⁄~kHíÖËx,
`ŒQõx, á⁄~^°x, Jã¨~|^°ú"≥∞·#
inconsequential =∞∞Yº~Hßx, J„Ǩ^è•#
"≥∞·#, x„+¨Êܡ∂[#"≥∞·#
inconsistency Jã¨~Qõu
inconspicuous ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå Hí#|_«x
incontinence x„QõǨÏO®Ç≤Ï`Œº~
incontinent x„QõǨÏO°Ç≤Ï`Œ, J^°∞ѨÙÖËx
inconvenience W|ƒ~k, J™œHíO°º~
incorporate KıO°∞Û, J~`ŒO°¥ƒù`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞,
HíÅ∞ѨÙ
incorporated ã¨=∂q+¨ì
inclination

incorporeal
incorporeal Hí#Ǩ_«x, „Ǩ`ŒºHí∆~Qåx
incorrigible ã¨ik^°O
Ì ®x, ã¨~㨯i~K«ÖxË ,

K«Hí¯k^°ÌÖËx, ÉÏQõ∞ǨO°K«gÅ∞ÖËx
ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞, ZHí∞¯=Qõ∞, Jaè=$kú
K‹~^°∞, ÃÑ^°Ì^°=Ù
incredible J^°∞ƒù`Œ"≥∞·#, #=∞‡â◊Híº~Qåx
incredulity JǨ#=∞‡Hí~
incredulous #=∞‡â◊Híº~Qåx, #=∞‡>ÏxH˜
gÅ∞ÖËx
increment ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å, ÃÑ~ѨÙ, LǨqÉèíH˜Î
incremental repetition P=$uÎ, Ǩšq
incrustation Ǩ@bHíO°}~
incubation á⁄^°Q@
õ ~. ~ period á⁄kQÕ
ã¨=∞Ü«µ~
incubator á⁄kQÕ ™®^è°#~, ã≤÷O’+¨‚ ¿Ñ>˜Hí
incubus Qåe, ^°Ü«µº~, |¥z, ÉÏ^è•HíO°
=ã¨∞Î=Ù
inculcate <ËiÊ~K«∞, É’kè~K«∞
inculpate <ËO°~ "≥ØѨÙ
incumbent JkèHßO°~Ö’ L#fl =ºH˜Î
incunabula â‹·â◊qHí~
incurable #Ü«µ~Hßx
incursion JHí™®‡`Œ∞ÎQå ^®_çKıÜ«µ_«~,
^®_ç
indebted O°∞}Ǩ_ç#
indecent haste =∞~p =∞O®º^® ÖËx
`˘~^°O°áå@∞
indecipherable JO°÷~Hßx
indecisive xO°‚Ü«µ~ fã¨∞H’ÖËx, JxtÛ`Œ
indecisiveness JxtÛu, ã¨~kQõú`Œ
indecorous =∞O®º^°ÖËx
indefatigable JÅ∞Ѩ٠™⁄Å∞Ѩ٠ÖËx
indefinite xO°=kèHí
in-dehiscent ǨyÖË ã¨fiÉè•=~ÖËx
indelible =∞O°∞=ÖËx, fÜ«µÖËx
indemnity #+¨ìѨiǨ~°O, ѨÓ~°}O
increase

240

indirect

indent Hß=Åã≤# =ã¨∞Î=ÙŠǨ>©ì
indentation Qõ~@∞ÃÑ@ì_«~/ Ǩ_«_«~
indeterminacy JxiÌ+¨ì`Œ
independent
member
ã¨fi`Œ~„`Œ

ã¨Éèí∞º_«∞
in depth Ö’`Œ∞Qå
indestructibility Jq<®â◊`Œ
indeterminate JxO®úi`Œ~
indeterminism JxÜ«µ`ŒÇÍ^°~
index Ǩ^°ã¨¥zHí. ~ blood O°HßÎkè
㨥zHí. ~ cardiac ǨÏ$^°aè㨥zHí. ~
colour =O°‚㨥zHí
indexing J#∞„Hí=∞}~
indian ink HíO°H߯ܫµ ã≤O®
indian moorhen Éè•O°`Œ^Õâ◊~Ö’ Híx

Ç≤~Kı h>˜H’_ç
indicate 㨥z~K«∞, `ˇeÜ«µ*ËÜ«µ∞
indication 㨥K«#
indicator 㨥zHí
indices 㨥K«HßÅ∞
indict <ËO°~"≥ØѨÙ
indictable PkèHßiHí~Qå tH˜∆~K«^°y#
indictee x~k`ΰ_ǰ
indictor Ѷ≤O®ºk, x~^°Hí∞_«∞
indifference J<®ã¨H˜Î, L¿ÑHí∆, L^®ã‘#`Œ
indigence xO°Ì#`Œ, ¿Ñ^°iHí~
indigenous ã¨fi^Õj, ^Õâ◊ÇÍm
indigent ¿Ñ^°, c^°
indigestible rO°‚~Hßx, JO°Qõx
indigestion =∞~^®yfl, JrO°‚~
indignant „Hí∞^°ú, ^°∞+¨ì, H’Ǩ~QõÅ
indignation
H’Ǩ~,
J<®ºÜ«µ~,
J㨥ܫµ
indigo he(=∞~^°∞)
indirect ǨO’Hí∆, Hí∞>˜Å. ~ election
ǨO’HíZ∆ xflHí. ~ speech ǨO’H∆ß#∞HíO}
° ,
Éè•= „Ǩ^è•# xÇı^°#

241

indirectly proportional
indirectly proportional

qÖ’=∂#∞

áå`Œ~Ö’
indirect method ǨO’Hí∆Ǩ^°úu
indirect verification ǨO’Hí∆ xO°¥Ç¨}
indiscernible ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå
JO°÷~Hßx,

HßO°}~ "≥^°HíÖËx
JxÇÍO°º, JǨiǨO°º,
=^°eÇıÜ«µO®x
indisposed Jã¨fiã¨÷, #Å`ŒQå#∞#fl
indisputable qÇÍ^ŒO°Ç≤Ï`Œ, K«O°ÛÅHí∞
`Í=ÙÖËx, J„Ǩâ◊flhÜ«µ
in dispute qÇÍ^°~Ö’ L#fl
indissoluble JqzÛù#fl, HíO°Qõx, O°^°∞Ì
Kı¿ã, ¿ã=Å∞ÖËx
indistinct Jã¨Ê+¨ì"≥∞·#
indistinctly bÅQå, Jã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå
indistinctness Jã¨Ê+¨ì`Œ
indistinguishable
JqK«Hí∆}©Ü«µ,
Qõ∞iÎ~Ǩ gÅ∞ÖËx
in deistress ã¨~Hí@~Ö’
individualism =ºH˜Î „âıܡ∂ÇÍ^°~, =ºH˜Î
ÇÍ^°~
individual psychology =∞#ã¨`
Î fiŒ âÍG~
indoctrination ã¨fi=∞`ŒÉ’^è°#
indoctrination É’kè~K«∞, LǨ^Õt~K«∞,
ã≤^®ú~`ÍÅ#∞ =∞#ã¨∞ûH≥H˜¯~K«∞
indolence ™È=∞i`Œ#~
indolent Xà◊∞¡ =~Qõx, =∂#x
indubitable J#∞=∂#~ ÖËx, xã¨û~
â◊Ü«µ"≥∞·#
induce „¿ÑOÕÇ≤~K«∞
induced „¿Ñi`Œ. ~ radio activity
„¿Ñi`Œ OÕ_çܡ∂^è•i‡Hí`Œ
inducement
„¿ÑO°},
„Ǩ֒Éèí~,
„áÈ`ÍûǨÏ~
induction „ǨÇıâ◊~, „¿ÑO°}, PQõ=∞#
(`ŒO°¯)~. ~ coil „¿ÑO°} Çı+¨ì~
indispensable

ineptitude

induction of labour „Ǩã¨= „¿ÑO°}
inductive effect „¿ÑO°Hí „Ç¨Éè•=~
inductometric
effect
„¿ÑO°HíjÅ

„ǨÉè•=~
inductor „¿ÑO°Hí~
indulge áåÖÁæ#∞,

*’Híº~ ÃÑ@∞ìHÁ#∞,
K«#∞qK«∞Û, QåO®|~KıÜ«µ∞, Ö’Å∞_«Qõ∞
indulgence K«#∞=Ù, QåO®|~, Ö’Å`Œfi~,
ÖÏÅ#
induration Hßiî#º~, Qõ>˜ì`Œ#~
industrial áåi„âÍq∞Hí. ~ area áåi
„âÍq∞Hí„áå~`Œ~. ~ art áåi„âÍq∞Hí
Híà◊. ~ chemistry áåi„âÍq∞Hí O°™®
Ü«µ#âÍG~. ~ estate áåi„âÍq∞Hí
ÇÍ_«. ~ relations áåi„âÍq∞Hí ã¨~|~
^è•Å∞. ~ tribunal áåi„âÍq∞Hí <®ºÜ«µ
™®÷#~
industrialism áåi„âÍq∞HíÇÍ^°~
industrialist áåi„âÍq∞HíÇı`ŒÎ
industrialization áåi„âÍq∞H©HíO°}
industries Ǩi„â◊=∞Å∞. supplementary
~ LǨǨi„â◊=∞Å∞
industrious „â◊=∞jÅ, Hí+≤ì~z ǨxKı¿ã
industry Ǩi„â◊=∞, HíO®‡QåO°~
inebriate =∞`Œ∞ÎHíey~Kı
inebriation =∞`Œ∞Î, "≥∞·Hí~
inedita „ǨK«∞i~K«x O®`ŒÅ∞
inedited Ǩije~K«x, ǨsH˜∆~K«x
inefficiency Jã¨=∞O°÷`Œ, <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~ ÖËx
inefficient ™®=∞O°÷º~ÖËx, Jã¨=∞O°÷
inelegant PHíO°¬} ÖËx
ineligibility J#O°›`Œ
ineluctable `ŒÇ≤Ê~K«∞H’ÖËx
inept Jã¨~Qõ`Œ"≥∞·#
ineptitude Jã¨~Qõ`«fiO

inequality
inequality Jã¨=∂#`Œ
inequitous J<®ºÜ«µ"≥∞·#
inert K«Å#~ÖËx, ã¨Î|ú, [_«.

~ gas [_«
ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù
inertia [_«`fiŒ ~, ã¨|
Î `ú .Œ ~ uterine QõO®ƒù
â◊Ü«µã¨Î|ú`Œ
inertion [_«`Œfi~, x„+≤¯Ü«∂ǨO°`Œfi~
inevitable JxÇÍO°º, `ŒÇ¨Êxã¨i
inevitable `ŒÇ¨Êxã¨iQå
inexpensive „Ç≤Ü«µ~Hßxk, K«=Hí Jܵ
#k, =ºÜ«µÉèíi`Œ~ Hßxk
inexplicable HßO°}~ K‹Ç¨Ê_ÍxH˜ gÅ∞
Hßx, q=i~K«ÖËx
infallible `ŒÇ¨CHßx, á⁄O°áå@∞Ǩ_«x,
J"≥ØѶ¨∞
infamy J„Ǩu+¨ª, JǨH©iÎ
infancy â‹·â◊=~, ÉÏź~
infant tâ◊∞=Ù. premature ~ <ˇÅÅ∞
x~_«x tâ◊∞=Ù. ~ stage â‹·â◊=^°â◊
infanticide tâ◊∞ǨÏ`Œº
infantile tâ◊∞ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#, Ǩã≤`Œ#~
áÈx
infantilism Z^°∞Qõ¥ ÉÁ^°∞Qõ¥ ÖËx ã≤÷u
infantilization â‹·â◊=^°â◊Ö’ XHí J=
Ü«µ=~ ÃÑO°QõHíáÈ=_«~
infantry Ǩ^®u^°à◊~, HßŃÅ~
infatuated Çͺ"≥ØǨÏ~QõÅ, "≥ØǨÏ=â◊
infatuation Çͺ"≥ØǨÏ~, "≥ØǨÏ~
infection ã¨~„Hí=∞}. air borne ~
ÇÍÜ«µ∞ ÇÍÇ≤Ï`Œ ã¨~„Hí=∞}. secondary
~ kfifÜ«µ ã¨~„Hí=∞}. silent ~
„ǨK«Ûù#fl ã¨~„Hí=∞}. sub-linical ~
O’Qõ ÅHí∆} Ç‘Ï# ã¨~„Hí=∞}
infectious ã¨~„Híq∞~K«∞, ã¨~„Híq∞~Kı,
™®~„Hßq∞Hí. ~ disease J~@∞Çͺkè
infecundity ¢ã‘ÎÅÖ’ =~^è°º`Œfi~

242
infer Éè•q~K«∞,
inference XHí

inflict

J#∞=∂x~K«∞
J~â◊~ #∞~_ç „QõÇ≤Ï~Kı
™®O®~â◊~, PHío~ѨÙ, J#∞q∞u
inferior #¥º#, <®ã≤O°Hí"≥∞·#, K“Hí,
`ŒHí∞¯=
infernal PǨ¡^°HíO°~ Hßx, Çı^°<®=∞Ü«µ
inferno #O°Hí~ ÖÏ~>˜ „Ǩ^Õâ◊~, ÉèíÜ«µ~
HíO° ã¨÷Å~
infertile =~^è°º
infertility =~^è°º`Œfi~
infestation ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞Å`À ÉÏ^è°Ç¨_«_«~,
ǨO®#flr=ÙÅ/ ÇͺkèHßO°Hí tb~„^è•Å/
H©@HßÅ ã¨~„Hí=∞}, =∞¥y L~_«_«~
infibulation Öˇ·~yHí K«O°ºÅHí∞ J=O’^è°~
HíeÊ~K«_«~
infidelity ^®~Ǩ`Œº„^ÀǨÏ~, JqâÍfiã¨~
infight J~`ŒO°æ`Œ HíÅǨÏ~, Hí∞=∞∞‡ÖÏ@
infiltration K˘K«∞ÛHí∞xáÈ=_«~, K˘O°
ÉÏ@∞
infinite JǨiq∞`Œ
infinitesimal J`Œº~`Œã¥
¨ Hí;, KÍÖÏ z#fl
^≥·#
infirm |ÅÇ‘Ï#"≥∞·#, Jâ◊HíÎ
infirmary "≥·^°ºâÍÅ, Pã¨∞Ǩ„u
infirmity ֒Ǩ~, |ÅÇ‘Ï#`Œ, J<®
O’Qõº~. bodily ~ âÍsO°Hí ^ÒO°ƒÅº~
inflammable [fiÅ#jÅ,
=∞~_Ë
ã¨fiÉè•=~ QõÅ
inflammation =∞~_ç~K«_«~, ÉÏ^è°,
ÇÍѨÙ, <˘Ç≤Ê
inflatable Qåe`À x~Ǩ^°y#, ÃÑ~K«
^°y#
inflate L|∞ƒ, ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞, ÃÑ~K«∞
inflation „^°Ç’ºÅƒ}~† Qåe`À x~_«_«~
inflection Ǩ^°x+¨ÊuÎ, (<®=∞) qÉèíH˜Î
inflict `ˇzÛÃÑ@∞ì, qkè~K«∞

243

inflow
inflow ֒ǨeH˜ „Ǩ=Ç≤Ï~K«∞
influence ǨÅ∞Hí∞|_ç, „áå|ź~,

=∂@

K‹Å∞¡|_ç
influenza q+¨Ç¨_çâ◊~, j`ŒÅ[fiO°~
influx Ö’xH˜ O®=_«~/ „Ǩ=Ç≤Ï~K«_«~
informal Wë®ìQÀ+≤ª, J#kèHß~°, ÖÏOKè«#

„áêÜ«∞O HÍx
informative

injection

inguinal Qõ[˚Hí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
inhabit x=ã≤~K«∞, HßѨÙO°=∞∞~_«∞
inhalation TÇ≤i Ç‘ÅÛ_«~, xâÍfiã¨~
inhaler Ç‘ÖËÛ~^°∞Hí∞ ÇÍ_Ë ™®^è°#~
inherence ™®fiÉè•qHí`Œ, [#‡ã≤^°ú`Œ. ~ of
acquired character Pi˚`Œ ã¨fiÉè•=

ã¨~„Hí=∞}~
distortion

ã¨~㨥K«Hí

qHí$fHíO°}
infra H˜~^°
infraction Éèí~Qõ~, J=™®÷Ǩ#
infrared ǨO®O°∞}. ~ radiation ǨO®
O°∞} qH˜O°}~. ~ ray ǨO®O°∞} H˜O}
° ~
infrastructure J=™®÷Ǩ#, „áå^ä°q∞Hí
ã¨^°∞áåÜ«∂Å∞
infringe LÅ¡~Ѷ≤∞~K«∞, Ju„Híq∞~K«∞
infringement Ju„Hí=∞}, LÅ¡~Ѷ¨∞#
infructuous =ºO°÷
infundibulum QõO®@∞ O°¥Ç¨~ QõÅ
infuriated „H’^è•~^è°, L„kHíÎ
infusible JQåÅhÜ«µ
infusion Híë®Ü«µ~, â◊sO°~Ö’H˜ „^°ÇÍxfl
ZH˜¯~K«_«~
ingenious K«`Œ∞O°, `ˇeqQõÅ
ingenuity KÍ`Œ∞O°º~, `ˇeq
ingestion q∞~Qõ_«~, J~`Œ„O°æǨÏ}~
ingot =∞∞^°Ì. ~ iron ֒ǨÏѨ٠Hí_ô¤
ingrain dye J~`ŒiflÇ≤Ï`Œ O°~[#~
ingrained =∂O°Hí~ÖËx, K‹^°O°x JÅ
ÇÍ@∞¡ QõÅ, JÉèíºã¨Î, ã≤÷`Œ, Qõ`Œ
ingratiate J#∞„QõÇ‘Ï`Œ∞_«Qõ∞
ingratitude qâÍfiã¨Ç‘Ï#`Œ, Hí$`Œ[˝`ŒÖËq∞
ingredient Éè•Qõ~, J~â◊~, =∞™®ÖÏ
(k#∞ã¨∞Å∞)
ingress „ǨÇıâ◊~, „ǨÇıâÍkèHßO°~

inherent ™®fiÉè•qHí, ã¨fi`Œóã≤^°ú. ~
power ã¨fi`Œã≤^®úkèHßO°~. ~ vice J~`Œ

O°æ`Œ ^À+¨~
J~`ŒO°æ`Œ~Qå, <ˇ·ã¨iæHí~Qå,
ã¨fi`Œã≤û^°ú~Qå
inheritance ÇÍO°ã¨`Œfi~
inherited character ã¨~„Híq∞`Œ ÅHí∆}~
inhibit xO’kè~K«∞, PѨÙ
inhibiting growth xO’^è°Hí, =$kú
inhibition P@~Hí~, xO’^è°~
inhibitor K«∞O°∞Hí∞ `Œyæ~Kı† J=O’^è°Hí~
inhuman J=∂#∞+¨
inhumane Ju„Hí∂O°"≥∞·#
inimical „ǨuHí∂Å"≥∞·#, ǨxHíO°"≥∞·#,
qO°∞^°ú
inintegrum HÁ`ŒÎQå
iniquitous J<®ºÜ«µÑ¨Ói`Œ, ^°∞+¨ì
initial P^°º, "≥∞∞^°>˜† á⁄>˜ì ã¨~`ŒHí~
initiate K˘O°= fã¨∞HÁ#∞, „áåO°~aè~K«∞
initiation „áåO°~Éèí~
initiative K˘O°=† Jaè„áåÜ«µ xÇıkHí
injection 㨥k=∞~^°∞, 㨥k`À =∞~^°∞
ZH˜¯~K«_«~. circum corneal ~ ã¨fiK«Ûù
Ǩ@Å~ K«∞@¥ì 㨥k =∞~^°∞ W=fi_«~.
intramuscular ~ Hí~_«O°~Ö’H˜ 㨥k
=∞~^°∞ ZH˜¯~K«_«~. intra-venous ~
#O®ÅÖ’H˜ (ã≤O°ÅÖ’H˜) 㨥k =∞~^°∞
W=fi_«~
inherently

injunction

(H’O°∞ì) x¿+^è•[˝. ex-parte
~ UHíǨH∆ßÉèíºO°÷#ÃÑ· WKıÛ L`ŒÎO°∞=Ù. ~
injuria ǨxHíO° K«O°º. inter locutary
~ Çͺ[º Hßb# x¿+^è•[˝.
mandatory ~ HíO°Î=º^Õâ◊ x¿+^è•[˝.
perpetual
~
âÍâ◊fi`Œx¿+^è•[˝.
preliminary ~ „áå^ä°q∞Hí x¿+^è•[˝.
preventive ~ xO’^è°Hí x¿+^è•[˝.
provisional ~ `Í`ͯeHí x¿+^è•[˝.
temporary ~ `Í`ͯeHí x¿+^è•[˝
injury Ǩx, QåÜ«µ~
injustice J<®ºÜ«µ~, J^è°O°‡~
inky KÍÖÏ #Å¡<ˇ·#
inlay á⁄^°Qõ_«~
inlet „ǨÇıtHí, ã¨=∞∞„^°fO°~Ö’ z#fl ^®i,
Ö’xH˜ ^®fiO°~. pelvic ~ Hí>˜ =ÅÜ«µ
^®fiO°~
inmate Híeã≤ rqã¨∞Î#fl ÇÍiÖ’ XHíO°∞
inn 㨄`Œ~
innards (â◊sO°~Ö’) ֒Ǩe Éè•QåÅ∞
innate J~`Œs¡#, ã¨Ç¨Ï["≥∞·#, ѨÙ@∞ìHí`À<Ë
=zÛ#. ~ ideals ã¨fi`Œã≤û^°ú Éè•ÇÍÅ∞
inner ֒Ǩe, P~`ŒO°. ~ consciousness J~`ŒóHíO°}. ~ garment
Ö’^°∞ã¨∞Î. ~ party democracy áåsìÖ’
J~`ŒO°æ`Œ „Ǩ*Ï™®fi=∞º~. ~ voice
J~`ŒO®fi}˜, J~`ŒO°~Qõ „Ǩɒ^è°~
innocent J=∂Ü«µHí, xO°Ç¨O®kè
innocuous JáåÜ«µ~ÖËx, ǨxKıÜ«µx,
K‹_«¤Hßx, „Ǩ=∂^°~ÖËx
innominate Jkè„w=, Q˘~`Œ∞ H˜~^°
innovation HÁ`ŒÎ PÖ’K«#, #=„Ǩ=O°Î#
innuendo Qõiƒù`Œx~^°, Kè«Ö’H˜Î
innunodermatology K«O°‡Çͺkè xO’^è°Hí
âÍG~
inoculation >©HßÅ∞ (ÇıÜ«µ_«~)
injunction

244

insensible

insensitive

inomnibus Jxflq+¨Ü«∂ÅÖ’
inoperable â◊G zH˜`ŒûHí∞ gÅ∞Hßx
inordinate q∞ug∞i#, ZHí∞¯=, Jq∞`Œ
"≥∞·#. ~ delay `Í`ÍûO°~
inordinate J^°∞ѨÙÖËx, J`ŒºkèHí
inorganic JHíO°ƒ#, xi~„kÜ«µ. ~
chemistry JHíO°ƒ# O°™®Ü«µ# âÍG~
inpainting J~`ŒtÛ„`Œ}, Jaèz„`Œ}
inputs J=ã¨O®Å∞, L`ÍÊ^°HßÅ∞
in quadruplicate <®Å∞Qõ∞ HßÇ‘Å`À
inquest ^°∞O°‡O°}HßO°} q=∞O°≈, â◊=
Ǩ~KÍÜ«∞f. coroner's ~ PkèHßiHí
â◊= Ǩ~KÍÜ«µf. magesterial ~

insensitive

Çı∞l„¿ãì>ò Kı¿ã â◊= Ǩ~KÍÜ«∞f.
police ~ áÈbã¨∞ JkèHßi Kı¿ã â◊=
Ǩ~KÍÜ«µf
inquire qKÍi~K«∞, „Ǩtfl~K«∞, J_«∞Qõ∞
inquisition ǨijÅ#, qKÍO°}, ^°O®ºÑ¨ÙÎ
inroad ^°∞O®„Hí=∞}*ËÜ«µ∞,
^°~_≥`Œ∞Î,
K˘K«∞ÛHÁxáÈ=Ù
insalubrious J<®O’QõºHíO°"≥∞·#
ins and outs "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~ x*ÏÅ∞
insanitary JǨiâ◊∞„Éèí"≥∞·#
insanity "≥„i, L#‡`ŒÎ`Œ, Ç≤zÛ
insatiable `Œ$Ç≤ÎÖËx, `ŒxqfO°x
inscribe Jaèed~K«∞, K‹Hí∞¯, z„u~K«∞
inscribed J~`Œi¡d`Œ. ~ circle P~`ŒO°
=$`ŒÎ~
inscription Hí$u, J~H˜`~
Œ , tÖÏâÍã¨#~,
JaèÖËY#~
insect H©@Hí~. ~ borne H©@HíÇÍÇ≤Ï`Œ.
~ repellent H©@HßÅ xO’^è°Hí
insecticide H©@Hí ã¨~Ǩi
insemination â◊∞„Hí xHı∆Ǩ}, gO°ºxHı∆Ǩ~
insenisibility [_«`Œfi~, Jf~„kÜ«µ`Œ
insensible JKı`Œ#, 㨇 $uÖËx, Híiî#,
„Hí∂O°

ã¨Ê~k~K«x, ã¨∞xfl`Œ~Hßx,
K«∞O°∞Hí∞^°#~ ÖËx
insertion „ǨÇıâ◊ÃÑ@ì_«~, Qõ∞K«Û@~
inside Ö’`Œ@∞ì, Hí_«∞ѨÙ
insidious „ǨKÛ« #
ù fl"≥∞#· , HíÇ@
¨ , „^ÀǨÏѨÓO°‚
insignificant =∞∞Yº~Hßx, ã¨fiÅÊ"≥∞·#
insinuate =º~Qõº~Qå 㨥z~K«∞, `ŒÇ¨C
Jaè„áåÜ«µ~`À 㨥z~K«∞
insinuation ǨO’Hí∆x~^°
insipid O°∞zÖËx, x™®ûO°
insist <˘H˜¯K‹Ç¨C, Ǩ@∞ìǨ@∞ì, xOÕÌt~K«∞
in situ ã¨Ç¨Ï[ã≤÷uÖ’, Ü«µ^äß™®÷#~Ö’
insolence q∞_çã≤áå@∞, ^®+‘ìHí~
insolent á⁄QõO°∞É’`Œ∞, `ŒÅaO°∞ã¨∞
insolubility J„^®=}©Ü«µ`Œ
insoluble HíO°Qõx, J„^®=º
insolvency kÇÍÖÏ(H’O°∞`Œ#~)
insolvent kÇÍÖÏH’O°∞
insomnia x„^°ÖËq∞ (Çͺkè)
insouciance Ǩ>˜ì~K«∞H’x`Œ#~
inspection `Œxv, ™È^®
inspiration J~`ŒóâÍfiã¨#~, „áÈ`ÍûǨÏ~,
L`ÍûǨÏ~, LKÍÛùfiã¨~, TÇ≤iÇ‘ÅÛ_«~
installed
capacity
„Ǩu뮪Ç≤`Œ
™®=∞O°÷º~, L`ŒÊuÎ ™®=∞O°÷º~
instalment ÇÍܵ^®, H˜ã¨∞Î, H˜ã‘Î
instance L^®Ç¨ÏO°}, ^°$ë®ì~`Œ~, „¿ÑO°},
ã¨~Hı`Œ~
instantaneous `˘~^°O°Qå, ÇıQõ~Qå,
`ŒHí∆}~
instead of =∂O°∞Qå, |^°∞Å∞Qå
instigation „áÈ^°ƒÅ~, ^°∞„¿+ÊO°}, ѨÙi
HÁÅÊ@~
instillation (=∞~^°∞) K«∞Hí¯Å∞ ÇıÜ«µ_«~
instinct „Ǩ=$uÎ, ã¨fiÉè•=~† ã¨Ç¨Ï[ *Ï˝#~

245

integumentary

institutional buying ã¨~ã¨Å
÷ HÁ#∞QÀà◊∞§
instruction É’^è°#, ѨÙO°=∂ܵ~ѨÙ
instructor É’^è°Hí∞_«∞
instrument JkèHßO°Ç¨„`Œ~, PÜ«µ∞^è°~,

Ü«µ~„`ŒÇÍ^°º~, ^°™®ÎÇıA
insubordination Jq^èıÜ«µ`Œ
insufferable Éèíi~K«ÖËx
insufficiency KÍÅx
insular Kè•~^°ã¨, ã¨~H©O°‚, nfiǨã¨~|~kè
insulate ÇıO°∞KıÜ«µ∞, Çı_ç/ q^°∞º`Œ∞Î „Ǩã¨
i~Kı =∂O®æÅ#∞ J_«¤y~K«∞
insulated |~kè`Œ
insulating board ã¨~ÅQõfl Ѷ¨ÅHí~
insulation ÇͺÇ≤Î xO’^è°Hí~
insulator ã¨~ÅyflHí, |~^è°Hí~
insuperable ^®@O®x, JkèQõq∞~K«O®x,
Ǩi+¨¯i~K«ÖËx, ÇıO°∞ KıÜ«µÖËx
insurance c=∂
insurgency uO°∞Qõ∞ÉÏ@∞, q„^ÀǨÏ~
insurgent uO°∞Qõ∞ÉÏ@∞^®O°∞
intaglio J~`Œóáåu. ~ methods P~`ŒO∑
OÕMÏ Ç¨^°ú`Œ∞Å∞. ~ print/collagraph
OÕM’Ń} =∞∞„^°}
intake Ö’xH˜ fã¨∞H’=_«~, J~`Œ„O°Ç
æ Ϩ }~
intangible JQÀK«O°, QÀK«O°~ Hßx,
HíxÇ≤~K«x. ~ asset JÉè“uHí ã¨~Ǩ^°
integer ѨÓO®‚~Hí~
integral ã¨=∂HíÅx, ѨÓO®‚~Hí „Ç¨Ç∞ı Ü«µ~.
~ evolution ѨÓO°‚Ǩi}®=∞~
integration ã¨=∂HíÅ#~, UH©HíO°}~,
ã¨"≥∞·Híº~. limits of ~ ã¨=∂HíÅ<®
=^è°∞Å∞
integument á⁄O°, `ŒfiK«~
integumentary PKÍÛù^#
° , â◊sO®=O°}Hí∞
ã¨~|~kè~z#

intellect
intellect `ˇeq, qÇıHí~, Çı∞^è°
intellectualization Çı∞^è•gHíO°}~
intellectual Çı∞^è•q
intelligence Qõ¥_è°K«O°º~, `ˇeq, q[˝`Œ,

