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HyperWorks 13.

0
OptiStruct User's Guide

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide

User's Guide ........................................................................................................................................... 1


Overview............................................................................................................................................... 2
Features ................................................................................................................................... 5
Capabilities
................................................................................................................................... 12
Formats ................................................................................................................................... 13
Enhancing ...................................................................................................................................
the Design Process
14
Pre-processing
and Post-processing in HyperWorks
...................................................................................................................................
17
Running...............................................................................................................................................
OptiStruct
21
Run Options
for OptiStruct
...................................................................................................................................
25
OptiStruct ...................................................................................................................................
GPU
39
OptiStruct ...................................................................................................................................
SPMD
41
Platforms and
Hardware Recommendations
...................................................................................................................................
60
OptiStruct ...................................................................................................................................
Configuration File
62
Expanded ...................................................................................................................................
Error Message File
67
Memory Limitations
................................................................................................................................... 69
Restarting ...................................................................................................................................
OptiStruct
71
OptiStruct ...................................................................................................................................
Compression Run
72
Structural
Analysis
...............................................................................................................................................
74
Linear Static
Analysis
...................................................................................................................................
75
Linear Buckling
Analysis
...................................................................................................................................
76
Nonlinear Analysis
................................................................................................................................... 78
Normal Modes
Analysis
...................................................................................................................................
103
Frequency...................................................................................................................................
Response Analysis
107
Complex ...................................................................................................................................
Eigenvalue Analysis
113
Random Response
Analysis
...................................................................................................................................
115
Response...................................................................................................................................
Spectrum Analysis
119
Transient...................................................................................................................................
Response Analysis
123
Thermal
Analysis
...............................................................................................................................................
129
Linear Steady-State
Heat Transfer Analysis
...................................................................................................................................
130
Linear Transient
Heat Transfer Analysis
...................................................................................................................................
133
Nonlinear...................................................................................................................................
Steady-State Heat Transfer Analysis
135
Contact-based
Thermal Analysis
...................................................................................................................................
137
Acoustic
Analysis
...............................................................................................................................................
140
Coupled Frequency
Response Analysis of Fluid-Structure Models
...................................................................................................................................
141
Radiated ...................................................................................................................................
Sound Analysis
258
Fatigue...............................................................................................................................................
Analysis
266
Multi-body
Dynamics Simulation
...............................................................................................................................................
282
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Transient...................................................................................................................................
Analysis for MBD
284
Static Analysis
for MBD
...................................................................................................................................
286
Quasi-static
Analysis for MBD
...................................................................................................................................
287
Linear Analysis
for MBD
...................................................................................................................................
288
Bodies

................................................................................................................................... 289
Markers ................................................................................................................................... 290
Constraints
................................................................................................................................... 291
Contact ................................................................................................................................... 293
Compliant...................................................................................................................................
Elements
295
Applied Forces
and Motions
...................................................................................................................................
296
Initial Velocity
................................................................................................................................... 297
Function Expressions
................................................................................................................................... 298
Results of...................................................................................................................................
a Multi-body Dynamics Analysis
299
Rotor Dynamics
............................................................................................................................................... 300
NVH Applications
and Techniques
...............................................................................................................................................
309
Transfer Path
Analysis on an Automobile
...................................................................................................................................
310
Residual Runs
using
Super
Elements
................................................................................................................................... 316
Basic OptiStruct
NVH Output Files
...................................................................................................................................
319
Global Search
Option
...................................................................................................................................
322
Create Door
and Deck Lid Seals
...................................................................................................................................
325
Create a HyperGraph
Template for Reading in Multiple Files
...................................................................................................................................
328
Using AMSES
(Automatic Multi-Level Sub-Structuring Eigensolver Solution)
...................................................................................................................................
329
Modeling
Techniques
...............................................................................................................................................
331
Parts and...................................................................................................................................
Instances
332
Subcase Specific
Modeling
...................................................................................................................................
341
Direct Matrix
Input (Superelements)
...................................................................................................................................
345
Flexible Body
Generation
................................................................................................................................... 364
Poroelastic
Materials (Biot theory)
...................................................................................................................................
369
Elements ...................................................................................................................................
and Materials
371
Loads and...................................................................................................................................
Boundary Conditions
385
Modeling ...................................................................................................................................
Errors
404
Results............................................................................................................................................... 407
Coupling
OptiStruct with Third Party Software
...............................................................................................................................................
417
Design ...............................................................................................................................................
Optimization
425
Optimization
Problem
...................................................................................................................................
426
Responses
................................................................................................................................... 429
Topology ...................................................................................................................................
Optimization
446
Free-size ...................................................................................................................................
Optimization
460
Topography
Optimization
...................................................................................................................................
467
Size Optimization
................................................................................................................................... 471
Shape Optimization
................................................................................................................................... 473

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ii

Free-shape
Optimization
...................................................................................................................................
475
Manufacturing
Constraints
...................................................................................................................................
493
Reliability-based
Design Optimization (Beta)
...................................................................................................................................
558
Optimization
of Arbitrary Beam Sections
...................................................................................................................................
564
Optimization
of Composite Structures
...................................................................................................................................
565
Equivalent
Static
Load
Method
(ESLM)
................................................................................................................................... 573
Gradient-based
Optimization Method
...................................................................................................................................
587
Global Search
Option
................................................................................................................................... 596
Design ...............................................................................................................................................
Interpretation - OSSmooth
598
OSSmooth
Parameter File
...................................................................................................................................
601
Running OSSmooth
................................................................................................................................... 606
Interpretation
of Topology Optimization Results
...................................................................................................................................
607
Laplacian...................................................................................................................................
Smoothing
608
Interpretation
of Topography Optimization Results
...................................................................................................................................
610
FEA Topology
for Reanalysis
...................................................................................................................................
613
FEA Topography
for Reanalysis
...................................................................................................................................
615
OptiStruct
References
............................................................................................................................................... 617

