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Everyday English in Conversation

Everyday English in Conversation

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Everyday English in Conversation

Does it happen to you that sometimes you feel frustrated because you find yourself unable to express yourself clearly and yet when you hear native speakers, you feel that it is so simple and easy? In this section, we will focus on learning idiomatic and everyday expressions to help us deal with daily conversational situations. As each dialogue is accompanied with carefully designed exercises, follow the recommended steps and practice at your own pace. Now, surf into Everyday English in Conversation!!!

• •

What happened when John called Ben last night? What was Ben probably doing when John called him?

• Was John frustrated? The following is a dialogue between John and Sydney. While listening, think of the following • What did dialogue as many times as you think questions. Play thethe speakers in the dialogue want. Ben should do?

You're so difficult to get through to!

You're so difficult to get through to!
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The following is a dialogue between John and Sydney. While listening, think of the following questions. Play the dialogue as many times as you want.

• •

What happened when John called Ben last night? What was Ben probably doing when John called him? Was John frustrated? What did the speakers in the dialogue think Ben should do?

Operator: Dave:

Pacific Bell. May I help you? Yes. I'd like to set up a telephone service, please.

Operator: Dave: Opeator: Dave:

Do you presently have service? No. This is new. All right. I'll connect you with our customer service department. Please hold. Thanks.
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Operator Pacific Bell. May I : help you? Dave: Yes. I'd like to set up a telephone service, please. Operator Do you presently : have service? Dave: No. This is new. Opeator: All right. I'll connect you with our customer service department. Please hold. Dave: Thanks. EVERYDAY ENGLISH Everyday English is an on-line English school that teaches skills and knowledge of the English language to our students/clients. We have professional English instructors trained to teach and guide you to improve your English skills via the internet or phone, and apply what you've learned in your everyday lives. Our Goal: To make you a confident English speaker Give classes that will make you practice English everyday by listening and talking to professional English trainers. One-on-One Live English training ANYWHERE, ANYTIME. You can have your class at home or in your office, using your phone or the internet, anytime you like. Speak English daily with Everyday English

The Everyday English Advantage:
AFFORDABLE – No extra charges, no transportation costs, no time off from work or school. Simply pay for the lessons you consume, wherever you are, whenever you are free. Get the most for your investment. Pay through our

installment modes of P750.00 for 5 lessons or get bigger discounts for investing in the whole module, get up to 20% savings per module. CONVENIENT – No traveling, no traffic, no time off from work. Have the class in the comforts of your home, in the privacy of your desk in the office. We bring the classes to you. Have classes during your break time, or over when you have a 30 minute break. Schedule a lesson up to an hour before the time. EFFECTIVE – We have over 300 different lessons available in different levels and courses. After your FREE ASSESSMENT, we will guide you through the lessons that will help you most. You have the option to complete any module that you’ve started, or move-on to the next level, once you and your trainer both agree on your progress. Customize your learning to focus on your specific needs.

Use of Non-Finites - Part - 3
Gerundial Infinitive : The infinitives that are used as an adjective or an adverb are called 'gerundial infinitives'. A gerundial infinitive has many uses:To modify a Verb:a. He decided to work there. (Purpose) b. He went to the place to save him. (Purpose) c. We eat to live. (Cause) In these sentences infinitive is representing a 'purpose or cause'. Therefore, it modifies a verb here. To qualify an Adjective:a. It is good to go for a walk daily. b. She is quick to learn things. c. He is hard to cope with. In these sentences infinitive is representing the feature of an adjective. Therefore, it qualifies adjectives like good, quick and hard. To qualify a Sentence:a. To go there, I need some money. b. To go for a walk, we should get up early in the morning. c. To get a job, he had to go through many interviews. In these sentences infinitive is featuring the sentences like 'I need some money, we should get up early in the morning and he had to go through many interviews'. And it is used as isolated from the main sentence that is, it is not related to the main sentence

Articles- A, An, The
There are three articles: A, An, The. (They are also called determiners) A or An is called the Indefinite Article, because it is used when we do not speak of any particular/definite person or thing: He met a boy in the park. It is an orange. The is called the Definite Article, because it is used when we speak of some particular/definite person or thing:

This is the shirt that I bought yesterday. He is the doctor who treated my brother.

Use of 'A'
Before:1. Words beginning with the sound of a consonant: a book, a player, a table. 2. Vowels having the sound of 'yu': a European, a useful thing, a utensil. 3. 'O' when it is sounded as 'wa': a one-rupee note, a one-way traffic.

Use of 'An'
Before:1. Words beginning with a vowel sound: an apple, an umbrella, an hour, an honest girl, an honourable person. 2. Abbreviations starting with a vowel sound: an M.A., an MLA

Use of 'The'
1. When we refer to some particular person or thing; as , This is the shirt I bought yesterday. Call the boy sitting in the corner. The shawls of Kashmir are famous. 2. When a singular Noun is used to indicate a whole class: The elephant is a big animal The dog is a faithful animal. 3. With superlative degree: This is the best book on this subject. He is the richest person of our colony. 4. With an adverb in such sentences: The higher we climb the cooler it is. 5. Before rivers, range of mountains, group of islands, oceans, gulfs and bays: The Ganga, the Jamuna, the Himalayas, the Andaman islands, the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Persian Gulf.

6. With the name of directions, planets etc: The east, the west, the sky, the sun, the moon 7. Before the names of well-known books, newspapers, public buildings, institutions, associations, etc.: The Gita, the Ramayana, the Times of India, the Taj Mahal, the University of Delhi, the Golden Temple, the United Nations. 8. Before the names of peoples (nations), races and Adjectives formed from Proper Nouns, Common Nouns, etc: The English, the Hindus, the Sikhs, the Indians, the Japanese, the rich, the poor, the needy 9. With part of a body: He was struck on the head. 10. With a proper noun being used as a common noun: Kashmir is the Switzerland of India. He is the Mahatma Gandhi/Edison of our college. 11. Countries/states named due to geographical divisions: the U.S.A., the U.K., the U.P., the Madhya Pradesh 12. Miscellaneous uses: This is the same book. All the boys went on picnic. He ate the whole meal. Have you read about the French Revolution? He met the prime minister of India yesterday. They want to join the military service. Who is the principal of your school? He was the first man to reach there. Has she joined the Congress?

Repetition of Article
A. Compare the two sentences: (i) She had a red and white saree. (ii) She had a red and a white saree. The first sentence means that he had only one saree which was partly red and white. The second sentence means that he had two sarees, one red and other

black. (i) The Principal and Manager was present there. (ii) The Principal and the Manager were present there. The first sentence shows that only one person who was both Principal and Manager was present there. The second sentence shows that two persons, one Principal and the Manager, were present there

Articles Fill-ups - 5
Fill in the blanks with 'a', 'an' or 'the' :1. ................. ganga flows into ................ bay of Bengal. 2. Please return me ............ novel I gave you last week. 3. Shopkeeper showed them ................. good toy. 4. He reads ................ Indian Express everyday. 5. Ask guests to sit in ............... drawing room. 6. Mars is not .............. biggest planet. 7. Himalayas lie to .............. north of India. 8. He studies in ................. university. 9. He bought .................. half dozen oranges. 10. I met ................... European in market yesterday. Answers:1. the, the, 2. the, 3. a, 4. the, 5. the, 6. the, 7. the, 8. the, 9. a 10. a Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Articles - practice exercise Reactions:

Articles - Fills-ups - 4
Fill in the blanks with 'a', 'an' or 'the' :1. Please give me .............. book to read. 2. ............ lady he met at ................ party is ................ assistant manager in ................ multinational company. 3. They will play .............. match tomorrow. 4. What ................ beautiful scene! 5. ................. man who is standing there always speaks .............. truth. 6. My sister is ................. M.A. 7. Rakesh is ............... cleverest boy in his class. 8. We met ............... MLA in ................ party yesterday. 9. .............. needy should be helped by ................. rich. 10. She is ............... Aishwarya Rai of our college.

11. My grandfather used to help ................. weak. 12. He is ............... principal of our school. 13. .............. people are tolerant. 14. ............... ramayana is ............... holy book of ................ Hindus. 15. Tell them not to make ................ noise in .............. class. 16. Can you tell me who ............. third man is? 17. ................ harder we work, ............... smarter we become. 18. He is ............... doctor who treated my brother. 19. Have you eaten ............. meal I kept in ............... kitchen? 20. Bring ............ chair for our guest. Answers:1. a, 2. the, the, an, a, 3. the, 4. a, 5. the, the, 6. an, 7. the, 8. the, a, 9. the, the, 10. the, 11. the, 12. the, 13. the, 14. the, the, the, 15. a, the, 16. the, 17. the, the, 18. the, 19. the, the, 20. a Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Articles - practice exercise Reactions:

Articles Fill-ups - 3
Fill in the blanks with 'a', 'an' or 'the' :1. He is .......... honorable person. 2. Please give me ........... apple. 3. It is not ......... good chair. 4. He was ......... Mahatma Gandhi of our city. 5. Gold is ............ precious metal. 6. Srilanka is ............ island. 7. English is ........... international language. 8. He is .......... man who met me yesterday. 9. ............ sun rises in .......... east. 10. ............ black and white kitten was playing in garden. 11. I have read ............ first chapter of this book. 12. .......... guide knows .......... way. 13. She is ......... beautiful girl and has .......... good nature. 14. Honesty is ........... best policy. 15. ............. rich as well as ............ poor were benefitted. 16. ........... child was peeling off ........... orange. 17. Please give me .............. one dollar note. 18. It is ........... highest mountain in ............ world. 19. ............ woman is .............. maker of home. 20. ............. headmaster gave us ............ report cards.