*Ï˝#~, nèâ◊H˜Î
intelligentia Çı∞^è•q=O°æ~
intelligibly ã¨∞É’^è°Hí~Qå
intemperance q∞uÖËx, Jq∞`Œ`Œfi~,
q∞ug∞i# `ÍQõ∞_«∞
intend PÖ’z~K«∞, ܡ∂z~K«∞, K‹Ç¨Ê
^°ÅK«∞HÁ#∞, L^ÕÌt~K«∞
intending LkÌ+¨ì, JaèÅ+≤`Œ, H’OÕ
intense ZHí∞¯=, KÍÖÏ, |Å"≥∞·#. ~
desire Ö’Å`Œfi~, |Å"≥∞·# H’iHí
intensification q[$~Éèí}, f„=`Œ
intensity ™®~„^°`,Œ f„=`Œ, fHõ∆ `
‚ ,Œ Qå_è`° Œ
intent L^ÕÌâ◊~, ã¨~HíÅÊ~
intention L^ÕÌâ◊~, P~`ŒO°º~, =∞<ÀQõ`Œ~,
^èıºÜ«µ~
intentional L^ÕÌâ◊ѨÓO°fiHí
inter J~`ŒO°, J~`Œó. ~ atomic J~`ŒO°
ǨO°=∂}∞Hí. ~ change qx=∞Ü«µ~.
~ dependence J<Àº<®º„â◊Ü«µ}~. ~
face J~`Œã¨ÎÅ~
interaction J<Àº#º„H˜Ü«µ, ǨO°ã¨ÊO° K«O°º
intercellular Hí}®~`ŒO°
intercept J~`Œó Y~_«~, J_«¤y~K«_«~
interception J_«∞¤Ç¨_«_«~, J=O’kè~
K«_«~, "≥~>Ï_«_«~
interchange =∂iÊ_ç,
WzÛѨÙK«∞Û
H’=_«~, qx=∞Ü«µ~
intercontinental Y~_Í~`ŒO°
intercoastal ǨHí¯>ˇ=∞∞HíÅ =∞^è°º
intercourse ã¨~ǨO°¯~,
™®~Qõ`Œº~.
sexual ~ ã¨~Éè’Qõ~, Öˇ·~yHí ã¨~ǨO°¯~

246

intermolecular

interculturing P~`ŒO°Hí$+≤
interdependence
ǨO°ã¨ÊO®Å~|#~,

J<Àº<®º„â◊Ü«µ~
interdict "≥eÇıÜ«µ∞, x¿+kè~K«∞
inter-digital Çıà◊¡=∞^è°º
interest Pã¨H˜Î, =_ô¤. ~ arbitrage =_ô¤
OÕ@¡ =∞^è°º QõÅ Éèı^°~. ~ rate =_ô¤OÕ@∞
interfere *’Híº~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞
interference *’Híº~, =ºuHíO°}~, J_«∞¤
interim `Í`ͯeHí. ~ dividend =∞^è°º~

`ŒO° _çq_≥~_ü
interio =∂O°∞=∞¥Å
interior ֒Ǩe, J~`ŒO.° ~ decoration
J~`ŒO°Å~HíO°}, Qõ$ǨÅ~HíO°}
interjection Pâ◊ÛO®ºO°÷Hí~
interlace J~`ŒO°fie¡Hí
interlacing JÅ∞¡H’=@~
interlocutory Çͺ[ºHßb#, `Í`ͯeHí.
~ application Çͺ[ºHßb# ^°O°MÏã¨∞Î.
~ injunction Çͺ[º Hßb# x¿+^è•[˝.
~ order Çͺ[º Hßb# L`ŒÎO°∞=Ù
interloper J„Hí=∞~Qå P„Híq∞~Kı =ºH˜Î
interlude qO®=∞~, q+¨¯~Éèí~, JO`«
~åâ◊O
intermediary =∞^è°º=iÎ
intermediate =∂^è°ºq∞Hí, =∞^è°ºã¨÷"≥∞·#
interment ã¨=∂kè
intermetallic J~`ŒO’¡Ç¨Ï
intermittent q_çz q_çz =KıÛ, =∞^è°º
=∞^è°º =KıÛ, J~`ŒO®Ü«µHí, ã¨qO®=∞. ~
current J~`ŒO®Ü«µHí „Ç¨ÇÍǨÏ~. ~
stream HÁkÌHßÅ~ áåOÕ UO°∞/ ÇÍQõ∞
intermix HíÅ∞ѨÙ, HíÅQõÅ∞ѨÙ
intermolecular
P~`ŒO°Hí}.
~
collision P~`ŒO°Hí}®aèѶ¨∂`Œ~.
~
force J~`ŒO° Hí}|Å~

internal
internal J~`ŒO°, J~`ŒO°æ`Œ, P~`ŒO°~yHí.
~ cardiac-massage Qõ∞~_≥#∞ Ǩx
Kıܵ~Kı „Ǩܫµ`Œfl~. ~ circuit P~`Œ
iHí =ÅÜ«µ~. ~ colonialism P~`ŒiHí
=Åã¨ÇÍ^°~. ~ conversion J~`ŒóǨi
=O°Î#~. ~ cumbustion engine
J~`ŒO°ÌǨÏ# Ü«µ~„`Œ~. ~ emergency

P~`ŒO°~yHß`Œº=ã¨O° Ǩiã≤÷u. ~
energy J~`ŒiHí â◊H˜Î. ~ evidence
J~`Œ™®ûHí∆ º~. ~ reflexion P~`ŒO°
ǨO®=O°Î#~. ~ resistance J~`Œifl
O’^è°~. ~ secretion J~`Œ„™®û=~. ~
sovereignty J~`ŒO°æ`Œ ™®O°fiÉè“=∂kè
HßO°~. ~ structure J~`ŒiflO®‡}~
internalisation J~`ŒO°æfHíO°}~
international J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ. ~ bank
J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ ÉÏ~Hí∞. ~ conventions
J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«µ~. ~ courtof justice J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~.
~ date-line J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ k#OÕY. ~
labour organisation J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ
Hßi‡Hí ã¨~ã¨÷. ~ dispute J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ
qÇÍ^°~. ~ Monetary Fund (IMF)
J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ „^°=ºxkè ã¨~ã¨÷. ~
relation J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ ã¨~|~^è°~. ~
recognition J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ Qõ∞iÎ~ѨÙ. ~
Standards Organisation J~`ŒO®˚
fÜ«µ „Ǩ=∂}®Å ã¨~ã¨÷
internationalism J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«µ`Œ, J~`Œ
O®˚fÜ«µ`ÍÇÍ^°~
internee O®[H©Ü«µ Mˇ·n
internment O®[H©Ü«µ Mˇ·^°∞
internship tHí∆}Ö’ =∞e^°â◊
interpellation J#∞|~^è° „Ǩâ◊fl
interphase J~`ŒO°Ìâ◊

247

interviewer

interpolation J~`ŒOÕfiâ◊#~
interportal OÕ=ÙÅ=∞^è°º
interpretation ÇͺMϺ#~,

JO°÷q=O°},

„ǨHı∆Ǩ~, J~`ŒOÕfiâ◊#~
`ŒO°∞˚=∂ Kı¿ã =ºH˜Î,
ÇͺMϺ`Œ
interred ѨÓ_çÛ#, ã¨=∂kèKıã≤#
interregunum JkèHßO° ã¨~kèHßÅ~,
qO®=∞~
interrelate J~`Œã¨û~|~^è°~ Híey~K«∞
interrogate „Ǩtfl~K«∞, qKÍO°}KıÜ«µ∞
interrupted J~`ŒO®ÜµHí. ~ current
J~`ŒO®ÜµHí „Ç¨ÇÍǨÏ~
intersect =ºuKıÛù^°~, ǨO°ã¨ÊO°KıÛù^°~
intersection Hí∂_«e, qÉèí[#, =ºuKıÛù
^°#~, Y~_«#~. line of ~ =ºuKıÛù^°#/
Y~_«# OÕY
intersex LÉèíÜ«µe~Qõ`Œfi~
intersexuality LÉèíÜ«µe~Qõ`Œfi~
intersoil surface P~`ŒO° `ŒÅ~, <ËÅÃÑ·
Éè•Qõ~
interspersed J~`Œó „ǨH©O°‚, O≥~_«∞
Híeã≤áÈܵ#
interstate J~`ŒO∑O®R
intersusception J~`ŒO°fi $kú, ֒ǨÅ
#∞~_ç ÃÑO°Qõ_«~
intertextuality áåOîߺ~`ŒO° ã¨~|~^è°~
intertwine "≥∞eÃÑ@∞ì, HíeÇ≤ L~K«∞
interuption J~`ŒO®Ü«µ~
intervene =∞^è°º=iÎ`Œfi~ <ˇO°Ñ¨Ù, HíeÊ~K«∞
HÁ#∞
interview =∞∫dHí ǨsHí∆
interviewee =∞∫dHí ǨsHí∆#∞ fã¨∞HÁ<Ë
=ºH˜Î
interviewer =∞∫dHí ǨsHí∆Kı¿ã =ºH˜Î
interpreter ^°∞ÉÏã≤,

248

inter vivos
inter vivos ã¨r=ÙÅ =∞^è°º
interwoven XHí ^®x`À

XHí>˜ JÅ∞¡

HÁ#fl
gÅ∞<®=∂ O®Ü«µHí∞~_Í<Ë K«x
áÈܵ#. ~ estate gÅ∞<®=∂ ÖËx Pã≤Î
intestinal ¿ÑQõ∞/ P~„`Œ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
intestine ¿ÑQõ∞, P~„`Œ~. large ~
ÃÑ^°Ì¿ÑQõ∞. small ~ z#fl¿ÑQõ∞
intimate ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`Œ† `ˇeÜ«µ|O°∞K«∞
intimidate ÉèíÜ«µÃÑ@∞ì, [~H˜~K«∞
intimism Ǩiz`Œ =ã¨∞ÎÇÍ^°~
intolerable ã¨Ç≤Ï~K«O®x, Éèíi~K«O®x
intolerance Jã¨Ç¨Ï#~, FO°fiÖËx`Œ#~
intonation HßHí∞ ã¨fiO°~
intone x#k~K«∞
intoxicant =∂^°HíǨ^®O°÷~
intoxication =∞`Œ∞Î, xë®
intra-molecular J}fi~`ŒO°æ`Œ
intra-abdominal L^°O°~Ö’x, Hí_«∞ѨÙ
Ö’x
intra-atomic ǨO°=∂}fi~`ŒO°æ`Œ
intra-cardiac Qõ∞~_≥֒Ǩe, ǨÏ$^°~`ŒO`
æ° Œ
intra-cellular Hí}®~`ŒO°æ`Œ
intra-cranial HíáåÖÏ~`ŒO°æ`Œ
intractable ÖÁ~Qõx, xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«ÖËx,
xÉè•Üµ~K«ÖËx, "≥∞∞~_çǨ@∞ì^°ÅQõÅ,
=∞¥O°öѨÙ, ã¨∞ÅÉèí~Qå Ǩi+¨¯i~K«ÖËx
intracutaneous K«O°‡~֒Ǩe (H˜)
intramuscular Hí~_«O°~Ö’xH˜
intranasal =∞∞Hí∞¯Ö’xH˜
intransigence "≥∞∞~_ç`Œ#~, O®rÖËq∞,
â◊„`Œ∞`Œfi~
intransigent O®rH˜ J~wHíi~K«x
intraocular Hí~>˜Ö’Ǩe
intraocular lens Hí~>˜Ö’ âÍâ◊fi`Œ~Qå
J=∞OÕÛ Hí@Hí~
intestate

invariant

intrauterine QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ~Ö’x
intravascular O°HíÎ<®à◊~Ö’x
intrepid Híë®ìÅ#∞ Z^°∞O˘¯<Ë, xO°ƒùÜ«µ
intricacy 㨥Hí;`Œfi~, H˜¡+¨ì`Œ, zHí∞¯
intrigant Hí∞„@^®O°∞
intrigue Hí∞„@, Hí∞`Œ~„`Œ~, K«=∞`ͯO°~
intrinsic J~`ŒO°æ`Œ, ֒֒Ǩe. ~
energy J~`ŒO°æ`Œâ◊H˜Î
introduction LáÈ^®…`Œ~, Ç‘iîHí, Ǩi

Kdžǵ~
introjection PÇıâ◊Ǩ_«_«~
introspect P`Œ‡Ç¨sHí∆ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞,

J=Ö’

H˜~K«∞HÁ#∞

invasion ^°~_«Ü«∂„`Œ, =∞∞@ì_ç
invective x~^°, ^°¥+¨}, =∂@Å`À

^®_ç
inveigh f„=~Qå q=∞i≈~K«∞
inveigle „Ǩ֒ÉèíǨO°K«∞, ÖÁ~Qõnã¨∞HÁ#∞
inveiglement „Ǩ֒Éèí~
invent HíeÊ~K«∞, HíxÃÑ@∞ì, ã¨$+≤ì~K«∞
invented ǨiHíeÊ`Œ, Pq+¨¯ $`Œ
invention #=HíÅÊ#, Hí#∞H’¯=_«~, ã¨$+≤ì
inverse qÖ’=∞, `ŒÅH˜~^≥·#
inversely proportional qÖ’=∂#∞

áå`Œ~Ö’
qÖ’=∞~, `ŒÅH˜~^°∞Qå
L~_«_«~. ~ of the uterus QõO®ƒù
â◊Ü«∂~`ŒO°fiO°Î#~, QõO°ƒùH’â◊qÖ’=∞`Œ
invertebrate "≥<ˇfl=∞∞Hí ÖËx, JHíâıO°∞Hí
inverted image qÖ’=∞ „Ǩua~|~
invert sugar qÖ’=∞ â◊O°¯O°
invest Ǩi^è•#~, ÃÑ@∞ì|_çÃÑ@∞ì, P=
i~K«∞, K«∞@∞ì=∞∞@∞ì
investigate Hí∂Ç‘fÜ«µ∞/ ÖÏQõ∞, PO®
fÜ«µ∞
investigation Ǩiâ’^è°#, ^°O®ºÑ¨ÙÎ, PO®
fÜ«µ@~
investiture JkèHßO°Ç¨„`Œ ã¨=∞O°Ê}
investment ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç, PeǨÎ~. ~
analyst ÃÑ@∞ì|_«∞Å qâı¡+¨Hí∞_«∞. ~
bank =∞^°∞Ѩ٠ÉÏ~Hí∞
investor =∞^°∞Ǩi, ¿+O°¡ÃÑ· ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•O°∞
inveterate "≥∞∞~_ç (ÉÏi#), =∞∞ki#,
nO°…(HßeHí)
invigorate L`ËÎ[~ Híey~K«∞, „áå}~
áÈÜ«µ∞
invigorated L`Œ∞ûHí, L`ËÎl`Œ
invigorating â◊H˜Î=O°úHí
inversion

introspection

P`Œ‡â’^è°#~,

J~`ŒO°Ì

O°≈#~
introversion J~`ŒO°∞‡v#`Œ
introvert J~`ŒO°∞‡Y∞_«∞
intrusive PQõ~`Œ∞Hí, J<®Ç¨˙`Œ,

J#∞

z`Œ
intubation
cheal ~

invasion

Q˘@ì~ÇıÜ«µ_«~. endotra
âÍfiã¨<®à◊~Ö’ Q˘@ì~ J=∞

O°Û_«~
intuition J~`ŒO°∞ƒkú, ã¨Ç¨Ï[*Ï˝#~
intuitonism J~`ŒO∑|∞kúÇÍ^°~
intumescence L|∞ƒ
intutionist J~`ŒO∑|∞kúÇÍk
inunction =∞O°Ì#
inundate =∞∞~zÇıÜ«µ∞, =∞∞~K‹`Œ∞Î
inundation "≥Å∞¡=, =O°^°, [ńǨà◊Ü«µ~
inutero QõO°ƒùã¨÷
invade ^°~_≥`Œ∞Î, =∞∞@ì_ç~K«∞, P„Híq∞~K«∞
invagination J~`ŒO°fiO°Î#~
invalid Jâ◊HíÎ, ^°∞O°ƒÅ
invariable JK«O°, =∂O°x, ã≤÷O°
invariant ã≤÷O°O®t

249

iron lung

invincible F_ç~K«ÖËx, J*ËÜ«µº, ^°∞O°˚Ü«µ
invitation Ç≤Å∞ѨÙ,
PǨfi#~. ~
tournament PǨ˙`Œ∞Å „H©_Íã¨ÊO°÷
invitee PǨfix`Œ∞_«∞, PǨ˙`Œ∞_«∞
invitro â◊sO°~ "≥Å∞ǨÅ, â’^è°# <®oHíÖ’
invocation „áåO°÷#, PÇÍǨÏ#, P=∞~

„`Œ}~, <®~nâ’¡Hí~
in vogue ÇÍ_«∞HíÖ’ L#fl
invoice ^è°O°Å Ǩ>©ì, K‹ÖÏ<®, cO°˚
invoke PÇÍǨÏ#KıÜ«µ∞/ Ç≤Å∞K«∞† q#fl
q~K«∞, PǨfix~K«∞, Ji÷~K«∞
involuntary J<ˇ·zÛùHí, Jã¨~HíeÊ`Œ
involution "≥∞euO°Qõ_«~, J=Ü«µ=~
ã¨Ç¨Ï[ Ǩi=∂}ÏxH˜ O®=_«~, |Ç≤Ï+¨∞ª
PyáÈ=_«~. ~ of uterus QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ~
ã¨Ç¨Ï[ Ǩi=∂}ÏxH˜ O®=_«~
involve zHí∞¯HÁ#∞
ion JÜ«µ#~. ~ bond JÜ«∂xHí |~^è°~
ionosphere JÜ«∂<®=O°}
iophobia `Œ∞ǨC =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
IQ (Intelligence Quotient) qÇıHí
㨥zHí
ire P„QõǨÏ~, H’Ǩ~
iridectomy Hí~>˜áåǨ (Hí$+¨‚Ǩ@Å~)
qKıÛù^°#~
iridescence =O°‚nÇ≤Î, |Ǩï=O°‚„ǨHßâ◊~
iridotomy Hí$+¨‚Ǩ@ÅKıÛù^°#~
iris Hí$+¨‚Ǩ@Å~, Hí~>˜áåǨ
iritis Hí$+¨‚Ǩ@Å~, â’^ä°
irk W|ƒ~k ÃÑ@∞ì
iron W#∞=∞∞. ~ filings W#∞Ǩ O°[#∞
iron curtain W#∞Ǩ `ˇO°
iron fist W#Ǩ Ç≤_çH˜e
ironically ^≥ǨCQå, qO°∞^°ú~Qå
iron lung Hí$„u=∞"≥∞·#, TÇ≤iuuÎ/ âÍfiã¨
™®^è°#~

irony
irony =º~Qõº~, =„H’H˜Î, x~^®ã¨∞Îu
irradiate qHíO°}©HíO°}
irradiated L^Àºu`Œ
irradiation L^Àº`Œ#~, qHíO°}©HíO°}~
irrational J¿ÇÏ`Œ∞Hí"≥∞·#
irrationalism J¿ÇÏ`Œ∞Hí ÇÍ^°~
irreconcilable á⁄ã¨Qõx, ã¨=∂^è•#ǨO°

K«@~, ™®^è°º~Hßx
irredeemable ZѨÊ\˜H© ã¨ik^ŒÌÖËx
irreducible `Œyæ~K«_ÍxH˜ gÅ∞Ǩ_«x
irrefragable ã¨=∂^è•#~ K‹Ç¨Ê_ÍxH˜
gÅ∞ÖËx
irregular JǨ„Hí=∞. ~ curve JǨ„Hí=∞
=„Hí~
irregular form Jã¨=∂Hí$u
irregularity „Hí=∞O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~, J=º=ã¨÷,
JǨ„Hí=∞`Œ, J=Hí`Œ=Hí
irretrievable ã¨ik^°ÌÖËx, uiy á⁄~^°
ÖËx
irreversible ѨÓO°fiã≤÷uH˜ `Ë=_ÍxH˜ gÅ∞
ÖËxk, „ǨH’ǨHí~
irrigation hO°∞Hí@ì_«~, h>˜áåO°∞^°Å,
¿ãK«#
irritability „ǨH’Ǩ#â◊H˜Î, zO®Hí∞, qã¨∞Qõ∞
irritant „ǨH’Ǩ#Hßi, zHßHí∞ Híey~Kı
irritation „ǨH’Ǩ#~, zHßHí∞
ischaemia O°Hí΄Ǩã¨O°}Ç‘Ï#`Œ, O°HíÎHí∆Ü«µ~
isle nfiÇ≤Hí, „Qõ~käÜ«µ∞`Œ Hí}*ÏÅ ã¨=∞∞
^®Ü«µ~
islet z#flnfiǨ~
isobar ã¨=∞Éè•O° OÕY. ~ map ã¨=∞Éè•O°
OÕMÏz„`Œ~
isochrome ã¨=∞HßÅ OÕY
isochronism ã¨=∞HßeHí`Œ
isolate „Ǩ`˺H˜~K«∞, q_çQå L~K«∞
isolated qqHíÎ, q_çQå L~z#

250

ivory

Ǩ$^ä°Hí¯i~Kı
ÇıO°∞ǨO°K«_«~, X~@i`Œ#~,
Ǩ$^ä°Hí¯O°}~
isolationism X~@i`Œ`Œfi~
isomeric ã¨^°$â◊. ~ colours ã¨^°$â◊
=O®‚Å∞
isomerisation ã¨^°$jHíO°}~
isometric ã¨=∞Ǩi=∂}
isomorph ã¨=∞ã¨fiO°¥Ç¨~, ã¨*ÏfÜ«µ ã¨Ç¨
^®~â◊~
isomorphism ã¨=∞O°¥Ç¨`Œ, UHíO°¥Ç¨`Œ
isotherm ã¨"≥Ø+¨‚OÕY
isotonic ã¨=∞Qå_è°
isotope ã¨=∞™®÷hÜ«µ~
isotopic ã¨=∞™®÷hÜ«µ. ~ at par ã¨=∞
=∞¥ÖϺxH˜ *ÏsKıã≤# ^è°O°. ~ capital
ÇÍ>ÏÅ ^®fiO® ã¨=∞Hí∂O°∞ÛHí∞<Ë =∞¥Å
^è°#~. ~ constitution ã¨=∞™®÷hÜ«µ
O°K«#. ~ weight ã¨=∞™®÷hÜ«µÉè•O°~
issue *Ïs, ÇÍ^®~â◊~, *ÏsKı¿ã ÇÍ>ÏÅ
ã¨~Yº. ~ of shares ÇÍ>ÏÅ *Ïs. ~
price *Ïs ^è°O°
issuing house *ÏsKı¿ã ã¨~ã¨÷, q`ŒÎ
ã¨~ã¨÷, ÇÍ}˜[ºÉϺ~Hí∞
isthmus „w=~, Éèí¥ã¨~kè
italian millet HÁ„O°Å∞
itch (ing) lÅ, ^°∞O°^°, z=∞z=∞
itemise J~âÍ~QåÅ∞Qå qÉèíl~K«∞, „Ǩu
J~âÍxfl qã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå ¿ÑO˘¯#∞
iterate uiy K‹Ç¨C, O≥~_«=™®i KıÜ«µ∞,
ѨÙ#O®=$`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞
itinerary ã¨qâı+¨ „Ǩܫ∂} „Ǩ}®oHí,
Ü«∂„`ÍǨ^ä°Hí~
ivory ^°~`Œ~. ~ black ^°~`ŒÑ¨Ù =∞ã≤.
~ tower ^°~`Œ™œ^è°~, UHß~`Œ ÇÍã¨~
isolating
isolation

251

jabberwocky

job

Jj
jabberwocky JO°÷O°Ç≤Ï`Œ Ǩ^°„Ǩܡ∂Qõ~
jack n. Ǩ#㨠Ǩ~_«∞, ^è°fi[~, ѨÙO°∞+¨∞_«∞.
~ of all trades <®<®O°HߊǨ#∞Å∞

Kı¿ã/ „Ǩ`˺Hí <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~ ÖËx =ºH˜Î
jack v. Ü«µ~„`Œ~`À ÃÑ·H˜ ÖËѨÙ
jackal [~|∞Hí~, #Hí¯
jacket Hí~K«∞Hí~, O°qHí, á⁄>˜ìH’@∞, ѨÙã¨Î
Hí~ÃÑ· Çı¿ã „Ǩ`˺Hí"≥∞·# J@ì
jackfruit Ǩ#ã¨Ç¨~_«∞
jackpot Éè•s |Ǩï=∞u
jacky Ǩ~^≥Ѩ٠Qõ∞„O°Ñ¨Ù OÒ`Œ∞
jactation f„ÇÍâÍ~u
jade ǨK«ÛO®Üµ† "≥∞∞~_çHí>ˇì, `˘`Œ∞Î
jaggery ÉˇÅ¡~† QõK«∞Û, QåO°
jail bird *ˇ·Å∞ǨH˜∆
jam `Í~„_«, =ÚO°Éσ, J_«¤y~K«∞, #ey
áÈ=Ù, <˘Hí∞¯, |~kè~K«∞
jamb ^®fiO° âÍY
jamboree q<À^° ã¨Çı∞‡à◊#~, H’ÖÏǨÏÅ~
jamun <ËOÕ_«∞ Ǩ~_«∞¡
janitor HßǨÖÏ^®O°∞, ã¨~O°Hí∆Hí∞_«∞
jargon =$uÎǨ^°*ÏÅ~, J„áå=∂}˜Hí Éè•+¨
jaundice (ǨK«Û)
Hß"≥∞O°¡ Çͺkè.
haemolytic ~ O°HíÎ~ qO°Qõ_«~ =Å¡
=KıÛ Hß"≥∞O°¡ Çͺkè. hepatic ~ HßÖËܵ«
Çͺkè =Å¡ =KıÛ Hß"≥∞O°∞¡. infective ~
J~@∞Çͺkè =Å¡ =KıÛ Hß"≥∞O°∞¡
jay walker J_«¤k_«¤~Qå #_çKı =ºH˜Î
jay walking O’_«∞¤#∞
xO°¡Hí∆ º~Qå
^®@_«~
jealousy J㨥ܫµ
jeering ZQõ`Ío Kı¿ã, ǨiǨÏã≤~Kı
jelly zHí¯x„^°= Ǩ^®O°÷~, =∞∞~[
jeopardise „Ǩ=∂^°~Ö’H˜ <ˇ@∞ì, Ǩx

KıÜ«µ∞, <®â◊#~KıÜ«µ∞, áÈQ˘@∞ì, #+¨ì~
Híey~K«∞, WO°∞Hí∞Ö’ ÃÑ@∞ì
jester q^°¥+¨Hí∞_«∞
jet lag q=∂#~Ö’ ã¨∞nO°… „Ǩܫ∂}®
#~`ŒO°~ J#∞Éèíq~Kı JÅã¨@
jettison |O°∞=Ù `Œyæ~K«_ÍxH˜ <ˇ>˜ì"ÕÜ«µ∞
jettisoning |O°∞=Ù `Œyæ~K«_ÍxH˜ =ã¨∞Î=Ù
Å#∞ `Àã≤ÇıÜ«µ_«~
jetty OÕ=ÙHí@ì
jewellery PÉèíO°}®Å∞
jig saw puzzle J_«¤k_«¤~Qå JuH˜~z#
ÉÁ=∞‡Å ã¨=∞㨺
jingle Ѷ¨∞Å∞¡=∞#∞, QÆÅQÆÅÖÏ_»∞
jingo Ü«µ∞^°úÇÍk, f„=*ÏfÜ«µÇÍk
jingoism "≥„i ™®Ç¨Ïã¨~, B^°ú`Œº~,
xOÕ›`Œ∞Hí ã¨fi^ÕâÍkèǨ`Œºaè=∂#~, Ü«µ∞^Àú
<®‡^°~
jinxed #+¨ì~ Híey~Kı, âÍǨ„Qõã¨Î
jitter ÉèÜ
í µ« Ǩ_∞« , =}Hí∞, QåÉèOí ®Ç¨_∞« , J^è·≥
O°º~Qå „Ç¨=iÎ~K«∞
job L^ÀºQõ~, zÅ¡O°Ç¨x, =$uÎǨx,
ÉÏ^è°º`Œ, qkè. ~ analysis xÜ«µq∞`Œ
q^è°∞ÅHí∂, W`ŒO° q^è°∞ÅHí∂ QõÅ ã¨~|~
^è•Å qâı¡+¨}. ~ discription L^Àºy
q^è°∞Å ÅH∆ߺŠq=O°}. ~ evaluation
ǨxH˜ `Œy# „ǨuѶ¨ÖÏxfl J~K«<®
ÇıÜ«µ_«~. ~ holder L^Àºy. ~
losses H’Ö’Êܵ# L^ÀºQõ ™®÷<®Å∞. ~
lot XHı ^®@∞Qå JÇı∞‡ =ã¨∞Î ™®=∞„y.
~ satisfaction L^ÀºQõã¨~`Œ$Ç≤Î. ~
security L^ÀºQõÉèí„^°`Œ. ~ sharing
L^ÀºQõq^è°∞ŠǨ~ǨHí~. ~ specification L^ÀºQõ q^è°∞Å xOÕÌâ◊~. ~ title
L^ÀºQõ~ ¿ÑO°∞

jobber

zÅ¡O° ǨxÇÍ_«∞, ^°à®i, Jqhu
=O°ÎHí∞_«∞, qâÍfi㨄^ÀÇ≤Ï
jobbing z#fl z#fl Ǩ#∞Å∞ KıÜ«µ_«~. ~
production zÅ¡O° =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ L`ÍÊ^°#
q^è•#~
joie de vivre r=<®#~^°~, `Œ$Ç≤Î
joinder HíH˜∆^®O°∞Qå KıO°Û_«~
joining KıiHí
joint H©Å∞, L=∞‡_ç. ~ ankle pÅ=∞~_«
H©Å∞. ~ account L=∞‡_ç MÏ`Í.
knee ~ "≥ØHßÅ∞ H©Å∞. ~ family
L=∞‡_ç Hí∞@∞~|~. ~ investment
L=∞‡_ç ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç. ~ owner L=∞‡_ç
Ü«µ[=∂#∞ÅÖ’ XHíO°∞. ~ ownership
ã¨~Ü«µ∞HíÎ Ü«∂[=∂#º~. ~ stock
company ™®=∞¥Ç≤ÏHí~Qå ÃÑ@∞ì|_«∞Å∞
ÃÑ>˜ì Kı¿ã ÇͺáåO° ã¨~ã¨÷. ~ supply
L=∞‡_ç ã¨O°Ñ¶¨O®. ~ venture ã¨~Ü«µ∞HíÎ
Ǩi„â◊=∞/ ã¨~ã¨÷. movable ~ HíkÖË
H©Å∞
jolt TѨÙ, Hí∞^°∞ѨÙ, <ˇ@∞ì
jolting Hí∞ke~ѨÙ, <ˇ@ì_«~
jostle "≥ØKıu`À ^°¥O°~Qå `ÀÜ«µ∞/<ˇ@∞ì,
ÃÑ#∞Qõ∞ÖÏ_«∞
journal ÇÍO®Î Ǩ„uHí, XHí xÜ«µ`Œ HßeHí
ã¨=∂KÍO° Ǩ„uHí† z>Ïì, k#Ǩ^°∞ÌÅ
ѨÙã¨ÎHí~
journalese Ǩ„uHßÉè•+¨,
Pë®=∂+‘
O°K«<® q^è•#~
journalism ÇÍO®ÎO°K«#, Ǩ„uHßO°K«#
journalist Ǩ„uHß O°K«Üµ`Œ
journalistic Ǩ„uHß â‹·eÖ’ L#fl
journey man Hí∞â◊Å∞_«∞: ã¨∞tH˜∆`Œ∞_≥·#
KıuǨxÇÍ_«∞
joyrider ^˘~ye~z#
ÇÍǨÏ<®xfl
ÇıQõ~Qå #_«∞ѨÙ`Œ¥ uiQÕ =ºH˜Î
jubilant L`ÍûǨÏ~`À x~_ç#
jobber