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User's Guide
Overview
Running OptiStruct
Structural Analysis
Thermal Analysis
Acoustic Analysis
Fatigue Analysis
Multi-body Dynamics Simulation
Rotor Dynamics
NVH Applications and Techniques
Modeling Techniques
Results
Coupling OptiStruct with Third Party Software
Design Optimization
Design Interpretation - OSSmooth
OptiStruct References

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Overview
Altair OptiStruct is an industry proven, modern structural analysis solver for linear and
non-linear structural problems under static and dynamic loadings. It is the market-leading
solution for structural design and optimization. Based on finite element and multi-body
dynamics technology, and through advanced analysis and optimization algorithms, OptiStruct
helps designers and engineers rapidly develop innovative, lightweight and structurally
efficient designs. OptiStruct is used by thousands of companies worldwide to analyze and
Optimize structures for their strength, durability and NVH (noise, vibration and harshness)
characteristics. Refer to the Features page for a list of solutions available in OptiStruct.
Finite element solutions via OptiStruct include:
Linear static analysis
Nonlinear implicit quasi-static analysis
Linear buckling analysis
Normal modes analysis
Complex eigenvalue analysis
Frequency response analysis
Random response analysis
Linear transient response analysis
Geometric non-linear explicit and implicit analysis
Linear fluid-structure coupled (acoustic) analysis
Linear steady-state heat transfer analysis
Coupled thermal-structural analysis
Nonlinear steady-state heat transfer analysis
Linear transient heat transfer analysis
Contact-based thermal analysis
Inertia relief analysis with static, non-linear contact, modal frequency response, and
modal transient response analyses
Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) for the generation of flexible bodies for multi-body
dynamics analysis
Reduced matrix generation
One-step (inverse) sheet metal stamping analysis
Fatigue analysis
A typical set of finite elements including shell, solid, bar, scalar, and rigid elements as well as
loads and materials are available for modeling complex events.
Multi-body dynamics solutions integrated via OptiStruct for rigid and flexible bodies include:
Kinematics analysis
Dynamics analysis

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Static and quasi-static analysis


Linearization
All typical types of constraints like joints, gears, couplers, user-defined constraints, and highpair joints can be defined. High pair joints include point-to-curve, point-to-surface, curve-tocurve, curve-to-surface, and surface-to-surface constraints. They can connect rigid bodies,
flexible bodies, or rigid and flexible bodies. For this multi-body dynamics solution, the power
of Altair MotionSolve has been integrated with OptiStruct.

Structural Design and Optimization


Structural design tools include topology, topography, and free-size optimization. Sizing,
shape and free-shape optimization are available for structural optimization.
In the formulation of design and optimization problems, the following responses can be
applied as the objective or as constraints: compliance, frequency, volume, mass, moment of
inertia, center of gravity, displacement, velocity, acceleration, buckling factor, stress, strain,
composite failure, force, synthetic response, and external (user-defined) functions. Static,
inertia relief, nonlinear quasi-static (contact), normal modes, buckling, and frequency
response solutions can be included in a multi-disciplinary optimization setup.
Topology, topography, size, and shape optimization can be combined in a general problem
formulation.

Topology Optimization
Topology optimization generates an optimized material distribution for a set of loads and
constraints within a given design space. The design space can be defined using shell or solid
elements, or both. The classical topology optimization set up solving the minimum
compliance problem, as well as the dual formulation with multiple constraints are available.
Constraints on von Mises stress and buckling factor are available with limitations.
Manufacturing constraints can be imposed using a minimum member size constraint, draw
direction constraints, extrusion constraints, symmetry planes, pattern grouping, and pattern
repetition. A conceptual design can be imported in a CAD system using an iso-surface
generated with OSSmooth, which is part of the OptiStruct package.
Free-size optimization is available for shell design spaces. The shell thickness or composite
ply-thickness of each element is the design variable.

Topography Optimization
Topography optimization generates an optimized distribution of shape based reinforcements
such as stamped beads in shell structures. The problem set up is simply done by defining
the design region, the maximum bead depth and the draw angle. OptiStruct automatically
provides the design variable creation and optimization control. Manufacturing constraints
can be imposed using symmetry planes, pattern grouping, and pattern repetition.

Size and Shape Optimization


General size and shape optimization problems can be solved. Variables can be assigned to
perturbation vectors, which control the shape of the model. Variables can also be assigned to

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properties, which control the thickness, area, moments of inertia, stiffness, and nonstructural mass of elements in the model. All of the variables supported by OptiStruct can be
assigned using HyperMesh. Shape perturbation vectors can be created using HyperMorph.
The reduction of local stress can be accomplished easily using free-shape optimization.
Shape perturbations are automatically determined by OptiStruct (based on the stress levels
in the design) when using this technique.
The layout of laminated shells can be improved by modifying the ply thickness and ply angle
of these materials.