Answers:1. an, 2. an, 3. a, 4. the, 5. a, 6. an, 7. an, 8. the, 9. the, the, 10. a, 11. the, 12. the, the, 13. a, a, 14. the, 15. the, the, 16. the, an, 17. a, 18. the, the, 19. a, a, 20. the, the Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Articles - practice exercise Reactions:

Articles Fill-ups - 2
Fill in the blanks with 'a', 'an' or 'the' :1. I watched ....... boy helping ........ old man. 2. ........ Andamans are ......... group of islands in ............ Bay of Bengal. 3. ....... teacher took ........ book out of ....... drawer. 4. ....... lion is ....... king of forest. 5. ....... Gita is ....... holy book of ....... Hindus. 6. ....... rich should help ....... poor. 7. ....... apple ....... day keeps us healthy. 8. He is ...... most corrupt politician. 9. ...... doctor didn't admitted ...... patients in ...... hospital. 10. ...... book you want is not in ...... library. 11. Meena lost ...... bag that I had lent her. 12. ...... gift you want is not available in ....... market. 13. Mount Everest is ............... highest peak. 14. Man landed on ........ Moon in ....... year 1969. 15. ...... earth is bigger than ........ moon. 16. He wants to buy ....... new car. 17. There was no milk in ........ milkpot, to prepare tea. 18. Many houses were damaged by ........ cyclone. 19. How many apples are there in ....... basket. 20. Is there anybody in ....... house ? Answers:1. a, an, 2. the, a, the, 3. the, a, the, 4. the, the, 5. the, a, the, 6. the, the, 7. an, a, 8. the, 9. the, the, the, 10. the, the, 11. the, 12. the, the, 13. the, 14. the, the, 15. the, the, 16. a, 17. the, 18. the, 19. the, 20. the

Auxiliaries (Modals)
IS TO, ARE TO, AM TO 1. He is to go to market. 2.They are to play the match. 3. I am to take tea. WAS TO, WERE TO 1. She was to wash the clothes. 2. We were to pluck the flowers. HAS TO, HAVE TO, HAD TO (obligation) A. 1. Geeta has to wash the clothes daily. 2. He has to cook the food daily. 3. Ravi and Suresh have to work very hard. B. 1. I had to go to the station. 2. Mohan had to take medicine. 3. We had to help him. SHALL HAVE TO, WILL HAVE TO 1. I shall have to accompany him tomorrow. 2. Meena will not have to go to office. 3. Shall we have to take the exam again? DO, DOES, DID Present Indefinite 1. She does take exercise in the morning. 2. They do play cricket on Sunday. 3. We do read at night. Past Indefinite 1. She did steal. 2. I did go there. Imperative

1. Do meet me tomorrow. 2. Do go there. 3. Never tell a lie.

Causative Verbs

GET
1. Use get according to tense, 2. Place object after the causative verb, 3. Main verb always in 3rd form: Causative Verb(CV) + Object + V 3rd (main verb). Examples 1. I have got the sums solved. 2. She will get the letter written by Ravi. 3. Are you getting your house pained?

MAKE
1. Use make according to tense, 2. Object is the person who is compelled, 3. Main verb always in first form: CV + Object + V 1st form (main verb) Examples 1. He made me laugh. 2. She made the children clean the room. 3. Who is making her cry? 4. Please don't make him tell a lie.

HELP
1. Use help according to tense, 2. Object is the person who is helped, 3. Main verb always in first form: CV + Object + V 1st form (main verb). (In these sentences a person is helped to do a certain things). Examples 1. Help the guests wash their hands. 2. She helped the children do the work.

HAVE
(Same as GET in use and meaning) Examples 1. I have had the sums solved.
2. He will have the letter written by Meena.

3. They had the tiger killed by the hunter.

KEEP
CV + Object (person) + V 1st form + ing. There is generally a period of time in these sentences. Examples 1. They kept her washing the clothes for 2 hours. 2. Did you keep him waiting for one hour?

CAUSE
CV + Object (person) + V 1st form. Instead of a person there are circumstances, things etc. which compel a person to do a certain thing. Examples 1. Fatigue caused him to sleep. Does poCausative Verbs

GET
1. Use get according to tense, 2. Place object after the causative verb, 3. Main verb always in 3rd form: Causative Verb(CV) + Object + V 3rd (main verb). Examples 1. I have got the sums solved. 2. She will get the letter written by Ravi. 3. Are you getting your house pained?

MAKE
1. Use make according to tense, 2. Object is the person who is compelled, 3. Main verb always in first form: CV + Object + V 1st form (main verb) Examples 1. He made me laugh. 2. She made the children clean the room. 3. Who is making her cry? 4. Please don't make him tell a lie.

HELP
1. Use help according to tense, 2. Object is the person who is helped, 3. Main verb always in first form: CV + Object + V 1st form (main verb). (In these sentences a person is helped to do a certain things). Examples 1. Help the guests wash their hands. 2. She helped the children do the work.

HAVE
(Same as GET in use and meaning) Examples 1. I have had the sums solved.
2. He will have the letter written by Meena.

3. They had the tiger killed by the hunter.

KEEP
CV + Object (person) + V 1st form + ing. There is generally a period of time in these sentences. Examples

1. They kept her washing the clothes for 2 hours. 2. Did you keep him waiting for one hour?

CAUSE
CV + Object (person) + V 1st form. Instead of a person there are circumstances, things etc. which compel a person to do a certain thing. Examples 1. Fatigue caused him to sleep.
2. Does poverty cause people to commit crime ? 1. verty cause people to commit crime ?

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Causative Verbs

GET
1. Use get according to tense, 2. Place object after the causative verb, 3. Main verb always in 3rd form: Causative Verb(CV) + Object + V 3rd (main verb). Examples 1. I have got the sums solved. 2. She will get the letter written by Ravi. 3. Are you getting your house pained?

MAKE
1. Use make according to tense, 2. Object is the person who is compelled, 3.

Main verb always in first form: CV + Object + V 1st form (main verb) Examples 1. He made me laugh. 2. She made the children clean the room. 3. Who is making her cry? 4. Please don't make him tell a lie.

HELP
1. Use help according to tense, 2. Object is the person who is helped, 3. Main verb always in first form: CV + Object + V 1st form (main verb). (In these sentences a person is helped to do a certain things). Examples 1. Help the guests wash their hands. 2. She helped the children do the work.

HAVE
(Same as GET in use and meaning) Examples 1. I have had the sums solved.
2. He will have the letter written by Meena.

3. They had the tiger killed by the hunter.

KEEP
CV + Object (person) + V 1st form + ing. There is generally a period of time in these sentences. Examples 1. They kept her washing the clothes for 2 hours. 2. Did you keep him waiting for one hour?

CAUSE
CV + Object (person) + V 1st form. Instead of a person there are circumstances, things etc. which compel a person to do a certain thing. Examples 1. Fatigue caused him to sleep.
2. Does poverty cause people to commit crime ?

Birthday Party
20 Mohit: Hello John, how are you? John: I am fine. How are you Mohit? Do you remember, it is Sunny’s birthday today? Mohit: How can I forget the birthday of such a nice friend. Are you going? John: Definitely. At what time will you go? Mohit: At 7 p.m. Why don’t you come to my house. We’ll go together in my car. John: OK. I’ll come. Have you bought any present for Sunny? Mohit: Not yet. I am unable to decide. And what have you bought? John: I’ll give him Rs.101/- cash. Mohit: We should give him a nice gift. We can also buy a combined gift for him. John: Good idea. Let’s buy a good watch for him. Or suggest other gifts. Mohit: There may be other gifts like cricket bat, a set of pens etc. John: Sunny is fond of playing cricket. Why don’t we buy a good bat and a ball. Mohit: Let’s go to market then. (At Sunny’s House) John: Hello dear Sunny! How are you feeling today? Mohit: You are looking very smart. Sunny: (angrily) I don’t want to talk to you. Have you got time to attend my birthday? Where have you been? Why are you so late? Mohit: In fact we got late in the market. John: We are extremely (very much) sorry. Haven’t you cut the cake as yet? Sunny: How can I? I was to cut the cake at 7.30pm. Now it is 8.00. I have been anxiously waiting for you. John: Now cheer up and cut the cake. We have brought a wonderful gift for you. Where are the candles and the matchbox? Let me light the candles. Call

all the friends and other guests in this room. Mohit: Where is the photographer? Haven’t you arranged a camera? Sunny: Are you seeing a camera there? Mohit: Yeah . Sunny: Then pick it up and become a photographer. Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Conversation Practice : Part 2 Reactions:

Opening a bank Account
19 Harish: Good morning, sir! Account: Good morning! What can I do for you? Harish: I want to open an account in your bank. Account: Which type of account do you want to open ? Harish: I want to open a saving bank account. Account: Please fill this form and get this introduced by a person who has an account in this bank. Harish: How much money is needed to open the account? Account: You can open an SB A/c with minimum amount of Rs.1000/- only. Harish: Will you also issue me a cheque book. Account: You will get a cheque book, and you will have to maintain a minimum balance of Rs.1000/Harish: Thank you. When shall I come to open an account? Account: Come any time between 10am to 1pm. Harish: Thanks for this information. Account: It’s my pleasure. ••• Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Conversation Practice : Part 2 Reactions:

Buying a Mobile
18 Visitor: Excuse me. Salesgirl: Welcome, sir! Visitor: Could you show me a good mobile phone? Salesgirl: Between which range sir? Visitor: Any good camera phone.