252
jubilation Çı_«∞Hí,
jubilee L`Ξ=~,

jurisdiction

ã¨~`À+¨~
O°[`Œ ã¨fiO°‚ =„*’`Œû

ÇÍÅ∞
judge <®ºÜ«µ=∞¥iÎ, fO°Êi, Ǩi+¨¯i~K«∞,
fO°∞Ê K‹Ç¨C
judgement fO°∞Ê, JkèHßiHí xO°‚Ü«µ~.
~ creditor <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~ 㨥z~z#
O°∞}^®`Œ. ~ debtor <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~ xO°‚
ܵ~z# O°∞}„Qõã¨∞Î_«∞
judicial <®ºÜ«µ ã¨~|~kè. ~ activism
<®ºÜ«µ=º=ã¨÷ „H˜Ü∂« jÅ`Œ. ~ independence <®ºÜ«µ ã¨fi`Œ~„`Œ „ǨuǨuÎ. ~
review <®ºÜ«µ ã¨g∞Hí∆. ~ supremacy
<®ºÜ«∂kèHíº~
judiciary <®ºÜ«µ=º=ã¨÷
jugged =∞>˜ìáå„`ŒÖ’¡ =~_Ë PǨO°~
juggernaut xiflO’^è°Hí â◊H˜Î
jugglery J~H≥Å/ =∂@Å QåO°_ô. ~ of
words =∂@Å QåO°_ô
juice O°ã¨~. digestive ~ rO°‚O°ã¨~.
gastric ~ [Oî°O°O°ã¨~. orange ~
<®i~[ O°ã¨~. salivery ~ ÖÏÖÏ
[Å(O°ã¨) ~
jumble ÇıO°∞ ÇıO°∞ =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ q∞„â◊=∞~
jumbo JuÃÑ^°Ì
jump ZQõ∞O°∞, Q≥~`Œ∞, PHíã≤‡Hí~Qå ^è°O°Å∞/
qÅ∞=Å∞ ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞
junction Hí∂_«e, ã¨~kè
juncture ã¨~Hí@ Ǩiã≤÷u, ã¨~Ç≤Ï`Œ
junior `ŒO°ÇÍu (=ºH˜Î)
junk ǨxH˜=∂e# áå`Œ =ã¨∞Î ã¨=∞∞
^®Ü«µ~. ~ food K‹`ŒÎ u~_ç. ~ mail
@áåÖ’=zÛ# „ǨHí@#Å ã¨=∂KÍO°~
junkie =∂^°Hí „^°ÇͺŠÉÏxã¨
junta Ãã·xHí „Ç¨Éèí∞`Œfi~
jupiter Qõ∞O°∞_«∞, |$ǨÏã¨Êu
jurisdiction JkèHßO° Ǩikè

253

jurisprudence
jurisprudence <®ºÜ«µâÍG g∞=∂~ã¨.
medical ~ <®ºÜ«µ"≥·^°ºâÍG~
jurist <®ºÜ«µÇı`ŒÎ, ^è°O°‡âÍGA˝_«∞
juror (qKÍO°}#∞ Ǩije~Kı) Ǩ~KÍ

Ü«µf ã¨Éèí∞º_«∞
jury Ǩ~KÍÜ«µf ÃÑ^°ÌÅ∞, <®ºÜ«µ ã¨q∞u,
<®ºÜ«µ xO°‚Ü«µ ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~, „Ǩ`˺Hí <®ºÜ«µ
ã¨Éèí, ^è°O®‡ã¨#~
jus commune ™®O°fi[xHí <®ºÜ«µ~
just <®ºÜ«µ"≥∞·#
justacausa <®ºÜ«µ"≥∞·# HßO°}~, <®ºÜ«µ
ã¨~Qõ`Œ ¿ÇÏ`Œ∞=Ù
justice <®ºÜ«µ=∞¥iÎ, <®ºÜ«µ~
justifiable ã¨=∞O°÷hÜ«µ

kernel

justified ã¨=∞O°÷hÜ«µ, <®ºÜˇ∂z`Œ
justly <®ºÜ«µ~Qå, ^è°O°‡~Qå
justness ^è°O°‡/ <®ºÜ«µ ǨO®Ü«µ}`Œ
jute [#Ǩ<®O°
juvenile ÉÏź/ H“=∂O° =ºH˜Î, H˜â’O°~.
~ court ÉÏÅ <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~. ~
delinquent ÉÏÅ <ËO°Qå_«∞/ ÉÏÅ <ËO°
Qõ`ˇÎ. ~ water Jyfl ǨO°fi`ÍÖ’¡x hO°∞
juvenilia Ü«µ∫=# ^°â◊Ö’ Kı¿ã Ǩ#∞ÅHí∞

ã¨~|~kè~z#
qaè#fl =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ#∞ `Œ∞Å<®`Œ‡
Hí~Qå Ǩije~K«∞/ qKÍi~K«∞
juxtaposition ã¨xflkè,
ǨHí¯Ç¨Hí¯#
L~_«_«~, Z^°∞O°∞ÉÁ^°∞O°∞Qå L~_«_«~
juxtapose

Kk
K XHí "≥ܵº, H˜Ö’ ɡ·>ò (Hí~ѨӺ@O∑û)
kabalai K«O°‡~ ÉÏbÛ
kalaazar q+¨áå~_«∞ [fiO°~
kaleidoscope z„`Œ^°i≈x
kamikage P`͇Ǩïu ^°à◊~
kangaroo P„¿ãìeÜ«µ#∞
kaput qiy#, Ǩye#, ѨÓiÎQå <®â◊#

"≥∞·#
karyotype

„H’"≥Ø*’=∞∞Å

ã¨fiO°¥Ç¨

âÍG~
JǨK«Ü«µ~, PǨO° qâı¡+¨}
„H˜Ü«µ, PǨO° Ǩ^®O®÷Å qÉèí[#
katasexual K«xáÈܵ# ÇÍi`À ã¨~Éè’
y~Kı
kathode (cathode) O°∞}„^è°∞=~
keelage OÕ=ÙÖ’ F_«#∞ xÖËÊ~^°∞Hí∞
K‹e¡~Kı O°∞ã¨∞~
keep ™⁄~`Œ~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞† xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«∞†
xÅ∞= L#fl, J=∞‡HßxH≥· ã≤^°úǨiÛ#†
=∞~z ã≤÷uÖ’ L#fl† L~ѨÙ_«∞Qõ`ˇÎ,
ǨǨO® |`≥ÎO. ~ abreast ZǨÊ>˜
katabolism

HíǨC_«∞ `ˇÅ∞ã¨∞Hí∞~@∞~_«∞. ~ down
Jaè=$kúx xO’kè~K«∞. ~ sake *Ï˝Ç≤Hí.
~ some one on XHíix xܡ∂y~K«∞/
xÜ«µq∞~K«∞. ~ the ball rolling PǨ
Hí∞~_Í HÁ#™®y~K«∞
kennel Hí∞Hí¯Qõ¥_«∞, Hí∞Hí¯Å^˘_ç¤, =∞∞iH˜
HßÅ∞=† hK«™®÷<®xH˜ áÈ=_«~
kept woman ^®ã≤
keratectomy â◊∞Hí¡Ç¨@ÅKıÛù^°#~
keratitis â◊∞Hí¡Ç¨@ÅѨ٠H’`Œ
keratoplasty â◊∞Hí¡Ç¨@Å~ J~@∞ÃÑ@ì_«~
kerb O’_«∞¤ ǨHí¯#∞#fl HßeÉÏ@. ~ deals
™®ìH± ZHıû Û~lH˜ „ǨuQå [iQÕ ÇÍ>ÏÅ
J=∞‡Hí~. ~ market ™®ìH± ZHıû Û~l
=∞¥ã≤ Çıã≤# `ŒO°∞ÇÍ`Œ [iQÕ ÖÏÇÍ
^ÕgÅ∞
kerfuffle ÇÍQõ∞º^°ú~
kernel Hı~„^°Hí~, J~`ŒO®ƒùQõ~, (^è•#º~)
y~[,
ǨǨC,
HÁ|ƒiQõ∞~A†
=∞∞MϺ~â◊~, ™®O®~â◊~. ~ of truth
=∞∞Yº"≥∞·#/ J=ã¨O°"≥∞·# x[~

key

`Íà◊~K‹q, H©ÅHí~. ~
Ǩi„â◊=∞. ~ note H©Å
Hß~â◊~, „Ǩ^è•<®~â◊~, Ju =∞∞Yº
Éè•Qõ~. ~ person H©ÅHí"≥∞·# =ºH˜Î. ~
stone „Ǩ^è•#K«O°º, =∞¥ÅO®Üµ
key village H©ÅHí „Qå=∞~
kibble =∞∞Hí¯Å∞Qå O°∞|∞ƒ
kickback (s) J„Hí=∞
K‹e¡~ѨÙ(Å∞),
^˘~Qõ/ ^˘_ç¤^®i K‹e¡~ѨÙ(Å∞)
kick off „áåO°~aè~K«∞
kick the bean gyáÈ=Ù
kick up xO°∞`ÍûǨÏǨ_«∞
kiddie z#fl Ç≤Å¡ÇÍ_«∞
kidney =∞¥„`ŒÇ≤~_«~. artificial ~
Hí$„u=∞ =∞¥„`ŒÇ≤~_«~. ~ tray =∞¥„`Œ
Ç≤~_ÍHßO° áå„`Œ
kiln |>©ì, P=~. ~ dried wood <ˇQõ_«∞
HÁÜ«µº. lime ~ ã¨∞#flѨ٠|>©ì
kindergarten z#fl Ç≤Å¡ÅHí∞ ÉÁ=∞‡Å,
P@Å ^®fiO® K«^°∞=Ù K‹¿ÑÊ |_ç, tâ◊∞
áåOî°âÍÅ
kindling xǨC =∞∞>˜ì~Kı~^°∞Hí∞ LǨܡ∂
y~Kı z#fl K‹Hí¯ =∞∞Hí¯
kindness and generosity ^°Ü«∂
^®H˜∆}®ºÅ∞
kindreds ™®*Ï`Œ∞ºÅ∞
kinematics â◊∞^°úQõuâÍG~
kinesics Éè•¿+`ŒO° Éè•= „ǨHí@#
kinetic Qõu[, K«Å#jÅ. ~ art QõujÅ
Híà◊. ~ energy Qõu â◊H˜Î. ~ reaction
Qõu „ǨuK«O°º. ~ theory =ã¨∞ÎQõu
ã≤^®ú~`Œ~. ~ theory of heat L+¨‚Qõu
âÍG~
kinetics QõuâÍG~
king cobra O®K«<®Qõ∞, `ÍK«∞áå=∞∞
kingfisher ÅHí∞=∞∞H˜ Ç≤@ì
kink "≥∞eHí uO°∞Qõ∞
key =∞∞Yº"≥∞·#†
industry H©ÅHí

254

kyphosis

kinking =~HíO° uO°Qõ_«~
kinky z„`Œ"≥∞·#
kiosk _«Éσ ^°∞Hß}~, |_ô¤ HÁ@∞ì
kit „Ǩ`˺Hí/ =ã¨∞Î ™®=∞„y
kitchen-cabinet J#kèHßO°
ã¨ÅǨ

^®O°∞Å |$~^°~
kitchen garden
kith and kin

ÃÑO°>˜ `À@
|~^è°∞q∞„`Œ∞Å∞, ã¨xfl

Ç≤Ï`Œ∞Å∞
kiwi #¥ºlÖÏ~_ü ^Õâ◊ã¨∞÷_«∞
kleptomania ^˘~Qõ|∞kú, K“O’º<®‡^°~
knave =~K«Hí∞_«∞, JqhuǨO°∞_«∞
knavery JqhuǨO°`Œfi~, =~K«Hí`Œfi~
knavish Jqhu, =~K«Hí, ^è°¥O°Î"≥∞·#
knavishness ^è°¥O°Î`Œfi~
knee "≥ØHßÅ∞. knock ~ Qå_ç^°Hßà◊∞§
knell J~u=∞Ѷ¨∞_çÜ«µ,
=∞O°}®xfl
㨥z~Kı Qõ~@Å∞
knife file PHí∞O®Üµ, HíuÎO®Üµ
knight ™®Ç¨Ïã≤, gO°∞_«∞
knitting Lxfl (^°∞ã¨∞ÎÅ) Je¡Hí
knockdown Ju `ŒHí∞¯=, K“Hí. ~
price =∂=∞¥Å∞ Hí~>ı KÍÖÏ K“Hí^è°O°
knockout XHí¯ =∞∞+≤ìѶ¨∂`Œ~`À =∞>˜ì
HíiÇ≤~K«@~
knock out stage ([@¡#∞) `˘Åy~Kı
^°â◊
knot (ã¨=∞∞„^° =∂O°æ~Ö’) XHí "≥∞·Å∞
(ã¨∞=∂O°∞ 6080 J_«∞Qõ∞Å∞)
knowledge q*Ï˝#~, „áåg}º~
knuckle "≥∞>˜HíÅ∞, Çıe Hí}∞ѨÙ
kodox millet PiHíÅ∞
kondo (É“^°ú ^ÕÇÍÅÜ«∂Ö’¡) PO®^è°#
ã¨÷Å~
krait Hí@¡áå=∞∞
kronism `Œ=∞ Ç≤Å¡Å#∞ K«~Ç≤ `ÍÇı∞
u#_«~
kyphosis Qõ¥x (`Œ#~)

255

labelled

lake

Ll
labelled 㨥z`Œ, Qõ∞iÎ~z#
labia majora ܡ∂x "≥Å∞Ǩe

ÉÏǨϺ

lachrymose `˘~^°O°Qå U_ËÛ =ºH˜Î
laciniate JxÜ«µ`Œ~Qå Híui
Î ~z#/ H’ã≤#

F뮪Å∞ Hí~_«O°Ñ¨Ù =∞∞_«∞`ŒÅ∞
labile Jã≤÷O°
labium ÃÑ^°q, J^è°O’+¨ª~
laboratory „Ǩܡ∂QõâÍÅ. clinical ~
O’QõxO°‚Ü«µ „Ǩܡ∂QõâÍÅ
labour Hí+¨ì~, Hßi‡Hí∞Å∞, „âÍq∞Hí∞Å∞,
„â◊=∞, Ǩx, „Ǩã¨=~, Hß#∞Ê. ~
aristocracy Hí∞b# Hßi‡Hí =O°æ~.
delayed ~ PÅ㨺"≥∞·# Hß#∞Ê. ~
intensive Hßi‡Hí â◊H˜Î J=ã¨O°"≥∞·#
(Ǩx). obstructed ~ J=O’^è°~ Híe
y# Hß#∞Ê. ~ relations „âÍq∞Hí/
Hßi‡Hí ã¨~|~^è•Å∞. ~ saving „â◊=∞#∞
P^®Kı¿ã. ~ union Hßi‡Hí ã¨~Ѷ¨∞~
labourer Hßi‡Hí∞_«∞,
Hßi‡Hí∞O®Å∞,
<ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~ ÖËx ǨxKı¿ã =ºH˜Î
labyrinth Hí∞ǨÏO°~, Q˘@ì~ =~>˜
xO®‡}~, (Ǩ^°‡) =ӺǨÏ~, H˜¡+¨ìǨiã≤÷u,
zHí∞¯^®i, QõǨÏ#=∂O°æ~
labyrinthus „QõǨϟǨi`ŒÅ Éè•Qõ~Ö’x
Ö’Ü«µÅ∞
lac ÅHí¯. ~ dye JÅHíÎO°ã¨~
laceration
(=∂~ã¨~)
pÅÛ_«~,
H’Ü«µ_«~† (ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ~) <˘Ç≤Ê~K«_«~,
ÉÏkè~K«_«~
lacewing bug JH˜∆~`ŒÅ ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞
laching XHí „^®=}~Ö’x =∞>˜ì Ǩ^®O®÷
Å#∞ `˘Åy~Kı Ǩ^°úu
lachrymal Híhfl>˜H˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#. ~
gland Híhfl>˜ „Qõ~kä
lachrymation HíhflO°∞ HßO°_«~
lachrymator ÉÏ+¨ÊHßi}˜

z#fl =∞∞Hí¯Å∞
lack O®Ç≤Ï`Œº~, ÖËq∞
lackadaisical L`ÍûǨÏ~ ÖËx, L^®ã‘#,
„â◊^°úÖËx
lackey ÉÏxã¨ÖÏQõ „Ǩ=iÎ~Kı
lackluster Hß~u qÇ‘Ï#"≥∞·#, r=Híà◊
ÖËx
laconic ™®^è•O°}, ã¨~„QõǨÏ"≥∞·#
lacquer H©∆O°=iúx
lactation K«#∞ÉÏe=fi_«~, áåÅ∞KıǨ@~
lactogenic H©∆O°=O°úHí
lactometer H©∆O°=∂ǨHí~
lactose áåÅÖ’ K«H≥¯O°
lacuna Å∞ǨÎ~, O°~„^è°~, MÏm, ã¨~^°∞,
֒Ǩ~, *ÏQå, J~`ŒO°~
lacustrine ã¨O°ã¨∞ûÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#
lad ÉÏÅ∞_«∞
ladder xK‹Û#
laddie Ç≤Å¡ÇÍ_«∞/ Ü«µ∞=Hí∞_«∞
laden ZH˜¯~z#, "≥Øã≤#
lads q∞„`Œ∞Å∞, ã¨Ç¨ÏK«O°∞Å∞
lady's finger ɡ~_«HßÜ«µ
ladymuck ™®fiuâ◊Ü«µ~ QõÅ/ ÃÑ`ŒÎ#~
K‹ÖÏܵ~Kı ¢ã‘Î
lag "≥#∞Hí|_«∞, "≥∞Å¡Qå #_«∞K«∞
laggard "≥#∞Hí|_«¤
lagoon =∞_«∞Qõ∞, HíÜ«µº, Ö’`Œ∞ÖËx K‹O°∞=Ù
lagopthalmos Hí#∞fl=∞¥Ü«µÖËHí áÈ=_«~
laissez-faire ¿ãfiKÍÛù q^è•#~/ ÇͺáåO°~
laity Ö“H˜Hí „Ç¨[Å∞
lake Hß™®O°~, ã¨O°ã¨∞û. finger ~ á⁄_«
"≥·# ã¨#flx ã¨O°ã¨∞û

256

lam
lam Qõ>˜ìQå HÁ@∞ì
lamb Q˘„O≥ Ç≤Å¡
lambast(e) HÁ@∞ì
lambent flame K«e`Œ *ÏfiÅ
lame Hí∞~>˜. ~ duck ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~

L`ÍûǨÏ~ÖËx, hO°ã≤~z#, â◊H˜Î
ÖËx, JÅã≤áÈܵ#
languish HÁ@∞ìq∞>Ïì_«∞,
JǨ[Ü«µ~
á⁄~^°∞
languor q„âÍ~u
lantern nǨ~, ÖÏ~`ŒO°∞, Hß~u *ÏeHí
lanugo tâ◊∞O’=∞~
lanyard DÅ/ KÍHí∞ z=O°Hí>˜ì# Qõ>˜ì
^®O°~
laparoscopy L^°O°H’â◊ â◊GzH˜`Œû
laparotomy L^°O°KıÛù^°#~
lapidarian O®à◊§Hí∞, O°`ÍflÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~
z#
lapis lazuli W~„^°hÅ=∞}˜, "≥·_«¥O°º~
lapse HßÅ =º=kè Qõ_çz#, Qõu~z#,
Ǩ`Œ#~, ֒Ǩ~, O°^°∞Ì
lap top "≥~@ fã¨∞HÁxáÈQõÅ, Hí~ѨӺ@O∑
larceny ^˘~Qõ`Œ#~, <ËO°~
lard JÅ~HßO° „áåÜ«µ~Qå =∂>Ï¡_«∞†
Ǩ~kHÁ=Ùfi
lardaceous HÁ=ÙfiǨ>˜ì#
larder PǨO° Ǩ^®O®÷Å∞ ÃÑ>ıì Qõk ÖË^®
JÅ=∂O®
large scale Éè•s("≥∞∞`ŒÎ~)
largesse L^®O°`Œ, ^°Ü«µ, ^®#~
lark about ǨxH˜ O®x q+¨Ü«∂ÅHí∞
P#~^°Ç¨_«∞
larvicide _ç~ÉèíHí <®â◊x
larviparous ÖÏO®fi ^®fiO® ѨÙ#O°∞`ŒÊuÎ
Kı¿ã r=ÙÅH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#
laryng(e)al Hí$Hß„wÜ«µ, HßHíÅH©Ü«µ
laryngitis ã¨fiO°¿Ñ>˜Hí ÉÏ^è°
laryngoscope ã¨fiO°¿Ñ>˜Hí ^°O°≈x
laryngospasm ã¨fiO°¿Ñ>˜Hí
ǨÏOîß`ü
ã¨~H’K«~
larynx ã¨fiO°¿Ñ>˜Hí, Hí$Hß„Qõ~, HßHíÅHí~
languid

J=ã¨O°

"≥∞·# =ºH˜Î, Hí∞~iî`Œ∞_«∞
lament â’H˜~K«∞, Ǩi`ŒÇ≤~K«∞
lamentation qÖÏǨ~, Ǩ„`Œ |~^è°#~
lamina ^°à◊~, Ǩ@Å~, á⁄O°
laminar flow ^°à◊„ǨÇÍǨÏ~
laminated á⁄O°Å∞ L#fl
laminectomy "≥#∞flѨÓã¨ÅHí∞ ^°$_è°`Ífi
xflKıÛ KÍáåHßO° xO®‡}®Å#∞ `˘Åy~Kı
â◊GzH˜`Œû
lamp nǨ~
lamp black nǨ=∞ã≤
lampoon JkèHı∆Ç≤~K«∞, f„=~Qå q=∞
i≈~K«∞
lance â◊¥Å~, D>ˇ
land <ËÅ, (Ǩ~@)Éèí¥q∞, Éèí¥ã≤÷u. ~
bridge O≥~_«∞ Y~_ÍÅ#∞ Híe¿Ñ
„Ǩ^Õâ◊~. ~ classification Éèí¥=sæ
HíO°}. ~ deeds Éèí¥q∞ Ǩ>ÏìÅ∞. ~
grabbing Éèí¥=∂º„Hí=∞}. ~ locked
ǨiÇı+≤ì`Œ. ~ lord Éèí¥™®fiq∞, W~>˜
Ü«µ[=∂x. ~ mark "≥∞·Å∞O®Üµ,
Qõ∞iÎ~K«^°y# ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@#/ q+¨Ü«µ~. ~
mine =∞~^°∞ áå`ŒO°. ~ slide <ËÅH’`Œ.
~ scape Éèí¥^°$â◊º~. ~ use zoning
J=ã¨O®Å „áåuǨkHíÃÑ· Kı¿ã <ËÅ qÉèí
[#. ~ ward <ËÅH˜ ^°QõæO°Qå
lane ã¨~^°∞
language Éè•+¨. ~ behaviour Éè•ë®
„Ǩ=O°Î#. ~ disability J™®^è•O°}
Éè•ë®„Ǩܡ∂Qõ~

larynx

lascivious
lascivious Öˇ·~yHí q+¨Ü«∂ã¨HíÎ
lash HÁO°_Í`À/ Qõ>˜ìQå HÁ@∞ì.

~ out
PÜ«µ∞^è°~`À Qõ>˜ìQå HÁ@∞ì, xt`Œ~Qå
q=∞i≈~K«∞
lassitude JÅã≤áÈ=_«~, JÅã¨@, J<®
ã¨HíÎ`Œ
lasso LK«∞Û
last ditch PYi/ z=iÜ«µ`Œfl~
lasting ã≤÷O°, zO°HßÅ~ L~_Ë, =∞xflHíQõÅ
latch Qõ_çÜ«µ, Q˘à‹§~, ǨiѶ¨∞
latch on to =∞Çı∞Hí~ K‹~^°∞
latent „ǨK«Ûù#fl, Qõ∞ǨÎ. ~ heat Qõ∞áÈÎ+¨‚~
lateral XHí ǨHí¯, áåO°≈fi, áåi≈fiHí~. ~
erosion áåi≈fiHí „Hí=∞Hí∆Ü«µ~
laterality UHíǨHí∆ „áå^è•#º~
lateral thinking ã¨$[<®`Œ‡Hí ã¨=∞™®º
Ǩi+¨¯O°}
laterite soils Z„O°=∞>˜ì, Hí~HíO° <ËÅÅ∞
laterization Z„O°=∞>˜ì <ËÅÅ∞ UO°Ê_«@~
latex O°|ƒO°∞ áåÅ∞, O°|ƒO°∞ `˘_«∞Qõ∞
lather #∞O°∞Qõ∞
latitude JH∆ß~â◊~
lattice Je¡Hí, `Œ_«Hí, *ÏbǨx. ~
energy *ÏÅHíâ◊H˜Î
laud â͡Ѷ≤∞~K«∞
laudable "≥∞K«∞ÛH’^°y#, „Ǩâ◊~ã¨hÜ«µ
"≥∞·#
laughing gas J^ÕǨxQå
#qfi~Kı
ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù (<ˇ·„@ãπ PH≥· û_ü)
launch ǨiK«Ü«µ~ KıÜ«µ∞, „áåO°~aè~K«∞,
ÃÑ^°Ì Ǩ_«=
launder J„Hí=∞=∂O®æÅ ^®fiO® ã¨~áå
k~z# _«|∞ƒ#∞ K‹ÖÏ=∞}˜Ö’H˜ `ˇK«∞Û
laundry KÍHíe HÁ@∞ì, „^°=º ã¨~ã¨÷
laurel ã¨`Œ`Œ ǨÏi`Í~Hí∞O°~
laurels Q“O°=~, H©iÎ

257

laxity

lava L+¨‚„^°=~, ÖÏÇÍ
lavage ^è•=#~, Hí_«Qõ_«~. gastric

~

[Oî°O° ^è•=#~
q^è°=O®Å∞, ÉèíO°Î ™È^°O°∞Ö’¡ XHí
ix qÇÍǨÏ~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞
lavish ^°∞ÉÏO®† Jq∞`Œ =ºÜ«µ~ KıÜ«µ∞,
`ˇQõá⁄Qõ_«∞
law âÍã¨#~, K«@ì~, <®ºÜ«µ~, ^è°O°‡~,
㨥„`Œ~, <®ºÜ«µÇÍ^°=$uΆ (™®O°fi[xHí)
xÜ«µ=∞~. ~ breaker <®ºÜ«µ Éèí~[
Hí∞_«∞/ qO’kè. ~ court <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~.
~ ful K«@ì|^°ú, <®ºÜ«µ~ J#∞=∞
u~z#. ~ of change Ǩi=O°Î#
xÜ«µ=∞~. ~ of chemical combination O°™®Ü«µ# ã¨~ܡ∂Qõ xÜ«µ=∞~. ~
of chemical equivalents O°™®Ü«µ#
`Œ∞źÉè•O°xÜ«µ=∞~. ~ of electrodynamics q^°∞º`ü Qõu âÍG xÜ«µ=∞~.
~ of electrolysis q^°∞º`ü qâı¡+¨}
„H˜Ü«∂ xÜ«µ=∞~. ~ of identity
`Í^®`Œ‡º^è°O°‡~. ~ of mass action
„^°=º O®t „H˜Ü«∂xÜ«µ=∞~. ~ of
negation x+≤^°ú, x¿+^è° xÜ«µ=∞~. ~
of struggle ã¨~Ѷ¨∞O°¬} xÜ«µ=∞~. ~
suit ^®ÇÍ. ~ of thermodynamics
L+¨‚ QõuHí âÍG xÜ«µ=∞~
lawless JO®[Hí
lawn ǨzÛHí |Ü«µÅ∞. ~ mower ^ÀHí∞_«∞
áåO°, Qõ_ç¤x HíuÎi~Kı Ü«µ~„`Œ~. ~
tennis ǨzÛHí |Ü«µÅ∞Ö’ P_Ë P@
lawyer <®ºÜ«µÇÍk
lax „Ǩ=∂}®efl áå>˜~K«x, x|~^è°#ÅHí∞
`ŒÖÁQõæx, Ǩ^°úuÖËx, *Ï„Qõ`ŒÎÖËx, tkäÅ
laxative qO’K«#Hßi =∞~^°∞
laxity ã¨∞ã‘Î, Hí@ì_çÖËHíáÈ=_«~, "≥∞`ŒÎ^°#~,
qâ◊$~YÅ`Œ
lavigate

lay

™®^è•O°}, Ö“H˜Hí. ~ before ã¨=∞
Hí∆~Ö’ L~K«∞, =∞∞~^°∞~K«∞. ~ down
qkè~K«∞, `Œºl~K«∞
layer á⁄O°, ѨÓ`Œ
lay figure #=∞¥<® (HÁÜ«µºÉÁ=∞‡) H©Å∞
ÉÁ=∞‡
layman áå=∞O°∞_«∞, ™®=∂#∞º_«∞
lay-off `Í`ͯeHí"≥∞·# =∞¥ã≤Çı`Œ
laze ã¨~`Œ$Ç≤ÎǨ_«∞
lazy bones ™È=∞iáÈ`Œ∞, |^°úHíã¨∞Î_«∞
leaching =_«áÈ`Œ, hHí∆à◊#~
lead ã‘ã¨~† "≥∞∞@ì"≥∞∞^°@ #∞~_«∞,
=∞∞~^°∞~_ç #_çÇ≤~K«∞, <®Ü«µHí`Œfi~
=Ç≤Ï~K«∞. ~ time L`ŒÊuÎ KıuH˜ J~k
=fi_ÍxH˜ Ǩ>ıì ã¨=∞Ü«µ~, HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞
KıÜ«∂Å<Ë L^ÕÌâÍxH˜ O®=_ÍxH˜ Ǩ>ıì
ã¨=∞Ü«µ~
leaden hO°ã¨~`À J_«∞Qõ∞Å∞ ÇıÜ«µ∞
leader <®Ü«µHí∞_«∞. ~ article ÇÍO®ÎǨ„u
HíÖ’¡ „Ǩ^è•# Çͺã¨~, ™®^è•O°}~Qå
ã¨~áå^°H©Ü«µ~. ~ of the house ã¨Éè•
<®Ü«µHí∞_«∞/ <®Ü«µHí∞O®Å∞. ~ question ã¨=∂^è•<®xfl J¿ÑH˜∆~Kı „Ǩâ◊fl
leadership <Ë`Œ$`Œfi~, <®Ü«µHí`Œfi~
leading PkèHíº~Ö’ L#fl
leaf PHí∞, OÕHí∞, ^°à◊~. ~ diseases PHí∞
`ˇQ∞õ à◊∞§. ~ folder PHí∞=∞∞_«`Œ ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞.
~ green Ǩ„`ŒÇϨ i`Œ~. ~ hopper PHí∞
q∞_«`Œ. ~ manure PH≥O°∞ѨÙ: ZO°∞ѨÙQå
LǨܡ∂y~Kı PHí∞Å∞. ~ miner PHí∞
QÀHı ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞. ~ spots =∞K«Û `ˇQõ∞à◊∞§.
~ webber PHí∞=∞∞_«`Œ ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞
leaflet HíO°Ç¨„`Œ~
league match (™®^è•O°}~Qå) `˘e
J~K‹ áÈ>©
league of nations <®<®*Ïu ã¨q∞u
lay

258

leave

leaking HßO°∞`Œ∞#fl
lean ã¨#flx, ǨÅK«x
leaning J=∂O°æ~Ö’ „Ǩ=iÎ~K«∞
lean on ǨO°Ç¨ux LǨܡ∂y~K«∞,

ÇıO˘Híi

g∞^° P^è•O°Ç¨_«∞
lean years Qõ_«∞¤ ã¨~=`ŒûO®Å∞
leap Q≥~`Œ∞, ^°¥Hí∞, ^®@∞.