Multi-body Dynamics Analysis


Different solution sequences for the analysis of mechanical systems are available; these
include Kinematics, Dynamics, Static, and Quasi-static solutions.
Flexible bodies can be derived from any finite element model defined in OptiStruct.

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Features
Finite Element Analysis using OptiStruct
Structural Analysis
- Linear Static Analysis
- Linear Buckling Analysis
- Nonlinear Quasi-Static Analysis
- Large Displacement Nonlinear Static Analysis
- Geometric Nonlinear Analysis (RADIOSS Integration)
- Normal Modes Analysis
- Frequency Response Analysis
- Complex Eigenvalue Analysis
- Random Response Analysis
- Response Spectrum Analysis
- Transient Response Analysis
Thermal Analysis
- Linear Steady-State Heat Transfer Analysis
- Linear Transient Heat Transfer Analysis
- Nonlinear Steady-State Heat Transfer Analysis
- Contact-based Thermal Analysis
Acoustic Analysis
- Coupled Frequency Response Analysis of Fluid-Structure Models
- Radiated Sound Analysis
Fatigue Analysis
- Stress-Life method
- Strain-Life method
Rotor Dynamics
Fast equation solver
- Sparse matrix solver
- Iterative PCG solver
- Lanczos eigensolver
- SMP parallelization
- SPMD parallelization
- DMIG input
- AMLS Interface
- FastFRS Interface

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Advanced element formulations


- Triangular, quadrilateral, first and second order shells
- Laminated shells
- Hexahedron, pyramid, tetrahedron first and second order solids
- Bar, beam, bushing, and rod elements
- Spring, mass, and damping scalar elements
- Mesh independent gap and weld elements
- Rigid elements
- Concentrated and non-structural mass
- Direct matrix input
Geometric element quality check
Local coordinate systems
Multi-point constraints
Contact, tie interfaces
Prestressed analysis
Linear-elastic materials
- Isotropic
- Anisotropic
- Orthotropic
Nonlinear materials
- Elastoplastic
- Hyperelastic
- Viscoelastic
Material consistency checks
Ground check for unintentionally constrained rigid body modes.

Modeling Techniques
Parts and Instances
Subcase Specific Modeling
Direct Matrix Input (Superelements)
- Direct Matrix Input
- Creating Superelements
- Component Dynamic Analysis
Flexible Body Generation
Poroelastic Materials

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Multi-body Dynamics using OptiStruct


Solution sequences
- Kinematics
- Dynamics
- Static
- Quasi-static
- Linearization
Bodies
- Rigid
- Flexible
- Flexible body generation in using the CMS modeling technique, integrated with
multi-body analysis if the model is set up in OptiStruct.
Constraints (between any body, flexible, or rigid)
- Joints: Ball (spherical), free, fixed, revolute, translational, cylindrical, universal,
planar, at-point, in-plane, parallel-axes, orient, perpendicular-axes, constant
velocity, and in-line.
- Gear
- Couplers
- Higher-pair joints: point-to-curve, point-to-surface, curve-to-curve, curve-tosurface, and surface-to-surface constraints.
Loads
- Forces
- Gravity
- Motions (Joint and Marker)
- Initial velocities (Body and Joint)
Function Expressions

Optimization
General optimization problem formulation for all optimization types
- Response based
- Equation utility
- Interface to external user-defined routines
- Minmax (maxmin) problems
- System identification
- Continuous and discrete design variables
Solution sequences for optimization
- Linear static
- Normal modes

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- Linear buckling
- Quasi-static nonlinear (gap/contact)
- Frequency response (modal method with residual vectors)
- Acoustic response
- Random response
- Linear steady-state heat transfer
- Coupled thermo-mechanical
- Multi-body Dynamics
- Fatigue
Responses for optimization
- All optimization types:
- Compliance
- Frequency
- Compliance index
- Volume
- Mass
- Volume fraction
- Mass fraction
- Center of gravity
- Moments of inertia
- Displacement
- Velocity
- Acceleration
- Temperature
- Pressure
- Stress (global von Mises stress in topology/free-size optimization)
- Buckling factor (with limitations in topology/free-size optimization)
- Fatigue life/damage
- User-defined responses
- Size, shape, free-shape, and topography optimization:
(In problems with topology/free-size design domains, these responses can be used in
the non-design domain)
- Strain
- Force
- Composite stress, strain, and failure (linear static analysis only)
Automatic selection of best optimization algorithm
- Optimality criteria method
- Convex approximation method
- Method of feasible directions
- Sequential quadratic programming
- Advanced approximations
Automatic selection of best method for design sensitivity analysis
- Direct method
- Adjoint variable method
Topology, free-size, topography, size, shape, and free-shape optimization problems can

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be solved simultaneously
Multi-disciplinary optimization using combinations of the supported solution sequences
Mode tracking

Topology Optimization
Generalized optimization problem formulation
Multiple load cases with different solution sequences in combination
Global von Mises stress constraint for static loads
Density method
1-D, 2-D, and 3-D elements in the design space
Non-design space can contain any element type and response
Extensive manufacturing control:
- Minimum member size control to avoid mesh dependent results
- Maximum member size control to avoid large material concentrations
- Draw direction constraints
- Extrusion constraints
- Pattern grouping
- Pattern repetition
- Multiple symmetry planes
Checkerboard control
Discreteness control
Smoothing and geometry generation for 3-D results