Salesgirl: Please come to this side. Here are a few latest models of Nokia, LG and Samsung. Visitor: What is the price of this Nokia model. Salesgirl: It is latest model from Nokia. Its price is Rs.23,000/Visitor: It is really very costly. Salesgirl: But it has great features. Visiter: How much is the resolution of its camera? Salesgirl: It's 1.3 mega pixel. Printing result will be excellent. And it has a video recording of one hour. Now you can shoot any function at your home and enjoy that movie on your computer. Visitor: It is really a fine mobile. If I pay you in cash how much will you charge? Salesgirl: I shall give you this phone in 22,000. Visitor: I won't give you more than 20,000. Salesgirl: Sorry sir! Not even a 100 rupees less. I have told you a very reasonable price. Visitor: Will you give receipt and warranty card? Salesgirl: Definitely sir! Visitor: How much is this Samsung camera mobile? Salesgirl: Rs.12000/- only. It has a rotating camera. It has no video recording. Visitor: I shall go for Nokia 6630. I shall definitely buy it tomorrow. Salesgirl: Most welcome. ••• Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Conversation Practice : Part 2 Reactions:

Talking to Sachin Tendulkar
17 Rishi: Hello! Am I talking to Sachin? Sachin: Of course. Who is there? Rishi: I am Rishi from Delhi. I have been trying to talk to you for many days. I am happy you are attending my call. Sachin: Whenever I have time I do talk to my fans. Rishi, in which class do you study? Rishi: In 12th class. You are a great cricketer. I love your batting. Sachin: Thanks for your appreciation Rishi. Rishi: You always seem full of confidence. Sachin: I always pray to God and He keeps me free from pressure. Rishi: Although you are a great cricketer yet you too have seen many bad

phases in your career. Sachin: Every player passes through a bad period. I am also not in a good form always. It is part of the game. Rishi: Can you guide me about the secret of your success? Sachin: I have worked very hard in life. A person must be very dedicated and willing to sacrifice many things to attain success. Rishi: I want to meet you. Will you give me time? Sachin: Next month I may be in Delhi for 15 days. You can call me next month. I shall definitely meet you. Rishi: Thanking you very much. Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Conversation Practice : Part 2 Reactions:

Calling a Doctor
16 Ravi Khanna: Hello! Is it Vandana Clinic? Receptionist: Yes. Ravi Khanna: Can I talk to Dr. M.K. Sethi? Dr. Sethi: Hello! Ravi Khanna: Good Morning Dr. Sethi! I am Khanna from house no. D-7. My grandfather is seriously ill. He needs immediate treatment. Can you come here to attend him please? Dr. Sethi: Sorry, I am unable to leave my clinic at this time. You will have to bring the patient to my clinic. Ravi Khanna: The condition of the patient is very serious. He can’t be moved to your clinic. Dr. Sethi: But how can I abandon other serious patients at my clinic? Everybody can’t be treated at the same time. Call an ambulance and get the patient admitted in hospital. Ravi Khanna: Hospital is very far. You are near, so only you can save him. I request you again to please come. Dr. Sethi: OK. I am coming. Immediately send someone to pick me up. Ravi Khanna: Thanking you very much doctor. ••• Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Conversation Practice : Part 2 Reactions:

Breakfast Table
15

Mother: Chintu! Where are you? You are getting late for school. Take your breakfast. Chintu: What is there in the breakfast, Mom? I won't eat apple. I'll just take bread with butter. Father: My child, apple is good for health. Chintu: But I don't like. Mother: Take bread and butter. I am giving you just a small piece of apple. It will improve your brain-power. Chintu: O.K. I'll take a small piece. Ritika: Papa, sandwitch is very tasty. Would you have one more? Father: Thanks my daughter. Now hurry up, you may get late for school. It is 7.20 now. ..... Ranjana! Have you packed their lunch? Mother: Yes, I have. What would you take, tea or coffee? Father: Half cup tea. Ritika! How is your study going on? Ritika: I have some problem in understanding one poem. Would you help? Father: Why not, remind me at night. ••• Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Conversation Practice : Part 2 Reactions:

Ordering Pizza
14 Pizza Hut: Pizza Hut. How can I help you? Customer: I would like to order two pizzas please. Pizza Hut: OK. I am transferring your call to home delivery department. Wait for a moment pelase. Home DD: Welcome sir! What would you like to order? Customer: Two standard size veg. pizzas. Home DD: Anything else sir! Customer: Nothing else. Home DD: Can I have your name and address please? Customer: Oh sure. My name is………… and the address is……………….. Home DD: And phone no.? Customer: It is 98………… Home DD: Can you tell me about any landmark that can help our boy to locate your house easily? Customer: My house is near the community centre….. How long will you take to deliver? Home DD: About 20 minutes sir.

Customer: How much have I to pay to your delivery boy? Home DD: Only Rs.130/- sir. Customer: Thanks. Home DD: Welcome. Bye for now. ••• Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Conversation Practice : Part 2 Reactions:

Shopping Programme
13 Raman: Hello Tony! What are you doing? Tony: Nothing special. How have you remembered me today? Raman: Are you free in the evening? Tony: Yes. Have you to go somewhere? Raman: Let's go for shopping. I have to buy dresses. Tony: From where will you buy? Raman: From Rajouri Garden. Tony: Things are costlier there, still you run to that market again and again. You can get more variety at cheaper rates in Karol Bagh. Raman: I have to spend money, then what's your problem? Tony: As you wish. When shall we go? Raman: Reach my home at 5 in the evening. My car is out of order. We shall go on your bike. Tony: What about burger and Coke? Raman: We shall go to Bikanerwala. You can take there whatever you want. Tony: OK, I shall come at 5. ••• Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Conversation Practice : Part 2 Reactions:

Asking For Money
12 Rajani: Is it 25834243? I am Rajani speaking. Can I talk to Dimple? Mani: I am Dimple’s brother Mani. Hold on please. I am just calling Dimple. Rajani: Thank you. Dimple: Hello, who is speaking? Rajani: Hello Dimple, I am Rajani. How are you?

Dimple: I am excellent. And how are you? Rajani: Fine. Today I am ringing to ask for a small favour. Dimple: It’s my pleasure. What can I do for you? Rajani: I urgently need some money. Dimple: How much money do you need? Rajani: Actually I am buying a car. And I am short of Rs.20,000/- only. Dimple: All right. How can I say no to you? Can you wait till tomorrow? I shall have to withdraw money from the bank tomorrow. Rajani: Thanking you very much Dimple. At what time shall I come to you to collet this money? Dimple: Any time after 10.30 a.m. Rajani: O.K. I shall reach your home at 11 a.m. Dimple: And, will you be able to return my money after 3 months? I may need it then at the occasion on my brother’s marriage. Please don’t mind. Rajani: Don’t worry Dimple, I shall return it just after a month. I am thankful to you. See you tomorrow, bye! ••• Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Conversation Practice : Part 2 Reactions:

Calling a Friend
11 Vimal: Hello, Rocky! What's the problem with you? You have not been coming to college for three days? Rocky: In fact, I got viral fever. Vimal: At least you should have called. Rocky: I called once but you were not at home. Your brother attended the phone. Vimal: Probably he forgot to tell. How are you now? Rocky: Now I am better. I may attend the college after 2 days. Vimal: From where are you taking treatment? Rocky: From Dr. M.C. Midha, our family doctor. Vimal: Is he an MBBS doctor? Rocky: Yes, he is. Vimal: I am coming to meet you in the evening today. I miss you a lot at college. Rocky : I am also feeling sad without friends.

Two College Students
In this conversation two new college students have an introductory talk and become friends. They are sitting in the library.

