You are on page 1of 13

 

 
Exceptionalities  
Instructional  
Helps  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

By:  Krista  Anderson  

   Learning  Disabilities  

• Additional  time  on  
homework  and  tests  
• Provide  feedback  
• Take  test  in  separate  
room  
• Allow  exams  to  be  
taken  orally  

A  condition  in  which  one  
or  more  of  the  basic  
psychological  processes  
involved  in  understanding  
or  using  language  are  
deficient.  
 
 
Strategies  
Technology  Resources  
• Break  learning  into  
• Calculator  
small  steps  
• Assisted  technology  
• Supply  regular  quality  
(AT)  
feedback  
• Computers  
• Use  diagrams,  
• Tape  recorders  
graphics  and  pictures    
• Music  
• Provide  practice    
 
• Model  instructions  
Environmental  
• Ask  students  if  they  
Resources  
understand  
• Arrange  desks  neatly  
 
• Set  classroom  
Accommodations  
procedures  
and  
• Conduct  Classroom  
Modifications  
meetings  
• Note  taker  
• Visual  signals  
• Record  lectures  
• Vary  tone  of  voice  
 
 
 
 
 
 

Attention  Deficit  Hyperactivity  
Disorder  (ADHD)  
 A  disorder  characterized  by  
impulsive  actions,  hyperactivity,  
and  difficulties  in  maintaining  
attention.  
 
Strategies  
• 3-­‐hole  punch  (put  
handouts  in  notebook)  
• Homework  pocket  
• Color  coded  dividers-­‐  
paper  in  each  section  
• Teacher  Errands  
• Custodian  Helper  
• School  Office  Helper  
• Cafeteria  Helper  
• Library  Aide  
• Kindergarten  Aide  
• Peer  Tutor  (especially  
with  ID/SID)  
 
Accommodations    
and  
Modifications  
• Allow  extra  time  on  tests  
• Clear  and  well  designed  
worksheets  
• Encourage  feedback  from  
students  to  check  for  
understanding  
• Provide  established  daily  
routine  
• Provide  clear  rules  and  
consistently  enforce  them  
 

 
 

Technology  Resources  
• Slinky  
• Bean  Bag  
• Piece  of  cloth  (velvet,  felt,  
or  silk)  
• Rubber  squeeze  ball  –  
stress  ball  
• 18  inch  piece  of  string  or  
yarn  
• Do  jumping  jocks  or  push-­‐
ups  in  the  hall  
• Stand  at  a  podium  instead  
of  sit  at  a  desk  
 
Environmental  Resources  
• Windows  no  more  than  on  
one  side  
• No  dangling  mobiles  
• No  fluorescent  lights  
(flickering  agitates)  
• Throw  rugs  or  rug  samples  
as  a  boundary.  Their  body  
has  to  stay  on  the  rug.  
• Timing  devices  
• Cooperative  learning  
• Control  for  auditory  
distractions  
• Control  of  visual  
distractions  
 
 
 
 

Emotion/Behavioral  
Disorder  
Behavior  problems,  
frequently  internal,  
exhibited  by  difficulties  in  
expressing  emotions  evoked  
in  normal  everyday  
experiences.  Behavior  
disorders  are  conditions  in  
which  the  emotional  or  
behavioral  responses  of  
individuals  significantly  
differ  from  those  of  their  
peers  and  seriously  impact  
their  relationships.  
 
Strategies  
• Specifically  identify  the  
behavior  which  needs  
to  be  worked  with  
• Create  a  baseline  of  the  
observed  behavior  
• Closely  examine  the  
information  in  the  
baseline  and  evaluate  
what  has  been  
observed  and  
documented  
• Develop  short  and  long  
term  goals  for  the  
student.  In  the  plan  
create  a  reward  
system.  

• Reevaluate  the  plan  for  
effectiveness.  Has  the  
behavior  reduced  
occurrence  in  a  variety  
of  settings?  
• Make  modifications  in  
the  behavior  plan  to  
reinforce  the  desired  
outcome.  
• Model  examples  
• Provide  a  positive  
structured  classroom  
environment.  
• Teach  social  skills  
• Teach  self-­‐
management  skills  
• Use  cooperative  
learning  strategies  and  
peer  tutoring    
• Ask  for  targeted  help  
from  members  of  your  
school’s  
multidisciplinary  
teacher  assistance  
team  or  the  child’s  
parents  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Accommodations  
And  
Modifications  
Children  with  
emotional  disturbances  
have  access  to  services  
that  address  physical,  
emotional,  social  and  
educational  needs  
Children  receive  
individualized  services  
based  on  unique  needs  
and  potentials,  which  
are  guided  by  an  
individualized  service  
plan.  
Children  receive  
services  within  the  
least  restrictive  
environment  that  is  
appropriate  
Families  are  full  
participants  in  all  
aspects  of  the  planning  
and  delivery  of  services  
Children  receive  
integrated  services  
with  connections  
between  child-­‐serving  
agencies  and  programs  
and  mechanisms  for  
planning,  developing,  
and  coordinating  
services  