Free-Size Optimization
Generalized optimization problem formulation
Multiple load cases with different solution sequences in combination
Global von Mises stress constraint for static loads
Shell element thickness and composite ply-thickness design variables
Non-design space can contain any element type and response
Extensive manufacturing control:
- Minimum member size control to avoid mesh dependent results
- Maximum member size control to avoid large material concentrations
- Draw direction constraints
- Extrusion constraints
- Pattern grouping

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- Pattern repetition
- Multiple symmetry planes

Topography Optimization
Shape optimization for shells with automated design variable definition
Easy set up with one DTPG card
Extensive bead pattern control to allow for manufacturing constraints
- Pattern grouping
- Pattern repetition
- Multiple symmetry planes
- Discreteness control

Size Optimization
Shell, rod, and beam properties can be designed
Spring and concentrated mass properties can be designed
Composite ply thickness and ply angle can be designed
Material properties can be designed
Continuous and discrete design variables

Shape Optimization
Perturbation vector approach
Shape functions are defined through DVGRID cards
Continuous and discrete design variables

Free-shape Optimization
Perturbation vector approach
Automatic generation of perturbation vectors
Reduction of stress concentrations

Structural Optimization in Multi-body Dynamics Systems


Equivalent Static Load (ESL) method
Size, shape, free-shape, topology, topography, free-size, and material optimization of
flexible bodies in multi-body dynamics systems

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Generalized optimization problem definition


Large number of design variables and constraints

Pre-processing
Fully supported in HyperMesh and MotionView
Nastran type input format

Post-processing
HyperView
- Direct output of H3D format for model and results
- Direct output for iteration history
- Export of iso-density surface in STL format
HyperGraph
- Iteration history graphs
- Sensitivity bar charts
- Complex frequency response displacement, velocity, and acceleration plots for up to
500 nodes
- Random response PSD and auto/cross correlation of displacement, velocity, and
acceleration
- Transient response displacement, velocity, and acceleration time history plots for up
to 500 nodes
- Bar chart for effective mass
HTML report
- Model summary
- Model and result displayed using HyperView Player
HyperMesh
- Direct binary result file output
Microsoft Excel
- Design sensitivities for size and shape variable approximations
Support of Nastran Punch and OP2 output formats

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Capabilities
OptiStruct can be used to solve and optimize a wide variety of design problems in which the
structural and system behavior can be simulated using finite element and multi-body
dynamics analysis.
The design and optimization capabilities of OptiStruct allow for the development of
preliminary design concepts and for the improvement of existing designs based on finite
element analyses. Some types of optimization problems are listed below:
Two-dimensional truss structure optimization
Ribbed reinforcement patterns for 3-D shell structures
Ribbed reinforcements for solid structures
Spotweld reduction
Lightening holes for existing 2-D planar and 3-D bending shell problems
Discrete optimized structures for problems modeled using 3 dimensional solid element
problems
Bead (Swages) reinforcements in 3-D shell structures
Shape modifications for volume parts
Gage optimization of 3-D shell structures
Beam cross-section optimization of structures modeled with beam elements
Layout of laminated shell by modifying ply thickness and ply angle
Reduction of stress concentrations
Optimization of mechanisms and mechanical systems to minimize weight and reduce
stress

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Formats
OptiStruct supports the following input/output formats:
Formats
Input

Nastran Bulk Data Format

Output

HyperMesh Result File (Results)


H3D Binary File (Results)
Patran ASCII (Results)
Nastran Output2 (Results)
Nastran Punch File (Results)
OptiStruct 2.0 (Results)
HyperView Format (Iteration history, sensitivities,
effective mass)
Microsoft Excel (Sensitivities)
From Bulk Data Format input:
HyperMesh Result File
Nastran Output2 File
Nastran Punch File
OptiStruct 2.0 File
Patran ASCII File

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13

Enhancing the Design Process


OptiStruct enhances the design process by:
Accelerating the design process
Shortening the number of design cycles
Increasing the design performance
Providing fast and accurate finite element analysis
Generating optimal design concepts using topology and topography optimization
Providing traditional size and shape optimization to maximize the design performance

The design process can be viewed as an optimization process to find structures, mechanical
systems, and structural parts that fulfill certain expectations towards their economy,
functionality, and appearance. Generally, the design process is an iterative procedure
consisting of the following components:
Conceptual design
Design
Testing
Optimization

Todays testing ground is usually the computer. Finite element analysis (FEA) and Multi-body
dynamics analysis (MBD) are the most used tools for computational design testing. The
results of computational analyses are used to determine design improvements.
Changes to the design are introduced in all phases of the process. At a certain stage of this
process, changes to the concept become prohibitive. The concept phase plays a fundamental
role concerning overall efficiency of the design and the cost of the overall development
process.
In the concept phase of a design process, the freedom of the designer is limited only by the
specifications of the design (Figure 1). Today, the decision on how a new design should look
is based largely upon a benchmark design or on previous designs. The decision making is
based on the experience of those involved in the design process. Conceptual design tools
such as topology and topography optimization can be introduced to enhance the process.
The concept can be based on results of a computational optimization rather than on
estimations. Using topology and topography optimization, the initial design step is already
based on input generated using computational analysis. Topology and topography
optimization redefine the role of computational analysis and simulation in the design process.
Finite element analysis has matured from a testing tool to a design tool.

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Figure 1: Decision making in the design process.

