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WELCOME

NURSING
THEORIES
• PHILOSOPHIES
• CONCEPTUAL MODELS
• VALUES &
• APPROACHES
Nursing in 21st Century
§ Nursing is recognised as an academic
discipline and a profession.
§ A move towards theory-based practice
made contemporary nursing more
meaningful and significant by shifting
nursing’s focus from vocation to an
organised profession.
§ More significance of evidence based
practice.
§ Struggle to increase the knowledge
base.
What is a theory?
§ Theory is an organised, coherent, and
systematic articulation of a set of
statements related to significant
questions in a discipline that are
communicated in a meaningful
whole.
§ A theory is a group of related concepts
that propose action that guide
practice.
§ Theories offer ways of looking at a
DEFENITION : THEORY

• Set of interpretative assumptions,


principles or propositions that help
explain or guide action (Young,
Taylor,& Repenning, 2001)

• Creative and rigorous structuring of
ideas that project a tentative
purposeful and systematic view of
phenomena (Chinn & Krammer,
2003)
DEFENITION :NURSING
THEORY
• A nursing theory is a set of concepts,
definitions, relationships, and
assumptions or propositions derived
from nursing models or from other
disciplines and project a purposive,
systematic view of phenomena by
designing specific inter-relationships
among concepts for the purposes of
describing, explaining, predicting or
prescribing.
DEFENITION :NURSING
THEORY
• Nursing theory is defined as a
conceptualization of some aspects of
nursing reality communicated for the
purpose of describing phenomena,
explaining relationship between
phenomena, predicting consequences
or prescribing nursing care.

• Theory is "a creative and rigorous


structuring of ideas that projects a
tentative, purposeful, and systematic
Components of a theory

CONCPTS DEFINITIONS

NURSING
THEORY

ASSUMPTIONS PHENOMINA
THEORIES ARE STUDIED
UNDER
• FOUR HEADINGS

vMetaparadigm
vNursing
Philosophies
vConceptual
models
vTheory
Approach
METAPARADIGM
With Pattern……
METAPARADIGM

• Metaparadigm is the most global


philosophical or conceptual
framework of a profession.
• It is the ideology within which the
theories, knowledge and process for
knowing find meaning and coherence
• The word originated from two Greek
words ‘meta’ meaning ‘with’ and
‘paradigm’ meaning ‘pattern’.

The four concepts considered
to be central to nursing are:
• Nursing theories address and specify
relationship among four major
abstract concepts referred to as
metaparadigm of nursing.

• Person or client.
• The recipient of nursing care.

• Environment.
• The internal and external surroundings
that affect the client.
The four concepts considered
to be central to nursing are:
• Health.
• The degree of wellness or
wellbeing that the client
experiences.

• Nursing.
• The attributes, characteristics
and actions of the nurse providing
care on behalf of or in conjugation
NURSING PHILOSOPHY
Love and pursuit of wisdom….
PHILOSOPHIES

Philosophy is defined as follows:


• Love and pursuit of wisdom by


intellectual means and moral self-
discipline.
• Investigation of the nature, causes, or
principles of reality, knowledge, or
values, based on logical reasoning
rather than empirical methods.
• Statement of believes and values about
human beings and their world.
NURSING PHILOSOPHY


• Nursing philosophy has been
described as “a statement of
foundational and universal
assumptions, believes and
principles about the nature of
knowledge and thought and about
the nature of the entities
represented in the metaparadigm.
(Reed, 1995)
Nursing Theory &
Philosophies
Theory Philosophy
Florence Nightingale’s Focuses on nursing and the
Legacy of caring patient environment
Virginia Henderson’s relationship .
Patients require help towards
Definition of Nursing achieving independence.