 
Technology  Resources  
• WatchMinder  reminds  
students  about  
behaviors  so  that  they  
can  self-­‐monitor  their  
behavior  throughout  
the  day  
• Ear  plugs  
• Word  processing  
programs    
• iPod  with  limits  
• Talk  light,  Red  light  
means  noise  level  is  too  
loud,  yellow  light  
warning,  green  light  
means  okay  
 
Environmental  Resources  
• Arranging  the  physical  
environment  
• Setting  rules  and  
expectations  
• Helping  students  
comply  with  rules  and  
expectations  
• Scheduling  the  day  
• Establishing  routines  
and  procedures    
• Building  a  positive  
classroom  climate  that  
provides  all  students  with  
a  variety  of  opportunities  
for  success  

 
Communication  Disorder  
 A  serious  disruption  of  the  language  
acquisition  process  may  result  in  
language  disorders.  Such  irregular  
developments  may  involve  
comprehension  (understanding)  or  
expression  in  written  or  spoken  
language.  Such  malfunctions  may  
occur  in  one  or  more  of  the  most  
complex  sets  of  behaviors  exhibited  
by  humans,  language  disorders  are  
complex  and  present  perplexing  
assessment  problems.  Language  
involves  memory,  learning,  message  
reception,  and  processing  and  
expressive  skills.  An  individual  with  a  
language  disorder  may  have  deficits  in  
any  of  these  area’s,  and  it  may  be  
difficult  to  identify  the  nature  of  the  
problem.  In  addition,  language  
problems  may  arise  in  the  form  of  
language  delays,  which  is  when  the  
normal  rate  of  development  progress  
is  interrupted  but  the  systematic  
sequence  of  development  remains  
essentially  intact.  
 
Strategies  
• Adapting  Instruction  
• Ask  varied  types  of  questions  
to  encourage  self-­‐expression  
• Accept  non-­‐verbal  responses  
• Model  more  elaborate  language  
• Repetition  of  instruction  
• Visual  supports  (graphic  
organizers,  photos,  etc.)  
• Sign  Language  
• Kinesthetic  symbols  
• Use  of  AAC  systems  
 
 
 
 
 





 



Accommodations    
and  
Modifications  
Keep  the  noise  level  in  the  
classroom  as  low  as  possible  
With  the  help  of  the  speech  
teacher  altering  traditional  
classroom  games  students  play  
to  reinforce  concepts  for  
review  
Incorporating  group  reading  
into  lessons  
Repeat  questions  with  proper  
diction,  articulation  and  tone  
Incorporating  one-­‐on-­‐one  
tutorials  for  the  special  student  
Technology  Resources  
Sign  language  
Communication  boards  
Picture  exchange  
communication  system  
Hand-­‐held  (portable)  or  
computer  electronic  speech  
device  
Voice  output  communication  
aides  

 


 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Environmental  Resources  
Schools  speech  therapist  
Place  in  the  front  of  the  
classroom  
Pronounce  words  correctly  
while  giving  lesson  and  
repeat/restate  important  parts    
Write  lesson  plans  on  board  
Use  computer  programs  

Traumatic  Brain  Injury  (TBI)  
An  injury  to  the  brain  caused  by  
the  head  being  hit  by  something  
or  shaken  violently.  This  injury  
can  change  how  the  person  acts,  
moves,  and  thinks.  A  traumatic  
brain  injury  can  also  change  how  
a  student  learns  and  acts  in  
school.  
 