~ out
"≥~@<Ë J~wHíi~K«∞
leap year Ѷ≤„|=i <ˇÅÖ’ 29= O’A#fl
ã¨~=`ŒûO°~
learned áå~_ç`Œº~ QõÅ. ~ person
„Ǩ*Ï˝âÍe, q^®º=~`Œ∞_«∞, Ǩ~_ç`Œ∞_«∞
learnedness áå~_ç`Œº~, H’q^°`Œfi~
lease Qõ∞`ŒÎ, H“Å∞, X_«~|_çHí Ǩ„`Œ~. ~
back HÁ#∞QÀÅ∞^®O°∞ #∞~z uiy
H˜O®ÜµH˜/ J^≥ÌHí∞ fã¨∞H’=_«~. ~ hold
H“Å∞Éèí¥q∞/ H“Å∞ ^®fiO® ǨÏHí∞¯. ~
holder H“Å∞^®O°∞
leash Hí∞Hí¯#∞ Hí>ıì `ÀÅ∞ Ǩ@Hß
least Híx+¨ª, J`ŒºÅÊ
leather `ÀÅ∞, K«O°‡~. ~ worker K«O°‡
HßO°∞_«∞
leathery `ÀÅ∞ÖÏQõ∞~_Ë
leave =^°eÇıÜ«µ∞† ÃãÅ=Ù, q^è°∞ÅHí∞
Q≥·O®›[O°Ü˵º HßÅ~, J~^°∞Hí∞ fã¨∞Hí∞#∞
J#∞=∞u. annual ~ ã¨~=`ŒûO° HßÅ~
Ö’x Q≥·O®›[s k<®Å∞. casual ~ J=
ã¨O° ÃãÅ=Ù. compassionate ~ Ǩi
Çı^°# ÃãÅ=Ù, ǨiǨO° O°¥Ç¨Hí"≥∞·#
ÃãÅ=Ù. compensation ~ ѨiǨ~°
~°∂ѨHõ"≥∞ÿ# Q≥·O®›[s. earned ~ ã¨~áå
k`Œ/ Pi˚`Œ ÃãÅ=Ù. half pay ~ ã¨Qõ~
r`Œ~`À ÃãÅ=Ù. maternity ~ „Ǩ㨥u
ÃãÅ=Ù. medical ~ J<®O’Qõº ÃãÅ=Ù.
sabbatical ~ qâ◊fiq^®ºÅÜ«∂Ö’¡ HÁxfl
ã¨~=`ŒûO®Å∞ L^ÀºQõ~ Kıã≤# `ŒO°∞ÇÍ`Œ

leave behind

XHí „á⁄ÃѶã¨O°∞ `Í#∞ Kıã¨∞Î#fl Ǩiâ’^è°#
H’ã¨~ F ã¨~=`ŒûO° HßÅ~ fã¨∞Hí∞#fl
ÃãÅ=Ù. sick ~ J<®O’QåºxH˜ WKıÛ
ÃãÅ=Ù
leave behind =ke "≥o§áÈ=_«~
leave of absence J#∞Ǩã≤÷u ÃãÅ=Ù
leave off =keÇıÜ«µ∞/ KıO°ÛHíáÈ=Ù
Lebensraum rq~K«_ÍxH˜ J#∞"≥·#
„Ǩ^Õâ◊~
lecher Hß=∞∞Hí∞_«∞
lecture LǨ<®ºã¨~, ÇͺMϺ#~
ledger P=O®˚: k#ã¨i ÖˇHí¯/ MÏ`Í. ~
clerk P=O®˚ Qõ∞=∂™®Î
lee ÇÍ`Í=O°}~ #∞~z Hßáå_Ë ã¨÷Å~
leech [ÅQõ† [ÅQõÖÏ~>˜ =ºH˜Î
leer "≥_«#=Ùfi† HÁ~>ˇQå #Çıfi
leery l`Œ∞ÎÅ=∂i
left front ÇÍ=∞ǨHí∆~
leftist ÇÍ=∞ǨH∆ßxH˜ K‹~k# =ºH˜Î
leftover q∞yeáÈܵ#
leftward ™È+¨e*ÏxH˜ ^°QõæO°Qå L~_Ë
O®[H©Ü«µ q^è•#~
left winger ÇÍ=∞ǨH∆ßaè=∂x
legacy L`ŒÎO°^®Üµ`Œfi~, ÇÍO°ã¨`Œfi~Qå
ã¨~„Híq∞~z# Pã≤Î/ gÅ∞<®=∂ Pã≤Î
legal K«>ÏìxH˜/ <®ºÜ«∂xH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#,
K«@ì~ J#∞=∞u~z#. ~ aid <®ºÜ«µ
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~. ~ expenses H’O°∞ì YO°∞ÛÅ∞.
~ marxism K«@ì|^°ú =∂i¯û[~. ~
person <®ºÜ«µã¨~|~^è°, ÉÏ^è°º`ŒÅ∞#fl
=ºH˜Î. ~ procedure âÍã¨xHí/ <®ºÜ«µ
„Ǩ„H˜Ü«µ. ~ reserveÉèí„^°`Œ H’ã¨~
xÅ∞= L~KÍeû# Híh㨠"≥∞∞`ŒÎ~. ~
right K«@ì|^°ú"≥∞·# ǨÏHí∞¯. ~ sovergnity K«@ì|^°ú ™®O°fiÉè“=∂kèHßO°~. ~
tender K«@ì|^°ú"≥∞·# „^°=º~, K‹Å∞¡
ÉÏ@Ü˵º O°¥áåÜ«µÅ <À@∞¡, <®}ıÅ∞

259

legumes

âÍã¨#ǨO°~ KıÜ«µ_«~,
<®ºÜ«µ|núHíO°}~
legalism âÍã¨#/ <®ºÜ«µ ǨO®Ü«µ}`Œfi~
legality <®ºÜ«µ`Œ~, <®ºÜ«µ|^°ú`Œ
legalize K«@ìã¨=∞‡`Œ~KıÜ«µ∞, <®ºÜ∂Hí
i~K«∞
legate q^ÕâÍÖ’¡ áÈѨ٠„Ǩuxkè
legated XHí ^Õâ◊ „ǨÉèí∞`ÍfixH˜ W`ŒO°
^ÕâÍÅ „Ǩux^è°∞Å∞Qå ǨxKı¿ã O®Ü«µ
ÉÏO°∞Å∞/ JkèHßO°∞Å∞
legend H©iÎ<®i˚~z# =ºH˜Î† ѨÙO®}Qå^ä°,
huÇÍHíº~ (z„`ÍxH˜) ÇͺMϺ#~
leggy á⁄_«"≥·# Hßà◊∞§QõÅ
legible ã¨Ê+¨ì"≥∞·#, J~^°"≥∞·#
legion Ãã·#º~Ö’ qÉè•Qõ~† ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~†
KÍÖÏ ZHí∞¯=
legionary Hí∂e p=∞Å∞ PǨO°~ `ˇKıÛ
q^è•#~
legionnaires TÇ≤iu`Œ∞ÎÅHí∞
™ÈHı
„áå}®~`ŒHí Çͺkè
legislative âÍã¨# ã¨~|~kè. ~ assembly âÍã¨#ã¨Éèí, q^è•#ã¨Éèí. ~ council
âÍã¨# =∞~_«e, q^è•# =∞~_«e. ~
power âÍã¨#~ Kı¿ã JkèHßO°~
legislature âÍã¨#ã¨Éèí
legitamisation K«@ì|^°ú~/
<®ºÜ«µ
ã¨=∞‡`Œ~ K‹Ü«µº_«~
legitimacy K«@ì|^°ú`Œ, <®ºÜ«µã¨=∞‡u,
`Œy#, 㨄Hí=∞"≥∞·#
legitimate K«@ì|^°ú"≥∞·#, <®ºÜ«µ"≥∞·#. ~
construction âÍG|^°ú O°K#
« , ã¨=∞~[ã¨
xO®‡}~
leg room HßO°∞Ö’ =∞∞~^°∞ ã‘@∞~_Ë
„Ǩ^Õâ◊~
legumes ǨǨC k#∞ã¨∞Å∞ kfiq^®O°Hí
Ѷ¨ÖÏÅ∞
legalisation

leisure
leisure q„âÍ~u, fO°∞|_ç (ã¨=∞Ü«µ~)
lemon grass x=∞‡Qõ_ç¤. ~ oil x=∞‡Qõ_ç¤

#¥<ˇ
lend JÇ≤ÊK«∞Û, O°∞}~ WK«∞Û
lender JǨCÅ∞ WKıÛ =ºH˜Î/ ã¨~ã¨÷. ~ of
last resort i[O°∞fi ÉÏ~H± PѶπ
W~_çÜ«∂
length á⁄_«=Ù. crown heel ~ `ŒÅ
#∞~z =∞_«=∞ =O°Hí∞
lengthy KÍÖÏ ã¨=∞Ü«µ~ fã¨∞HÁ<Ë, á⁄_«
"≥·#
lenity B^®O°º~
lens Hí@Hí~. cataractous ~ JáåO°
^°O°≈Hí <Ë„`Œ Hí@Hí~. contact ~ ã¨~ǨO°¯
Hí@Hí~. converging ~ Jaè™®iHí
@Hí~. diverging ~ JǨ™®i Hí@Hí~
lentic Ǩiâ◊∞„Éèí"≥∞·#, xâ◊ÛÅ ã≤÷uÖ’ L#fl
h>˜H˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#
leper Hí∞+¨∞ªÇͺkè QõÅ =ºH˜Î
lepidote z#fl z#fl á⁄Å∞ã¨∞Å`À HíǨÊ
|_ç#
leprosarium Hí∞+¨∞ªO’Qõ "≥·^°ºâÍÅ
leprosy Hí∞+¨∞ªO’Qõ~
leptodermous ǨÅ∞K«x K«O°‡~QõÅ
lesbian ã¨fie~Qõ ã¨~ǨO°¯~ Kı¿ã ¢ã‘Î
lesion QåÜ«µ~
less `ŒHí∞¯=
lessee H“Å∞^®O°∞
lessor H“Å∞H˜KıÛ =ºH˜Î
let H“Å∞ ™œHíO°º~
let down Éèí~QõǨO°K«∞, `À_«Ê_«Hí∞~_«∞
lethal Ѷ¨∂`Œ∞Hí, „áå}®~`ŒHí"≥∞·#
lethargic L`Œ∞ûHí`ŒÖËx, â◊H˜ÎÖËx, hO°ã¨
"≥∞·#
lethargy L^®ã‘#`Œ, [_«`Œfi~, xO°∞
`ÍûǨÏ~, Jux„^°, =∞~^°HÁ_ç`Œ#~, JÅ
ã¨`Œfi~, |^°úHí~

260

lexicology

lettering JHí∆O° su
let up `Œyæ~K«∞
leucocytosis O°HíÎ~Ö’

`ˇÅ¡Hí}®Å∞ ÃÇÏK«∞Û

Hß=_«~
leucoderma ÉÁe¡, `ˇÅ¡=∞K«ÛÅ∞
leucoma Hí~>˜Ö’ `ˇÅ¡Ñ¨Ù=Ùfi
leucorrhoea `ˇÅ¡|@ì (¢ã‘ÎÅ Çͺkè)
leukemia XHíO°Hí~ áå~_«∞O’Qõ~
leukopenia O°HíÎ~Ö’ `ˇÅ¡Hí}®Å∞ `ŒQõæ_«~
leukopoiesis âıfi`ŒHí}’`ŒÊuÎ, `ˇÅ¡O°HíÎ

Hí}®Å L`ŒÊuÎ
level K«^°∞#∞, ™®÷ܵ
level headed K«e~K«x, ã¨~Ü«µ=∞#~
QõÅ, Qõ~cèO°~Qå L~_«∞
levelling ã¨=∂hHíO°}~, ã¨=∞ã¨÷bHíO°}~,
K«^°∞#∞ KıÜ«µ_«~
level playing field ã¨=∂<®=HßâÍÅ∞
lever `Œ∞ÖÏ^°~_«~
leverage ǨÅ∞Hí∞|_ç, JkèHßO°~, ǨO°Ç¨u,
ÃÑ`ŒÎ#~ K‹ÖÏܵ~Kı ™®=∞O°÷º~, =∞¥Å
^è°<®xH˜ O°∞}®ÅHí∂ =∞^è°º QõÅ x+¨ÊuÎ
leviable qkè~Ǩ^°y#
leviathan uq∞~yÅ~, J`Œº~`Œ â◊H˜Î=~`Œ
"≥∞·#, J`Œ∞º#fl`ÍkèHßO°~ QõÅ
levied qkè~z#
levies ã¨∞~HßÅ∞
levigator uO°Qõe
levitation ÇÍÜ«µ∞ã¨Î~Éèí#~
levity ÖÏѶ¨∞=~, KÍǨź~
levophobia Z_«=∞"≥·Ñ¨Ù =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ~>ı
ÉèíÜ«µ~
levy Ǩ#∞fl, O°∞ã¨∞~, [i=∂<®, Ãã·#º~Ö’
KıiHí
lex âÍã¨#~, K«@ì~, <®ºÜ«µ~
lexicography xѶ¨∞~@∞ xO®‡} âÍG~
lexicology Ǩ^°âÍG~

lexicon
lexicon („Ǩ`˺Hí) Ǩ^°H’â◊~
liability ÉÏ^è°º`Œ, O°∞}~, #ë®ìxH˜ ÉÏ^è°∞º
_≥·# =ºH˜Î. ~ insurance #ë®ìÅHí∞ Ǩi

ǨO°~ K‹e¡~Kı c=∂
liable ÉÏ^è°º`Œ, L`ŒÎO°^®Üµ
liaison J#∞ã¨~^è•#~, J„Hí=∞ ã¨~|~^è°~
liane ÃÑ·H˜ áåHı "≥∞∞Hí¯
libel ed`Œ ѨÓO°fiHí x~^°
liberal art L^®`ŒÎ Híà◊
liberalisation ã¨O°mHíO°}
liberalism L^®O°ÇÍ^°~
liberate q=∞∞H˜Î Híey~K«∞
liberated area q=∞∞HíÎ „áå~`Œ~
liberation q"≥ØK«#, q=∞∞H˜Î
libertine Öˇ·~yHí q+¨Ü«∂Ö’¡ J<ˇ·uHí~Qå
L~_Ë =ºH˜Î
liberty ¿ãfiK«Ûù
libido qâı+¨ Öˇ·~yHí ÇÍ~Kè«, Hß=∂`Œ∞O°`Œ
librettist ã¨~w`Œ <®@HßxH˜ Ǩ^®Å∞
O®¿ã =ºH˜Î
licenc(s)e J#∞=∞u(Ǩ„`Œ~)
licensee J#∞q∞`Œ =ºH˜Î
licensor J#∞=∞u WKıÛ =ºH˜Î/ ã¨~ã¨÷
lichenometry Ç≤Ï=∞™®÷Ü∂ =∂Ǩ#~
licit x+≤^°ú~Hßx
licitation L=∞‡_ç Pã≤Îx Ǩ~K«∞HÁ<Ë
q^è•#~
licitator J=∞‡Hí~Ö’ áå@^®O°∞
licitum <®ºÜ«µ"≥∞·#, âÍã¨#ã¨=∞‡`Œ"≥∞·#
licking <®Hí_«~, Qõ∞@HíÅ∞ q∞~Qõ_«~,
ÃÑ^°=ÙÅ∞ K«Ç¨Êi~K«_«~† qǨs`Œ~Qå
HÁ>ıì XHíO°Hí"≥∞·# tHí∆
lie Jã¨`Œº~, ÇͺÇ≤Î
liegeance ÉèíH˜Î, qâÍfiã¨~
lien ^èO
° ®=`Œ∞Qå ÃÑ@∞ìHÁ<ËÇϨ Hí∞¯, ^è•O°}®kè
HßO°~

261

light

[=∂#`Œ∞Ǩ_«¤ =ºH˜Î, ^è°O®=`Œ∞
ÃÑ>˜ì# =ºH˜Î
lienor ^è°O®=`Œ∞ ™⁄`Œ∞Î#∞ ™⁄~`Œ~ Kıã¨∞
HÁ<Ë Ç¨ÏHí∞¯
lien shares O°∞}„Qõã¨Î~
ÇÍ>ÏÅ#∞
™⁄~`Œ~ Kıã¨∞Hí∞x JÇı∞‡ ǨÏHí∞¯
lie over PÇ≤ L~K«∞
lieu |^°∞Å∞Qå, =∂O°∞Qå
life rq`Œ~, „áå}~. ~ assured rq`Œ
c=∂ L#fl =ºH˜Î. ~ cycle rq`Œ
K«„Hí~. ~ estate Ü«µ[=∂x Pã≤ÎÃÑ·
=KıÛ P^®Ü«∂xfl J#∞Éèíq~Kı ǨÏHí∞¯
H’Ö’Ê=_«~. ~ expectancy r=#
HßÅѨ٠J~K«<®. ~ expectation rq`Œ
Ǩi}®=∞~. ~ fund c=∂ Hí~ÃÑhÅ
xkè. ~ history rq`Œ K«i„`Œ. ~
imprisonment rq`Œ Mˇ·^°∞. ~ less
r=O°Ç≤Ï`Œ. ~ saving drug „áå}O°Hí∆
H“+¨^è°~. ~ science r=âÍG~. ~
size xÅ∞"≥`Œ∞Î. ~ space xÜ«µq∞`Œ
J=HßâÍÅ#∞ "≥`ŒHí_ÍxH˜ Hß=Åã≤#
ã¨=∞Ü«µ~. ~ style r=#â‹·e. ~
tables r=# ã¨=∞Ü«µ Ǩ>H
ì˜ .í ~ tenant
r=# ǨO°º~`Œ~ H“Å∞^®O°∞. ~ time
rq`Œ HßÅ~
ligament ™®flÜ«µ∞=Ù† Ǩ>Ïì
ligation |~^è°#~, =∞∞_çÇıÜ«µ@~
ligature =∞∞_çÇıÜ«µ_ÍxH˜ ÇÍ_Ë ^®O°~
light Hß~u, ã¨O°Hí∞ x~Ǩx F_«† ™®ìHí∞
=∂O≥¯>’¡ HÁ#∞QÀà◊∞§, J=∞‡HßÅ∞
ã¨fiÅÊ~Qå [O°∞Qõ∞† |O°∞=Ù ÖËx, `ËeHí.
~ colour `ËeHí O°~Qõ∞. ~ fastness
Hß~u ã≤÷O°`Œ. ~ fingered ^˘~Qõ`Œ#~
Kı¿ã. ~ headed "≥∞·Hí~Qå L#fl. ~
hearted L`ÍûǨÏ~Qå
L#fl. ~
industry `ËeHí
Ǩi„â◊=∞. ~
lienee

likeable

ǨiHı∆Ǩ}~. ~ soils
`ËeHí <ËÅÅ∞. ~ source Hß~u
„ǨÉè•=~. ~ verse ã¨O°^® Híq`Œfi~. ~
weight `ËeHíáå>˜. ~ year Hß~u
ã¨~=`ŒûO°~. ~ fast =∞xflHí (O°~Qõ∞).
~ monochromatic UHí =O°‚ Hß~u
likeable ¿ãflǨÏÉè•=~ QõÅ/ #KıÛ
likelihood ã¨~ÉèÏ=º`Œ
liken XHıÖÏ L~_Ë
lilac ÖË`Œ T^®O°~Qõ∞
limb J~Qõ~. artificial ~ Hí$„u=∂~Qõ~.
lower ~ HßÅ∞. upper ~ ÉÏǨï=Ù,
Kıܵ
limber P@Hí∞ =∞∞~^°∞ Çͺܫ∂=∞~
KıÜ«µ_«~
limbo JxtÛ`Œ/ Jã¨~ѨÓO°‚ ã≤÷u
limerick Ǩ㨺Híq`Œ
lime stone ã¨∞#flѨ٠O®Üµ
limit Çı∞O°, Ǩiq∞u
limited Ǩiq∞`Œ. ~ market ÇÍ>ÏÅ∞
Ǩiq∞`Œ~Qå =∂„`ŒÇı∞ Åaè~Kı qǨ}˜.
~ monarchy Ǩiq∞`Œ O®[iHí~. ~
sovereignty Ǩiq∞`Œ ™®O°fiÉè“=∞`Œfi~.
~ vote system Ǩiq∞`Œ F@∞ Ǩ^°úu
limiting ã‘=∂~`Œ J=kèHí. ~ factor
J=kè HßO°Hí~
limner Híà®q<Àk
limnology ã¨O’=O°âÍG~
limnophilous ã¨O°ã¨∞ûÖ’¡ x=ã≤~Kı
limp Hí∞~>˜#_«Hí† Hí∞~>˜Qå #_«∞K«∞† â◊H˜Î
ÖËx, =~QÕ
limpid ã¨fiK«Ûù"≥∞·#, xO°‡Å"≥∞·#, `Ë@ܡµ·#
line w`Œ, OÕY, ^°$HíÊ^ä°~. isothermal ~
ã¨"≥ØëÈ‚„Qõ`Í OÕY. midsternal ~
O˘=∞∞‡ =∞^è°º OÕY, O˘=∞∞‡>ˇ=∞∞Hí. ~
of vision gHí∆} OÕY. ~ spectrum
OÕMÏ=O°ÎǨ@~
scattening Hß~u

262

lipaemia

lineage =~â◊„Hí=∞~, ã¨~`Œu
linear XHı =O°∞ã¨Ö’ L#fl, nO°…
linear shape nO®…Hí$u
line call - drawing OÕMÏz„`Œ~.
line call filling „Ǩ`Œºi÷ ã¨~ã¨÷Å∞

#¥`Œ

<À`ŒÊ`Œ∞ÎÅ#∞ Pq+¨¯i~K«_«~
linen |@ìÅ∞, =„™®ÎÅ∞, <®O°Qõ∞_«¤,
lineup [@∞ì =O°ã¨
linger J=ã¨O°"≥∞·# ^®xHí~>ı

=ůÅ~
ZHí∞¯=

¿ãѨÙ~_Ë, ÇıÖÏ_Ë
lingerie ¢ã‘ÎÅ Ö’^°∞ã¨∞ÎÅ∞
lingo =∂>Ï¡_«ÖËx, JO°÷~Hßx q^Õâ◊ Éè•+¨
lingua <®Å∞Hí, lǨÏfi
lingua franca ã¨~^è•#Éè•+¨, ™®=∂#º
Éè•+¨, ã¨~ǨO°¯ Éè•+¨
lingual lǨÏfi ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
linguist Éè•ëê (âÍG) Çı`ŒÎ
linguistic determinism Éè•ë® xO®‚ܵ« Hí
ÇÍ^°~
linguistic relativity Éè•ë®™®¿ÑHí∆`Œ
linguistics Éè•ë®âÍG~
liniment `ˇ·Å~, ÖËǨ#~
lining ѨÓ`Œ
link Å~H≥
linkage |~^è°#~, ã¨Ç¨ÏÅQõfl`Œ, Híe¿Ñ,
`ŒyÖË
link language ã¨~^è•# Éè•+¨
lin seed JqÃãÅ∞. ~ oil JqÃã #¥<ˇ
lint (â◊G zH˜`ŒûÖ’ LǨܡ∂y~Kı) "≥∞`ŒÎ>˜
Qõ∞_«¤
lintel J_«¤^°¥Å~
lion ã≤~ǨÏ~
lion's share =∞∞Yº"≥∞·# ÇÍ>Ï/ ÃÑ^°Ì
Éè•Qõ~
lip ÃÑ^°q
lipaemia O°HíÎ~Ö’ HÁ=Ùfi Ǩ^®O®÷Å∞
ZHí∞¯= Hß=_«~, ÇÍã¨O°HíÎ`Œ

263

lipid
lipid HÁ=Ùfi Ǩ^®O°÷~
lipodystrophy HÁ=Ùfi `ŒQõæ_«~,
lipogram x+≤^®úHí∆i
lipoma HÁ=Ùfi Hí}˜u
lipoid ÇÍ™®Éèí
lipolysis HÁ=Ùfi/ "åã¨<®â◊#~
liposuction ÇÍã¨K«∂+¨}~
lipotropic HßÖËÜ«µ~ #∞~z