Figure 2 compares the design process using topology optimization with the conventional
method of leaving the concept entirely to experience and intuition. The overall cost of design
development can be reduced substantially by avoiding concept changes introduced in the
testing phase of the design. This is the major benefit of modifying the design process by
introducing topology and topography optimization.
In the real world, the design process is not as straightforward as described above. The
design is not just driven by one performance measure -- it has to be viewed as a
multidisciplinary task. Today, the different disciplines work more or less independently.
Analysis and optimization is performed for single phenomena such as linear static behavior or
noise, vibration and harshness. Still, the idea persists that if one performance measure
improves, the whole performance improves. A simple example shows that this is not quite
true. Take the design of a car -- a high stiffness is necessary for good driving and handling,
and high deformability is important for the crashworthiness of the design. This shows that
improving one measure may result in degrading another. Therefore, compromises must go
into the formulation of the optimization problem. The definition of the design problem and of
the design target is most important. The solution can be left to computational means.
Multidisciplinary considerations, especially in the conceptual design, are, in many ways, still
active research topics and are being covered by future developments of topology
optimization. However, the inclusion of manufacturing constraints into topology and
topography optimization is already implemented in OptiStruct.

Figure 2: The design process without and with the use of topology optimization.

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15

OptiStruct also provides size and shape optimization to completely support the design
process with finite element based structural optimization. Using the advanced interfacing
with HyperMesh, the generation of input data for structural optimization becomes an easy
task. This allows structural optimization to be integrated into the design process seamlessly.

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Pre-processing and Post-processing in HyperWorks


Pre-processing
Pre-processing tools must be used to prepare models for OptiStruct, RADIOSS, and
MotionSolve. HyperWorks provides specialized pre-processors interfacing with the solvers.
HyperMesh can be used to mesh and set up finite element simulations for OptiStruct and
RADIOSS. Two user profiles are provided:
OptiStruct
RADIOSS (with sub-profiles for the different input formats)

HyperCrash is useful to set up finite element models for automotive crash simulation in
RADIOSS. It provides a number of useful tools for dummy positioning and model
interrogation that are not available in HyperMesh. Translation of models from OptiStruct to
RADIOSS and vice versa can be performed efficiently in HyperCrash.
HyperForm is used to set up and execute sheet metal stamping simulations. Two user
profiles are provided to run RADIOSS:
One_Step
Incremental_Radioss

MotionView is used to set up multi-body dynamics models for MotionSolve. The respective
SolverMode has to be chosen.

Figure 1. HyperMesh

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Figure 2. HyperCrash

Figure 3. HyperForm

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Figure 4. MotionView

Post-processing
Graphical tools must be used to visualize and evaluate the results of OptiStruct, RADIOSS,
and MotionSolve. HyperWorks provides HyperView, a specialized post-processor, for this.
HyperView allows animation, 2D and 3D plotting, video and text processing to work with the
solver results and to generate reports. It can be used for all post-processing purposes in
finite element and multi-body dynamics analysis.
Direct readers are provided for the animation and time history file written by OptiStruct,
RADIOSS, and MotionSolve.

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Figure 1. HyperView

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Running OptiStruct
Note: Your system administrator may need to modify the script
to make it compatible with your system.
This section describes the execution of OptiStruct.
There are several ways to run OptiStruct:
From the script.
From the HyperWorks Solver Run Manager.
From inside the preprocessors HyperMesh.
From inside HyperView and HyperGraph.
In all the above cases, HyperWorks will initialize $PATH and other environment variables
required to run the selected solver, however you are responsible for initializing environment
variables for third party products. In particular, MPI and AMLS/FFRS external solvers (if
needed) may require PATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH.

Running OptiStruct from the Script


To run on UNIX from the command line, type the following:
<install_dir>/altair/scripts/optistruct "filename" option argument
To run OptiStruct from a Windows DOS prompt, type the following:
<install_dir>\hwsolvers\bin\win64\optistruct.bat "filename" option argument
The options and arguments are described under Run Options for OptiStruct.
OptiStruct looks for "filename" in the following manner ("filename" may contain a file path
that is either absolute or relative to the run directory):
First, it checks to see if "filename" exists exactly as input.
If "filename" does not exist exactly as input, and if "filename" does not contain an
extension (that is, if the actual file name without the path does not contain a period),
then it checks for "filename".parm and then for "filename".fem.
If none of these checks results in a match, OptiStruct reports an error and terminates.

Running OptiStruct from HyperWorks Solver Run Manager


On Windows, a utility to start each solver is provided through Start > Programs > Altair
HyperWorks 13.0 > OptiStruct. This utility allows you to start multiple solver runs, select
options from the menu, and maintains a history of solutions. On UNIX platforms, this utility
can be started from command line as:
<install_dir>/altair/scripts/<solver name> -gui

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Running OptiStruct from HyperMesh


If you set up a finite element model in HyperMesh, you can run the simulation directly out of
HyperMesh by going to the OptiStruct panel in the respective user profiles. The panels can
be accessed through the Analysis page, from the Utility menu, or through the Applications
pull down. The panels ask for the file name. After clicking the solver button, the model is
exported using the given export options. Then the solver runs the script that is provided
locally on the machine. After solver execution, the results can be viewed in HyperView. You
can bring up HyperView with the results loaded by clicking HyperView.
Note: When running OptiStruct from HyperMesh on UNIX and
Linux, a shell is spawned with the DISPLAY setting
<hostname>:0.0. If this is different from the DISPLAY
setting for HyperMesh, 50 HyperWorks units (in addition
to the 21 HyperWorks units being used for HyperMesh)
will be checked out. To avoid the checking out of
additional units, be sure that the DISPLAY is set to
<hostname>:0.0 before starting HyperMesh.