Strategies  
• Give  the  student  more  
time  to  finish  schoolwork  
and  tests  
• Give  directions  one-­‐step  at  
a  time.  For  tasks  with  
many  steps,  it  helps  to  give  
the  student  written  
directions  
• Show  the  student  how  to  
perform  new  tasks.  Give  
examples  to  go  with  new  
ideas  and  concepts  
• Have  consistent  routines.  
This  helps  the  student  
know  what  to  expect.  If  the  
routine  is  going  to  change,  
let  the  student  know  
ahead  of  time  
• Check  to  make  sure  that  
the  student  has  actually  
learned  the  new  skill.  Give  
the  student  lots  of  
opportunities  to  practice  
the  new  skill.  
• Reduce  distractions  
• Let  student  rest  as  needed  
• Keep  in  touch  with  the  
students  parents  

Accommodations  
and  
Modifications  
• Allow  additional  time  to  
complete  in-­‐class  
assignments  
• Allow  for  extra  or  
extended  breaks  
• Provide  student  with  
instructor’s  notes  or  help  
student  obtain  quality  
notes  from  other  
students  
• Allow  student  to  audio  
record  lectures  for  later  
playback  
• Provide  both  oral  and  
written  instructions;  
clarify  instructions  
• For  lectures,  provide  
student  with  an  outline  
or  study  guide  when  
available  
• Allow  use  of  a  portable  
computer  with  spelling  
and  grammar  checks  for  
assignments  and  note-­‐
taking  
• In  grading  work,  reduce  
emphasis  on  spelling  and  
grammatical  errors  
unless  it  is  the  purpose  
of  the  assignment  
• Permit  referencing  a  
dictionary  or  thesaurus  
for  assignments  

• Provide  preferential  
seating  at  or  near  the  
front  of  the  classroom  

• Provide  preferential  
seating  
• Arrange  seating  to  
allow  for  more  space  
between  students  
• Provide  small  group  
instruction  
• Structure  student's  
activities  and  
schedule  to  limit  
number  of  changes  
and  reduce  
unstructured  time  
• Limit  number  of  
persons  that  the  
student  deals  with  
each  day  
• Provide  the  student  
with  a  written  
schedule  and  keep  
the  schedule  as  
consistent  as  
possible  
• Provide  area  to  keep  
supplies,  books,  etc.,  
away  from  student's  
work  area  
• Select  a  classroom  
buddy  

• Reduce  quantity  of  work  
required,  in  favor  of  
quality.  
• Avoid  placing  student  in  
high  pressure  situations  
(e.g.,  short  time  frames,  
extensive  volume  of  
work;  highly  
competitive)  
• Exempt  student  from  
reading  aloud  in  front  of  
classmates  because  of  
impaired  reading  skills.  

 

 
Technology  Resources  
• Planners  or  cell  phones  
• Specialized  keyboards    
• Magnified  screen  on  a  
computer  
• Cane  
• Special  chair    
Environmental  Resources  
• Minimize  extraneous  
auditory  and  visual  
stimulation  (use  
study  carrels  or  
room  dividers)  

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

Autism  Spectrum  Disorders  
The  range  of  functioning  in  
multiple  skill  areas  found  among  
those  with  autism  disorders.  
 
Strategies  
• Give  visual  instructions,  
rules,  and  use  visual  
classroom  schedules  
• Watch  for  signs  of  high  
anxiety  or  difficulties  a  
student  may  be  having  
with  sensory  and  
emotional  overload,  and  
other  signs  of  stress  
• Structure  the  lay  out  of  the  
room  
• Structure  the  presentation  
of  worksheets  
• Explain  clearly  the  
purpose  of  all  work  
assignments,  
presentations,  multimedia  
materials,  or  other  
learning  tasks  
• Use  special  interests  to  
introduce  new  and  difficult  
tasks  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 

 

 
 
 
 
 


Accommodations  
and    
Modifications  
Don’t  change  schedule  
without  warning  ahead  of  
time  
Direction  instructions  
Extra  time  on  test  and  
homework  
Use  of  technology  
Assign  a  note  taking  buddy  

Technology  Resources  
• Dry  erase  board  
• Clipboard  
• Photo  album  
• Tape  recorder  
• Language  master  
• Timers  
• Calculators  
• Output  devices  
• Video  cameras    
Environmental  Resources  
• Strict  routine  
• Calm  environment  
• Stimulate  the  child’s  
senses  within  the  
environments  
• Use  games  to  allow  
students  to  connect  with  
one  another  
• Ask  students  questions  

Hearing  Loss  
 Deafness,  partial  or  complete  loss  of  
hearing.  An  increase  in  the  threshold  
of  audibility  caused  by  age,  infirmity,  
or  prolonged  exposure  to  intense  
noise.  Deafness  A  hearing  loss  greater  
than  90dB.  Deaf  individuals  have  
vision  as  their  primary  input  and  
cannot  understand  speech  through  the  
ear.  
 