Henry: Hello! May I know your name please? Mukesh: I am Mukesh. And what’s your good name please? Henry: My name is Henry. I am glad to talk to you. I recently took admission in B.A. English Hons. Mukesh: I am also a new student. I have taken B.A. Pass. Have you liked this college? Henry: Definitely. It is a reputed college. I appreciate (admire, praise) it for its strict discipline and good teachers. Mukesh: I agree. Library of this college is also impressive. It has a lot of useful books. Henry: Yes, it is true. Where do you live? Mukesh: I live at Tilak Nagar, and you? Henry: I live at Timarpur. What are your parents? Mukesh: My father is an I.A.S. officer in finance ministry, and my mother is a teacher. Henry: You have well-educated parents. Mukesh: What about your parents? Henry: My father is a businessman. He exports ready-made garments. And my mother is a housewife. Though we have two cars yet my parents insist (demand or say firmly) that I should go to college by bus. Mukesh: I think travelling by bus is more comfortable. I myself come by bus. Henry: But I dislike buses. There is rush and they never come on time. State government is not managing the bus service properly. Mukesh: What are your hobbies? Henry: I have only one hobby - playing cricket. Mukesh: I also like cricket. But I play only on Sunday. Are you a batsman or bowler? Henry: I am a batsman. I was captain of my school cricket team. Though my parents keep criticising me for my cricket craze. Mukesh: Now it is time to attend the class. We shall meet again after the class. Henry: Oh sure!

At The Bus Stop
1st Passenger: Excuse me. Could you tell me which bus goes to India Gate? 2nd Passenger: Bus route no.823 and 308 will go there. 1st Passenger: At what time is the bus due? 2nd Passenger: I don’t know the exact time, but the service is good. 1st Passenger: If you don’t mind, could you tell me where are you going? 2nd Passenger: I am going to India Gate. 1st Passenger: Good, I am pleased to hear it.

2nd Passenger: Welcome. 1st Passenger: I think a common man is not satisfied with the public transport system in Delhi. The passengers are made to wait for a long time. Then the journey is not comfortable. 2nd Passenger: A lot of buses are running on the roads now-a-days but the service is not efficient. There is mismanagement everywhere. 1st Passenger: Specially Blueline buses are creating havoc (disorder and confusion) on the roads. 2nd Passenger: That’s why people call it a deadline bus service. They are afraid of this service due to the rash-driving of its drivers. 1st Passenger: Our government must do something to improve the situation. 2nd Passenger: Govt. warned the operators several times, they are being punished, but still there is not much improvement. 1st Passenger: Ultimately it is the public who suffer. Both the transporters and the leaders are expert in fooling the public. 2nd Passenger: The public also don’t keep discipline. People like to break queues here. 1st Passenger: It’s true. Here comes the bus, let’s board it. 2nd Passenger: Hurry up please, we can get a seat also. ••• Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Conversation Practice : Part 4 Reactions:

With A Traffic Policeman
Policeman: Hey! Stop your car. Rajani: (Stopping her car, surprisingly). What is the matter? Policeman: You have violated the traffic rule. Rajani: What are you saying? I haven’t committed any offence. Policeman: Don’t tell a lie. You should have stopped your car at red light but you skipped it. Such negligence may cause an accident. Rajani: (Realizing her mistake) Oh! I am extremely sorry. In fact the crossing was free and I was in a hurry, thus I failed to notice the red light. Policeman: But you are expected to drive carefully and cautiously on the road. You can’t endanger your or others life. Rajani: Would you please pardon me this time? Policeman: How can we allow persons like you to create chaos on the roads. Traffic police is for your safety. I am making out your challan. Take out your driving licence. Rajani: (Showing her driving licence) It is my driving license. Please try to understand me. I didn’t commit mistake intentionally. I assure I will be more careful in future.

Policeman: Please don’t try to argue, and give me Rs.100/-. It is the minimum penalty. Rajani: (Seriously) Try to realize my helplessness. I have only 100 rupees in my purse, I may need it. My friend is seriously ill. I am going to her house to enquire after her health. Policeman: Okay, okay..... you are being pardoned this time. Henceforward follow traffic rules carefully. Rajani: (Having a sigh of relief) Thanking you. Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Conversation Practice : Part 4 Reactions:

With A Shopkeeper
Savita: How much is flour today? Shopkeeper: It is ten rupees a kilo. Savita: Rupees ten! Price of everything is looking up rapidly. Shopkeeper: Yes madam, and we are helpless. We can’t control the prices. Savita: Give me 5 kgs. And also give me 1 kilo rice. Shopkeeper: Anything else madam? Savita: Well, how are you selling eggs? Shopkeeper: Rs. 22/- a dozen. Savita: These eggs are very small. Are these fresh? Shopkeeper: Yes madam. These were supplied to us just two hours ago. How many do you want? Savita: Give me half a dozen. What is the price of clarified butter? Shopkeeper: Rs. 120/- per kilo is the market rate, but I’ll charge Rs. 115/only from you as you are our old customer. Savita: Oh God! How can a common person livenowadays? Shopkeeper: Yes, we are passing through very hard times. And prices are still expected to rise more during the next month. Savita: These leaders just play power-games. They don’t care about us. Only God knows what would happen to the poor. Shopkeeper: We elect leaders. How can they be blamed? Savita: Okay........... Give me only half kilo. Money has got wings now. Shopkeeper: Do you need anything else? Savita: Nothing............... Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Conversation Practice : Part 4 Reactions:

With A Receptionist

Visitor: Excuse me. Receptionist: Yeah, what can I do for you sir? Visitor: Could you help me to meet Mr. R.K. Bhatia, the manager of this company? Receptionist: I am sorry you can’t meet him today. He is extremely busy. Did you take an appointment ? Visitor: Yes, I did. He himself called me today. Receptionist: Actually he is busy in an urgent meeting with a delegation from Japan. And he ordered me not to allow anybody to meet him till 3pm today. Visitor: It is very important for me to meet him today as I am flying to America tomorrow. Receptionist: Would you wait for a minute? Let me check with the manager please. What’s your good name sir, and from which company are you coming? Visitor: R.S. Sagoo, Senior Computer Engineer, Thunderbird Graphics. Receptionist: Thank you sir. (After talking to the manager on intercom).... I hope you won’t mind sir. You will have to wait for half-an-hour. Mr. Bhatia will definitely meet with you. Visitor: It’s all right. I’ll wait. Receptionist: (Pointing out to sofa) Please have a seat there. Meanwhile I am arranging coffee for you. Visitor: (Smilingly) Thanks. Receptionist: Welcome.

VIisiting A Hotel
Receptionist: Welcome. How can I help you sir? Visitor: I want a room to stay in your hotel. Receptionist: For how many days do you want to stay? Visitor: I want to stay for five days only. What are your charges for a single room? Receptionist: We charge rupees two thousand for a day. Visitor: Please book a single room for me. Receptionist: Kindly fill up your particulars in this register and sign at this place. Visitor: .......Am I required to deposit any advance rent please? Receptionist: Deposit Rs.500/- only. You can pay the remaining amount at the time of leaving. Bed tea is included in our room charges but for other things you will have to pay extra. Visitor: I would like to have my bed tea at 7am and breakfast at 9 am. Receptionist: You will be served everything according to your requirement (need). What about lunch or dinner, sir? Visitor: I can’t tell you the fix time because I’ll be generally out on business. And whenever I need I’ll ring you up. Receptionist: OK sir!

Visitor: Do you have any sight seeing facility for your visitors? I would like to see this city after a couple of days. Receptionist: Yes sir. We have our own vans for this purpose. We also provide a guide. And we charge only Rs.100/- per person for our services. Visitor: Thanking you very much for kind information. This is my advance payment Rs.500/-. May I have the key of my room? Receptionist: Yes sir, here is the key. You must lock the room while going out. Visitor: I’ll also need a phone connection in my room. And do you have internet or fax facility in your hotel? Receptionist: We cater to all the needs of our visitors. Every room has a phone connection. And whenever you need you can avail the facility of internet or fax in our office, adjacent to the reception. Visitor: Thanking you very much. Is there any body who can carry my luggage to the room? Receptionist: This porter will carry your luggage to your room no.36. If you need any room service please ring the bell and the bearer will attend to your needs. Visitor: Thanks. Receptionist: Have a nice visit sir!

Two College Students

In this conversation two new college students have an introductory talk and become friends. They are sitting in the library. Henry: Hello! May I know your name please? Mukesh: I am Mukesh. And what’s your good name please? Henry: My name is Henry. I am glad to talk to you. I recently took admission in B.A. English Hons. Mukesh: I am also a new student. I have taken B.A. Pass. Have you liked this college? Henry: Definitely. It is a reputed college. I appreciate (admire, praise) it for its strict discipline and good teachers. Mukesh: I agree. Library of this college is also impressive. It has a lot of useful books. Henry: Yes, it is true. Where do you live? Mukesh: I live at Tilak Nagar, and you?

Henry: I live at Timarpur. What are your parents? Mukesh: My father is an I.A.S. officer in finance ministry, and my mother is a teacher. Henry: You have well-educated parents. Mukesh: What about your parents? Henry: My father is a businessman. He exports ready-made garments. And my mother is a housewife. Though we have two cars yet my parents insist (demand or say firmly) that I should go to college by bus. Mukesh: I think travelling by bus is more comfortable. I myself come by bus. Henry: But I dislike buses. There is rush and they never come on time. State government is not managing the bus service properly. Mukesh: What are your hobbies? Henry: I have only one hobby - playing cricket. Mukesh: I also like cricket. But I play only on Sunday. Are you a batsman or bowler? Henry: I am a batsman. I was captain of my school cricket team. Though my parents keep criticising me for my cricket craze. Mukesh: Now it is time to attend the class. We shall meet again after the class. Henry: Oh sure!