Running OptiStruct from HyperView or HyperGraph


If you are in HyperView or HyperGraph, OptiStruct can be run from the Applications pulldown. After selecting OptiStruct, the HyperWorks Solver Run Manager main form will
appear, which will allow you to select a file, enter run options, and run the simulation.

The OptiStruct Configuration File


The configuration file optistruct.cfg may be used to establish default settings for
OptiStruct either system wide, for a particular user, or for a local directory. A full description
of the settings allowed and the usage of the configuration file is provided on the OptiStruct
Configuration File page.

Environment Variables
The following environment variable is optional and may be set on either UNIX or PC
platforms; however, the preferred way is to define them using the OptiStruct Configuration
File.
OS_TMP_DIR =
path

Path Path name to directory for scratch file


storage (Default = directory where the solver is
started can be overwritten by the definition in
the script or input deck).

The following environment variable is optional and may only be set on UNIX platforms;
however, the preferred way is to define this using the OptiStruct Configuration File.

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DOS_DRIVE_$ =
path

This environment variable allows drive letters to


be assigned to UNIX paths. This facilitates
copying files which contain INCLUDE, TMPDIR,
INFILE or OUTFILE definitions containing drive
letters from PC to UNIX on hybrid networks.
$ - Drive letter to be defined (case sensitive).
Path - UNIX path with which you want to replace
the drive letter.
Note that after such expansion, the paths are
always interpreted as if there were a \
immediately after the drive letter in the original
PC path.

Memory Allocation
Memory is dynamically allocated for a run. The allocation starts with the initial memory.
The default setting for the memory limit is 1GB for 64-bit solver version (PC and Linux). This
setting can be changed by using the SYSSETTING option OS_RAM, or by defining the len
option in the run script. The script overwrites the environment variable.
OptiStruct will always attempt to assign enough memory for a minimum core solution.
The initial memory is 10% of the memory limit by default. This setting can be changed by
using the SYSSETTING option OS_RAM_INIT.
A check run can be very helpful in estimating the memory and disk space usage. In a check
run, the memory necessary is automatically allocated.
The solver automatically chooses an in-core, out-of-core, or minimum core solution based on
the memory allocated. A solution type can be forced by defining the core option in the run
script; the memory necessary for the specified solution type is then assigned.
Refer to the Memory Limitations section for detailed information on the following topics: 32bit versus 64-bit computations, virtual versus physical memory, and automatic memory
allocation versus fixed memory runs.

Summary Information
OptiStruct always creates an .out file which contains summary information for the job. This
information can be echoed to the screen through the inclusion of the SCREEN I/O option in
the input data or through the use of the -out command line option (see Run Options for
OptiStruct).
This file also contains memory and disk space estimates. The disk space estimates for
eigenvalue analyses (normal modes, linear buckling, modal methods of frequency, transient
response, and fluid-structure coupling (acoustics)) are sometimes very conservative and can
be three times as much as is truly used. This is because it is not fully predictable how much
data needs to be saved to scratch files.
The true usage of memory and disk space is reported at the bottom of the file after the solver
has finished.

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Should the job be re-run in the same location, the .out file is not overwritten, but is instead
moved to _#.out, where # is the lowest available three digit number that creates a unique
file name.
For example, if filename.fem were run in a directory already containing filename.out, the
existing filename.out would be moved to filename_001.out, and the summary information
for the new job would be written to filename.out. Should the job be repeated again, the
existing filename.out would be moved to filename_002.out, and the summary information
for the latest job would be written to filename.out.
filename.out is the only file that is saved in this manner. All other results files will be
overwritten.

Recommendations
1. Try running OptiStruct with the default setting first (without specification of the len or
core options).
2. Do a check run before submitting large jobs (>500,000 dof) to NQS to make sure
sufficient NQS memory is being provided. The lM option can be used to change the NQS
memory. Be sure to include at least 12Mb for the executable in addition to the memory
necessary to solve the problem. A check run can also assist in debugging input data
without having to wait in a queue.

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Run Options for OptiStruct


Option

Argument

Description

Available on

-acf

N/A

Option to specify that the input file is an ACF


file for a multi-body dynamics solution
sequence.

All Platforms

-amls

YES/NO

Invokes the external AMLS eigenvalue solver. Linux


The AMLS_EXE environment variable needs to
point to the AMLS executable for this setting
to work.
Overrides the PARAM, AMLS setting in the
input file.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem amls
yes)

-amlsncpu

1, 2, or 4

Defines the number of CPUs to be used by the Linux


external AMLS eigenvalue solver. This
parameter will set the environment variable
OMP_NUM_THREADS.
The default value is the current value of
OMP_NUM_THREADS. Note that this value can
be set by the command line arguments
nproc or ncpu.
OptiStruct and AMLS can be run with different
allocations of processors. For example,
OptiStruct can be run with 1 processor and
AMLS with 4 processors in the same run.
Only valid with amls run option or when
PARAM, AMLS is set to YES.
Overrides the PARAM, AMLSNCPU setting in
the input file.
Default: Number of processors used by
OptiStruct.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem amls
yes amlsncpu 4)

-amlsmem

Memory in
GB
<Real>

Defines the amount of memory in Gigabytes


to be used by the external AMLS eigenvalue
solver. This run option is only supported for
AMLS versions 5 and later.