Strategies  
• Always  face  the  student  when  
speaking,  allow  time  for  
interpretation.  
• Do  not  talk  while  writing  on  
white  board,  and  eliminate  
vibration  and  excessive  noise.  
• Get  attention  of  student  before  
communicating.  
• Outline  schoolwork/schedule  
on  paper  or  write  
announcements  on  the  
whiteboard.  
• Visual  aides;  photos  graphics,  
symbols,  and  diagrams.  
• Use  context  as  a  learning  aide.  
• Short,  concise  instruction.  
Whiteboard  free  of  clutter.  
• Introduce  interpreter  to  class.  
• Have  an  pre-­‐established  plan  
for  emergencies.  
Accommodations  
and  
Modifications  
• Captioned  films,  videos,  laser  
disk.  
• Interpreter    
• Note  taker  
• Audible  alarms  made  visual  
(flashing  lights).  
• Repeat  announcements  that  
come  over  the  PA  system.  


 





 



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Establish  a  “secret  signal”  with  
the  student  so  they  can  use  it  if  
they  don’t  understand.  
Technology  Resources  
http://www.harriscomm.com  
http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidi
s/hearing.html#sect0  
Augmentative  communication  
devices  
Computer-­‐Aided  Realtime  
Translation  (CART)  
Cell  phone  alarm  (set  on  
vibrate).  
Environmental  Resources  
Avoid  sitting  student  in  high  
traffic  area.  
Have  student  sit  where  they  
can  see  you  and  the  entire  
class.  
Eliminate  background  noise.  
Instruct  from  a  well-­‐lighted  
area  of  the  room.  
Write  important  information  
on  the  board  in  a  specific  spot  
where  the  kids  should  check  
every  day.  

 

Vision  Loss  
 is  the  absence  of  vision  where  it  
existed  before,  which  can  happen  
either  acutely  (i.e.  abruptly)  or  
chronically  (i.e.  over  a  long  period  
of  time).  Legal  Blindness  Visual  
acuity  of  20/200  or  worse  in  the  
best  eye  with  best  correction  as  
measured  on  the  Snellen  test,  or  a  
visual  field  of  20%  or  less.  






 

Strategies  
Always  let  the  student  know  
where  you  are.  
Speak  to  class  upon  entering  
or  leaving.  
Call  student  by  name,  
identify  yourself  by  name  
and  let  them  know  when  you  
are  ending  the  conversation.  
Use  descriptive  words  such  
as  straight,  forward,  left,  
right.  
Describe  in  detail  visual  
occurances  pertinent  to  
learning.  
Give  verbal  notice  of  room  
changes,  special  meetings  
and  assignments.  
Don’t  pet  or  touch  guide  dog.  
Introduce  to  class.  
Be  consistent  where  you  
place  classroom  materials.  
Collaborate  with  specialist  to  
determine  mobility  or  
lighting  needs  for  student.  

Accommodations  
And  
Modifications  
• Guide  dog.  

• Braille  test,  textbook,  tactile  
3D  models,  raised  line  
drawings.  
• Large  print  test,  hand  outs,  
audiotapes.  
• Sighted  narrator.  
• Special  desk  lamp,  cassette  
recorder,  personal  reader.  
 






 

 

Technology  Resources  
http://www.makoa.org/com
puters.htm  
http://www.as.wvu.edu/~sc
idis/vision.html  
http://primaryschool.suite1
01.com  
Voice  input  device  for  
computer.  
Braille  keyboard,  label  
maker,  etc.  
Private  eye  (electronic  
miniature  television),  
monocular.  
Magnifying  devices,  screen  
reader,  low  vision  projection  
screen.    

Environmental  Resources  
• Sit  as  close  to  visual  object  
associated  with  instruction.  
• Stand  away  from  window  
when  instruction.  
• Organized,  dependable  
environment.  
• No  sharp  edges,  things  
sticking  out  or  dangling  
cords.  
• Make  students  put  back  
packs  under  desks  or  hang  
on  a  rack.  

Gifted,  Creative,  and  Talented    
The  term  “gifted  and  talented,”  when  
used  with  respect  to  students,  
children,  or  youth,  means  students,  
children,  or  youth  who  give  evidence  
of  high  achievement  capability  in  
areas  such  as  intellectual,  creative,  
artistic,  or  leadership  capacity,  or  in  
specific  academic  fields,  and  who  need  
services  or  activities  not  ordinarily  
provided  by  the  school  in  order  to  
fully  develop  those  capabilities.  
 