Two College Students

In this conversation two new college students have an introductory talk and become friends. They are sitting in the library. Henry: Hello! May I know your name please? Mukesh: I am Mukesh. And what’s your good name please? Henry: My name is Henry. I am glad to talk to you. I recently took admission in B.A. English Hons. Mukesh: I am also a new student. I have taken B.A. Pass. Have you liked this college?

Henry: Definitely. It is a reputed college. I appreciate (admire, praise) it for its strict discipline and good teachers. Mukesh: I agree. Library of this college is also impressive. It has a lot of useful books. Henry: Yes, it is true. Where do you live? Mukesh: I live at Tilak Nagar, and you? Henry: I live at Timarpur. What are your parents? Mukesh: My father is an I.A.S. officer in finance ministry, and my mother is a teacher. Henry: You have well-educated parents. Mukesh: What about your parents? Henry: My father is a businessman. He exports ready-made garments. And my mother is a housewife. Though we have two cars yet my parents insist (demand or say firmly) that I should go to college by bus. Mukesh: I think travelling by bus is more comfortable. I myself come by bus. Henry: But I dislike buses. There is rush and they never come on time. State government is not managing the bus service properly. Mukesh: What are your hobbies? Henry: I have only one hobby - playing cricket. Mukesh: I also like cricket. But I play only on Sunday. Are you a batsman or bowler? Henry: I am a batsman. I was captain of my school cricket team. Though my parents keep criticising me for my cricket craze. Mukesh: Now it is time to attend the class. We shall meet again after the class. Henry: Oh sure!

Some Words of Quantity/Numbers (Determiners)
LITTLE (for uncountable things) 1. There is little tea in the kettle. 2. He has little patience. A LITTLE 1. Have you a little money?

2. There is a little food in the kitchen. FEW (for countable things) 1. She has few good dresses. 2. He gave me few grapes. A FEW 1. I have a few books on grammar. 2. He gave the children a few toffees. SOME (for countable & uncountable things)
1. Have you some money ?

2. I have some good dresses. ANY 1. He didn't buy any pen? 2. Have you any solution to this problem? MANY 1. Many students are absent. 2. Many persons came to meet me. BOTH 1. Both of them are hard-working. 2. I have eaten both the mangoes. ENOUGH 1. I have enough money to buy the books. 2. There is enough money in my account. PLENTY 1. There is plenty of food in the kitchen. 2. We have plenty of time. A LOT OF/ LOTS OF 1. There are a lot of mangoes in the basket.

2. Lots of people come to see him everyday. MUCH (generally neg. & int. sentences) 1. They don't have much sugar. 2. Did he give you much trouble? ANOTHER (for one thing) 1. Please show me another book. 2. You can take another topic for conversation. OTHER (for more than one) 1. Have you talked to other children? 2. Please show me other mobiles. ALL (Mostly for uncountable things) 1. He has eaten all the grapes. 2. We all went there. WHOLE (For uncountable things) 1. The child can not eat the whole apple. 2. The whole class was punished. EACH OTHER (only for two persons)
1. Ram and Meena help each other.

2. They love each other. ONE ANOTHER (For more than two)
1. The clerks were gossipping with one another.

2. Do not quarrel with one another. EACH (One of the two or more) 1. Each girl was doing her home work. 2. I gave one chocolate to each child. 3. Each of them can try for this award.

EVERY 1. Every student is expected to reach on time. EITHER (One of the two persons or things) 1. You may buy either of these suits. 2. Either of you will stand first in the class. NEITHER (No one of the two persons or things) 1. Neither of us went on picnic. 2. I purchased neither of those mobiles. NONE, NO ONE (for more than two) 1. None of them attended the meeting. 2. I shall visit none of those places. NO 1. No one wants to go. 2. He had no money at that time. MOST (Largely, majority) 1. Most of the students were present. 2. I saw most audience going out of the hall. LESS (not much, smaller number or quantity)
1. He has got less marks in this test.

2. They were given less money. Determiners: Words of quantity or numbers are a part of determiners. This, that, these, those, my, our, your, their, his, her, its and articles (a, an, the) are also called determiners

Use of Non-Finites - Part - 3
Gerundial Infinitive : The infinitives that are used as an adjective or an adverb are called 'gerundial infinitives'. A gerundial infinitive has many uses:-

To modify a Verb:a. He decided to work there. (Purpose) b. He went to the place to save him. (Purpose) c. We eat to live. (Cause) In these sentences infinitive is representing a 'purpose or cause'. Therefore, it modifies a verb here. To qualify an Adjective:a. It is good to go for a walk daily. b. She is quick to learn things. c. He is hard to cope with. In these sentences infinitive is representing the feature of an adjective. Therefore, it qualifies adjectives like good, quick and hard. To qualify a Sentence:a. To go there, I need some money. b. To go for a walk, we should get up early in the morning. c. To get a job, he had to go through many interviews. In these sentences infinitive is featuring the sentences like 'I need some money, we should get up early in the morning and he had to go through many interviews'. And it is used as isolated from the main sentence that is, it is not related to the main sentence.

Make Correction - 7
Re-write the following sentences correcting the use of Tenses:1. He blow out the candles. 2. They got ready to met any danger. 3. We shall appointed capable persons. 4. Why had you not learning your lesson till then? 5. My grandmother were distributed chocolates among the children. 6. How you have solved this sum? 7. Since when have you doing this work?

8. He hasn't met me for Monday. 9. How much money did you deposit every month? 10. Had she been writing a poem since ten minutes? Answers: 1. blow - blew, 2. met - meet, 3. appointed - appoint, 4. learning - learnt, 5. were - had, 6. you have - have you, 7. you doing - you been doing, 8. for since, 9. did - do, 10. since - for

Check your Grammar - Test One

Fill one of the three words:1. She has been cooking food .................... morning. a. from b. since c. for 2. He did not .................... anything for himself. a. buying b. buys c. buy 3. He .................... a lot of work to complete yesterday. a. had b. having c. has 4. .................... arrange money for the flood victims. a. let we b. let c. let us 5. .................... your brother not taking admission in this school? a. am b. is c. are

6. Which lesson will teacher .................... taught? a. has b. have c. having 7. Two years ago he .................... study in our tution centre. a. could b. should have c. used to 8. Your mother .................... tasty food. a. cooking b. cooks c. cook 9. He will ................... admired. a. been b. being c. be 10. Which car ................... your father bought? a. is b. has c. will

Answers: 1. b 2. c 3. a 4. c 5. b 6. b 7. c 8. b 9. c 10. b

Jumbled Sentences - Test Four
Rearrange the following words/phrases to make a complete and correct sentence :61. discussed/will be/tomorrow/this matter. 62. a present/the baby/birthday/was given/on its. 63. she/arrival/on her/a warm welcome/was given

64. each other/the past/we/ten years/for/have known. 65.football/three hours/the boys/playing/for/have been. 66. arrive/Mr. Chopra/at half-past six/at the station/yesterday/did ? 67. now/oil lamps/electric lamps/instead of/we/use. 68. She/have known/was a child/I/her/since. 69. who/the person/he/is/trusted/be/can/not. 70. you/were absent/why/tell/yesterday/me. 71. the mouse/and/the lion/caught/woke up/in his paw. 72. the only class/I am/it is/where/not wasting/my time. 73. the letter/when/to post it/Mridula/went out/had written/she. 74. to music/am driving/to listen/when I/I like. 75. working hard/that/for the/had been/I told/last/him/hours/four/I. 76. do not/hurry/miss the train/you/will/if you 77. the thief/as soon as/ran away/he/the police/saw. 78. her hair/Veena/when/rang/was washing/the doorbell. 79. at this time/the doctor/of night/won't come. 80. the girl/is/weeping/doll/whose/lost/has. Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Grammer Test - Jumbled Sentences Reactions:

Jumbled Sentences - Test Three
Rearrange the following words/phrases to make a complete and correct sentence :-

41. the wall/on/of the studio/the painting/hung/was. 42. the whistle/blow/there/any/danger/is/if. 43. to the/do it/your ability/best of. 44. from/the market/he/buy/did not/anything. 45. because/to us/we are/to you/you are/kind/kind. 46. for me/you/ have/a pen/bought ? 47. those/who/help/God/themselves/helps. 48. mother/me/to go/warned/there/not. 49. this/will surely/medicine/you/benefit. 50. did/The Taj Mahal/see/you/when/visited/you/Agra? 51. for six weeks/they/to stay/have planned/there. 52. I/lost/the pen/which/gave/her/she/yesterday. 53. great men/its/are/decorated/walls/pictures/of/with. 54. five/of land/acres/no less than/he/has. 55. by me/a tree/planted/will have been. 56. the gardener/are being/flowers/by/plucked. 57. aimed at/the bird/hunter/was not/by the. 58. laughed at/rich/often/by the/are/the poor. 59. to play/be allowed/the match/should/be. 60. laughed at/rich/often/by the/are/the poor.