Jean Watson’s Caring is a universal, social


Philosophy and phenomenon that is only
Science of caring effective when practiced
interpersonally considering
humanistic aspects and caring.
CONCEPTUAL MODEL
Concept….
Conceptual Model….
Conceptual Framework….
CONCEPT

• Concepts are phenomena that occur


in nature or in thought.
• Concept is defined as abstract term
derived from particular attributes
(Kerlinger 1986) and a symbolic
statement describing a phenomena
or class of phenomena (Kim 2000).
• Concepts are formulated in words
that enable people to communicate
their meanings about relationships
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK &
MODELS
• Conceptual framework is a group of
related concepts. It gives a overall
view or orientation to focus
thoughts. It can be considered as
an umbrella under which many
concepts can exist.
• Conceptual models It is a term used
interchangeably with conceptual
framework. It is a graphical
illustration or diagram of
IMPORTANCE OF CONCEPTS IN
NURSING
• Models are representations of the
interaction among and between the
concepts
• Conceptual frame work directs how
the actions are carried out.
• They provide an overview of the
thinking behind the theory and may
demonstrate how theory can be
introduced into practice.
• Models are useful as they allow the
concepts in nursing theory to be
successfully applied to nursing
APPROCHES TO
NURSING THEORIES
General System Theory –

• It describes how to break whole
things into parts & then to learn how
the parts work together in “systems”.
Eg: Molecules in chemistry, cultures
in sociology, and organs in Anatomy
& Health in Nursing.


Adaptation Theory –

• It defines adaptation as the


adjustment of living matter to other
living things & to environmental
conditions. Adaptation is a
continuously occurring process that
effects change &involves interaction
& response.

• Human adaptation occurs on three levels
Developmental Theory –
• It outlines the process of growth &
development of humans as orderly &
predictable, beginning with conception
& ending with death.

• The progress & behaviors of an


individual within each stage are unique.


CLASSIFICATION OF
NURSING THEORIES
Depending On Function
• Descriptive
• To identify the properties and workings of a
discipline
• Explanatory
• To examine how properties relate and thus
affect the discipline
• Predictive
• To calculate relationships between
properties and how they occur
• Prescriptive
• To identify under which conditions
relationships occur.
Depending on the
Generalisability of their
principles.
• Metatheory:
• The theory of theory. Theory about a
theory. Focuses on broader issues.
Focus on generating knowledge.
• Grand theory: (Macro Theories)
• Very broader in nature. Attempt to
explain very broader areas in a
discipline and may include many
theories.

Depending on the
Generalisability of their
principles.
• Middle range theory:
• is specific and deal with a limited
number of concepts and a limited
aspect of real world.
• Practice theory: (Micro Theory)
• explores one particular situation
found in nursing. It identifies explicit
goals and details how these goals will
be achieved.

Based on the philosophical
underpinnings of the
theories
• Needs theories
• These theories are based around
helping individuals to fulfill their
physical and mental needs.
• Interaction theories
• These theories revolve around the
relationships nurses form with patients.


Based on the philosophical
underpinnings of the
theories
• Outcome theories
• These portray the nurse as the
changing force, who enables individuals
to adapt to or cope with ill health
• Humanistic Theories
• Humanistic theories developed in
response to the psychoanalytic thought
that a person’s destiny was determined
early in life. Humanistic theories
emphasize a person’s capacity for self-
actualization.
VALUES OF NURSING
THEORIES
The characteristics of
theories
• Interrelating concepts in such a way as to
create a different way of looking at a
particular phenomenon.
• Logical in nature.
• Generalizable.
• Bases for hypotheses that can be tested.
• Increasing the general body of knowledge
within the discipline through the research
implemented to validate them.
• Used by the practitioners to guide and
improve their practice.
• Consistent with other validated theories,
laws, and principles but will leave open
unanswered questions that need to be
Importance of nursing
theories
• Nursing theory aims to describe, predict
and explain the phenomenon of
nursing .
• It provides the foundations of nursing
practice, help to generate further
knowledge and indicate in which
direction nursing should develop in
the future.
• Theory is important because it helps us
to decide what we know and what we
need to know .
Importance of nursing
theories
• The benefits of having a defined body
of theory in nursing include better
patient care, enhanced professional
status for nurses, improved
communication between nurses, and
guidance for research and education
• As medicine tries to make a move
towards adopting a more
multidisciplinary approach to health
care, nursing continues to strive to