ÇÍã¨#+≤ì

HÁ=Ùfi#∞

`Œyæ~Kı
ÃÑ·ÃÑ· "≥∞K«∞ÛH’Å∞, HíǨ@
ã¨Ç¨Ü«µ~
lipuria =∞¥„`Œ~Ö’ HÁ=Ùfi áÈ=_«~
liquefaction „^°gHíO°}~
liquefied gas „^°gHí$`Œ ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù
liquid „^°= (Ǩ^®O°÷) ~
liquid assets #Qõ^°∞ O°¥Ç¨~Ö’x Pã¨∞ÎÅ∞
liquidate kÇÍÖÏfÜ«µ∞, x~°úi~K«∞, #Qõ
^°∞Qå =∂O°∞Û, =∞¥ã≤ÇÜ
ı µ« ∞, Ǩi ã¨=∂Ç≤Î
KıÜ«µ∞, xO°¥‡e~K«∞
liquidation kÇÍÖÏ, =∞¥ã≤Çı`Œ, xO°¥‡
Å#
liquidator kÇÍÖÏ fã≤# ã¨~ã¨÷ =º=Ǩ
O®Å#∞ ã¨iK«¥¿ã~^°∞Hí∞ <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~
xÜ«µq∞~z# =ºH˜Î
liquid fuel „^°Çı~^è°#~
liquidity „^°=`Œfi~, „^°=º`Œfi~
liquifier „^°gHíO°}˜
liquor =∞^°º~, „^°=(Ǩ^®O°÷) ~, ™®O®Üµ.
ammonia ~ Qå_è°
J"≥ØxÜ«∂.
amniotic ~ L=∞‡hO°∞, „Ǩã¨=[Å~
lis Çͺ[º~, ^®ÇÍ
lisping Jã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå =∂>Ï¡_«_«~
lissom <®EHí∞Qå
list J#∞„Hí=∞}˜Hí, *Ïa`Í, Ǩ>˜ìHí
listing ™®ìH± ZHıû Û~lÖ’ ¿+O°∞¡ #"≥Ø^°∞
Hß=_«~
lip service

livelihood

list price L`ŒÊuÎ^®O°∞ 㨥z~Kı ^è°O°
list renting =∞∞Yº"≥∞·# qxܡ∂Qõ^®O°∞Å

q=O®Å *Ïa`Í#∞ =∞O’ ã¨~ã¨÷Hí∞ HÁ~`Œ
O°∞ã¨∞~ fã¨∞HÁx ã¨=∞iÊ~K«_«~
literacy JHí∆O®ã¨º`Œ
literal =∞¥ÖÏO°÷~, ÇÍK«º~, XHí =∂@Hí∞
„Ǩ^è•#~Qå `ÀKı ™®=∂<®ºO°÷~. ~
translation Ü«µ^äß`Œ^äß#∞ÇÍ^°~
literally L#fl^°∞#fl@∞¡Qå, ÇÍK«º~Qå
literariness ™®Ç≤Ï`ͺ`Œ‡Hí`Œ, Híq`Í`Œ‡Hí`Œ
literary ™®Ç≤Ï`Œº ã¨~|~kè
literati q^®ºkèHí∞Å∞, ™®Ç≤Ï`Œºr=ÙÅ∞
literature ™®Ç≤Ï`Œº~,
™®O°ã¨fi`Œ~,
ÇÍV‡Ü«µ~
lithe `ËeHíQå â◊sO®xfl =~K«QõeQÕ
lithiasis â◊sO®=Ü«µ=~Ö’ HÁxfl Ǩ^®O®÷Å
Ѷ¨∞hÉèí=#~
lithochromy tÖÏz„`Œ}
lithography tÖÏ=∞∞„^°}
lithopress tÖÏ=∞∞„^°}®ÅÜ«µ~, „ǨK«∞
O°}®ÅÜ«µ~
lithosphere Pâ͇=O°}~, tÖÏ=O°}~
lithotomy =∞¥„`Œ=∂O°æ~Ö’x O®à◊§ `˘Å
y~ѨÙ
litigant ^®ÇÍH’O°∞, ¿ÑpH’O°∞, Çͺ[º„Qõã¨Î
litigate <®ºÜ«µ™®÷#~Ö’
^®ÇÍ#∞/
Çͺ*Ϻxfl Z^°∞O˘¯<Ë =ºH˜Î
litigation Çͺ[º~, ^®ÇÍ
litigious Çͺ[ºQõ`Œ, Çͺ[º„Qõã¨Î
litter K‹`ÍÎK‹^®O°~
little masters J}∞ tÅ∞ÊÅ∞
littoral ã¨=∞∞„^°fO°Qõ`Œ. ~ zone fO°ã¨÷
=∞~_«Å~
live birth „áå}~`À ѨÙ@ì_«~
live in ǨxKı¿ã KÀ@<Ë x=ã≤~K«∞
livelihood r=# Éèí$u, r=<®^è•O°~
Jܵ# Ǩx/ L^ÀºQõ~

liven up
liven up Pã¨H˜Î/ L`Œ∞ûHí`Œ Híey~Kı
livering Ѷ¨∞hÉèí=#~
livery xiÌ+¨ì ã¨~ã¨÷Hí∞ K‹~k# L`ŒÊ`Œ∞ÎÅ∞,

ÇÍǨÏ<®^°∞ÅÃÑ· Çı¿ã „Ǩ`˺H˜~z#
O°~Qõ∞Å∞, z„`ÍÅ∞, ^°ÇÍb, ^°∞ã¨∞ÎÅ∞
livestock Ǩâ◊∞Qõ}~/^è°#~
live wire â◊H=
Θ ∞~`Œ"∞≥ #· (=ºH˜)Î , q^°∞ºK«ÛHù Θ
„Ǩ=Ç≤Ïã¨∞Î#fl fQõ
livid he =O°‚~† (QåÜ«µ~`À) Hí=∞e#
O°~Qõ∞QõÅ
living rqHí, L^ÀºQõ~, =$uÎ. standard
of ~ r=# „Ǩ=∂}~. ~ wage r=#
Éèí$u
lixiviate xH∆ßà◊# KıÜ«µ∞, H∆ßO°„^®=Hí~
KıÜ«µ∞
lixiviation xH∆ßà◊#~,
H∆ßO°„^®=Hí~
`ΆǶs
load |O°∞=ÙÅ∞ ÇıÜ«µ∞, ™®=∂#∞ x~Ѩن
ã¨O°∞Hí∞, ™®=∞„y, ^è•#º~ HÁeKı XHí
„Ǩ=∂}~, |O°∞=Ù, Éè•O°~. ~ stone
㨥^°~@∞ O®Üµ
loaded ™®~„nHí$`Œ, "≥∞~_≥·#, |O°∞"≥`Œ∞Î
Hí∞#fl
loader „Ǩܫ∂}˜Hí∞Å#∞/
ã¨O°∞Hí∞#∞
"≥Øã¨∞Hí∞áÈÜ˵ F_«
loading (rq`Œ) c=∂ „Ç‘q∞Ü«µ~ÃÑ· Jkè
Hí~Qå K‹e¡~KÍeû# O°∞ã¨∞~
loadline F_« =∞∞#Hí 㨥z~Kı Qõ∞O°∞Î
loam X~„_«∞ <ËÅ, Qõ_«∞=Ù
loan JǨC, O°∞}~, ZO°∞=Ù=∂@. ~
capital O°∞} =∞¥Å^è°#~. ~ market
O°∞} qǨ}˜. ~ note JѨCѨ„`«O. ~
shark JkèHí =_ô¤ OÕ@¡ÃÑ· JǨCeKıÛ =ºH˜Î
loathe W+¨ì~ÖËx
loathsome J„Ç≤Ü«µ"≥∞·#, Jã¨Ç¨ÏºHíO°"≥∞·#
lob ZQõO°ÇıÜ«µ∞

264
lobar Y~_« ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
lobby #K«Û*ˇÇ¨C, `Œ#"≥·Ñ¨Ù

lodgement

uǨCHÁ#∞†

ã¨~„Ǩk~Ѩ٠Qõ$ǨÏ~, #_«ÇÍ
lobe `Œ"≥∞‡, Y~_«~. ear ~ K‹q`Œ"≥∞‡.
frontal ~ ("≥∞^°_«∞Ö’) ÅÖÏ@ Y~_«~.
middle ~ ("≥∞^°_«∞Ö’) =∞^è°º Y~_«~
lobotomy Y~_ÀKıÛù^°#. pulmonary ~
TÇ≤iu`Œ∞ÎÖ’¡ F Éè•Qåxfl f¿ãÜ«µ_«~
local ™®÷xHí, „áå~fÜ«µ. ~ colour
™®÷xHí „áå=∞∞Yº~, „áå~fÜ«µ`Í ^°$+≤ì,
ã¨Ç¨Ï[ =O°‚~. ~ currency ^ÕjÜ«µ
HíO≥hû. ~ government ™®÷xHí
„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~. ~ time ™®÷xHí ã¨=∞Ü«µ~
locality „áå~`Œ~, ÇÍ>˜Hí, „Ǩ^Õâ◊~
localization ™®÷# xO®úO°}/ xO°‚Ü«µ~,
™®÷hHíO°}~
location ™®÷#~, ã≤÷u† xO®úO°~
lochia „Ǩã¨ÇÍ#~`ŒO° „™®=~
locket Ǩ`ŒHí~
lock out =∞¥ã≤Çı`Œ
locksmith `Íà®Å∞ ÉÏQõ∞Kı¿ã =ºH˜Î
lock-up *ˇ·Å∞Ö’ L~K«∞, xO°ƒ~kèOK«∞†
#Qõ^°∞Qå =∂O°ÛÖËx ÃÑ@∞ì|_«∞Å∞
loco ã¨fiÜ«µ~ KÍe`Œ ã¨O°∞Hí∞ ^è°O°
loculus ^°Ç¨Ï# ÇÍ>˜Hí
locum `Í`ͯeHí ѨÓ*Ïi/ "≥·^°∞º_«∞
locus standi *’Híº~ Kıã¨∞Hí∞<Ë Ç¨ÏHí∞¯/
JO°›`Œ, `ÍǨÏ`Œ∞
locust q∞_«`ŒÅ ^°~_«∞, [>˜ì q∞_«`Œ
locution q=O°} Ǩ^°úu
lodge |ã¨, =ã¨u Qõ$ǨÏ~, |ã¨KıÜ«µ∞, xÇı
k~K«∞, „ǨHí>˜~K«∞, Ѷ≤O®º^°∞ KıÜ«µ∞,
"≥∞∞O°ÃÑ@∞ìHÁ#∞, ^®K«∞
lodgement ^è°#~ xÅfiKıÜ«µ_«~† ^è°O®
=`Œ∞Qå ÃÑ@ì_«~, _«|∞ƒ [=∂#`Œ∞Qå
ÃÑ@ì_«~. ~ fee ÉÏ~Hí∞ÇÍO°∞ K‹Hí∞¯
`ˇzÛ#ÇÍi ^°QõæO° =㨥Å∞Kı¿ã O°∞ã¨∞~

lodger
lodger =∞Hß~^®O°∞, =ã¨uQõ$Ç¨Ï xÇÍã≤
lofty Ѷ¨∞#"≥∞·#
log <ÒHí ÇıQåxfl `ˇe¿Ñ ™®^è°#~
logarithm ã¨~=O°æ=∂#~
logger K‹@∞¡ #iHı =ºH˜Î
loggia „¿ÑHíH
∆ ∞í Å∞ Hí∂O’Û=_ÍxH˜ xi‡~z#

(ÃÑ· HíǨC`À Hí∂_ç#) "≥∞@∞¡
logic `ŒO°¯~
logical analyst `Íi¯Hí qâı¡+¨Hí∞_«∞
logical positivism `Íi¯Hí „Ç¨`ŒºHí∆*Ï˝#

ÇÍ^°~
log in Hí~ѨӺ@O°∞#∞ `ˇOK
° ∞« , „áåO°~aè~K«∞
logistics Ãã·xHí =ã¨u `Œ~„`Œ~, =ӺǨÏ
O°K«#
logo Qõ∞iÎ~Ѩ٠zǨÏfl~
log off Hí~ѨӺ@O°∞#∞ =∞¥ã≤ÇıÜ«µ∞
logomania ÇÍQåú>˜ H’Ö’Êܵ# ã≤÷u
logomniagraphy Qõ∞O°∞ÎÅ`À Hí∂_ç# eÇ≤
loin #_«∞=∞∞, Hí>˜™®÷#~, [~`Œ∞=ÙÖ’¡
"≥#∞Hí Éè•Qõ~
loiter `ÍO°>Ï¡_«∞
loitering *ÏǨº~
lollipop lady Ç≤Å¡Å#∞ ã¨∞O°H˜∆`Œ~Qå O°Ç¨Ï
^®i ^®>˜~Kı ¢ã‘Î
lolophobia =∂>Ï¡_ÍÅ~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
loner X~@i =ºH˜Î
long dated securities nO°…HßÅ~ xÅfi
Kı¿ã ÃÑ@∞ì|_«∞Å∞, „ǨÉèí∞`Œfi Ǩg∞
Ǩ„`ÍÅ∞
longevity nO®…Ü«µ∞O®ÌÜ«µ~
long exchange O≥~_«∞– =∞¥_«∞ <ˇÅÅHí∞
Qåx K‹e¡~K«ÖËx q^Õj qx=∞Ü«µ aÅ∞¡
longing Qå_è°~Qå H’O°_«~
longitude OÕMÏ~â◊~
longitudinal J#∞^≥·O°…º~:
á⁄_«=Ù,
OÕMÏ~â◊ ã¨~|~kè. ~ profile J#∞^≥·O°…º

265

loss

áåO°≈fi OÕMÏHí$u. ~ section J#∞
^≥·O…° ºKıÛù^°#~
long sight nO°…^°$+≤ì
long winded J#=ã¨O°~Qå HÁ#™®QÕ
look K«¥K«∞, gH˜∆~K«∞
looker on Hı=Å~ Ǩije~Kı =ºH˜Î
look for "≥`Œ∞Hí∞
looking glass J^°Ì~
look out Jxfl kHí∞¯Å#¥ ã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå K«¥¿ã
„Ǩ^Õâ◊~
loom =∞Qõæ~, Jã¨Ê+¨ì~Qå HíxÇ≤~K«∞
loonybin =∂#ã≤Hí zH˜`ÍûÅÜ«µ~
loop LK«∞Û, =∞∞_«∞ѨÙ, Ǩbì, QõO°ƒùxO’^è°Hõ
™®^è°#~. ~ hole ֒Ǩ~, ÖÁã¨∞Qõ∞, QÀ_«
Ö’x Hí~`Œ
loose =^°∞Å∞
loose end q=i~K«x Éè•Qõ~/ J~â◊~
loosely knit Híiî# x|~^è°#Å∞ ÖËx,
=∂OÕ ã¨fiÉè•=~ QõÅ
loot HÁÅ¡Q˘@∞ì, Å¥>©
lop #O°∞Hí∞, `ˇ~zÇıÜ«µ∞
lope ÃÑ^°Ì ÃÑ^°Ì J~QõÅ`À #_«∞K«∞
lop off ÇıQõ~Qå #O°∞Hí∞
lop sided Jã¨=∞„Qõ, `ŒÅH˜~^°∞Å∞, „Hí=∞
O°Ç≤Ï`Œ
lordosis "≥#∞fl "≥#∞HíHí∞ =~Qõ_«~
lorenge K«Ç¨Êi~Kı =∞~^°∞aà◊¡
lorny Ç≤zÛ, qǨs`Œ"≥∞·#, q~`ˇ·#
loro account XHí ÉÏ~Hí∞Hí∞ ÇıOÕ
ÉÏ~Hí∞Ö’/ ÇıOÕ ^Õâ◊~Ö’ QõÅ MÏ`Í
loss (Pi÷Hí) #+¨ì~† ֒Ǩ~, Ǩx, F@q∞.
~ adjuster c=∂ ^®ÇÍ#∞ J~K«<®
Çı¿ã~^°∞Hí∞ xÜ«µ∞Hí∞Î_≥·# =ºH˜Î. ~
leader ÇÍ}˜*Ϻxfl „áÈ`ŒûÇ≤Ï~Kı~^°∞Hí∞
#ë®ìxH˜ JÇı∞‡ L`ŒÊuÎ. ~ ratio #+¨ì
x+¨ÊuÎ

lost
lost Å∞ǨÎ, áÈܵ#, áÈQ˘@∞ìHí∞#fl
lot "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~, J^°$+¨ì~, Éè•QÆ~
lotion =∞~^°∞hO°∞
lot money ÇıÅ~ xO®fiǨÏHí∞Å∞ qkè~Kı

O°∞ã¨∞~
lotus Hí=∞Å~, `Í=∞O°, Ǩ^°‡~
lotus eater xO®Ö’K«#Qå ã¨∞Yrq`Œ~
Qõ_ç¿Ñ =ºH˜Î
loud aQõæO°, ÃÑ^°Ì, f„="≥∞·#. ~ mouth
„ǨQõeƒù
loudness JkèHí ^è°fix, ^è°fix f„=`Œ
loupe <Ë„`Œ"≥·^°∞ºÅ ^°∞iƒù}© (Ü«µ~„`Œ~)
louse ¿Ñ#∞
louse up K‹_çáÈ=Ù, áå_≥·áÈ=Ù, =ºO°÷=∞Qõ∞
lousy <®ã≤O°Hí~
lout Jã¨Éèíº =ºH˜Î
loutish Jq^èıÜ«µ"≥∞·#, ^≥|ƒÖÏ_Ë
loutrophoros â◊$~yHí† XHí q^è°"≥∞·#
áå„`Œ
low `ËeHí, K«=Hí, "≥∞Å¡x, J^è°=∞. ~
gearing ÇÍ>ÏÅ "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~ Hí<®fl O°∞}®Å∞
ã¨fiÅÊ~Qå L~_«@~. ~ loader
ÇÍǨÏ#~. ~ pressure JÅÊÇ‘_«#~
low down Jq^èıÜ«µ~Qå
lower case z#fl JHí∆O®Å∞
lower house kQõ∞= ã¨Éèí
low key L„kHíÎ`Œ ÖËx
lowliness n#`Œfi~
low spirited ÉÏ^èÖ
° ’¡ L#fl, L`Œ∞ûHí`Œ ÖËx
loyalist qâÍfiã¨áå„`Œ∞_«∞
loyalty q^èıÜ«µ`Œ, qâÍfiã¨áå„`Œ`Œ
lubricant Hí~^≥#, ¿ãflǨÏHí~, O®Ç≤_ç
`Œyæ~Kı
lubrication O®Ç≤_ç `Œyæ~K«_«~, Hí~^≥#
ÇıÜ«µ_«~, ¿ãflǨÏ#~
lubricious Öˇ~
· yHí q+¨Ü∂« Å~>ı qǨs`Í
ã¨H˜ÎQõÅ

266

luminous

luck J^°$+¨ì~
lucoria `ˇÅ¡"≥∞·Å/ Hí∞ã¨∞=∞/ `ˇÅ¡|@ì
lucrative ÖÏÉèí^®Ü«µHõ, ÖÏÉèí™ê\˜
luddite P^è°∞xHí ™®~HıuHí`Í qO’kè
ludicrous `ˇeq `ŒHí∞¯"≥·#, J¿ÇÏ`Œ∞

|^°ú"≥∞·#
lug Éè•O°~Qå "≥ØÜ«µ∞
lugholes K‹=ÙÅ∞
lugubrious L^®ã‘#,

â’Hí`ŒÇ¨Î, ^°∞óY

ѨÓi`Œ
QÀO°∞"≥K«Ûx, ™®Ç¨Ïã¨~ ÖËx,
L`ÍûǨÏ~ K«¥Ç¨x
lullaby *’Å(áå@)
lumbago #_«∞~<˘Ç≤Ê
lumbar #_«∞=∞∞Hí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#. ~
puncture #_«∞~ Éè•Qõ~Ö’ "≥#∞flѨÓã¨
#∞~z „^°=~ fÜ«µ_«~
lumber H’ã≤#/ H’`Œ HíÅǨ, Éè•s ™®=∞„y
lumberfed J@∞W@∞Qå `Œ¥Å∞`Œ¥† ǨxH˜
=∂e# `Œ∞Hí∞¯™®=∂#∞, J^°#Ѩ٠HÁ=Ùfi
lumbering J_«q #∞~_ç HíÅǨ `Ë=_«~
lumberjack K‹@∞¡ #iHı =ºH˜Î/ Ǩx
lumber with W+¨ì~ÖËx ǨxKıÜ«µ∞
lumber yard HíÅǨ J_çf
lumen <®à◊~
luminance Hß~u=∞`ŒÎ`Œ
luminary x뮂`∞Œ _«∞, „ǨHßâ◊=∂# "≥Å∞Qõ∞
luminescence (ã¨~) nÇ≤Î. ~ chemical
O°™®Ü«µ# ã¨~nÇ≤Î
luminious „ǨnǨÎ. ~ paint „ǨnǨΠ=O°‚~
luminiscent nǨº=∂#, ã¨~nǨÎ
luminism nÇ≤ÎÇÍ^°~
luminity nÇ≤Î
luminority nÇ≤Î, „ǨHßt`Œ~
luminosity Hß~u=∞`Œfi~, "≥∞O°∞ѨÙ
luminous Hß~u=∞~`Œ"≥∞·#, ã¨fiÜ«µ~
„ǨHßâ◊~QõÅ
lukewarm

267

lump
lump ÉÁ|ƒ, Qõ∞@ì, Hí∞ǨÊ
lumpen proletariat „Éèí+¨ì
lump sum XHı "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~,

„âÍq∞Hí =O°æ~
ÃÑ^°Ì "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~,

XHı q_«`Œ, UHí "≥∞∞`ŒÎ~
lunacy Ç≤zÛ, "≥„i, =∞u„Éèí=∞}~
lunate JO°úK«~„^®HßO°
lunatic L<®‡k, Ç≤zÛÇÍ_«∞. ~ fringe
q∞ug∞i# „Ǩ=O°Î# HíÅ Qõ∞~ѨÙ
luncheonette =∞^蕺ǨÏfl Éè’[<®Å∞ Kı¿ã
Qõk
lurch JHí™®‡`Œ∞ÎQå XHí"≥·Ñ¨Ù X~°Qõ_«~
lure ZO°ÇıÜ«µ∞
lurgy z#fl O’Qõ~/ [|∞ƒ
lurid qKÍO°=^°#~`À† ã¨~K«Å<®`Œ‡Hí"≥∞·#
lurk O°Ç¨Ï㨺~Qå ÇızÜ«µ∞~_«∞/ Z^°∞O°∞
K«¥K«∞
lurking ^®Qõ∞#fl, „ǨK«Ûù#fl. ~ house
trespass ^˘~Qõ`Œ#~Qå W~>’¡ K˘O°
|_«_«~
lust Hß=∞∞Hí`Œfi~, ÖÏÅã¨. ~ murder
Hß=∞ǨÏ`Œº
lustful Hß=∞ѨÓi`Œ
lustration â◊∞kú, ѨÙ}®ºÇ¨Ï"åK«#~

machismo

lustre *’ºu, Hß~u, q∞ã≤q∞, â’Éèí. ~
metallic ֒ǨÏ^°∞ºu
lustrous `Œà◊`Œà◊ÖÏ_Ë, "≥∞i¿ã
lusty PO’Qõº=~`Œ"≥∞·#, |Å"≥∞·#
lute =∂@∞ÇıÜ«µ_«~
luxury goods qÖÏ㨠=ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ∞
lymph â’+¨O°ã¨~, O°ã≤. ~ adenitis â’+¨

O°ã¨ „Qõ~käÉÏ^è°
lymphatic O°ã¨<®à◊ ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#. ~
gland â’+¨O°ã¨„Qõ~kä. ~ node â’+¨
O°ã¨Ñ¨Ù Hí}∞ѨÙ. ~ system "≥∞^°_«∞H˜
ã¨~|~kè~z# #O®Å =º=ã¨÷
lymphocyte `ˇÅ¡O°HíÎHí}~
lymphologist â’+¨O°ã¨ âÍGÇı`ŒÎ
lynch z„`Œ=^è°KıÜ«µ∞, qKÍO°} KıÜ«µ
Hí∞~_Í K«~ѨÙ
lynchpin H©ÅHí/ =∞∞Yº =ºH˜Î, H©ÅHß~â◊~,
=∞∞MϺ~â◊~
lyric (Éè•=)w`Œ~. ~ poet Éè•=Híq, w`Œ
HíO°Î, P`͇„â◊Ü«µHíq
lyricism P`͇„â◊Ü«µ Ǩ^°úu, Éè•=wuHß
Ǩ^°úu
lyricist Éè•=Híq, P`͇„â◊Ü«µHíq

Mm
macabre â’Hí=∞Ü«µ, ÉèíÜ«µ~HíO°
macadamise ǨH߯O’_«∞¤ ÇıÜ«µ∞
mace (JkèHßO°~) ^°~_«~
maceration <®#ɡ@ì_«~,

"≥∞`ŒÎQå
KıÜ«µ_«~
machete ǨiHíO°~Qå#¥, PÜ«µ∞^è°~Qå#¥
ǨxH˜=KıÛ ÃÑ^°Ì HíuÎ
machination Hí∞„@, Hí∞`Œ~„`Œ~
machine Ü«µ~„`Œ~. ~ down time
Ü«µ~„`Œ~ K‹_ç ǨxxeÇ≤# HßÅ~. ~
heart, lung ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ, âÍfiã¨H’â◊

Ü«µ~„`Œ~. ~ idle time Ü«µ~„`Íxfl PÇ≤
Ǩx xeÇ≤# HßÅ~. ~ language
Hí~ѨӺ@O∑ ǨiÉè•+¨. ~ readable
Hí~ѨӺ@O∑ <ËO°∞Qå WKıÛ ã¨=∂KÍO°~
machinery Ü«µ~„`ÍÅ∞: Ü«µ~„`Œ~Ö’x
HíkÖË Éè•QåÅ∞† Ü«µ~„`Í~Qõ~: J=ã¨O°
"≥∞·# ã≤|ƒ~k. ~ shop Ü«µ~„`ÍÅ#∞
`ŒÜ«∂O°∞ Kı¿ã, =∞O°=∞‡`Œ∞ Kı¿ã ã¨÷Å~.
~ toll Ü«µ~„`Œ ǨiHíO°~
machinist Ü«µ~„`Íxfl #_ç¿Ñ =ºH˜Î
machismo ѨÙO°∞+¨ ÅHí∆}®Å∞ QõÅ, =∞Qõ

268

macho
macho ѨÙO°∞ë®Ç¨Ï~Hí$u
mackintosh O°|ƒO°∞Qõ∞_«¤,

`Œ_«=x ÃÑ·H’@∞
㨥÷Å. ~ analysis 㨥÷Å qâı¡
+¨}~. ~ cephaly |$ǨÏ`ü tO°ã¨∞û. ~
cyte |$ǨÏ`ü Hí}~. ~ dactyl |$ǨÏ
^°~Qõ∞mÜ«µ`Œ. ~economic imbalance
㨥÷ÖÏi÷Hí =º=ã¨÷ Jã¨=∞`Œ∞ź`Œ. ~
ecomonics 㨥÷ÖÏO°÷ âÍG~. ~
glossia |$ǨÏ`ülǨÏfi. ~ scopic
particle 㨥÷ÅHí}~
macrobiotic diet É“^°ú=∞`ÍxH˜ ã¨~|~
kè~z# PǨO° xÜ«µ=∞~
macula („QõǨÏ~ LǨi`ŒÅ~ÃÑ· QõÅ #Å¡)
=∞K«Û, x~^°
madcap `ˇeq `ŒHí∞¯"≥·#, |∞„O°ÖËx
madden H’Ǩ~ `ˇÇ≤Ê~K«∞
made known `ˇeÜ«µ*Ëã≤#
madly ÇıQõ~Qå KıÜ«µ∞
maesta =∞~Qõà◊ z„`Œ~
maestro Q˘Ç¨Ê ÇÍQÕæÜ«µHßO°∞_«∞, ã¨~w`À
áå^蕺ܫµ∞_«∞
mafia K«@ì=ºuOÕHí"≥∞·# Ǩ#∞Å∞ Kı¿ã
O°Ç¨Ï㨺=∞∞Oîß
magazine ã¨=∂KÍO° Ǩ„uHí, ã¨~zHí,
Ǩ„uHí
maggot DQõ _ç~ÉèíHí ^°â◊
magic =∞~„`Œq^°º
magic realism =∂~„uHí ÇÍã¨ÎqHí`Œ,
=∂Ü«∂ÇÍã¨ÎqHí`Œ
magistrate <®ºÜ«∂kèǨu
magma tÖÏ„^°=~
magnacarta ǨÏHí∞¯ÅǨ„`Œ~
magnanimity L^®O°`Œ, =∞ǨÏ`Œ∞Î
magnanimous Q˘Ç¨Ê|∞kúQõÅ, L^®`ŒÎ
"≥∞·#
macro

ã¨~Ǩ#∞fl_«∞, =∞∞Yº"≥∞·#
ÇͺáåO°Çı`ŒÎ
magnetic JÜ«µ™®¯~`Œ. ~ compass
JÜ«µ™®¯~`Œ kHí∂ûz. ~ deflection
JÜ«µ™®¯~`Œ qK«Å#~. ~ dip JÜ«µ
™®¯~`Œ#u. ~ field JÜ«µ™®¯~`Œ Hı„∆ `Œ~.
~ flux JÜ«µ™®¯~`ÍaèÇÍǨÏ~. ~
induction JÜ«µ™®¯~`Œ „¿ÑO°}. ~
lines of force JÜ«µ™®¯~`Œ |ÅOÕYÅ∞.
~ moment JÜ«µ™®¯~`Œ „Éèí=∞}~
magnetisation JÜ«µ™®¯~fHíO°}~
magnetise JÜ«µ™®¯~fHíi~K«∞
magnetism JÜ«µ™®¯~`Œ`Œfi~
magneto chemistry JÜ«µ™®¯~`Œ O°™®
Ü«µ#âÍG~
magnification ÃÑ^°ÌkQå
KıÜ«µ_«~,
=O°ú#~
magnificent *ËwÜ«µ=∂#, „|Ǩ‡~_«"≥∞·#
magnifying glass Éèí¥`Œ^°Ì~
magnum opus ã¨O’fi`Œ¯ $+¨ì O°K«#/Hí$+≤/
HßO°º~
maiden ÃÑ~_ç¡Hßx Ü«µ∞=u, Hí#º† "≥∞∞@ì
"≥∞∞^°>˜™®iQå [iQÕ, „Ǩ„Ǩ^ä°=∞~Qå
ã¨~Éèíq~Kı, HÁ`ŒÎ^≥·#, J#∞Éèí=~ÖËx†
q`ŒÎ#~ #∞~_ç =KıÛ "≥∞∞Hí¯. ~ aunt
JqÇÍÇ≤Ï`Œ =∞Ç≤Ïà◊. ~ name qÇÍÇ≤Ï`Œ
ѨÙ>˜ì~>˜ÇÍi W~>˜¿ÑO°∞. ~ over
ǨO°∞Qõ∞Å∞ W=fiHí∞~_Í Çıã≤# F=O°∞. ~
speech "≥∞∞@ì"≥∞∞^°>˜™®iQå WKıÛ LǨ
<®ºã¨~. ~ voyage "≥∞∞@ì"≥∞∞^°>˜
ã¨=∞∞„^°Ü«∂#~
mail ÖËYÅ∞, L`ŒÎO®Å∞, `ŒáåÖÏ/ |>Ïfi_Í
=º=ã¨÷. ~ machine `ŒáåÖÏ Ü«µ~„`Œ~.
~ man L`ŒÎO®Å∞ KıO°Çı¿ã =ºH˜Î. ~
merge XHí ÖËY#∞, ã¨~^ÕâÍxfl qq^è°
=ºHí∞ÎÅ ¿ÑO°∞¡, zO°∞<®=∂Å`À J#∞
magnate