Strategies  
• Use  an  able  students  to  recap  
on  last  lesson’s  learning  for  
other  students  
• Many  starter  activities  ask  for  
students  to  come  up  with  a  
number  of  examples.  A  more  
able  student  could  be  given  a  
higher  target  
• Start  students  at  an  
appropriate  level  of  difficulty  
on  tasks  
• If  taking  feedback  in  lesson,  
enlist  an  able  student  to  write  
ideas  up  on  the  board  
• Ask  able  students  to  model  
their  writing/thinking  by  
explaining  their  
answer/solution  to  a  task  to  a  
neighbor  
• Use  higher  level  questioning  
and  direct  questions  at  
particular  pupils  rather  than  
waiting  for  the  hands  up  
approach  
• Be  ready  to  probe  beyond  the  
first  question  in  order  to  make  
them  really  think  
 
Accommodations  
And  
Modifications  






 



 


Use  an  alternative  text  or  
stimulus  
Allow  students  to  jump  steps  
Create  open-­‐ended  tasks  that  
enable  unusual  responses  
Set  extended,  independent  
projects  
Encourage  research  and  
experiment  
Restrict  time  or  word  limit  
Technology  Resources  
Computers  allow  students  to  
move  at  their  own  pace  
Computers  can  be  used  to  
complete  alternative  activities  
and  independent  projects  
Many  computer  programs  can  
be  used  to  help  students  learn  
and  master  new  material  not  
covered  in  the  regular  
classroom  
Institute  of  educational  
advancement  
http://www.nfgcc.org/  
National  Foundation  for  Gifted  
and  Creative  Children  
http://nagc.org/  
National  Association  for  Gifted  
Children    
Environmental  Resources  
Seat  student  by  others  who  are  
struggling  so  they  can  help  if  
they  like  
Ask  students  to  write  answers  
on  the  board  and  explain  their  
answer  
Play  games  to  get  them  
socialized  
Don’t  place  in  the  corner  and  
ignore  because  they  know  the  
information  
Look  into  an  honors  class  if  
needed  

Intellectual  Disability  
Substantial  limitations  in  functioning,  
characterized  by  significantly  sub-­‐
average  intellectual  functioning  
concurrent  with  related  limitations  in  
two  or  more  adaptive  skills.  
Intellectual  disability  is  manifested  
prior  to  age  18.  
 
Strategies  
• Use  concrete  items  and  
examples  to  explain  new  
concepts  and  provide  practice  
in  existing  skill  areas.  
• Role  model  desired  behaviors,  
and  clearly  identify  what  
behaviors  you  expect  in  the  
classroom.  
• Plan  ahead  with  your  class  
activities.  
• Use  appropriate  
communication  methods  such  
as  Makaton  signing  for  pre  
verbal  students  or  those  with  
beginning  language.  
• Do  not  overwhelm  a  student  
with  multiple  or  complex  
instructions.  
• Use  strategies  such  as  
chunking,  backward  shaping  
and  role  modeling  as  helpful  
teaching  approaches.  
• Be  explicit  about  what  it  is  you  
want  a  student  to  do.  
• Learn  about  the  needs  and  
characteristics  of  your  student,  
but  do  not  automatically  
assume  they  will  behave  the  
same  way  today  as  they  did  
yesterday.  
• Ask  for  their  input  about  how  
they  feel  they  learn  best,  and  
help  them  to  be  as  in  control  of  
their  learning  as  possible.  
• Put  skills  in  context  so  there  is  

a  reason  for  learning  tasks.  
Involve  families  and  significant  
others  in  learning  activities,  
planning  and  special  days,  as  
well  as  in  informing  you  about  
the  needs  of  their  young  
person.  

 











 






 

Accommodations  
and  
Modifications  
Extended  time  on  homework  
and  tests  
Small  groups  
Shortened  assignments  
Supplemental  aides  
Visual  demonstrations  
Presentations  of  material  in  
small  steps  
Taped  lectures  
Credit  for  class  participation,  
effort  and  attendance  
Assisted  note  taking  
 
Technology  Resources  
Tape  recorder  
Uncluttered  power  points  
Organizer  to  help  with  
planning  classwork  and  
homework  
Behavior  check  cards  
Video  recorder  
Environmental  Resources  
Seating  to  reduce  distractions  
Frequent  breaks  
Clear  rules  and  schedule  
Reward  good  behavior  
Offering  comfortable  and  
attractive  furniture  in  the  
classroom  so  that  the  
environment  is  inviting  and  
enjoyable.