Imperative Sentences
1. There is request, advice, order, suggestion etc. in imperative sentences. 2. Subject is always ‘you’ but it is not written. (It is hidden) 3. Use first form of the verb.

4. Negative sentence starts with Don’t Part I Examples: • • Write this letter today. • • Don’t go there. Don’t disturb him. Part II Examples: • • • Let me go now. Let her wash the clothes. Do not let them play here. Part III Examples: • • Let us go to market. Let’s play together in the park.

Please meet me tomorrow.

Use of Interjections
Interjection : An interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feeling or emotion coming into the mind.

Remember the following:1. An interjection has no grammatical relation with any other word. 2. It has a sign known as sign of exclamation : [!]. The commonly expressed emotions through interjections are given below:1. Joy : Hurrah!, Aha!, Ha! 2. Surprise : Oh!, What!, Good heavens! 3. Sorrow : Ah!, Alas! 4. Attention : Lo!, Listen!, Look!, Hush!, Behold! 5. Approval : Bravo!, OK!, Well done! 6. Contempt : For shame!, Pooh!, Fie! 7. Calling : Hello!, Holla!, Ho!

Practice for Interjections - 2

Guess the right interjection in the blank:1. ……..! why are you crying? 2. ……..! that man is a software engineer. 3. ……..! is anybody there? 4. ……..! I have lost my purse. 5. ……..! I have topped the college. 6. ……..! you can take my pen. 7. ……..! how can he win the race? 8. ……..! I have defeated all my rivals. 9. ……..! the victory is yours. 10. ……..! you are a loser.

Answers:-

1. Oh(surprise), 2. Look(attention), 3. Hello(calling), 4. Alas(sorrow), 5. Hurrah(joy), 6. OK(approval), 7. What(surprise), 8. Hurrah(joy), 9. Bravo(approval), 10. Pooh(contempt)

Posted by WABS English 0 comments Labels: Interjections - Practice Exercise Reactions:

Practice for interjections
Find the emotions expressed by the interjections in the following sentences:1. Pooh! A soldier and afraid of war! 2. Hurrah! We have won the match. 3. Listen! I m going to the market. 4. Ho! Is anybody here? 5. Hip, hip Hurrah! 6. Well done! You have cleared the exam. 7. Alas! She will never be able to walk.

8. What! What are you saying? 9. Hush! You should listen to the teacher. 10. Oh! How did this happen?

Answers:-

1. Contempt, 2. Joy, 3. Attention, 4. Calling, 5. Joy, 6. Approval, 7. Sorrow, 8. Surprise, 9. Attention, 10. Surprise

Use of MODALS Part-4

MODALS + HAVE
COULD HAVE They could have gone. (but they didn't) MAY HAVE Raju may have taken my book. (possibility in present) MUST HAVE They must have completed their home work. (definite possibility in present) WOULD HAVE If he had money he would have bought books. (imagination in past conditional) NEED HAVE 1. You need not have waited for him. (You didn't need to wait for him.) 2. Need Rita have borrowed money. (Did Rita need to borrow money.) MIGHT HAVE India might have won the match. (possibility in past) SHOULD HAVE You should have gone to office.

Paragraph Fill ups - 7
Complete the following with suitable modals:Parents ........ not punish their children hard. They ........ make their children understand with love. Now a days most of the parents are educated and they ........ understand the psychology of their children. Problems of

generation gap ........ easily be solved with a little wisdom. Previously the parents .......... beat and punish their children hard. They thought that they ........ be able to teach them discipline only with the help of a stick. But such punishment ........ make the children stubborn and they ........ not develop their talent properly. Answers:should, should, can, might, used to, would, can, may

Narrations Part-2
The art of reporting the words of a speaker is called Narration. Part-IV (Imperative Sentences) Rules:1. In Imperative sentences said to is replaced with ordered, commanded, advised, suggested, proposed, persuaded, warned, etc. 2. Inverted commas(" ") are replaced with 'to'. The first form of verb is

applied after 'to'.
3. in Negative sentences 'said' to is replaced with 'forbade' or 'do' is

replaced with 'not'. Examples:-

• •

She said to me, "Work hard". She advised me to work hard.

I said to my friend, "Please give me your car for two hours." I requested my friend to give me his car for two hours.

She said to Meena, "Do not make a noise". She forbade Meena to make a noise. (or She ordered Meena not to make a noise.)

• The general said to the soldiers, "March forward." The general commanded the soldiers to march forward. • •

Ramesh said to him, "Let me do my home work." Ramesh requested him to let him do his home work.

The manager said to the peon,"Let the visitors come in. The manager ordered the peon to let the visitors come in.

He said to me, "Let us go on picnic this Sunday". He proposed/suggested me that we should go on picnic that Sunday. (or He proposed me to go on picnic that Sunday.

He said, "Thank you, doctor." He thanked the doctor.

Dinkar said to me, "Beware of such politicians." Dinkar warned me against such politicians. PART-V (Exclamatory Sentences) Rules:-

1. Use conjunction 'that' to connect the speech with reporting verb 2. Change tenses according to the rules learnt in PART-II 3. 'Said' is mostly changed into 'exclaimed' (sometimes 'applauded......saying') 4. Replace 'what' or 'how' with 'very' (sometimes 'big' or 'great')
5. Change exclamatory words as follows: AH!, Alas! .... with sorrow;

Aha!, Ha!, Hurrah! ....with joy; Oh ....with surprise; Pooh! ....with contempt; Sorry! ....with regret, Bravo! ....applauded....saying. Examples:The child said, "What a bitter medicine!" The child exclaimed that the medicine was very bitter.

He said, "How big the train is!" He exclaimed that the train was very big.

Vikas said, "Alas! I have lost my wallet." Vikas exclaimed with sorrow that he had lost his wallet.
• • Rajani said to her friend, "Pooh! you have cheated me." Rajani exclaimed with contempt that her friend had cheated her. •

The captain said to the players, "Bravo! you played well today." The captain applauded his players saying that they had played well that day. PART-VI (Optative Sentences) Rules:-

1. Such sentences indicate with (good morning, good noon, good day, would that, O that, if .....etc.), and prayer (may, may God). Therefore 'said' is mostly replaced with 'wished' or 'prayed'. 2. In case of good bye, farewell, good night (when parting company) 'said' is replaced with 'bade'. Examples:•

He said , "Good morning uncle!" He wished his uncle good morning.

• •

Ranjita said, "Good bye friends!" Ranjita bade her friends good bye.

My grandmother said to me, "May you live long." My granmother prayed for me tht I might live long.

Montu said, "Would that I were a minister!" Montu wished that he had been a minister.

Indirect Speech of two or more sentences:She said to me, "I am going to market. Do you want to go?" She told me that she was going to market and asked if I wanted to go.
• •

The manager said to the clerk, "You may leave now. Don't forget to keep these files in the file cabinet." The manager told the clerk that he might leave then and ordered not to forget to keep those files in the file cabinet. The doctor said to the patient, "Why didn't you come yesterday. Your fever is high." The doctor asked the patient why he hadn't come the previous day as his fever was high.

I said to Rocky, "Don't abuse others. It is a bad habit. How will you feel if others abuse you?" I advised Rocky not to abuse others because it is a bad habit and asked how he would feel if others abused him. Gerundial Infinitive : The infinitives that are used as an adjective or an adverb are called 'gerundial infinitives'. A gerundial infinitive has many uses:To modify a Verb:a. He decided to work there. (Purpose) b. He went to the place to save him. (Purpose) c. We eat to live. (Cause) In these sentences infinitive is representing a 'purpose or cause'. Therefore, it modifies a verb here. To qualify an Adjective:a. It is good to go for a walk daily. b. She is quick to learn things. c. He is hard to cope with.

Use of Non-Finites - Part - 3

In these sentences infinitive is representing the feature of an adjective. Therefore, it qualifies adjectives like good, quick and hard. To qualify a Sentence:a. To go there, I need some money. b. To go for a walk, we should get up early in the morning. c. To get a job, he had to go through many interviews. In these sentences infinitive is featuring the sentences like 'I need some money, we should get up early in the morning and he had to go through many interviews'. And it is used as isolated from the main sentence that is, it is not related to the main sentence. In the next part you will learn the use of infinitives without 'To'.

Prepositions Part-4
Preposition is a word (or group of words) used esp. before a noun or pronoun to show place, position, time etc. BELOW, at a lower position 1. The valley is below the hill. 2. Don't write below this line. 3. The temperature will remain below freezing point. 4. His rank is below an inspector. 5. He got below 50% marks. ACROSS Part I From one side to another side 1. Can he swim across the river? 2. The child ran across the ground. 3. Draw a line across the page. Part II On the other side 1. My house is across the street. 2. Please wait for me across the road. ABOUT relating to, on the point of 1. Do you know anything about him?

