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Alex Randall

Sue Briggs
English 1010
MW @ 1:00 p.m.
December 8th, 2014
Annotated Bibliography

The Size of America


Research Question: What is causing obesity in Americans today?
Introduction
In America today, about 27% of citizens are suffering from what we call
obesity. Im curious to know what is causing all of this non-sense; I hate hearing
people say that America is the country of obesity. Research shows that by 2040 the
majority of Americans will be obese, and maybe 5-15% of Americans will be
considered a healthy weight. So what is causing obesity? Is it the fast-food industry? The
way we exercise and take care of our bodies? Or is it the uprising in social media and
updates of the 21st century technology? Lets take a look at a couple of resources and see
what other people are saying about this topic.
Source #1:
Cespedes, Andrea. Obesity in Children & Technology. LIVE STRONG.LIVESTRONG,
16 Aug. 2013 Web.
Summary:
In Andrea Cespedess article, Obesity in Children & Technology, she explains the
effects that technology has had on children in their active play. She explains that though
they may be beneficial in learning and researching, technology is also becoming a
contributor in what is causing a social epidemic in childhood obesity. She asserts that

there have been studies in Canada showing, The study found that children who spent 3
or more hours a day in front of technology had between a 17- and 44-percent increase of
risk of being overweight, or a 10- to 61-percent increase risk in obesity (paragraph 4).
Cespedes states that the U.S. National Institute of Health suggest that children get at least
1 hour of play in their day and not more than 2 hours of screen-time play. In finish, she
mentions that fast food and caloric intake is a big factor of obesity and not enough
exercise as well, saying that there isnt enough nutritional education in the world and if
that is to continue, the trend of obesity will continue.
Rhetorical Analysis:
Cespedess article is valuable because it can be easily understood by all ages.
Regarding ethos, she is very sophisticated and makes you believe she knows what shes
talking about. She validates all of her information, which also adds to logos, Cespedess
article is very factual and informing, she appeals to logical reasoning. Her emotion and
tone is very strong and she seems concerning to these young children, she wants the
audience to realize the different threats of modern technology. In relevance to the topic of
causing obesity, I feel this article fits perfectly.
Assessment:
I enjoyed this article because it was sweet and simple, it had the exact information
I was looking for to support my paper. This article influenced me by adding a different
perspective to my knowledge by realizing how this obesity epidemic is targeting young
children. It also adds to the broad spectrum of things that do cause obesity and according
to the research of Cespedes, modern technology is one of them.

Source #2:
Hellmich, Nanci "Obesity predicted for 40% of America." USA Today n.d.: Academic
Search Premier. 14 Oct. 2003. Print.
Summary:
Nanci Hellmich, author of Obesity Predicted for 40% of America and writer in
USA Today talks about how obesity is coming to control America. She asserts that about
40% of Americans will be obese by 2010 and by 2040; almost every American will be
obese or overweight. She states that, Being overweight increases the risk of diabetes,
heart disease, cancer, arthritis and other health problems (paragraph 4). She goes onto
tell about obesity and its factors on the body and America, and also adds in quotes from
other researchers.
Rhetorical Analysis:
Other than Hellmichs article being from USA Today, I found her article to be
rather credible and a good source of information. She added great points about how
obesity causes health issues and disease while also adding in quotes from other authors
and researchers. With the source being published in USA Today, I figured that Hellmichs
audience would be a majority of older people. Her word use isnt technical, so its easier
for a young person to understand, if need be. Hellmich validates her information with
researchers opinions, for example she states a quote by CDC Health Economist Larissa
Roux saying, Obesity is a complex problem that will require renewed efforts by
individuals, health care professionals, communities and policy makers to create a more
comprehensive solution (paragraph 6).

Assessment:
This piece effected my research question. I hadnt realized how bad Americas
obesity problem really is until reading this. This article was printed in 2003 and she stated
that over 40% of Americans (68 million people!!) would be considered obese. Well, its
2014 and Im well aware of the obesity in America, I just think it is so crazy how fast
they predicted obesity to grow. I Googled the percentage of obesity in America and it
came up with only 27.7%, that is a little more than half what was predicted for 4 years
ago. I dont believe that in 2040 only 5-15% of Americans will be at a healthy weight, I
think there will be more than that. This article added a different perspective to my
research question in how obesity triggers disease. I had totally forgotten that obesity is
one of the reasons there is so many cases of diabetes in young children.
Source #3:
Paddock, Catharine. Rise in Obesity due to Decline in Exercise, Not Over-eatin.
Medical News Today. Medical News Today, 8 July 2014. Web.
Summary:
In the article Rise in Obesity due to Decline in Exercise, Not Over-eatin, author
Catharine Paddock quoted Professor Ladabaum and expressed how obesity isnt being
caused by caloric count but by the decline in exercise. Paddock states that, More than
half (51.7%) of female adults in the US reported no leisure-time physical activity in 2010.
This proportion is nearly triple what it was in 1994, when 19.1% of adult American
women reported doing no exercise (paragraph 3). She goes on talking about how even
the average waist size and BMI have also climbed up; those rates arent as high as actual
obesity. Paddock asserts that Prof. Ladabaum states that, At the population level, we