ѨÓ`ŒÑ¨Óã≤#/

mail

mailing list

ã¨~^è•#~ Kıã≤ =∞∞„k~K«_«~. ~ order
Ǩ„uHß „ǨHí@# K«¥ã≤ =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ#∞
`ˇÇ≤Ê~K«∞H’=_«~. ~ shot =∞∞Yº"≥∞·#
MÏ`Í^®O°∞ÅHí∞ Ǩ~¿Ñ („ǨKÍO°) ™®=∞„y
mailing list zO°∞<®=∂Å *Ïa`Í
maim qHíÖÏ~Qõ∞}˜‚KıÜ«µ∞, z„`Œ=^è°KıÜ«µ∞
maimed J~QõÇ‘Ï#
maiming J=Ü«µ=KıÛù^°# tHí∆
main „Ǩ^è•#, „Ǩ=∞∞Y, =∞∞Yº"≥∞·#. ~
crop „Ǩ^è•# Ǩ~@. ~ drag „Ǩ=∞∞Y
gkè. ~ market „Ǩ^è•# qǨ}˜
mainframe qã¨Î $`Œ Hí~ѨӺ@O∑ =º=ã¨Ö
÷ ’
Hı~„^°™®÷#~ =Ç≤Ï~Kı Éè•Qõ~
mainstream „Ǩ^è•#/ [#r=# „ã¨=~u
maintain xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«∞, HÁ#™®y~K«∞,
xÅɡ@∞ìHÁ#∞
maintainable suit qKÍO°}Hí∞ ܡ∂Qõº
Çͺ[º~
maintenance rqHí, Ü«µ^äßã≤÷u O°Hí∆}
maize "≥∞∞Hí¯*Á#fl
major Ü«µ∞HíÎ=Ü«µã¨∞¯_«∞† D_«∞ =zÛ#
¿ã<®x
majority JkèHíã¨~Yº, =Ü«µã¨¯`Œ. ~
attainment Ü«µ∞HíÎ =Ü«µã¨∞û O®Hí. ~
floor-leader JkèHßO° ǨHí∆ <®Ü«µHí∞_«∞.
~ interest xO°‚Ü«∂kèHßO°~, xÜ«µ~
„`Œ}®kèHßO°~ Híey L~_«_«~. ~ rule
JkèHí ã¨~MϺHí∞Å áåÅ#. ~ will JkèHí
ã¨~MϺHí∞Å Jaè„áåÜ«µ~
majuscule ÃÑ^°Ì JHí∆O°~, ÃÑ^°ÌkQå O®ã≤#
"≥∞∞^°>˜ JHí∆O°~
make `ŒÜ«∂O°∞KıÜ«µ∞,
L`ŒÊuÎKıÜ«µ∞,
xi‡~K«∞, Hí@∞ì, L`ŒÊuÎ Kıã≤# ã¨~ã¨÷
¿ÑO°∞, ã¨~ã¨÷ L`ŒÊuÎ. ~ a fuss
O®^®ú~`Œ~ KıÜ«µ∞. ~ a loss #+¨ì~
`ˇK«∞ÛHÁ#∞. ~ away with ^˘~y

269

malign

e~K«∞. ~ believe #=∞‡Hí~ ѨÙ>˜ì~K«∞.
~ for =∞∞~^°∞H˜ Hí^°∞Å∞. ~ good
ÉÏQõ∞KıÜ«µ∞. ~ off with ^˘~ye~z
fã¨∞HÁxáÈ=Ù. ~out ѨÓiÎKıÜ«µ∞, |kb
KıÜ«µ∞. ~ over Ü«∂[=∂<®ºxfl |kb
KıÜ«µ∞. ~ shift Ǩx q^è•#~/ UO®Ê@∞
make up ¿Ñr Hí∂O°∞Ê, =∞∞MÏÅ~HíO°}~,
=∞∞MÏÅ~HíO°} ™®=∞„y† ã¨fiÉè•=~
maladjustment P#∞Qõ∞}º~ÖËq∞
maladroit LáåÜ«µ~ ÖËH∞í ~_Í/ QõlalQå
Kıã≤#
malady Çͺkè, [|∞ƒ, O’Qõ~
mala fide ^°∞O°∞ƒkú`À/ K‹_|
¤« ∞kú`À (Kıã#≤ ,
„Ǩ=iÎ~Kı)† #=∞‡ÖËx, HíǨ@"≥∞·#, Hí$`ŒHí
"≥∞·#, HíÅ∞+≤`Œ, Jܡ∂Qõº"≥∞·#, =„Hí"≥∞·#
malaise ÇͺHí∞Å`Œ, J<®O’Qõº~
malapropism JǨ„Ǩܡ∂Qõ~, `ŒÇ¨C
=∂@† ã¨~^°O°ƒùâ◊∞kú ÖËx=∂@
malaria K«e [fiO°~
malcontent Jã¨~`Œ∞+¨ì, J„Ǩã¨#fl
maldevelopment Jaè=$kú ã¨iQåæ ÖËHí
áÈ=_«~, J#∞z`Œ qHßã¨~
malechauvinism ѨÙO°∞+¨ ^°∞O°Ç¨Ï~HßO°~
malechauvinist ѨÙO°∞+¨ ^°∞O°~ǨÏHßi
malefactor K‹_∞« Ǩ#∞Å∞/ Ǩx Kı¿ã =ºH˜,Î
^°∞O®KÍi
malevolence ^Õfi+¨~, ǨxKı¿ã |∞kú
malevolent „^ÀǨÏ|∞kú, H©_«∞KıÜ«∂Å<Ë
PÖ’K«# QõÅ
malfeasant ^°∞O°fiO°Î#∞_«∞
malformation "≥·Híź~, qHí$u
malfunction "≥·Ñ¶¨Åº~, ֒Ǩ~
malice DO°¬º, q^Õfi+¨~, K‹_«∞|∞kÌ
malicious W`ŒO°∞ÅHí∞ Ǩx `ŒÅÃÑ>ıì
malign ^Õfi+≤~K«∞, K‹_«∞KıÜ«µ∞, ^°∞O®ƒù+¨
ÖÏ_«∞

270

malignancy
malignancy

^°∞O®‡~ã¨=$kú, „áå}®~`Œ

Hí`Œfi~
malignant ǨxHíO°"≥∞·#,

f„= ^Õfi+¨~QõÅ,
„áå}®~`ŒHí
malinger Ǩx^˘~Qõ, O’Qõ~ #>˜~K«∞
mall ÇÍǨÏ<®ÅHí∞ „ǨÇıâ◊~ ÖËx qǨ}∞Å∞
malleability Ѷ¨∂`ŒHí∆=∞`Œ† ™®QÕQõ∞}~
malleable ™®QÕ, ã¨∞u"≥∞`ŒÎx
malnutrition áÈ+¨HßǨO°Ö’Ǩ~
malodorous K‹_«∞ÇÍã¨# QÆÅ
maltreatment ÉÏ^èð Ñ>ı,ì Jã¨Éºíè „Ç¨=O°#
Î
malversation #=∞‡Hí „^ÀǨÏ~ KıÜ«µ_«~,
K‹_«∞#_«`Œ
mammal H©∆O°^°~, áåeKıÛ [~`Œ∞=Ù
mammaplasty ã¨Î#O°¥Ç‘HíO°} zH˜`Œû
mammary ã¨Î#ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
mammectomy ã¨Î#KıÛù^°#
mammilla K«#∞"≥∞∞#
mammillated ã¨Î<åHßO° xi‡`Œ
mammography ã¨Î#z„`Œ}, ã¨Î# „Qõ~^ä°∞
ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z# âÍG~
mammoth ÃÑ^°Ì, Q˘Ç¨Ê"≥·#, ZHí∞¯=
mamonography ã¨Î#„Qõ~^ä°∞ÅHí∞ ã¨~|~
kè~z# âÍG~
man n. =∞x+≤, =∂#=Ù_«∞, ѨÙO°∞+¨∞_«∞.
~ hour XHí Qõ~@Ö’ XHí =ºH˜Î KıÜ«µ
QõŠǨx"≥∞∞`ŒÎ~. ~ of business <®ºÜ«µ
=º=ǨO®ÅÖ’ „Ǩuxkè. ~ of letters
q^®ºkèHí∞_«∞, ™®Ç≤ÏfÇı`ŒÎ. ~ of straw
xO°ú#∞_«∞, `Œ$}„áåÜ«µ∞_«∞. ~slaughter
=∂#= =^è°. ~ of war Ü«µ∞^°ú<ÒHí
man v. ǨxÇÍà◊§#∞ Hí∞^°∞O°∞Û, xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«∞,
ǨxKıܵ~K«∞, ǨxKıÜ«µ∞, J=∞Å∞KıÜ«µ∞,
PK«i~K«∞
mana =∂#ÇÍf`Œ â◊H˜Î/ „ǨÉè•=~
manage xO°fiÇ≤Ï~K«∞, xÜ«µ~„u~K«∞

mangled

qx=∞Ü«µ OÕ@∞#∞
„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~ xÜ«µ~„u~Kı HíO≥hû
managed fund xO®fiÇ≤Ï`Œ xkè
management xO°fiǨÏ}, Ü«∂[=∂#º~.
~ accountant Ü«∂[=∂#º Qõ}Hí∞_«∞.
~ audit xO°fiǨÏ} `Œxv. ~ buy out
L^ÀºQõ∞Å∞ xO°fiǨÏ}®kèHßO°~ HÁ#∞H’¯
=@~. ~ by exception J#¥Ç¨Ïº
=ºÜ«µÇ¨i=∂}®Å xO°fiǨÏ}. ~ by
objectives ÅHí∆ º xOÕÌâ◊ Ü«∂[=∂#º~.
~ consultant Ü«∂[=∂#º ã¨ÅǨ
^®O°∞. ~ development Ü«∂[=∂<®ºÅ
=$kú q^è•#~. ~ information system
xO°fiǨÏ} ã¨=∂KÍO° =º=ã¨÷
manager xO®fiǨÏHí∞_«∞.
area ~
„áå~fÜ«µ xO®fiǨÏHí∞_«∞. departmental ~ âÍMÏ
xO®fiǨÏHí∞_«∞.
deputy ~ ã¨Ç¨ÏxO®fiǨÏHí∞_«∞. product
~ L`ŒÊuÎ xO®fiǨÏHí∞_«∞. production
~ L`ÍÊ^°# xO®fiǨÏHí∞_«∞
manageress xO®fiǨÏHí∞O®Å∞
managerial xO°fiǨÏ}ã¨~|~kè.
~
revolution xO°fiǨÏ} qǨ¡Ç¨~
managing director xO®fiǨÏHí ã¨~KÍÅ
Hí∞_«∞
managing partner xO°fiǨÏ} Éè•Qõ
™®fiq∞
mandake Qõ~^°O°QÀà◊~, `ÍO°∞=∂O°∞
mandamus „Ǩ=O°ÎHßkèÖËY
mandate P^Õâ◊~, P[˝, áåO°¡"≥∞~@∞Hí∞
F@O°∞¡ WzÛ# O®[H©Ü«∂kèHßO°~
mandatory state P^Õâ◊Hí O®[º~
mandible H˜~k^°=_« Z=∞∞Hí, J^è’
ǨÏ#∞=Ù
mangle =~K«∞, z~K«∞
mangled zè#flaè#fl
managed currency

271

mangroves
mangroves =∞_« J_«=ÙÅ∞
manhandle K‹Üµº Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞,

^ÒO°˚

#º~Qå HÁ@∞ì
„ǨÇıâ◊aÅ~, kQõ∞_«∞aÅ~,
"≥Øs
manhunt <ÕO°QÍ}˜‚ Qõ∞~ѨÙHõ>˜ì Çı>Ï_«@~
mania L<®‡^°~, Ç≤zÛ
manifest O°ÇÍ}® Kı¿ã ã¨O°∞Hí∞† „Ǩܫ∂}˜
Hí∞Å *Ïa`Í q=O®Å∞† =ºHíÎ=∞Qõ∞
manifestation O°∞A=Ù, Jaè=ºH˜Î, ™®H∆ß
`ͯO°~
manifesto „Ǩ}®oHí, HßO®ºK«O°} Ǩ„`Œ~†
q=O°}Ǩ„`Œ~
manila ^°à◊ã¨i Hßy`ŒÑ¨Ù Hí=O°∞
manipulation ǨÏã¨Î<ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~,
Jaè
ã¨~^è•#~
manipulator JqhuǨO°∞_«∞, KıuǨx
ÇÍ_«∞
manism K«xáÈܵ#ÇÍi
P`Œ‡Å#∞
ѨÓl~K«_«~
mannequin >’Ç‘Å∞, |@ìÅ∞ Hí>˜ì HÁ@∞ì
=∞∞~^°∞ xÅɡ>˜ì# O°¥Ç¨~
manner su, ^è’O°}˜, Ѷ¨H©¯
mannered su|^°ú, Hí$„u=∞"≥∞·#
mannerism JÅÇÍ@∞, ^è’O°}˜, su
ÇÍ^°~
mannerist art su ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«µHíà◊
manning
agreement
xO°fiǨÏ}
XǨÊ~^°~
manoeuvrable qq^è° O°HßÅ∞Qå =∂OÕÛ
manoeuvre <ˇ·Ñ¨Ù}º~, Ü«µ∞H˜Î q<®ºã¨~
manor "≥∞∞MÏ™®, [g∞#∞
man power =∂#= =#O°∞Å∞/ „â◊=∞â◊H˜Î.
~ planning J=ã¨O°"≥∞·# ǨxÇÍi
ã¨~Yº#∞ J~K«<® ÇıÜ«µ_«~
manque J„Ǩã≤^°ú O°K«Üµ`Œ/ #@∞_«∞
manhole

marjuyans

mantle L`ŒÎsÜ«µ~† P=O°}, =∞¥`Œ
manual âÍsO°Hí"≥∞·#, 㨥K«#ŠѨÙã¨ÎHí~,

ǨiK«Ü«µÇ¨„`Œ~, q=O°}Ǩ„`Œ~
manufacture `ŒÜ«∂s, xO®‡}~, L`ŒÊuÎ
manufacturer `ŒÜ«∂s^®O°∞, xO®‡`Œ,

L`ÍÊ^°Hí∞_«∞
manumission ^®ã¨º q=∞∞H˜Î
manure ZO°∞=Ù
manuring ZO°∞=Ù ÇıÜ«µ_«~
manus ǨÏã¨Î~, Kıܵ. ~ valgus |Ü«µ
@Hí∞ =~HíO° uiy# K‹Üµº. ~ varus

֒ǨeH˜ =~HíO° uiy# K‹Üµº
manuscript ed`Œ „Ǩu, JK«∞Û „Ǩu
maoism =∂Ç’ ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
map OÕMÏz„`Œ~, Ǩ@~, PHßO°~, =∂#

z„`Œ~
marasmus â◊∞+≤¯~K«_«~, Z~_çáÈ=_«~
maraud HÁÅ¡Q˘@∞ì, ^˘~ye~K«∞
marble áåÅO®Üµ, QÀb (HßÜ«µ)
margin J~K«∞, Láå~`Œ~, ÖÏÉèí~,

"≥Ø`Í^°∞
Láå~`Œ, Ǩiq∞`Œ. ~ cost
Láå~`Œ =ºÜ«µ~. ~ costing =ºÜ«∂xfl
J~K«<® Çıã≤ J=∞‡HíѨ٠^è°O° xO°‚ܵ~
K«_«~. ~ group HÁ`ŒÎ qÅ∞=Å#∞
áå>˜~Kı ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~. ~ productivity
Láå~`À`ÍÊ^°Hí`Œ
marginally ã¨fiÅÊ~Qå, HÁkÌQå
margosa ÇıǨK‹@∞ì
marine ã¨=∞∞„^° ã¨~|~kè, ÇÍ}˜[º <ÒHß
^°à◊~, <®qHí∞_«∞. ~ insurance
ã¨=∞∞„^° c=∂
maritime ã¨=∞∞„^°/ <ÒHß ã¨~|~kè,
<®qHí. ~ law <ÒHß ÇÍ}˜[º <®ºÜ«µ~
marjare XHí =∞`Œ∞Î=∞~^°∞
marjuyans =∞`«∞Î=∞~^°∞
marginal

mark
mark Qõ∞iÎ~Ѩ٠zǨÏfl~
mark down J=∞‡HíѨ٠^è°O° `Œyæ~K«∞
marked cheque K‹e~
¡ K«=K«∞Û#x ÉÏ~Hí∞

Qõ∞iÎ~z# K‹Hí∞¯
market J~Qõ_ç, |*ÏO°∞, ã¨~`Œ, qǨ}˜,
=∞~_ô† ^è°O°, yO®H©† J=∞∞‡HÁ#∞. ~
capitalization Hí~ÃÑh qÅ∞=. come
on to the ~ HÁ`ŒÎQå J=∞‡HßÅ∞ [O°∞ѨÙ.
~ demand yO®H©. flood the ~
qǨ}˜x =∞∞~K‹`Œ∞Î. ~ forces qǨ}˜
â◊Hí∞ÎÅ∞. on the ~ J=∞‡HßxH˜ ÃÑ>˜ì#,
HÁ<Ë~^°∞Hí∞ Åaè~Kı. ~ sentiment
(behaviour) qǨ}˜ áÈHí_«Å∞. ~ town
ÇÍ}˜[º #QõO°~
marketable J=∞‡^°y#
marketeer =ã¨∞οã=Å
J=∞‡HßÅ#∞
„áÈ`ŒûÇ≤Ï~Kı =ºH˜Î/ ã¨~ã¨÷
marketing „HíÜ«µ q„HíÜ«∂Å∞. ~
strategy ÇͺáåO° =ӺǨÏ~
marksman xâÍh^®O°∞, Qõ∞iHß_«∞
marksmanship Qõ∞iÃÑ>ıì <ËO°∞Ê, ÅHí∆ º
â◊∞kú
maroon =ºO°÷~Qå á⁄^°∞ÌѨÙK«∞Û, ÃÑ^°Ì
^è°fix`À ¿ÑÖË ÉÏ}ã¨~KÍ, =∞∞^°∞O°∞
ZO°∞Ѩ٠O°~Qõ∞
marriage ÃÑo§, Hí஺}~, qÇÍǨÏ~. ~
by bride price (or purchase)
Hí<®ºâ◊∞ů qÇÍǨÏ~. ~ by capture
Ǩi„QõǨÏ} qÇÍǨÏ~. ~by elopement
ǨÖÏܵ`Œ qÇÍǨÏ~. ~ by exchange
qx=∞Ü«µ qÇÍǨÏ~. ~ by force |ÖÏ
`ͯO° qÇÍǨÏ~. ~ by intrusion J<®
Ǩ˙`Œ qÇÍǨÏ~. ~ by mutual love
Qå~^è°O°fi qÇÍǨÏ~. ~ by negotiation
ã¨~„Ǩk~ѨÙÅ qÇÍǨÏ~. ~ by service
¿ãÇÍ qÇÍǨÏ~. ~ by trial „Ǩܡ∂

Qå`Œ‡Hí qÇÍǨÏ~

272

mastectomy

marrow

=∞[˚, =∞¥Å∞Qõ, Z=∞∞HíÖ’x

™®O°~
Ǩ~Hí~, Ta, |∞O°^°. ~ gas
Ǩ~HíÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù
marshes z`ŒÎ_ç <ËÅÅ∞
marsupial Hí_«∞ѨÙã¨~zÖ’
Ç≤Å¡#∞
"≥Øã¨∞Hí∞ uiQÕ
marsupialization ã¨~zÖÏQå Hí∞@ì_«~
martial law Ãã·xHí âÍã¨#~
martinet Híiî# ǨiáåÅHí∞_«∞
martyr =∞$`ŒgO°∞_«∞, |eWK«∞Û
marvellous q㨇ܫµHíO°, J^°∞ƒù`Œ
marxism Qõu `Íi¯Hí Éè“uHí ÇÍ^°~
marxist =∂O∑¯û ã≤^®ú~`ÍÅ#∞ Qå_è°~Qå
#Çı∞‡ =ºH˜Î. ~ criticism =∂i¯ûã¨∞ì
q=∞O°≈
mascaron z„`ÍǨ=∞∞Y~
mascot zǨÏfl~, Qõ∞O°∞Î, `Íܡµ`Œ∞Î, O°Hí∆OÕHí∞
masculinisation ѨÙ~ã‘Î fiHíO°}
masculinity ѨÙO°∞+¨`Œfi~, ѨÙ~ã¨Î fi~
mask =∞∞ã¨∞Qõ∞, Kè«^°‡=∞∞Y~
masochism ã¨fiÇ‘_«#O°u
masquerade =∂O°∞Çı+¨~,
=∞∞ã¨∞Qõ∞
#$`μ~
mass „^°=ºO®t,
=∞∞MϺ~â◊~. ~
communication
qã¨Î $`Œ
Éè•=
„Ǩ™®O°~. ~ media „Ǩ™®O° =∂^è°º
=∂Å∞. ~ tone ÉÏǨϺ™®÷ܵ
massacre TK«H’`Œ, ™®=∞¥Ç≤ÏHí =^è°,
#~°"Õ∞^èŒO
masses „Ǩ[Å∞, [<®Å∞, [#ã¨~^ÀǨÏ~
massier Híà®tHí∆}®ÅÜ«µ~Ö’ q^®ºi÷ ÃÑ^°Ì
massline „Ǩ*Ï Ç¨~^äß/ =∂O°æ~
mass psychology Qõ∞~ѨÙ/ =∞~k =∞#
ã¨Î`Œfi~, ™®=∞¥Ç≤ÏHí z`ŒÎ=$uÎ
mastectomy ã¨Î#KıÛù^°#~
marsh

master

x뮂`Œ∞_«∞. ~ piece
„ǨHí$+¨ì O°K«#, L`ŒÎ=∞ O°K«#
masterliness „áœ_è°`Œfi~
mastermind =∞¥ÅHßO°Hí∞_«∞
masturbation ǨÏã¨Î„Ǩܡ∂Qõ~
match fixing ÖÏÅ¥p „H©_«
matching ã¨iáÈÅÛ_«~, ã¨iáÈÅ_«~
material „^°=º~, Éè“uHí. ~ culture
Éè“uHíã¨~㨯 $u. ~ fallacies JO°úQõ`Í
Éè•ã¨Å∞. ~ logic JO°ú`ŒO°¯~, PQõ=∞#
`ŒO°¯~
materialise HßO°ºO°¥Ç¨~ ^®Å∞Û
materialism Éè“uHíÇÍ^°~
materia medica B+¨^è° xѶ¨∞~@∞=Ù,
=ã¨∞ÎQõ∞} nÇ≤Hí
maternal heart =∂`Œ$ ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ~
maternity „Ǩ㨥u, =∂`Œ$`Œfi~
martriarch =∂`Œ$™®fiq∞x
matriarchal =∂`Œ$™®fi=∞º
matriarchy =∂`Œ$™®fi=∞º~
matrimonial qÇÍÇ¨Ï ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#,
qÇÍǨÏ~ =Å¡ HíeQÕ
matrimony qÇÍǨÏ~
matrix =∂`Œ$Hí, =∂„uHí
matron ã¨~O°Hí∆Hí∞O®Å∞, qÇÍÇ≤Ï`Œ ¢ã‘Î
matter Ǩ^®O°÷~, „^°=º~† "≥∞^°_«∞Hí∞ HíÇ≤Ê
L~_Ë á⁄O°. ~ and form Ǩ^®O°÷~,
PHí$u. grey ~ "≥∞^°_«∞, <®_ô Ǩ^®O°÷~.
organic ~ r=Ǩ^®O°~
÷ . white ~ âıfi`Œ
Ǩ^®O°÷~
maturation Ǩi}u, ǨiǨHífi`Œ, Ü«µ∞HíÎ
=Ü«µã¨∞û
mature (Ǩi)ǨHífi, ã¨~ѨÓO°‚~Qå Jaè=$kú
K‹~k#, „áœ_è°, Ü«µ∞HíÎ=Ü«µã¨∞û á⁄~k#
matured ǨHífi
maturity Qõ_«∞=Ù, ǨHífi`Œ, Ü«µ∞HíÎ=Ü«µã¨∞û
master PKÍO°∞º_«∞,

273

mechanics

ã¨=∂kè (=∞~kO°~)
^è°¥„=∞=O°‚~/ O°HíÎ=O°‚~†
`ÍO°∞`À Hí∂_ç# Ǩ^®O°÷~
maxilla ÃÑ· ^°=_« Z=∞∞Hí, ǨHífi, „áœ_è°
maxim 㨥H˜Î, ™®"≥∞`Œ, hu
maximisation Qõi+‘ªHíO°}
mayor ѨÙO°áåÅHß^è°ºHí∆∞_«∞
meagre q∞_çq∞_ç, HÁkÌ, `ËeHí, ™®=∂#º
meal u~_ç, Éè’[#~
mealy bugs Ç≤~_ç ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞Å∞/ #Å∞¡Å∞
mean hK«, ã¨Qõ@∞, =∞^è°º=∞. ~ deviation ã¨Qõ@∞ qK«Å#~. ~ difference
ã¨Qõ@∞ Éèı^°~. ~ free path =∞^è°º=∞
¿ãfiKÍÛù Ǩ^ä°~. ~ square velocity ÇıQõ
=O°æ =∞^è°º=∞~
meander #n „ǨÇÍǨÏ~, zHí∞¯^•i, "≥∞e
HíÅ∞ uO°∞Qõ∞`Œ¥ „Ǩܫ∂}˜~K«∞
meanders #n=„Hí`ŒÅ∞
meaningful ™®O°÷Hí, JO°÷=~`Œ"≥∞·#
meanness <ˇ·K«º~
means of production L`ŒÊuÎ ™®^è°
<®Å∞/ HßO°HßÅ∞
mean thoughts Ç≤^°Ç¨ |∞^°∞úÅ∞, JÅÊ
|∞^°∞úÅ∞
measles `Œ@∞ì, J=∞‡ÇÍO°∞, ^°^°∞Ì, á⁄~Qõ∞,
`Œ_«Ç¨O°
measurement HÁÅ`Œ, Pk
meatus ™⁄O°~Qõ~. auditory ~ HíO®‚~`ŒO°
™⁄O°~Qõ~. external acoustic ~ ÉÏǨϺ
HíO°‚ ™⁄O°~Qõ~. internal acoustic ~
֒Ǩe K‹qÖ’ ™⁄O°~Qõ~. urinary ~
=∞¥„`Œ^®fiO°~
mechanical Ü«∂~„uHí. ~ equivalent
Ü«∂~„uHí `Œ∞ÖϺ~Hí~
mechanics Ü«∂~„uHí âÍG~. quantum
~ Ǩi=∂} Ü«∂~„uHí âÍG~
mausoleum
mauve ÖË`Œ

mechanism

Ü«∂~„uHíq^è•#~, Ü«∂~„u
HíÇÍ^°~, „H˜Ü«∂q^è•#~, ã¨~q^è•#~,
K«O®º~`ŒO° 㨥„`Œ~. homeostatic ~
â◊sO° ^è•`Œ∞™®=∞º „H˜Ü«µ. ~ of
reaction K«O®º ã¨~q^è•#~. protective ~ O°Hí∆Hí q^è•#~
medal Ǩ`ŒHí~
meddle J<®Ç¨˙`Œ~Qå
„ǨÇıt~K«∞,
J#=ã¨O°~Qå *’Híº~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞, HíÅ∞Qõ
Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞, *’Híº~ Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞
media „Ǩ™®O°™®^è°<®Å∞, Ü«∂#Hí~
mediation =∞^è°º=iÎ`Œfi~
mediator =∞^è°º=iÎ
medicament B+¨^è° ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
medication B+¨^è°„Ç¨Üˇ∂Qõ~
medicinal B+¨^è° ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#. ~ herb
=∞¥eHí
medicine B+¨^è°~, "≥·^°ºâÍG~. clinical
~ O’Qõ "≥·^°ºâÍG~. preventive ~
ÇͺkèxO’^è°Hí "≥·^°ºâÍG~. psychosomatic ~ =∞#óHßܵHí "≥·^°ºâÍG~.
social ~ ™®=∂lHí "≥·^°ºâÍG~.
social and preventive ~ Çͺkè
xO’^è°Hí ™®=∂lHí "≥·^°ºâÍG~. social
~ ™®=∂lHí "≥·^°ºâÍG~
medicrea qâı+¨~ ÖËx, ™®=∂#º
™®=∞O°÷º~ QõÅ
medieval =∞^谺ܫµ∞QåxH˜ ã¨~|~kè~z#.
~ art =∞^谺ܫµ∞Qõ Híà◊
mediocre =∂=∞¥Å∞/ ã¨Qõ@∞ (=∞x+≤)
mediopolis =∞^è°ºã¨÷#QõO°~
medium =∂^è°º =∞(O),
Ü«∂#Hí~,
ÇÍǨÏHí~
medulla =∞¥Å∞Qõ, =∞[˚, J~`Œã÷¨ Ǩ^®O°~
÷
medullary J~`Œã¨÷
megacephaly ÃÑ^°Ì`ŒÅ
mechanism

274

mendacious

menial

megacolon |$ǨÏ^®~„`Œ~
mega fauna Hí~>˜H˜ Hí#|_Ë [~`Œ∞=ÙÅ∞
megalomania =∞ǨÏ`Àfi<®‡^°~
megalomaniac =∞ǨÏ`Àfi<®‡k
meiosis Hí∆Ü«µHíO°} qÉèí[#
melancholic që®^°Éèíi`Œ"≥∞·#. ~ song

menial

që®^°wu
melancholy Qõ∞|∞Å∞, që®^°ã≤÷u
melanoblast JǨiǨHífi =O°‚Hí}~
melanoma ѨÙ@ìHí∞O°∞ѨÙ. malignant

~
K«O°‡~g∞k ѨÙ@ìHí∞O°∞ѨÙ
mellifluous =∞^è°∞O°"≥∞·#, H’=∞Å
mellow Hßiî#º~ã¨_«e#, H’=∞Å, "≥∞`ŒÎ
|_ç#
melodious „âÍ=º"≥∞·#. ~ music „âÍ=º
ã¨~w`Œ~. ~ song „âÍ=ºwu
melodiousness „âÍ=º`Œ
melodrama Éè•=„Ǩ^è•#,
J^°∞ƒù`Œ
<®@Hí~
melted „^°gÉèí¥`Œ
melting pot aè#fl ã¨~㨯 $u ã¨Çı∞‡à◊#
ã≤÷u
member J~Qõ~, J=Ü«µ=~, ã¨Éèí∞º_«∞
membrane á⁄O°, ã¨ÎO°~. basement ~
P^è•O°ã~Ψ ~° . limiting ~ ã‘=∂~`Œ ã¨OÎ ~°
memorable zO°ã¨‡O°}©Ü«µ. ~ event
zO°ã¨‡O°}©Ü«µ ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@#
memorandum xÇıkHí, *Ï˝Ç¨HíǨ„`Œ~,
Ü«∂^®ã¨∞Î
memory *Ï˝Ç¨Hí~, 㨇 $u, ^è•O°}
menace ɡki~K«∞, ÉèíÜ«µÃÑ@∞ì, ǨxHíe
y~K«∞† „Ǩ=∂^°~, ÉèíÜ«µ~
menacing „Ǩ=∂^°Hßi
menarche O°[ã¨fiÅ
mend ÉÏQõ∞KıÜ«µ∞, K«Hí¯k^°∞Ì
mendacious ã¨`Œº^°¥O°"≥∞·#† q∞^蕺ÇÍk