2. I have no knowledge about it. 3. They are about to go. 4. The movie was about to start. 5. Has he written a book about China? TOWARDS, in the direction of 1. They ran towards the crossing. 2. He hit the ball towards the goal. 3. It is the first step towards greater unity between India and Pakistan. 4. Parents should be friendly towards the children. THROUGH, in one side and out another side of 1. The tiger jumped through the ring. 2. They went through a tunnel.
3. The river yamuna flows through Delhi.

4. The boys ran through the street. 5. I came to know about this computer through a newspaper advertisement. 6. The news spread throughout the country. ALONG, on a course parallel to 1. We can go along this wall. 2. They went along the track/canal.
3. let's have a stroll along the river bank.

ALONGWITH, in addition to
1. The company is giving a vcd free alongwith television. 2. I gave him a pen alongwith the book.

SINCE, (point of time) 1. It has been raining since morning. 2. He has been living in Delhi since 1987. 3. I haven't visited him since his last birthday party. BESIDE, at the side of, next to, near

1. You may sit beside me. 2. Please keep this chair beside the bench. BESIDES, in addition to 1. Besides vegetables she bought apples.
2. Besides WagonR they have a Ford Ikon .

UP, from a lower to a higher point 1. Why are they going up the hill?
2. climb up these stairs.

DOWN, from a higher to a lower point 1. They ran down the slope. 2. The stone rolled down the hill.
3. Her hair were hanging down.

ONTO, moving to a position on 1. He climbed onto the horse. 2. He moved the books onto the third shelf. AMID/AMIDST/IN THE MIDST OF, in the middle of, surrounded by 1. Amid noise I was unable to hear anything.
2. It was difficult for him to work in the city amidst such cirsumstances.

3. Amid confusion she lost her way.
4. In the midst of clappings he announced this scheme.

BENEATH, to a lower position 1. There was a toy beneath the leaves. 2. I can't do this work as it is beneath my dignity. 3. The boat sank beneath the waves. BEYOND, on the far side of 1. It was beyond his power. 2. The kidnappers have gone beyond the reach of the police. 3. This bike is beyond repair now.

4. Don't study beyond midnight. AROUND, on all sides 1. They drove around the city. 2. Build a wall around this garden.
3.

Questions-Answers : Part 4
4. • Whose car will you take?

= I shall take Monika's car. • Would you like to have another cup of tea? = No, thanks. • Can you lend me your watch for two days as my watch has gone out of order? = Yes, I can. • Would you help me if I ask you? = I would do anything for you. • Why have you come late today? = Some guests came at home and I had to attend to them. (or I was blocked in traffic jam.) • Where do you want to go in summer vacation? = I want to go to Mussourie in summer vacation. • Which city of India do you like most? = I like Bangalore. • Why do you like this city most? = Because it is IT centre of India. It also has a lot of parks. • Which places have you visited in India? = I have visited Shimla, Chandigarh, Agra, Kolkata, Gwalior, Madras, Mumbai and Goa. • How was your performance in the exam? = I am satisfied with my performance. • Why didn't you go to market? = Because it was raining heavily. •••
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7.

Questions-Answers : Part 3
8. • Which mobile do you have?

= I have Nokia 6630. • How is its performance? = Excellent. It also has 1.3 megapixel camera, and one hour's video recording.

• Did you buy a new one or second hand? = It is new. My father gave it to me on my birthday. • What would you like to do in the evening? = I would like to play. • What’s wrong with him? = He is feeling fever/he is not feeling well. • How is the child now? = The child is better/fine now. • How often do you come here? = I come here thrice a week. • He quarrelled with his friend, didn’t he? = Yes, he did. • You were in the park, weren’t you? = No, I wasn’t. • Isn’t it cold today? = Yes, it is. • Can he get success in this work? = Yes, he can. • Don’t you know that man? = No, I don’t. • You know how to paint, don’t you? = Yes, I do. • What is the time please? At what time did you reach his home? = At quarter past four. • Why did the teacher punish John? = Because he hadn’t done his homework. • Whose father is going to foreign country? = Nita's father is going to foreign country. • To which country is he going? = He is going to Germany. • Where have you been so long? = I went to market for shopping. • What did you purchase? = I purchased two new dresses. • With whom did you go there? = I went there with my mother. = It is ten minutes to five.
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• How many friends do you have? = I have ten friends. • In which college/school do you study? = I study in Ramjas college/WNN Public School. • Where is your school/college situated? = My school/college is situated at Vasant Vihar/Maurice Nagar. • What are your subjects? = My subjects are .................. • Who is the principal of your college/school? = Mr. ....... is the principal of our school/college. • How far is your college/school from your home? = It is 5 kms far from my home. • How do you go to school/college? = I go to school/college by bus. • How many teachers are there in your school/college? = There are 25 teachers in our school/college. • What time is it now? = It is ..... O’clock now. • How do you do/ how are you? = I am quite well. • What are your hobbies? = My hobbies are listening to music and reading books. • Which is your favourite music album? = My favourite music album is ...... • Have you a bike or scooter? = I have a bike. • Which bike do you have? = I have Bajaj Pulsar. • Why did you buy this bike? = Because it is good-looking and powerful. How much did this bike cost you? = It costed me fifty thousand rupees. • Do you know how to drive a car? = Yes I do. • Whom will you go to meet tomorrow? = I shall go to meet my uncle tomorrow. • Which exercise do you take daily? = I do jogging/yoga. • Where do you go for it? = I go to Punjabi Bagh Club.
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11. Questions-Answers : Part 12. Questions-Answers

2

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15. Questions-Answers 16.

: Part 1

• What is your good name? = My name is Mamata. • What is your father's name? = His name is Sh. R.P. Sharma. • What is your age/ How old are you? = My age is 20 years/ I am 20 years old. • What is your father? = My father is a businessman. • Which type of business does he do? = He deals in ready-made garments. • What is your mother? = She is a teacher. • How many members are there in your family? = There are five members in my family. • Who is the youngest member? = I am the youngest member of the family. • Who is the oldest member of your family? = My grandfather is the oldest member of the family. • What does your grandfather do? = He is an advocate in High Court. • How many brothers and sisters do you have? = I have one brother and one sister. • Where do you live? = I live at Punjabi Bagh. • At what time do you get up in the morning? = I get up at 6 am. • At what time do you go to bed? = I go to bed at 10.30 pm. • In which company are you working? = I am working in Global Consusltants, Gurgaon. • What is your post there? = I am a software engineer. • How many employees are there in your company? = There are about 50 employees. • How much salary are you drawing? = I am drawing Rs.35,000/- per month. • Your company is very far from your house. How do you go there? = I go there by the company bus.

• What is your favourite TV channel? = Discovery is my favourite TV channel.
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19. Questions-Answers : Part 1 20. • What is your good name?

= My name is Mamata. • What is your father's name? = His name is Sh. R.P. Sharma. • What is your age/ How old are you? = My age is 20 years/ I am 20 years old. • What is your father? = My father is a businessman. • Which type of business does he do? = He deals in ready-made garments. • What is your mother? = She is a teacher. • How many members are there in your family? = There are five members in my family. • Who is the youngest member? = I am the youngest member of the family. • Who is the oldest member of your family? = My grandfather is the oldest member of the family. • What does your grandfather do? = He is an advocate in High Court. • How many brothers and sisters do you have? = I have one brother and one sister. • Where do you live? = I live at Punjabi Bagh. • At what time do you get up in the morning? = I get up at 6 am. • At what time do you go to bed? = I go to bed at 10.30 pm. • In which company are you working? = I am working in Global Consusltants, Gurgaon. • What is your post there? = I am a software engineer. • How many employees are there in your company? = There are about 50 employees. • How much salary are you drawing?