Linux

Note:

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Option

Argument

Description

Available on

1. This run option will override the memory


value set by PARAM, AMLSMEM in the input
file and the environment variable
AMLS_MEM.
2. This run option is valid only if amls or
PARAM, AMLS is set to YES.
-analysis

N/A

Submit an analysis run. This option will also


check the optimization data; the job will be
terminated if any errors exist.

All Platforms

-optskip will skip checking the optimization


data and the analysis will be performed.
Cannot be used with -check or -restart
(Example: optistruct infile.fem
analysis)
-buildinfo N/A

Displays build information for selected solver


executables.

OptiStruct

-check

Submit a check job through the command


line.

All Platforms

N/A

The memory needed is automatically


allocated.
Cannot be used with analysis, -optskip or
-restart
(Example: optistruct infile.fem check)
-checkel

yes, no,
full
Note:
An
argument
for
checkel is
optional. If
an
argument is
not
specified,
the default
argument

26

If NO, element quality checks are not


performed, but mathematical validity checks
are performed.

All Platforms

If YES, or if no argument is given, the


geometric quality of each element is checked.
Any violation of the error limits is counted as
a fatal error and the run will stop. Any
violation of warning limits is non-fatal. Error
or warning messages are printed for elements
violating the limits along with the offending
property values. The amount of output is
limited to the first 3 occurrences for each
individual case, plus a summary table of all
errors.
If FULL, the same checks are performed as for
YES, but the error or warning messages are

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Option

Argument

Description

Available on

(yes) is
assigned.

printed for all of the elements violating the


error or warning limits.
Default is YES.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem
checkel full)
(Example: optistruct infile.fem
checkel)
Note: An argument for checkel is optional.
If an argument is not specified, the
default argument (yes) is assigned.

-compress

N/A

Submits a compression run.

All Platforms

Reduces out matching material and property


definitions.
Property definitions referencing deleted
material definitions are updated with the
retained matching material definition
(reduction of property definition occurs after
this process).
Element definitions referencing deleted
property definitions are updated with the
retained matching property definition. The
resulting bulk data file will be written to a file
named <filename>.echo.
It is assumed that there is no optimization,
nonlinear or thermal-material data in the bulk
data. If such data are present in the input
file, the resulting file (<filename>.echo) may
not be valid.
The compress run option cannot be used in
combination with any other option as
OptiStruct terminates the run after the .echo
file is generated.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem
compress)
See OptiStruct Compression Run for more
information.
-core

in, out,
min

in in-core solution is forced

All Platforms

out out-of-core solution is forced

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Option

Argument

Description

Available on

min minimum core solution is forced


The solver assigns the appropriate memory
required. If there is not enough memory
available, OptiStruct will error out.
Overwrites the len option.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem core
in)
-cpu
or
-proc
or
-nproc
or
-ncpu
or
-nt

Number of
cores

-ddm

N/A

Runs MPI based OptiStruct SPMD in Domain


Decomposition Mode.

Not all platforms


are supported.
Refer to the
OptiStruct SPMD
User's Guide for
the list of
supported
platforms.

-delay

Number of
seconds

Delays the start of an OptiStruct run for the


specified number of seconds. This
functionality does not use licenses, computer
memory or CPU before the start of the run
(the delay expires).

All Platforms

Number of cores to be used for SMP solution.


(See comment 2).

All Platforms

(Example: optistruct infile.fem -ncpu


2)

Note:
The delay option can only be used for
a single job. Delays cannot be
scheduled for multiple jobs in a queue.
If the run is started using the HWSolver
Run Manager (GUI), the Schedule
delay option should be used.
-dir

N/A

Change directory to the location of input file


before starting the solver.

-ffrs

YES/NO

Invokes the external FastFRS (Fast Frequency Linux


Response Solver) solver. The FASTFRS_EXE

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All Platforms

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Option

Argument

Description

Available on

environment variable should point to the


FastFRS executable for this setting to work.
Overrides the PARAM, FFRS setting in the
input file.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem ffrs
yes)
-ffrsncpu

1, 2, or 4

Defines the number of CPUs to be used by the Linux


external FastFRS eigenvalue solver. This
parameter will set the environment variable
OMP_NUM_THREADS.
The default value is the current value of
OMP_NUM_THREADS. Note that this value can
be set by the command line arguments
nproc or ncpu.
OptiStruct and FastFRS can be run with
different allocations of processors. For
example, OptiStruct can be run with 1
processor and FastFRS with 4 processors in
the same run.
Valid only when the ffrs run option or
PARAM, FFRS is set to YES.
Overrides the PARAM, FFRSNCPU setting in
the input file.
Default: Number of processors used by
OptiStruct.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem ffrs
yes ffrsncpu 4)

-ffrsmem

Memory in
GB
<Real>

Defines the amount of memory in Gigabytes


to be used by the external FastFRS
eigenvalue solver. This run option is only
supported for FastFRS versions 2 and later.

Linux

Note:
1. This run option will override the memory
value set by PARAM, FFRSMEM in the input
file and the environment variable
FFRS_MEM.
2. This run option is valid only when the
ffrs run option or PARAM, FFRS is set to
YES.

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Option

Argument

Description

Available on

-fixlen

RAM in
MBytes

Disables dynamic memory allocation.