<ÒHíO°∞, hK«¿ã=Hí∞_«∞. ~ jobs
z#fl L^ÀºQåÅ∞
meninges <®_ô=∞~_«ÖÏxfl Hí¿ÑÊ á⁄O°
meningitis <®_ô =∞~_«Å ѨÙ@Å â’^èŒ
meningoencephalitis "≥∞^°_«∞ ÃÑ·á⁄O°
<˘Ç≤Ê
meningomyelitis "≥#∞fláå=∞∞ÃÑ· á⁄O°
<˘Ç≤Ê
meniscus K«~„^°=~Hí =~>˜† =„Hí`ŒÅ~
menopausal bleeding O°*’x=$uÎ HßÅ
„™®=~
menopause =∞∞@∞¡_«Qõ@~, O°∞`Œ∞qO°u
menses |Ç≤Ï+¨∞ª
menstruation O°∞`Œ∞=Ù
mensuration Hı∆„`Œq∞u, HÁÅ`ŒÅ∞
mental =∂#ã≤Hí. ~ attitude =∞#ó
„Ǩ=$uÎ. ~ development =∂#ã≤Hßaè
=$kú, |∞kú qHßã¨~
mental agony =∞<ÀÇı^°#
menticide =∞<À<®â◊Hí~
mention „Ǩã¨H˜Î, „Ǩ™®Î=#, xOÕÌâ◊~, K«~°Û
mercenary ^è°#Å∞|ú ¿ã=Hí∞_«∞, ‰õÄe
ã≤áåܵ
mercerize #¥Å∞Hí∞ "≥∞O°∞Qõ∞ÃÑ@∞ì
merchant bank ÇÍ}˜[º ÉÏ~Hí∞
mercy ^®H˜∆}º~, ^°Ü«µ
mercy killing =∞O°}aèHí∆
merge qb#=∞=Ù, Híeã≤áÈ=Ù, Çı∞à◊q~K«∞
merger qb#~, HíÅǨ@~
merging HíÅܵHí, qb#`Œ
meridian „^è°∞=OÕY, =∞^蕺ǨÏflOÕY
meristamatic tissue qÉè•[º Hí}*ÏÅ~
meristic qÉèíHíÎ
merry „Ǩã¨#fl, LÖÏ¡ã¨HíO°
mesh *ÏeHí, *ÏÅO°~„^è°~
mesmerism HíxHí@∞ì

275

metanym

mesolithic period =∞^è°º tÖÏÜ«µ∞Qõ~
mesomorphy ^°$_è°â◊sO®Hí$u
mesophyte ™®^è•O°} ÇÍ`Í=O°} Ǩi

ã≤÷`Œ∞ÅÖ’ ÃÑiQÕ "≥∞∞Hí¯
mesosphere =∞^è°ºã¨ÎO°~
mess Éè’[#âÍÅ, Jܡ∂=∞Ü«µ~,

=∞∞iH˜,

„Hí=∞Ǩ^°úu ÖËx
ã¨~^Õâ◊~, ã¨=∂KÍO°~, ÇÍO°Î,
ã¨~Hı`Œ~
messenger ÇÍO®ÎǨÏO°∞_«∞, ^°¥`Œ
messianic ѨÙ#O®qO®ƒù= qâÍfiã≤
mess up Qõ~^°O°QÀà◊ ǨO°K«∞
mesta QÀQõ∞<®O°
mesurdar Hıã¨iǨǨC
metabolism r=„H˜Ü«µ
metacriticism Jkè q=∞O°≈
metagalaxy qâ◊fiã¨=∞ã¨Î~
metal Hí~HíO°† ֒ǨÏ~. alkaline earth
~ H∆ßO° =∞$uÎHß Ö’Ç¨Ï~. ~ filings
֒ǨÏO°[~. mobile ~ L`Œ¯ $+¨ì ֒ǨÏ~.
transitional ~ Ǩi=O°Î# ֒ǨÏ~. ~
welding ֒ǨÅ#∞ J`ŒHí@~
matalanguage JkèÉè•+¨
metalling O°Ç¨Ï^®i LǨi`ŒÅ~
metallization ֒ǨÏHíO°}~
metallography ֒ǨÏz„`Œ}~
metallurgist ֒ǨÏâ’^è°Hí∞_«∞
metallurgy ֒ǨÏâ’^è°#, Ö’Ç¨Ï ã¨~„Qõ
ǨÏ} âÍG~
metamerism =O®‚Éè•ã¨`Œ, ã¨=∂=Ü«µ=`Œ
metamorphism O°¥áå~`ŒO°}~, ѨÓO°‚
Ǩi=O°Î#
metamorphic change O°¥Ç¨q„H˜Ü«µ`Œ
metamorphosis O°¥Ç¨q„H˜Ü«µ
metanym JO°úǨš=~
message

276

metaphor
metaphor O°¥Ç¨Hí~
metaphorisation ã¨^°$jHíO°}~
metaphysical JkèÉ“è uHí. ~ emptiness
PkèÉè“uHíâ◊¥#º`Œ. ~ idealism Ju
Éè“uHí Éè•=ÇÍ^°~. ~ painting Jkè

Éè“uHí z„`Œ}
metaphysics

JkèÉè“uHí âÍG~, `Œ`ŒÎ fi

*Ï˝#~
metapsychology Jkè=∂#ã≤Hí âÍG~
metastasis O’Qõã¨~|~kè Hí}ÇͺÇ≤Î
metatarsalgia JiHße Z=∞∞HíÅ<˘Ç≤Ê
metatarsus JiHßÅ∞
metathesis =O°‚=º`ŒºÜ«µ~
meteorology ÇÍ`Í=O°}âÍG~
meteor Lů† LÖϯáå`Œ~
methileaf "≥∞~uHí∂O°
method Ǩ^°úu, q^è•#~. ~ of
difference qÉèı^° q^è•#~. ~ of
questionnaire „ǨâÍfl=o q^è•#~. ~
of tenacity JaèxÇıâ◊ q^è•#~
methodology Ǩiâ’^è°#Ǩ^°úu
meticulous *ÏQõO°¥Hí~Qå Ǩije~Kı,

YzÛ`Œ"≥∞·#
metonomy JO°÷qã¨Î $u
metre Kè«~^°ã¨∞û
metrology `Œ¥xHíÅ∞, HÁÅ`ŒÅHí∞

ã¨~|~

kè~z# âÍG~
metropolis =∞Ǩ#QõO°~, O®[^è•x
mezzanine finance ã¨Ç¨Ü«µHí O°∞}~
mezzanine floor O≥~_«∞ J~`Œã∞¨ Å
Î =∞^躰

Z`Œ∞Î `ŒHí∞¯=Qå L~_Ë =∞O’ J~`Œã¨∞Î
micelle lQõ@ Ǩ^®O°~
÷ Ö’x ǨO=° ∂}∞=ÙÅ
ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~
micro 㨥Hí;. ~ analysis 㨥Hí; qâı¡
+¨}~. ~ film ã¨~H˜∆Ç‘ÎHí$`Œ z„`Œ~. ~
wave 㨥Hí;`ŒO°~Qõ~

milieu

microbiology 㨥Hí;r=âÍG~
microcephaly ÅѶ¨∞∞tO°ã¨∞û, z#fl`ŒÅ
microcosm 㨥Hí;[Qõ`Œ∞Î,
㨥Hí;

„ǨǨ~K«~
microcyte ÅѶ¨∞∞Hí}~
microgenetic 㨥Hí;r= ã¨~|~kè
micrology 㨥Hí; =ã¨∞Î=ÙÅ J^谺ܫµ#~
micropsia =ã¨∞ΠǨi=∂}®xfl ã¨iQå

Qõ∞iÎ~K«ÖËHíáÈ=_«~
microscope 㨥Hí;^°i≈x. electron ~
q^°∞º`Œ¯} 㨥Hí;^°i≈x
microsurgery 㨥Hí;^°i≈x`À Kı¿ã â◊G
zH˜`Œû
micturition =∞¥„`Œqã¨O°˚#
middle management =∞^è°º™®÷ܵ
Ü«∂[=∂#º~
midgut =∞^蕺~`ŒO°
midriff O˘=∞∞‡#∞, L^°O®xfl ÇıO°∞Kı¿ã
=∂~ã¨Ñ¨Ù á⁄O°
midstream h>˜Ü˵O°∞
midterm poll =∞^è°º~`ŒO° ZxflHíÅ∞
midwife =∞~„`Œ™®x
midwifery „Ǩ㨥u"≥·^°º~
mighty â◊H˜Î=∞~`Œ"≥∞·#, „Ǩ|Å
migraine tO°ó áåO°≈fiâ◊¥Å, XǨ^Å
° Ü˵O°∞
migrate =Åã¨áÈ=Ù, `ŒO°eáÈ=Ù
migration =Åã¨
mil „âı}˜, =O°∞ã¨
mild ™œ=∞º, =∞$^°∞Å. ~ alkali =∞$^°∞Å
H∆ßO°~. ~ steel "≥∞`ŒÎx LHí∞¯
mildew |¥_ç^° `ˇQõ∞Å∞, |¥A
milestone "≥∞·Å∞O®Üµ, =∞∞Yº"≥∞·# ã¨~Ѷ¨∞
@#
miliary *Á#fly~[ =~>˜
milieu ™®~Ѷ≤∞Hí Ǩiã¨O®Å∞, Ǩx Ǩi
ã¨O®Å∞, r=# ÇÍ`Í=O°}~

militancy
militancy ã¨=∞O°jÅ`Œ, O°}„Ç‘u
militarism Ãã·xHíÇÍ^°~
military Ãã·#º~, ¿ã<® ã¨~|~kè, Ãã·xHí.
~ alliance Ãã·xHí Hí∂@q∞. ~ base
Ãã·xHí ™®÷=O°~. ~ government Ãã·xHí
„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi~. ~ psychology ¿ã<® =∞#ã¨Î

`Ífi^谺ܫµ#~
militia áœO°Ãã·#º~
milk áåÅ∞. breast ~ `Œe¡áåÅ∞.
humanized ~ K«#∞ÉÏÅ#∞ áÈÅ∞áåÅ∞.
~ of lime ã¨∞#flѨ٠h\˜ `Ë@
milky way áåÅ"≥e¡, áåÅѨÙ~`Œ
millets zO°∞ ^è•<®ºÅ∞, "≥∞∞Hí¯*Á#fl
million ǨkÅHí∆Å∞
millipede ã¨Ç¨Ï„ã¨áåk
mime =∞¥Hßaè#Ü«µ~ (KıÜ«µ∞)
mind =∞#ã¨∞û. ~ blowing Pâ◊ÛO®ºxfl/
q„Éèí=∂xfl Híey~Kı. ~ bogging

=∞#ã¨∞û#∞ HíÅ=O°Ç¨O°Kı, JuH˜¡+¨ì"≥∞·#.
unsound ~ z`ŒÎ „Éèí=∞}~
mine Qõx
mineral Yx[~, ֒ǨÏ~. ~ chemistry
Yx[ O°™®Ü«µ# âÍG~. ~ salt Yx[
Å=}~
minerology Yx[ q*Ï˝# âÍG~
mingle HíeÜ«µ∞, HíÅ∞ѨÙ
mingled q∞„â◊, q∞„t`Œ
miniature 㨥Hí; ÅѶ¨∞∞z„`Œ~
minima Híx뮪Å∞
minimum Híhã¨~, Ju`ŒH∞í ¯=, HÁkÌáå>˜.
~ support price Híh㨠=∞^°Ì`Œ∞ ^è°O°.
~ wage Híh㨠Çı`Œ#~
minor arts LǨHíà◊Å∞
minorities JÅÊã¨~MϺHí∞Å∞
minority group JÅÊã¨~MϺHí =O°æ~
mint @~Hí™®Å

277

misnomer

minth á⁄n<® PHí∞
minus q∞#Ǩ (ܵ~ѨÙ), fã≤Çı`Œ,
minuscule z#flk, 㨥Hí;"≥∞·#k,

O°∞}~
ã¨fiÅÊ

"≥∞·#k
J^°∞ƒù`Œ~, JÖ“H˜Hí~, Pâ◊ÛO°º
HíO°~, =∂Ü«µ
mirage Z~_«=∂q, =∞szHí, HßÅÊxHí
=ã¨∞Î=Ù
mirror J^°Ì~, ^°O°Ê}~
misappropriate ^°∞ifixܡ∂Qõ~ KıÜ«µ∞
misappropriation ^°∞ifixܡ∂Qõ~
miscarriage QõO°ƒù „™®=~/ áå`Œ~,
qѶ¨∂`Œ~
miscellaneous „ǨH©O°‚, qq^è°, zÅ¡O°,
<®<®q^è°"≥∞·#, ã¨~H©O°‚
mischief ^°∞~_«Qõ~, ^°∞âıÛ+¨ì, Kı@∞Ǩx,
Ǩx, JѶ¨∂`Œ~, JǨǨ㨺~
miscibility q∞„â◊}©Ü«µ`Œ
miscible q∞„â◊}©Ü«µ
misconception „Éèí=∞, ^°∞O°aè„áåÜ«µ~
miscreant ^°∞~_«Qõ∞_«∞
misdeed ^°∞â◊ÛO°º
miser Ç≤ã≤<®i
miserliness Ç≤ã≤<®i`Œ#~, Ç‘<®ã≤`Œ#~
miserly Å∞|ú, Ç≤ã≤<®i
misfeasance JǨHßO°º~, LÅ¡~Ѷ∞¨ #, Ju
„Hí=∞}, J„Hí=∞„Ǩ=O°Î#
misfeasor JǨHßi, J„Hí=∞=iÎ
misfortune „QõǨÏKÍO°~, ^°∞O°^°$+¨ì~
misgiving JáÈǨÏ, J#∞=∂#~
mishap ^°∞O°…@#, [O°QõHí∂_«xk, ^°∞ã¨û~
Ѷ¨∞@#
misinterpret `ŒÇ¨CQå JO°÷~Kıã¨∞HÁ#∞,
=„HíÉè•+¨º~ K‹Ç¨C
mislead `ŒÇ¨C^®i Ǩ>˜ì~K«∞
misnomer JǨ„Ǩܡ∂Qõ~,
JáÈǨÏ,
^°∞O°aè„áåÜ«µ~
miracle

missing link

`ŒÇ≤Ê# Å~H≥, =∞^è°ºÖ’
`ŒÇ≤Ê# q+¨Ü«µ~/ ã¨=∂KÍO°~
mist =∞~K«∞
mistake á⁄O°áå@∞, <ËO°~
mistrust JǨ#=∞‡Hí~
mite ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞. itch ~ Qõl˚ѨÙO°∞Qõ∞
mitigate LǨâ◊=∞#~ Híey~K«∞, `Œyæ~K«∞
mitral kfiǨ„`Œ
mixed bag HíÅQõ¥O° Qõ~Ǩ, O°HíO°HßÅ
=∞#∞+¨∞ºÅ ã¨fiÉè•=~, ^°$_è° ã¨~HíÅÊ~
mixed constitution q∞„â◊=∞ O®*Ϻ~Qõ~
mixed farming q∞„â◊=º=™®Ü«µ~
mixoscopia W`ŒO°∞Å Öˇ·~yHí K«O°ºÅ#∞
Qõ=∞x~K«_«~^®fiO® L`ŒÊ#fl=∞Ü˵º H’iHí
mixture q∞„â◊=∞~
mnemonic ^è•O°}®#∞Hí∂Å"≥∞·#, *Ï˝Ç¨Hí
â◊H˜ÎH˜ ã¨Ç¨Ü«µÇ¨_«∞
moan =∞¥Å∞Qõ∞
mob Qõ∞~ѨÙ, „Hí=∞tHí∆} áå>˜~K«x [#
ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~, =∞¥Hí
mobbing W`ŒO° [~`Œ∞=ÙÅ#∞ ÉèíH˜∆~K«
_ÍxH˜ Kı¿ã Çıkè~ѨÙ
mobile K«Å#jÅ, Qõ=∞#, HíkÖË, K«Å`ü
tÅÊ~. ~ clinic ã¨~KÍO° "≥·^°ºâÍÅ
mobilisation ã¨g∞HíO°}, áÈQõ∞KıÜ«µ_«~
mobocracy =∞¥Hí™®fi=∞º~, =∞~káåÅ#
mock ǨiǨÏã≤~K«∞, ZQõ`ÍoKıÜ«µ∞, "≥H˜¯
i~K«∞
mockery J=¿ÇÏà◊#,
uO°™®¯O°~`À
=∂>Ï¡_«@~, q[Ü«µ=~`Œ~ Hßx,
qÅ∞=ÖËx
mockingly "≥H˜¯i~`ŒQå
model =∂ki, „Ǩu=∞, #=∞¥<®†
ÇͺáåO° „ǨHí@#ÅÖ’ áåÖÁæ<Ë Híà®
Hßi}˜/ Híà®HßO°∞_«∞
modelling ÇͺáåO° „ǨHí@#ÅHí∞ #>˜~
missing link

278

molest

K«_~« , z„`ŒHßO°∞x z„`ÍÅHí∞ #=∞¥<®Qå
Éèí~y=∞Å∞ „Ǩ^°i≈~K«_«~
modello =i‚Hí
moderate q∞`ŒÇÍk, q∞`Œã¨fiÉè•=~ Qõņ
¿ãflǨÏѨÓO°fiHí~Qå K«iÛ~K«∞/ Ǩi+¨¯i~K«∞
moderation ã¨=∞#fiÜ«µ~, qÇÍ^°Ç¨i+¨¯
O°}
modern #g#, P^è°∞xHí
modernisation P^è°∞xH©HíO°}, #gHíO°}
modernism P^è°∞xHíÇÍ^°~, HÁ`ŒÎ^°#~
modernist P^è°∞xHí`ÍÇÍk, #=º`ÍÇÍk
modest #„=∞, xQõifi, ã¨pÛùÅ, q#`«
modesty xO°Ç¨Ï~HßO°, #„=∞`Œ, a_çÜ«µ~
modification =∂O°∞Ê, O°¥áå~`ŒO°}~
modus operandi HßO°ºxO°fiǨÏ} Ǩ^°úu
mofussil „Qåg∞}, #QõOÕ`ŒO°, #QõO° Ǩi
ã¨O°
mohava seed WǨÊy~[
moiety JO°ú~, ã¨Qõ~, J~â◊~, Éè•Qõ~
moist P„O°Ì, `Œ_ç, `Ë=∞
moisture `Œ_ç, P„O°Ì`Œ, K‹=∞‡ (QåeÖ’x)
`Ë=∞
moisturizer `Ë=∞ Híey~Kı
molar formula J}∞ã¨~Hı`ŒHí~
molar weight J}∞Éè•O°~
molecular J}∞. ~ biology J}∞r=
âÍG~. ~ collision theory J}fiaè
Ѷ¨∂`Œ ã≤^®ú~`Œ~. ~ composition
J}∞ã¨~Ѷ¨∞@#~. ~ configuration
J}∞q<®ºã¨~. ~ diffusion J}∞ qã¨Î
O°}~. ~ genetics J}∞ [#∞ºâÍG~.
~ heat J}¥+¨‚`Œ. ~ physics J}∞
Éè“uHíâÍG~
molecule J}∞=Ù
molest J`ͺKÍO°~ KıÜ«µ∞, QÕeKıÜ«µ∞,
`˘~^°O°ÃÑ@∞ì

mollify
mollify âÍ~`ŒÇ¨O°K«∞, ã¨=∂^è•#ǨO°K«∞
molomitable Híiî#"≥∞·#, ^°$_è°"≥∞·#, PK«

O°} ™®^è°º~Hßx
moment Hí∆}~, eǨÎ
momentary Hí∆}˜Hí, `Í`ͯeHí, Jã≤÷O°
momentum Hõ^ŒeHõ, „^°=ºÇıQõ~, Qõu

Éè•O°~, ÇıQõ QÆu
monadism z^°~â◊ÇÍ^°~
monarch O®A/ O®}˜
monarchy O®K«iHí~
money _«|∞ƒ, „^°=º~. ~ lender =_ô¤
Çͺáåi. ~ spinner ÃÑ^°ÌÖÏÉè•Å#∞

KıHí∂OÕÛ z#fl J~â◊~
monism UHí`ÍÇÍ^°~
monistic theory of sovereignty

UHí™®O°fiÉè“=∂kèHßO° ã≤^®ú~`Œ~
ǨO°ºÇıHí∆Hí∞_«∞, |_çÃÑ^°Ì, W#Ǩ
<ÒHí, q^Õj HßO°º„Hí=∞ „â’`Œ. cardiac
~ ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ=∂ǨHí~
monk ã¨<®ºã≤
mono UHí, XHı. ~ acidic UHß=∞¡Hí. ~
atomic UHíǨO°=∂}∞Hí. ~ basic
UHíH∆ßO°Hí. ~ chromatic UHí =O°‚Hí. ~
tropic UHíO¥
° ǨH.í ~ tropy UHíO¥° Ǩ`.Œ
~ valent UHíã¨~ܡ∂[Hí
monocentric UHíHı~„nHí$`Œ
monochrome UHí=O°‚Hí~
monocular UHßH˜∆
monodrama UHíáå„`Íaè#Ü«µ~
monogamous UHíÉèíO°Î $`Œfi~/ Ǩffl`Œfi~
monogram ã¨~H˜∆ǨÎ=∞∞„^°
monograph UHíq+¨Ü«µHí O°K«#
monolith UHítÅ, UHß~_« tÅÊ~
monologue ã¨fiQõ`Œ~, UHíÉè•+¨}
monomial UHíǨ^°~
monophagous UHíÉèíHí∆Hí
monitor

279

moral obligation

monophthog UHíã¨fiO°~
monoplegia UHß~QõÇÍ`Œ~
monopolised trade Qõ∞`ŒÎÇͺáåO°~,

UHí
™®fi=∞º ÇͺáåO°~
monopolist Qõ∞`ËÎ^®O°∞. ~ competition
UHí™®fi=∞º ã¨ÊO°ú
monopoly UHí™®fi=∞º~, Qõ∞`ÍÎkèǨ`Œº~.
~ capitalism Qõ∞`ŒÎ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^®s
q^è•#~
monopsony UHí™®fi=∞º~
monosaccharide XHı HíO°ƒ# â◊$~YÅ~
QõÅ K«H≥¯O°
monotheism UHıâ◊fiO°ÇÍ^°~
monotonous XHı q^è°"≥∞·#, =∂O°∞ÊÖËx
monsoon O°∞`Œ∞Ǩ=<®Å∞
mons pubis Hß=∞Ç‘Oî°~
monstrous qѨs`Œ~, ÉèíÜ«∂#Hí, O®Hí∆ã¨,
Jã¨Ç¨Ï[
montage „ǨH©O°‚Hí~
monument H©iÎ ã¨~
Î Éè~í , ™®‡O°Hí (ã¨~Î Éèí) O
monumental 㨇O°}©Ü«µ, ã¨=∞∞^®`ŒÎ
mood =∞#ã≤÷u, z`ŒÎ=$uÎ, JO°÷~, q^è°~
moods „áåHßO®Å∞
moongbean ÃÑã¨O°Ç¨Ç¨C
moonlight "≥<ˇflÅ, *’º`Œûfl
mooring Å~QõO°∞ ™®÷#~, P„â◊Ü«µ~
mora =∂„`Œ
moraic metre =∂„`ÍKè«~^°ã¨∞û
moraine Ç≤Ï=∂h =∞$uÎHí
moral code <ˇ·uHí xÜ«µ=∂=o
morale <ˇ·uHí ã≤÷u, L`ÍûǨÏ~, ^è≥·O°º~
moral fibre xâ◊ÛÜ«µ ã¨fiÉè•=~, <ˇu
· Hí â◊HΘ
moral intution <ˇ·uHß~`ŒO°∞ƒkú
moralist huÇÍk
moral judgement <ˇ·uHí xO°‚Ü«µ~
moral obligation <ˇ·uHí ÉÏ^è°º`Œ

280

moral saying
moral saying 㨥H˜Î, huÇÍHíº~
moratorium O°∞}ã¨÷QÆ#~/ qO®=∞~
morbid Çͺkè„Qõã¨Î"≥∞·#
morbidity J<®O’Qõº ã≤÷u, O’QõÇͺÇ≤Î,

Çͺkè„Qõã¨Î`Œ, qHßO°~, qHí$u
morbidity rate O’QåÅ ã¨~Yº
mores PKÍO®Å∞, ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«∂Å∞,

Hí@∞ì

ÉÏ@∞¡
=∞O°}’#∞‡Y, KÍ=ÙHí∞ ^°QõæO°
Ǩ_«¤, rq`Œ~ z=i ^°â◊Hí∞ KıO°É’`Œ∞#fl
moribunde =∞$`Œ∞º#∞‡Y"≥∞·#, J=™®#
^°â◊
morlify J==∂x~K«∞
moron |∞kúÇ‘Ï#∞_«∞, =∞¥O°∞ö_«∞
morose ÉÏ^è•HíO°"≥∞·#, H’Ǩ~Qå L#fl
morpheme Ǩ^®~â◊~
morphine #Å¡=∞~^°∞, Jaèx
morphology Ǩ^°xO®‡} (âÍG)~
morphospecies
qÅHí∆}
r=ÙÅ
ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~
mortal =∞O°Îº, Jx`Œº, =∞O°∞κ_«∞
mortality =∞$`Œ∞Å ã¨~Yº, =∞$`Œ∞º=Ù.
infant ~ tâ◊∞=∞O°}®Å∞. maternal ~
„Ǩ㨥u =∞O°}®Å∞
mortgage `ÍHí@∞ì, `Œ#MÏ, Hí∞^°∞=, P_«∞
=∂#~
mortido KÍÇÍÅ<Ë H’iHí
mortification J==∂<®xH˜ Qõ∞iKıÜ«µ∞,
=∞#ã¨∞ QåÜ«µÇ¨O°K«∞
mortuary â◊=Qõ$ǨÏ~
mosaic á⁄_«`ˇQõÅ∞, z„`Íã¨ÎO°~. ~ gold
=∞K«∞Û |~QåO°~
mosque =∞ã‘^∞° , =∞∞ã≤=
¡ ∞∞Å „áåO°<÷ ®ã¨Å÷ ~
moss gold â‹·=Å ã¨fiO°‚~
most favoured nation JkèHß^°$`Œ*Ïu
=∞O®º^°
moribund

muck

=∂O°æ=∞^è°º~Ö’ HßO°∞`À ã¨Ç¨ |ã¨
Kı¿ã Qõ$ǨÏ~
moth z=∞‡@
mother J=∞‡, `Œe¡. expectant ~ QõO°ƒù
=u. lactative ~ áåeKıÛ `Œe¡. ~
liquor =∂`Œ$„^°=~. ~ pearl â◊∞H˜Î
QõO°ƒù~. ~ tongue =∂`Œ$Éè•+¨
motherhood =∂`Œ$`Œfi~
moth-proof „H˜q∞ xO’^è°Hí~
motif qq^è° Qå^ä°Å =∞¥ÖÏ~â◊~
motile K«Å#~ L#fl
motility K«Å#jÅ`Œ
motion Qõ=∞#~, K«Å#~, Qõu, fO®‡#~.
angular ~ H’}©Ü«µ K«Å#~. relative
~ ™®¿ÑHí∆ K«Å#~. resulting ~ Ѷ¨e`Œ
K«Å#~
motivation „¿ÑO°}, „¿ÑOÕǨ}
motivator „áÈ`ÍûǨÏHí∞_«∞
motive Jaè=∞`Œ~, Pâ◊Ü«µ~, JO°÷~,
L^ÕÌâ◊~
motor „¿ÑO°Hí, KÀ^°HíÜ«µ~„`Œ~
mould J#∞Hí∂Å~Qå =∂O°∞Û, =∞ÅK«∞
HÁ#∞, #=∞¥<®, =∞¥ã¨
moulding Ǩi+¨¯O°}~, áÈ`Œá⁄Ü«µº_«~
mount PO’Ç≤Ï~K«∞, JÅ~Híi~K«∞, Ju
H˜~K«∞, ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞, JkèHí=∞Qõ∞† ÇÍǨÏ#~,
HÁ~_«
mourn U_«∞Û, qKÍi~K«∞, ^°∞ód~K«∞
mouse K«∞~K‹Å∞Hí (Hí~ѨӺ@O∑) KÍÅx
mouth <ÀO°∞. ~ of the furnace HÁeq∞
=∞∞Y~. ~ to mouth respiration
=∞∞MÏ=∞∞d âÍfi㨄H˜Ü«µ
movable joints HíkÖË H©à◊∞§
movable property K«O®ã≤Î
muck |∞O°^°, ¿Ñ_«, ZO°∞=Ù. ~ raking
|∞O°^° K«Å¡_«~
motel

mucus
mucus |~Hí† âı¡+¨‡~
mud |∞O°^°, Ǩ~Hí~,

O˘~Ç≤. ~ flows
Ǩ~Hí „Ç¨ÇÍǨÅ∞. ~ rock Qõ_«¤ Hí>˜ì#
|∞O°^°
muff `ŒÇ¨CÅ∞ KıÜ«µ∞
mull nO°…~Qå PÖ’z~K«∞
multi-accentuality |Ǩï ã¨~HıuHí`Œ
multi-culturalism |Ǩï ã¨~㨯 $f
ǨO°`Œfi~
multi-discursive JO°÷"≥·q^è°º~
multifarious |Ǩïq^è°, J<ËHí(„ǨHßO°Hí)
multigravida |Ǩï„Ǩ㨥u
multi-lingual |ǨïÉè•+‘Ü«µ
miltilingualism |ǨïÉè•+‘Ü«µ`Œ
multinational |Ǩïà◊*ÏfÜ«µ.
~
corporation |Ǩïà◊*Ïuã¨~ã¨÷, ~
states |Ǩïà◊*Ïu ~å*ϺÅ∞
multiparty system |ǨïO®[H©Ü«µ ǨHí∆
q^è•#~
multiple taxation |Ǩïà◊
â◊∞ů
q^è•#~
multiplex |Ǩï qÉè•QåÅ∞/ =∞∞MÏÅ∞
multiplice Qõ∞}Hí~
multiplicity |Ǩïà◊`Œfi~, J<ËHí`Œfi~
multipurpose |Ǩïà◊„Ǩܡ∂[Hí
multivalent |Ǩïã¨~ܡ∂Qõ ã¨=∞O°÷. ~
vaccine |Ç¨ï „Ç¨Üˇ∂[#Hßi >©HßÅ∞
mum =∞∫#~, xâ◊≈|Ì~Qå L~_«∞
mumbo jumbo xO°O°÷Hí~, xOÕ›`Œ∞Hí~,
Jã¨~|^°ú~
mummification =∞$`Œ^ÕǨÅ#∞ Éèí„^ŒÇ¨O°
K«@~
mummy „áåp# =∂#= HíàË|O°~. ~
portraits â◊=¿Ñ>˜HíÅ g∞k =∞¥iÎ
z„`ÍÅ∞
mumps Qõ=^° aà◊¡Å∞