= I am drawing Rs.35,000/- per month. • Your company is very far from your house. How do you go there? = I go there by the company bus. • What is your favourite TV channel? = Discovery is my favourite TV channel.
21. Situation

Speaking : Part 3
22. 21

Magic Show Last Sunday I saw a magic show in Talkatora Stadium. I went there with my friends. The show started at 8pm. The magician showed many good tricks. It was a wonderful show. The audience clapped many times. I also enjoyed the show very much. 22 Report Car Theft Excuse me! Please write my F.I.R. My car has been stolen. I had gone for shopping in Rajouri Garden market. I had parked my car in the parking place. When I came back from shopping my car was not there. Its colour is blue. It is Honda City. Its number is ....... 23 going on trip Good morning, papa. Our school has arranged a trip to Ooty. Charges of the tour are Rs.1500/-. My all friends are going. I also want to go. Please give me permission to go. Thanks papa. 24 Uncle Has Got Late for Dinner Hello uncle! Where are you late? Why have you not reached as yet? We are worried. You were to come at 8pm. Now it is 9pm. Dinner is ready and getting cool. Please come soon. 25 Thanking Uncle for Gift Uncle, thanks for sending me birthday gift. It is a beautiful video game. Everybody has liked it. Why didn't you come on my birthday. I missed you on my birthday. 26 Someone skipped Red Light Please stop your car! Come aside. Why have you skipped the red light? Don't you know the traffic rules? If you skip the red light you may meet with an accident. Traffic rules are for the safety of public. I am

making out your challan. Please give me Rs.100/-. Be careful in future. 27 Reporting a Kidnapping Case Is it police station? Please write a kidnapping report. I was standing at Kirti Nagar bus stop. Suddenly a white van came and kidnapped a child. The number of the van is...... The kidnappers have fled towards Raja Garden. Please chase them to help the child. 28 Why should we learn english? In modern world English language plays a very important role in our career. It is an international language. If our English is effective we can get a good job in a good company. We also get social respect. If we go to other states or any foreign country we can communicate to others easily. Therefore we must learn good English. 29 Should we beat the children? We should never beat the children. Even if they are very naughty we should handle them with affection. They are tender. Beating disturbs them mentally. So they can not develop their talent properly. If they get some bad habits we should make them understand with love. 30 Should parents be friendly with their children? Yes. Parents must be friendly with their children. If parents are friendly the children can express their feelings freely. They ask for help to solve their problems without hesitation. Children are very intelligent these days. They get good education, watch television and read newspapers. With some friendly guidance from their parents they can make good decisions. They always respect good and friendly parents. Friendly atmosphere at home keeps the children tension-free. It is also good for their all-round personality development.
23. Make Correction - 7 24. Re-write the following sentences correcting the use of Tenses:-

1. He blow out the candles. 2. They got ready to met any danger. 3. We shall appointed capable persons.

4. Why had you not learning your lesson till then? 5. My grandmother were distributed chocolates among the children. 6. How you have solved this sum? 7. Since when have you doing this work? 8. He hasn't met me for Monday. 9. How much money did you deposit every month? 10. Had she been writing a poem since ten minutes? Answers: 1. blow - blew, 2. met - meet, 3. appointed - appoint, 4. learning learnt, 5. were - had, 6. you have - have you, 7. you doing - you been doing, 8. for - since, 9. did - do, 10. since - for

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27. Make

Correction - 6

28. Re-write the following sentences correcting the use of Tenses:-

1. Where he will have gone? 2. He was not made any kite then? 3. I attending all the periods in my school. 4. My grandfather will going for a morning walk. 5. How much money have you deposit in the bank? 6. The watchman is search the bag of the stranger. 7. Was your uncle buy an MIG flat?

8. Where do your uncle live? 9. They was served cold drinks to the guests. 10. She won't be able to going tomorrow. Answers: 1. he will - will he, 2. was - had, 3. attending - attend, 4. will - is, 5. deposit - deposited, 6. search - searching, 7. was - did, 8. do - does, 9. was - had, 10. going - go

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31. Make

Correction - 5

32. Re-write the following sentences correcting the use of Tenses:-

1. His brother don't cheat his friends. 2. Do you took any physical exercise in the morning? 3. Which mobile will you bought? 4. What has you written in this diary? 5. Has she lose her book? 6. They will have been water the plants since 6pm. 7. Who was advise you in the evening? 8. Why do you plucked flowers from the garden? 9. Why did you scolded the children? 10. Will he has collected old coins?

Answers:
1. don't - doesn't, 2. took - take, 3. bought - buy, 4. has - have, 5. lose - lost, 6. water - watering, 7. advise - advising, 8. plucked - pluck, 9. scolded - scold, 10. has - have

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37. Tenses 38. Present Tense

: Present, Past, Future

1a) PRESENT INDEFINITE/SIMPLE Affirmative: Sub+V1 I write a letter. She makes a doll. Note:Use s/es with the 1st form of the verb if the Subject is He/She/It or singular Noun (boy, player, teacher, Mohan, Sita etc). Negative: Sub+do/does+not+V1 We do not write poems. Ram does not play football. Interrogative: Do/Does+sub+V1 Do you go to market? Does he go for a walk? Int. & Neg.: Do/Does+sub+not+V1 Do we not work? 1b) PRESENT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: Sub+is/am/are+V1+ing Mohan is reading. Negative: Sub+is/am/are+not +V1+ing They are not playing cricket. Interrogative: Is/Am/Are+sub+V1+ing Is he going? Int. & Neg.: Is/Am/Are+sub+not+V1+ing Are you not playing cricket?

1c) PRESENT PERFECT Aff.: Sub+has/have+V3 She has made tea. Neg.: Sub+has/have+not+V3 They have not taken medicine. He has not come since Monday. Int.: Has/Have+sub+V3 Have they slept? Int. & Neg.: Has/Have+sub+not+V3 Have you not done your home-work? 1d) PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Aff.: Sub+has/have+been+V1+ing+since/for I have been reading since 5 O'clock. Neg.:Sub+has/have+not+been+V1+ ing+ Since/for Ravi has not been playing since evening. Int.: Has/Have+sub+been+V1+ing+since/for Have you been working for ten minutes? Int. & Neg.:Has/Have+sub+not+been+VI+ing+since/for Has she not been praying for five minutes? Since: (For point of time) 10am, 6 O'clock, morning, 21st May, January,2002, when, then, yesterday, last year/month etc. For: (For period of time) 2 days, 4 minutes, 2 hours, 7 months, 3 years, many days/months etc. Note: Since or for is also used in perfect tense. Past Tense 2a) PAST INDEFINITE Aff.: Sub+V2 He wrote a letter. Neg.: Sub+did+not+V1 They did not play match yesterday. Int.: Did+sub+V1 Did they go for a walk? Int. & Neg.: Did+sub+not+V1 Did you not take your lunch? 2b) PAST CONTINUOUS Aff.: Sub+was/were+V1+ing Gita was making tea.

Neg.: Sub+was/were+not+V1+ing You were not reading. Int.: Was/Were+sub+V1+ing Were they running? Int. & Neg. : Was/Were+sub+not+V1+ing Were children not taking bath? 2c) PAST PERFECT Aff.:Sub+had+V3 We had watched TV. The train had left by then. Neg.: Sub+had+not+V3 I had not played. Rakesh had not come for three months. Int.: Had+sub+V3 Had they won? Int. & Neg.: Had+sub+not+V3 Had they not washed the clothes? Note: Mostly the sentences are made in this tense when an action completed before a point of time in past: i) The guests had not reached till Sunday. ii) The movie had started before I reached home. iii) She had completed her work before 3pm. 2d) PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Aff.: Sub+had+been+V1+ing+since/for She had been helping me for three years. Neg.:Sub+had+not+been+V1+ing+since/for He had not been watching TV since noon. Int.: Had+sub+been+V1+ing+since/for Had they been gossipping for 2 hours? Int. & Neg.:Had+sub+not+been+V1+ing+ since/for Had you not been going to office for last two days? Future Tense a) FURURE INDEFINITE Aff.: Sub+will/shall+V1 We shall play match. They will meet you tomorrow. Neg.: Sub+will/shall+not+V1 They will not go to market. Int.:Will/Shall+sub+V1? Shall I take breakfast ?

Int. & Neg. : Will/shall+sub+not+V1 Will washerman not iron the clothes? Shall we not going for a walk? Note: Use shall with I and we only. 3b) FUTURE CONTINUOUS Aff. :Sub+will/shall+be+V1+ing He will be playing the match. Neg.:Sub+will/shall+not+be+V1+ing We shall not be cooking food. Int.: Will/Shall+sub+be+V1+ing Will Gardener be watering the plants? Int. & Neg.: Will/Shall+sub+not+be+V1+ing Will they not be going to see film? 3c) FUTURE PERFECT Aff.: Sub+will/shall+have+V3 Ravi will have killed the snake. The farmer will have ploughed in the fields. Neg. : Sub+will/shall+not+have+V3 She will not have taken tea. Int.: Will/shall+Sub+have+V3 Will she have won the match? Int. & Neg.:Will/shall+sub+not+have+V3 Will they have not gone to Rama's house? 3d) FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS Aff.:Sub+willshall+have+been+VI+ing +since/for They will have been flying kites since 6 O'clock. Neg.: Sub+willshall+not+have+been+V1+ing +since/for Sita will not have been waiting for 1 hour. Int.: Will/shall+sub+have+been+V1+ing +since/for Shall we have been writing since 10am? Int. & Neg.:Will/shall+sub+not+have+been +V1+ing+since/for Will students not have been learning the lesson since morning?
39. Use 40.

of It and There

(as a subject without meaning)
IT : Time, day, date, weather, etc.

1. It is raining. 2. It is not hot today. 3. Was it cold yesterday? 4. It was Monday yesterday? 5. It is 10 AM by my watch. 6. Will it be 19th Sep. tomorrow? 7. It will take us two hours to reach there. 8. It is hailing outside.

There : Number, quantity, position etc.
1. There are 5 members in my family. 2. How much water is there in the jug? 3. There are clouds in the sky. 4. How many books are there in your bag? 5. There may be Rs. 20,000/- in my bank account. 6. There are 11 players in a cricket team. 7. There is a great rush in the market.

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