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Lincoln Elementary

Periods of Development
Early Childhood: Children are between
2 to 6 years old

Middle Childhood: Children are between
6 to 11 years old

Parent Teacher Organization

Focus: Creating and sustaining partnerships with families
and the community and how these partnerships will
influence the learning and development of children.

Ethical Background
765 Students consist of:
93% Hispanic
5% White
2% American Indian
** 58% of students are second language learners

Meal Support for Families

It was determined that 94% of Lincoln Elementary School
students are eligible for free and/or reduced lunch meals.
This may be an indication that some parents are not
financially capable of providing full balanced healthy meals at
home because of what their overall salary that they make.
An estimated 21% of America’s children suffer from food
insecurities which is an uncertainty of access to enough food
for a healthy and active lifestyle (Berk, 2013). Food insecurity
range higher among single-parent families (35%) and lowincome ethnic minority families (Berk, 2013).

Nutritional Importance During
Childhood Development
Nutrition is very important during the development of
all children; especially critical for the first two years of a
baby’s life since the brain and body are growing very
fast (Berk, 2013).
Poor nutrition and hunger will interfere with cognitive
function which can lead to lower academic achievement
in children. Short attention spans, irritability, tiredness
and problems concentrating are all connected to iron
deficiency (Story, M., Kaphingst, K., Fresnch, S., 2006).

Child Development Professional’s
A child development professional has a responsibility to
provide the best quality service to young children and their
families ( . There are different roles that child
development professionals perform such establishing and
maintaining a safe and healthy environment for children
( A child development professional works with
children and their families as well as maintaining a
positive and effective relationship with those families
( They also have a responsibility to implement
developmentally appropriate curriculum that enhances the
various areas of children’s learning and development
which includes social, emotional, intellectual and physical
competence (

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems
Theory of Development
Mesosystem is the second level of the Bronfenbrenner’s model
which surrounds the microsystems (home, school, neighborhood
and child care facility) and does not function independently, but
will interconnect and maintain influence on another individual
(Berk, 2013). For example, a child’s academic performance
relies not only on the activities that occur in the classroom but
on how often their parents are engaged in school life and on the
amount of academic learning is done at home (Gershoff & Aber,
2006) (Berk, 2013). Basically, parent-child interaction at home
may affect the caregiver-child interaction and vice-versa (Berk,

Epstein’s Types of Involvement

1. Parenting
2. Communicating
3. Volunteering
4. Learning at Home
5. Decision Making
6. Collaborating with Community


When parents are involved with their child’s education
beginning at an early age and will have a major effect on their
academic achievement and will continue to do so into
adolescence and adulthood (
The school can implement a parent-child workshop that will
focus on how to different parenting skills and how other
cultures do things together (


The school can set up conferences where the parent,
teacher, and the child can all discuss the learning goals that
the student want to achieve for the school year
The school can provide a translator for those parents who
cannot speak English very well; and should consider
providing text in their native language for those who do not
read good or who need larger print to read.


Ask for parent who would like to volunteer their time to
organize and put together parent information packets that
can help support families; materials could include important
telephone numbers, service providers and other agencies
The school could organize volunteer work for to help families
to come together as a whole and provide information that
can assist with parents with understanding cultural
differences and how students can help each other with
problems that occur in school.

Learning at Home

Provide information for families to use to help their children
with their homework and other assignments required for the
classroom. Provide information for volunteers that give free
tutoring services (
If there are any language barriers at home such as parents
only reading in Spanish, the school can provide additional
help for those students before and after school.

Decision Making
Every parent should be involved in school-making/policy
decisions and there should be training on how to
develop effective parent leaders and representatives
for students, teacher and other staff members
Include as many parent leaders from all racial, ethnic,
socioeconomic backgrounds, and any other groups
within the school (

Collaborating With Community

Provide information on community-based activities that
focus on the talents and learning skills such as activities
sponsor by the library, summer and Saturday
schools/activities (
The school counselors could can organize services for
families of all cultures will that provide counseling and
health agencies as well as an “Adopt-a-School”

Berk, L.E. (2013). Child Development. Boston: Pearson
Story, M., Kaphingst, K., Fresnch, S. (2006). The role of
schools in obesity prevention. Childhood Obesity, volume
16 (number 1). Retrieved from

References (cont.)

References (cont.)

References (cont.)