found a significant association between the level of leisure-time physical activity, but not
daily caloric intake, and the increases in both BMI and waist circumference (paragraph
10). Paddock concludes the article with saying that obesity isnt caused by caloric count
but that his studies show that its caused from not enough exercise!
Rhetorical Analysis:
Paddock did a great job putting this article together. She portrayed logos by
having validations and back up information for the things that she quoted. Paddock
establish credibility by knowing she knew what she was talking about and the way she
portrayed themselves made the article easy to understand for all ages. She also added in
thoughts and studies done by Professor Ladabaum. The author of this article sounds very
sophisticated and sincere and this piece is also relative in supporting my paper.
Assessment:
This piece helped me to gain more information and knowledge about obesity that
I didnt know before. I liked how Paddock added BMI and average waist size and how it
has slowly risen over the years, not many people think about BMI and belly size. The
information taken from this article has reflected the way I see obesity and has helped to
support my paper, I enjoyed reading this article and gaining different perspectives.
Source #4:
President & Fellows of Harvard College Obesity in America: Whats Driving the
Epidemic? Harvard Mens Health Watch Feb. 2012: 5-7 Print.
Summary:
In the article Obesity in America: Whats Driving the Epidemic, the authors state
that obesity is a complex disorder and even scientists havent yet completely understood

it. Throughout this article they talk about ways you can help yourself from avoiding
obesity. They state that the average person, spends 55% of their waking hours sitting
down (paragraph 2, page 6) purveying that watching TV consumes most of an
Americans day. The authors give out a list of things you can do if you are suffering from
involuntary or voluntary obesity. In finish they mention that just walking briskly for 30
minutes every day is a great start!
Rhetorical Analysis:
This piece was a great source of credible information; it was published from
Harvard, which makes it even more credible. The authors obviously knew what they were
talking about, you could tell just by the tone of the piece. It was very peaceful and they
also did a good job in putting a lot of information in while keeping the boredom out. All
of the points that were made were backed up with validated sources and they never left
you hanging with a question. The authors got all their points across and did not struggle
trying to get them to you.
Assessment:
I really enjoyed reading this piece. It helped me become more educated about
obesity. When someone gets called fat most people dont ever consider that maybe its a
genetic disorder, most people just assume they eat too much McDonalds. It has helped
me to better understand that not even the smartest people in the world know the cause of
obesity. In this article they stated more than one cause of obesity, not just one topic. This
piece is very informative and helps to more understand obesity. I learned a lot of things
reading this article, and ways to overcome the epidemic.

Source #5:
Zinczenko, David. "Don't Blame the Eater." They Say/I Say. 2E ed. Graff, Gerald, Cathy
Birkenstein, and Russel Durst. New York: W. W. Norton, 2012. 391-394. Print.
Summary:
In his essay Dont Blame the Eater, David Zinczenko claims the lack of caloric
and nutritional information in the fast-food industry is the reason for obese teens these
days. He talks about him being a, 1980s latchkey kid (paragraph 2, page 391) and how
he was a poorly fast-food patron (paragraph 2, page 391). He explains how easy it is
for teenage kids to become obese while consuming fast-food daily and stating how hard it
is to find a healthy meal. Zinczenko asserts to, Drive down any thoroughfare in
America, and I guarantee youll see one of our countrys more than 13,000 McDonalds
restaurants. Now, drive back up the block and try to find someplace to buy a grapefruit
(paragraph 4, page 391) implying that it truly is difficult to find a healthy alternative. In
finish he complies that without warning labels on fast food, the industry is very
vulnerable.
Rhetorical Analysis:
Zinczenko does a great job keeping up to beat in his essay. He doesnt loose the
readers attention and has a sarcastic tone. He asks a question or makes a point and
doesnt follow through with answering or fulfilling that point with data. The type of
audience he portrays in his essay would be to any teenager or anyone older, he doesnt
use too big of words and keeps his essay understandable. His essay is a good source of
entertainment, plus the essay comes from an English book so I believe that it is a credible
source.

Assessment:
Although Zinczenko has good points, he doesnt really have an informative piece.
He gives more of a story than he does information, which is fine by me but for someone
looking for why the fast-food industry is causing obesity he doesnt give that. He makes
it kind of the consumers fault rather than the fast-food industry. He contradicts himself I
guess is what Im saying! Yes, the fast-food industry isnt very good at giving out
nutritional facts but that doesnt mean you cant ask for them, and he states that you can
ask, which I liked! This helps my research question by adding to my knowledge of
diabetes and obesity, as well as how fast-food restaurants can double your caloric intake
so fast!
Conclusion
In finish, many things such as genetics, fast food, metabolic disorders, electronics,
playtime-leisure, personal hygiene, not getting enough sleep, and smoking, cause obesity.
In the research that I have done I have learned a lot more about obesity than I knew
before I started this bibliography. I had no idea how much can really be caused by the
simplest things. Obesity is a huge problem in the United States and I feel like people are
to blame for this epidemic. Throughout this bibliography are a lot of facts and issues with
obesity and I feel that there are a lot more out there; we have so many sources and ways
of obtaining all of this information. After all of my research I feel that my questions are
answered and that I have reliable sources for obtaining the information Ive gathered.