281

myelography

munch #=∞∞Å∞
mundane „áåǨ~zHí, SÇ≤ÏHí, Ö“H˜Hí
munificent ^®#jÅ, L^®O°
munsiff <®ºÜ«∂kèǨu
mural Hí∞_«ºz„`Œ~. ~ painting Hí∞_«º

z„`Œ}
muriform W@∞HíÅ QÀ_«=Öˇ
murine K«∞~K«∞ (ZÅ∞Hí *Ïu) ÖÏ~>˜
murk pHí>˜† ^°@ì"≥∞·# =∞~K«∞ á⁄Qõ,

=∞ã¨Hí
pHí>˜Qå L~_Ë, O’`Œ ѨÙ>˜ì~Kı,
=∞ã¨HíÉÏi#
murmur
Qõ∞ã¨Qõ∞ã¨,
Q˘}∞Qõ∞_«∞.
cardiac ~ ǨÏ$^°Ü«µ~ #∞~z ѨÙ>ıì JǨ
„Hí=∞ â◊|Ì~
murmuring #ã¨∞Qõ∞_«∞, Q˘}∞Qõ∞_«∞
muse Híq`Íâ◊H˜Î, Qå_è®Ö’K«#, ǨO°
^蕺#~Qå L~_«∞
mushroom ѨÙ@ìQ˘_«∞Qõ∞, HÁ`ŒÎQå ^è°#
=~`Œ∞_≥·# =ºH˜Î, `Í`ͯeHí, ™®^è•O°}
musicologist ã¨~w`ŒâÍG „Ǩg}∞_«∞,
HÁ`ŒÎO®QåÅ ã¨$+≤ìHíO°Î
muskmelon HíO°¥ƒ[
muslin ^°∞=fiÅ∞=, 㨥Hí;=G~
musty =∞∞iy#, ^°∞O°æ~^è°Ñ¨Ói`Œ
mutation PHíã≤‡Hí Ǩi=O°Î#~, L`ŒÊi
=O°Î#
mutilate qHí$fHíi~K«∞, =∞∞Hí¯Å∞ KıÜ«µ∞,
Y~_ç~K«∞, zè#flaè#fl"≥∞·#
mutilation Y~_«#~, qO°¥Ç¨}~
mutiny uO°∞Qõ∞ÉÏ@∞, Ç≤`Œ¥s, q„^ÀǨÏ~
myalgia Hí~_«O®Å <˘Ç≤Ê
myasthenia Hí~_«O®Å ^°∞O°ƒÅ`Œfi~
mycelium tb~„^è°*ÏÅ~
mycology tb~„^è°âÍG~
myelitis "≥#∞fláå=∞∞ <˘Ç≤Ê
myelography "≥#∞fláå=∞∞ z„`Œ}
murky

282

myocarditis
myocarditis Qõ∞~_≥ Hí~_«O®Å <˘Ç≤Ê
myocardium Qõ∞~_≥ Hí~_«O°~
myology Hí~_«O°âÍG~
myomectomy QõO®ƒùâ◊Ü«µ~ #∞~z Hí}˜u

narrow casting

mystical power =∞Ǩ`Œ‡º~,
mysticism =∂i‡Hí ÇÍ^°~,

=∞ǨÏ`Œ∞Î
J#∞Éèí¥u

ÇÍ^°~
mystification

`˘Åy~ѨÙ

Qõ¥_è°Ç¨O°K«@~, =∞Éèíº

ÃÑ@ì_«~

myopathy Hí~_«O®Å [|∞ƒ
myopia „ǨÏã¨fi^°$+≤ì
myosistis Hí~_«O®Å ÉÏ^è°
myriad J<ËHí, ǨkÇıÅ ã¨~Yº
myrobalan HíO°H߯ܫµ
mystery =∞O°‡~, O°Ç¨Ï㨺~, J^°∞ƒù`Œ~

mystique ã¨~„Éèí=∞Hßi`Œfi~
myth HíeÊ`ŒHí^ä°, ѨÙO®} Qå^ä°
mytheme ѨÙO®} Qå^äß~â◊~
mythology ѨÙO®} Qå^äß ã¨O°fiã¨fi~
mythopoeia ѨÙO®}©HíO°}
myxoedema #~A=~>˜ Çͺkè

Nn
J^°∞ѨÙÖ’H˜ fã¨∞HÁ#∞, Ǩ@∞ìHÁ#∞,
K«∞@∞ì=∞∞@∞ì
nabis „Ǩ=HíÎ $ =O°æ~
nacre =∞∞`ŒºÑ¨Ù zǨÊÖ’x "≥∞i¿ã á⁄O°†
ѨÓ`Œ
nacreous pigment =∞∞`ŒºHßÎ =O°‚^°~
nacrissism ã¨fiO°¥Ç¨/ P`Œ‡Hß=∞∞Hí`Œ
naevus ѨÙ@∞ì=∞K«Û
nag KÍ_ôÅ∞ K‹Ç¨C, ™®kè~K«∞, `ŒÇ¨CǨ@∞ì
nagging ™®kè~ѨÙ
nail QÀO°∞. ~ biting QÀà◊∞§ HÁO°∞
H’¯=_«~. ~ ingrowing =„Hí#Y~,
=~HíO°QÀO°∞
nailbed QÀO°∞H˜~^° "≥∞`ŒÎ (>˜Éè•Qõ~)
nailing Çı∞Hí∞ HÁ@ì_«~
naive HíÖÏ¡HíǨ@~ ÖËx, Hí∞>˜Å~ Hßx,
JÜ«∂=∞Hí, ã¨O°à◊
naivete PÖ’K«#ÅÖ’, Çı+¨^è•O°}ÅÖ’
Ju ™®=∂#º~Qå L~_«_«~, É’à®`Œ#~
naked debenture Ǩg∞Qå Pã¨∞ÎÅ#∞
Éèí„^°Ç¨O°ÛHíáÈ=_«~
namby pamby `ËeHíQå PÇıâÍÅHí∞
Ö’#Ü˵º
nab

nanism =∞O°∞Qõ∞A˚`«#~
nano metre g∞@O°∞Ö’ "≥ܵºH’@¡ =~`Œ∞
napalm O°™®Ü«µxHßÜ«µ∞^è°~
nape "≥#∞HíÉè•Qõ~
narcissism ã¨fiÜ«µ~ „¿Ñ=∞, ™®fi#∞O°H˜Î,

ã¨fiO°¥Ç¨ Hß=∞∞Hí`Œ
narcissist ã¨fiÜ«µ~"≥ØÇ≤Ï`Œ∞_«∞
narcoanalysis x„^®=ã¨÷Ö’ =∂#ã≤Hí
zH˜`Œû KıÜ«µ_«~
narcolepsy x„^°áÈÇÍÅ<Ë |Å"≥∞·# H’iHí
narcomania =∞`Œ∞Ç
Î ^¨ ®O®÷Å∞ ¿ãq~KÍÅ<Ë
H’iHí
narcosis =∞`Œ∞Î, ã¨∞+¨∞Ç≤Î
narcotic =∞`Œ∞Î =∞~^°∞, =∂^°Hí „^°=º~
narcotization =∞`ˇÎH˜¯~K«_«~
nares <®ã≤Hß O°~„^è•Å∞, =∞∞Hí∞¯Ñ¨Ù>ÏÅ∞
narratee (TǨ) „â’`«
narration Hí^ä°#~
narrative Hí^ä°<®`Œ‡HíO, =O°‚<®`Œ‡Hí~,
=$`ÍÎ~`Œ~, Hí^ä°
narratology Hí^ä°<®^谺ܫµ#~
narrator Hí^ä°Hí∞_«∞, Hí^ä°Hí∞O®Å∞
narrow casting Ǩiq∞`Œ„Ǩ™®O°~

narrow market
narrow market ã¨~Hí∞z`Œ qǨ}˜
narrow transcription 㨥Hí;ÖËY#~
nasal =∞∞Hí∞¯Hí∞ ã¨~|~kè~z#† J#∞
<®ã≤Hí (~). ~ bone =∞∞Hí∞¯ Z=∞∞Hí. ~
passages <®ã≤Hß
^®fiO®Å∞. ~
septum <®ã≤Hß qÉè•[Hí~
nascent PO°~Éèí~, ã¨^Àº*Ï`Œ~, #=*Ï`Œ
nasolabial <®ã≤HíHí∂ ÃÑ· ÃÑ^°qH© ã¨~|~

kè~z#, <®™È+¨ª ã¨~|~kè
nasolacrimal <®™®„â◊∞
nasolacrimal duct <®™®„â◊∞<®à◊~
nasty Jã¨Ç¨ÏºHíO°, hK«, pHßHí∞`À Hí∂_ç#
natalist [<®Éè• ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å#∞ „áÈ`Œû
Ç≤Ï~KÕ =ºH˜Î
natality [## 㨥z
nation *Ïu, ^Õâ◊~, XHí ^Õâ◊ ѨÓ[
national *ÏfÜ«µ. ~ liberation movement *ÏfÜ«µ q"≥ØK«<À^°º=∞~. ~
liberation struggle *ÏfÜ«µ q"≥ØK«#
áÈO®@~
national accounting *ÏfÜ«∂^®Ü«µ
Qõ}#~
national bank *ÏfÜ«µ ÉÏ~Hí∞
national bourgeoisie *ÏfÜ«µ |¥O°∞Ç
˚ Í
=O°æ~
national chauvinism *ÏfÜ«µ ^°∞O°ÇϨ ~
HßO°~, ã¨~Hí∞z`Œ *ÏfÜ«µ Éè•=~
national debt *ÏfÜ«µ O°∞}~
national democracy *ÏfÜ«µ „Ǩ*Ï
™®fi=∞º~
national income *ÏfÜ«∂^®Ü«µ~
nationalisation *ÏfÜ∂HíO°}~
nationalise *ÏfÜ«µ~ KıÜ«µ∞: Hı~„^°
„ǨÉèí∞`Œfi xÜ«µ~„`Œ}Ö’H˜ `ˇK«∞Û
nationalised bank *ÏfÜ«µ~ Kıã≤#

283

naturialism

ÉÏ~Hí∞
nationalism *ÏfÜ«µ`ÍÇÍ^°~
nationality *ÏfÜ«µ`Œ
national minorities *ÏfÜ«∂ÅÊ

ã¨~MϺ

Hí∞Å∞
national question *Ï`Œ∞Å ã¨=∞㨺. ~
socialism *ÏfÜ«µ ™®=∞ºÇÍ^°~
nation states *Ïu–O®*ϺÅ∞
native country [#‡Éèí¥q∞
native language =∂`Œ$Éè•+¨
nativity ^ÕjÜ«µ`Œ, ÇÍã¨Î=º`«, [#‡,

[##~
natter Ç≤KÍÛáå>©
natural „áåHí$uHí,

ã¨Ç¨Ï[, ã¨fiÉè•=ã≤^°ú,

[#‡ã≤^°ú"≥∞·#
natural citizen [#‡`Œó áœO°∞_«∞
natural hazard „ǨHí$u "≥·Ç¨s`Œº~
naturalism ã¨Ç¨Ï[ÇÍ^°~, „ǨHí$u ÇÍ^°~
naturalist „ǨHí$u ^è°O°‡ÇÍk/ „Ç≤Ü«µ∞_«∞
naturalistic fallacy „áåHí$uHßÉè•ã¨
naturalization áœO°(ã¨) `Œfi „Ǩ^®#~,

ã¨Ç¨ÏrHíO°}, ÇÍã¨ÎgHíO°}
natural law „ǨHí$u 㨥„`Œ~
natural manure ™®fiÉè•qHíѨÙ/ ã¨fi`Œ
ã≤^°ú~Qå Åaè~Kı ZO°∞=Ù
naturalness ™®fiÉè•qHí`Œ
natural philosophy „áåHí$uHí `Œ`ŒÎ fi
âÍG~
natural vegetation ã¨Ç¨Ï[
=$Hí∆
ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~
natural wastage ã¨Ç¨Ï[#+¨ì~
nature „ǨHí$u, ã¨fiÉè•=~. ~ conservation order „ǨHí$u ǨiO°Hí∆} K«@ì~
naturialism „ǨHí$u ÇÍ^°~, ã¨Ç¨Ï*Ï`Œ
ÇÍ^°~

naughty
naughty HÁ~>ˇ
nausea _ÀHí∞, qHßO°~, UǨϺÉè•=~, O’`Œ
nauseant qHßO°~ HíÅQõ*Ë¿ã
navel ÉÁ_«∞¤, <®aè
navicular <ÒHßHßO°
naxalites f„=ÇÍ^°∞Å∞,
JuÇÍ^°

Hí=∞¥ºxã¨∞ìÅ∞
nazism <®rÇÍ^°~
nearest ã¨`ŒfiO°, `ŒHí∆}, J`Œº~`Œ ã¨xflÇ≤Ï`Œ
near money ã¨∞ÅÉèí~Qå =∂O°Hí~ KıÜ«µ

QõeQÕ „^°=º™®^è°<®Å∞
nearness ^°Qõæi`Œ#~, K«∞@ìiHí~, ™®xfl
Ç≤Ï`Œº~
nebula hǨiHí, PHßâ◊Qõ~Qõ, <Ë„`ŒÇ¨@Å~
Ö’x #Å¡=∞K«Û
nebulosity =∞|∞ƒ=Öˇ L~_«_«~
nebulous =∞|∞ƒÖÏ~>˜, hǨiHí =~>˜,
Jã¨Ê+¨ì, PHßO°O°Ç≤Ï`Œ
necessity J=ã¨O°~, P=â◊ºHí~
neck Q˘~`Œ∞Hí, „w=~, "≥∞_«
necromancy =∞~„`Œq^°º, Éèí¥`Œ"≥·^°º~
necromania â◊ÇÍÅÃÑ· qǨs`Œ PHíO°¬}
necrophilia â◊="≥∞·^ä°∞#~
necrophiliac =∞$`Œâ◊sO° ã¨~|~^è°~ QõÅ
necrophobia â◊ÇÍÅ~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
necrosis ^è•`Œ∞ qzÛù#fl`Œ/ xs˚=`Œ
necrospermia â◊∞„Hí~Ö’ r=Hí} xs˚=`Œ
necrotic xs˚="≥∞·#
necroscopy (autopsy) â◊= ǨsHí∆
nectar J=∞$`Œ~
needle 㨥k, 㨥z. hypodermic ~
=∞~^°∞ 㨥k
needling Hí~>˜ â◊∞Hß¡xH˜ 㨥k`À Kı¿ã
"≥·^°º~
neem seed ÇıǨ q`ŒÎ#~
nefarious „Hí∂O°"≥∞·#,
P@qHí"≥∞·#,

284

neo-behaviorism

^®O°∞}"≥∞·#, J<ˇ·uHí"≥∞·#, K«@ìqO°∞^°ú
"≥∞·#
negate Y~_ç~K«∞, uO°ã¨¯i~K«∞, x¿+
kè~K«∞
negation =ºuOÕH˜~K«_«~, xO®HíO°},
JÉè•=~
negationist =ºuOÕHíÇÍk, q^è°fi~ã¨Hí
q=∞O°≈Hí∞_«∞
negative O°∞}®`Œ‡Hí~, O°∞}O®t. ~
charge O°∞}®Çıâ◊~. ~ deviation O°∞}
qK«Å#~. ~ glow O°∞} nÇ≤Î. ~ ion
O°∞} JÜ«∂<ü
negatively O°∞}®`Œ‡Hí~Qå, =ºuOÕHí~Qå
negative phase ™®^è•O°} HßO°º„Hí=∂
Å#∞ HÁ#™®y~K«ÖËx ã¨=∞Ü«µ~
negative term JÉè•ÇÍO°÷Hí/=ºuOÕHßO°÷Hí
Ǩ^°~
negativism =ºuOÕHí`Œ`ŒÎ fi~
negotiable |^°ÖÏܵ~K«^°y#, =∂O°Û
^°y#, qx=∞Ü«µ~ KıÜ«µ^°y#
negotiable instrument |^°ÖÏܵ~K«
^°y# Ǩ„`Œ~, J<®º„Hß~`ŒÜˇ∂Qõº Ǩ„`Œ~
negotiate K«iÛ~K«∞, ã¨~„Ǩk~K«∞, J=∞∞‡,
|kbKıÜ«µ∞
negotiating table K«O®Û ÇıkHí
negotiation J<®º„Hß~`Œ`Œfi~, ã¨~„Ǩ
k~ѨÙ, |^°ÖÏܵ~ѨÙ, qx=∞Ü«µ
q^è•#~
negotiations =∞~`Œ<®Å∞, ã¨~„Ǩk~ѨÙÅ∞
negotiator K«OÛ° ÅÖ’ áåÖÁæ</Ë „áåux^躰 ~
=Ç≤Ï~Kı =ºH˜Î
neighing (Qõ∞„O°Ñ¨Ù) ã¨H˜e~`Œ
nematode QÀà◊„H˜q∞
neo #=
neo-behaviorism #¥`Œ#
„Ǩ=O°Î#
ÇÍ^°~

neo-classical art
neo-classical art #=º „áå=∂}˜Hí Híà◊
neo-classicism #=º „áå=∂}˜Hí ÇÍ^°~,

#g# ã¨~„Ǩ^®Ü«µÇÍ^°~
#Ü«∂/ HÁ`ŒÎ =Åã¨
ÇÍ^°~
neo-expressionism #=º qÉè•=#ÇÍ^°~
neo-expressionist #=º qÉè•=#ÇÍk
neo-historicism #=º KÍi„`ŒHíÇÍ^°~
neo-humanism #=º=∂#=ÇÍ^°~
neolithic HÁ`ŒÎ O®uÜ«µ∞QåxH˜ K‹~k#.
~ period #g# tÖÏÜ«µ∞Qõ~
neologism #¥`Œfl Ǩ^°ã¨$+≤ì
neology HÁ`ŒÎǨ^®Å ã¨$+≤ì
neonatal ѨÙ>˜ì# =∂ã¨~֒ǨÅ
neonate <ˇÅ x~_«x tâ◊∞=Ù. ~ larvae
_ç~ÉèíHí~, JǨC_Ë Ñ¨Ù>˜ì# rq
neophobia HÁ`ŒÎ J~>ı ÉèíÜ«µ~
neoplasm Hí}˜u
neoplasticism #= HíÅÊ<®ÇÍ^°~
neorealism #=ºÇÍã¨Î=`ÍÇÍ^°~
neoteny ÃÑ^°ÌÇÍà◊§Ö’x JǨiǨHífi ÅHí∆
}®Å∞
nephritis =∞¥„`ŒÇ≤~_« ÉÏ^è°
nephrogenic =∞¥„`ŒÇ≤~_«[ (#º)
nephrolithiasis =∞¥„`ŒÇ≤~_«~Ö’ O®à◊∞§
L~_«_«~
nephrolithotomy =∞¥„`ŒÇ~
≤ _ÍÅ #∞~z
O®à◊∞¡ `˘Åy~K«@~
nephrology =∞¥„`ŒÇ≤~_« âÍG~
nephrosis =∞¥„`ŒÇ≤~_« Çͺkè
nephrostomy =∞¥„`ŒÇ≤~_ÍÅ zè„nHíO°}
nepotism P„t`Œ ǨHí∆áå`Œ~, |~^è°∞ „Ç‘u
nerve <®_ç. afferent ~ JaèÇÍÇ≤Ï<®_ç.
automatic ~ ã¨fiÜ«µ~KÀk`Œ <®_ç.
cranial ~ HíáåÅ<®_ç. motor ~
„¿ÑO°Hí <®_ç. ~ deafness #O®Å∞ ^≥|ƒ
u#_«~ =Å¡ HíeQÕ K‹=∞∞_«∞. efferent
neo-colonialism

285

neuritis

JѨ"åÇ≤Ï<å_ç ~ grafting <®_çx
J~@∞Hí@∞ì. parasympathetic ~
ǨO®#∞Éèí¥`Œ<®_ç.
peripheral ~
ǨinèÜ«µ<®_ç. sensory ~ ã¨ÊO°≈<®_ç. ~
suture #O®xfl Hí∞>˜ì JuH˜~K«_«~
nerve gas <®_ô ÇÍÜ«µ∞=Ù
nervism <®_ô xÜ«µ~„`«} ÇÍ^°~
nervous <®_ô ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#, ^è≥·O°º~ÖËx
nervously J^è≥·O°º~Qå, ÉèíÜ«µ~`À
nervousness J^è≥·O°ºã≤÷u, #O®Å |Å
Ç‘Ï#`Œ
nest Qõ¥_«∞, Qõ∞~ѨÙ, ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~. cell ~
Hí} ã¨=∞¥Ç¨Ï~
net =Å, xHíO°~. ~ asset value (NAV)
xHíO° Pã≤Î qÅ∞=. ~ asset value per
share ÇÍ>Ï XHí¯~>˜H˜ xHíO° Pã≤Î
qÅ∞=. ~ book value `ŒO°∞Qõ∞^°Å#∞
fã≤ÇıÜ«µQå q∞ye# qÅ∞=. ~ cash
xHíO° #Qõ^°∞. ~ expenditure xHí~°
=ºÜ«µ~. ~ foreign investment xHíO°
q^Õj ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç. ~ gain xHõO°ÖÏÉèí~.
~ income xHíO° P^®Ü«µ~. ~ loss
xHíO° #+¨ì~. ~ national product
xHõO° *Ïfܡ∂`ŒÊuÎ. ~ price xHíO°
^è°O°. ~ profit xHíO° ÖÏÉèí~. ~
revenue xHíO° O®|_ç. ~ value
xHíO°=∞¥Åº~. ~ salary xHí~° r`Œ~.
~ weight xHíO° |O°∞=Ù. ~ worth
xHíO° ã¨~ǨuÎ. ~ yield xHíO° kQõ∞|_ç
network *ÏÖÏHßO° =º=ã¨÷, Ü«µ~„`Í~Qõ~
neural <®_ô ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
neuralgia <®_ô ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·# <˘Ç≤Ê
neurasthenia #O®Å |ÅÇ‘Ï#`Œ
neurectomy <®_ôKıÛù^°#
neuritis <®_ô ÉÏ^è°. alcoholic ~ =∞^°º
áå#~ =Å¡ =KıÛ <®_ô ÉÏ^è°. diabetic
~ =∞^è°∞Çı∞ǨÏ~ =Å¡ =KıÛ <®_ô ÉÏ^è°

286

neuro
neuro <®_ô ã¨~|~^è°"≥∞·#
neurogenesis #O®Å ÃÑO°∞Qõ∞^°Å#∞

q=

i~K«@~
neurologist <®_ô âÍG xѨÙ}∞_«∞
neurology <®_ô âÍG~
neuropathology <®_ô (ã¨~|~^è°)

news caster ÇÍO°ÎÅ∞ K«kÇı
news conference Ǩ„uHß

=ºH˜Î
qÖËYO°∞Å

ã¨=∂Çıâ◊~

Çͺkè

q*Ï˝# âÍG~
neuropathy #O®ÅÇͺkè
neurophysician <®_ô âÍG "≥·^°∞º_«∞
neurosis =∞<À^ÒO°ƒÅº~. anxiety ~
=∞<ÀÇͺHí∞Å`Œ. cardiac ~ Qõ∞~_≥[|∞ƒ

L~^Õ"≥Ø##fl z~`Œ
neuro-surgeon <®_ô â◊GzH˜`ŒûHí∞_«∞
neurosurgery <®_ô â◊G zH˜`Œû
neurosyphilis #O®ÅHí∞ ™ÈH˜# ã¨ÇÍܵ

Çͺkè
neurotic =∂#ã≤Hí O’y
neurotransmitter <®_ô „Ǩ™®i}˜
neutral `Œ@ã¨÷
neutralisation `Œ@ã‘÷HíO°}~
neutralism `Œ@ã¨÷`Œ
neutrality `Í@ã¨÷º~, xë®ÊH˜∆Hí`Œ,

niggardly

L^®

ã‘#`Œ
neutron J}∞ã¨~|~kè
nevus áåeáÈ=_«~
newborn JǨC_Ë Ñ¨Ù>˜ì#
new class #¥`Œ# =O°æ~
new criticism #¥`Œfl q=∞O°≈ Ǩ^°úu
new humanism #=º =∂#=`Í ÇÍ^°~
new international economic order

#¥`Œ# J~`ŒO®˚fÜ«∂i÷Hí =º=ã¨÷
new left #¥`Œ# ÇÍ=∞ǨHí∆~
new objectivity #=º ™®fi#∞Éèí= ÇÍ^°~
news agency ÇÍO®Î ã¨~ã¨÷
news agent Ǩ„uHß q„Hı`Œ/ „Ǩuxkè
news cast „Ǩ™®O° HßO°º„Hí=∞~

news copy ÇÍO®Î„Ǩu
news flash "≥∞O°∞Ѩ٠ÇÍO°Î
news letter ã¨=∂KÍO° Ǩ„`Œ~,
newsman qÖËHíi
newspaper ÇÍO®ÎǨ„uHí
newspaper man XHí Ǩ„uHí

ÇÍO®ÎÖËY

`ŒO°Ñ¶¨Ù#

ǨxKı¿ã qÖËHíi/ á¶È>’„QåѶ¨O∑
Ǩ„uHíÅ∞ÇÍ_Ë <®}º`Œ `ŒHí∞¯=
QõÅ Hßy`Œ~
newsreader ÇÍO°ÎÅ∞ K«kÇı =ºH˜Î
newsreel ÇÍO®Î^°i≈x, ÇÍO®Îz„`Œ~
news release Ǩ„uHß „ǨHí@#
news room "å~°ÎÅ∞ ¿ãHíi~Kı, O®¿ã Qõk
news stand Ǩ„uHíÅ∞
q„Híܵ~Kı
^°∞Hß}~
news values „Ǩ™®O° =∞¥ÖϺÅ∞, ÇÍO®Î
„Ǩ=∂}®Å∞
newsworthy „ǨK«∞O°}Hí∞/ „Ǩ™®O®xH˜
ܡ∂Qõº"≥∞·# ÇÍO°Î
newsy ÇÍO®ÎÉèíi`Œ
new wave HÁ`ŒÎ áÈHí_«Å∞
newsprint

new

world

information

order

#¥`Œ# „ǨǨ~K« ã¨=∂KÍO° q^è•#~
nexus ã¨~|~^è°~, ã¨~ǨO°¯~
nib áåo, =∞∞eH˜
niche (QÀ_«) Qõ¥_«∞† ã¨=∞∞z`Œ ™®÷#~
nictonasty x„^°Ö’ HíkeHíÅ∞
nidifugous Qõ¥_«∞ =ke áÈÜ˵ z#fl
ǨH˜∆
nidus xÇÍã¨~, LxH˜ Ǩ@∞ì
niger seed "≥„i/ Qõ_ç¤ #∞=ÙfiÅ∞
niggard Ö’aè† KÍÖÏ z#fl"≥∞∞`ŒÎ~Ö’ WKıÛ
niggardly Å∞|ú, Ç≤ã≤<®i

287

niggle
niggle J=∞∞Yº~, q+¨Ü«µ„â◊^°ú
night blindness OÕrHí>˜
nightmare Ç‘_«HíÅ
night soil =∞Å~
nihilism â◊¥#ºÇÍ^°~
nimbus nÇ≤Î =∞~_«Å~, =O®¬HßÅ Çı∞Ѷ¨∞~
nipple K«#∞"≥∞∞#
nisi `Í`ͯeHí, ÖËHíáÈ`Ë, ÖËx ǨHí∆~Ö’
nit ¿Ñ#∞Qõ∞_«∞¤
nitre 㨥OÕHßO°~
nival =∞~K«∞=Å¡ ã¨~Éèíq~Kı Éè“QÀoHí

=∂O°∞ÊÅ∞
nivation Qõ_«¤Hí>˜ì HíiyáÈ=_«~
nobb (^è°xHí) Éèí¥™®fiq∞
nobble J„Hí=∞ Ǩ^°úuÖ’ _«|∞ƒ

ã¨~áå

k~K«∞
nobility L^®`ŒÎ`Œ, Hí∞b#`Œ
no confidence motion

JqâÍfiã¨
fO®‡#~/ qâÍfi㨠O®Ç≤Ï`Œº fO®‡#~
nocturnal O®„u ã¨~|~kè, xâßK«i
nod J~wHßO°~, ã¨=∞‡u, `ŒÅ TǨ_«~
node `ŒO°~Qõ~Ö’ XHí a~^°∞=Ù† Hí}∞ѨÙ
nodule |∞_çÃÑ
noiety kfiâÍY
noise O˘^°,
„â◊∞uHí@∞"≥·# (^è°fix,
K«Ç¨C_«∞), â◊ÉÏÌ~`ŒO®Ü«µ~
noiseless xâ◊≈|Ì
nomad ^Õâ◊k=∞‡i, Jã≤úO°ÇÍã≤† ǨO°º@#

nomadism ^Õâ◊k=∞‡i `Œ#~
no man's land qÇÍ^°„Qõã¨Î Éèí¥q∞,
JkèHßO°O°Ç≤Ï`Œ „áå~`Œ~
nomenclature <®=∞(HíO°})Ǩ^°úu, <®=∞
xOÕÌâ◊#~† ǨiÉè•+¨, â◊ÉÏÌ=o, <®=∂=o
nominal <®=∞=∂„`Œ, ã¨fiÅÊ"≥∞·#, z#fl
"≥∞∞`ŒÎ~. ~ account <®=∞=∂„`ŒÑ¨Ù

non greasy