All Platforms

OptiStruct will allocate the given amount of


memory and use it throughout the run. If
this memory is not available, or if the
allocated amount is not sufficient for the
solution process, OptiStruct will terminate
with an error.
To avoid over specifying the memory when
using this option, it is suggested first to run
OptiStruct with the -check option and use the
results of that run to properly define the
memory size for the -fixlen option.
This option allows, on certain platforms, to
avoid memory fragmentation and allocate
more memory than is possible with dynamic
memory allocation.
Overwritten by -len and -core options.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem fixlen 500)
-gpu

N/A

Activates GPU Computing

All Platforms

-gpuid

N/A

N: Integer, Optional, Selects the GPU Card.


Default = 1.

All Platforms

-h

N/A

Displays script usage.

All Platforms

-len

RAM in
MBytes

Preferred upper bound on dynamic memory


allocation.

All Platforms

When different algorithms can be chosen, the


solver will try to use the fastest algorithm
which can run within the specified amount of
memory. If no such algorithm is available,
then the algorithm with minimum memory
requirement will be used. For example, the
sparse linear solver, which can run in-core,
out-of-core or min-core will be selected. The
core option will override the len option. The
default for len is 1000MB, this means that
all except for very small models, OptiStruct
will use only the minimum memory needed to
run the job. If len value is larger than the
amount of available physical RAM, it may
cause excessive swapping during

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Option

Argument

Description

Available on

computations, and significantly slow down the


solution process.
Default = 1000 MB.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem len
32)
Best practices for len specification:
For proper memory allocation while using
len in an OptiStruct run, avoid using the
exact reported memory estimate value (for
eg. Using Check). The len value should be
provided based on the actual memory of the
system. This would be the recommended
memory limit to run the job, it may not
necessarily represent the memory utilized by
the job or the actual memory limit. This way,
the job is more likely to run with the best
possible performance. If the same system is
shared by multiple jobs, then the memory
allocation should follow the same procedure
as above; except, that the individual
maximum memory should be used in place of
the total system memory. (If a job runs outof-core instead of in-core (it exceeded the
memory allocation) it will still run very
efficiently. However, make sure that the job
does not exceed the actual memory of the
system itself as this will slow the run down by
a large factor. The recommended method to
deal with this is to specify maxlen as the
actual memory of the system to limit the
maximum memory that can be used on the
system.
-lic

FEA, OPT

FEA -

FE analysis only
(OptiStructFEA).

OPT -

Optimization (OptiStruct or
OptiStructMulti).

All Platforms

The solver checks out a license of the


specified type before reading the input data.
Once the input data is read, the solver
verifies that the requested license is of the
correct type. If this is not the case,
OptiStruct will terminate with an error.

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Option

Argument

Description

Available on

No default
(Example: OptiStruct infile.fem -lic
FEA)
-licwait

Hours to
wait for a
license to
become
available
Note:
An
argument
for
licwait is
optional. If
the
argument is
not
specified,
the default
argument
(12) is
assigned.

If present and there are not 50 HyperWorks


Units available, OptiStruct will wait for up to
the number of hours specified (default=12)
for licenses to become available and then
start to run. The maximum wait period that
can be specified to wait is 168 hours (a
week). OptiStruct will check for available
HyperWorks Units every two minutes.

All Platforms

-manual

N/A

Launches the online OptiStruct Users


manual.

All Platforms

-maxlen

RAM in
Mbytes

Hard limit on the upper bound of dynamic


memory allocation.

All Platforms

OptiStruct will not exceed this limit.


No default
(Example: optistruct infile.fem maxlen
1000)
-mmo

32

N/A

The mmo option can be used to run multiple


optimization models in a single run.

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Not all platforms


are supported.
Refer to the
OptiStruct SPMD
User's Guide for
the list of
supported

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Option

Argument

Description

Available on
platforms.

-monitor

N/A

Monitor convergence from an optimization or


nonlinear run. Equivalent to SCREEN, LOG in
the input deck.

-mpi

i (Intel
MPI),

Initiate an MPI-based SPMD run on supported Not all platforms


are supported.
platforms.
Refer to the
(Example: optistruct infile.fem mpi
OptiStruct SPMD
np 4)
User's Guide for
the list of
supported
platforms.

pl (IBM
PlatformMPI
(formerly
HP-MPI)),

All Platforms

ms (MSMPI),
pl8 (for
versions 8
and newer
of IBM
PlatformMPI)
Note:
An
argument
for mpi is
optional. If
an
argument is
not
specified,
the default
argument is
assigned.
-mpipath

path

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Not all platforms


are supported.
Refer to the
Note: This option is useful if MPI
OptiStruct SPMD
environments from multiple MPI vendors
are installed on the system. Valid for an User's Guide for
the list of
MPI run only.
supported
(Example: optistruct infile.fem mpi
platforms.
np 4 mpipath /apps/hpmpi/bin)
Specify the directory containing HP-MPIs
mpirun executable.

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Option

Argument

Description

Available on

-nlrestart Subcase ID Restart a geometric nonlinear solution


sequence from specified subcase ID.

All Platforms

If Subcase ID is not specified, it will restart


from the first geometric nonlinear subcase
ending with error in previous run.
Note: The geometric nonlinear solution
sequence is a series of geometric
nonlinear subcases (ANALYSIS =
NLGEOM, IMPDYN or EXPDYN) linked by
CNTNLSUB.
-np

Number of
Number of processors to be used in SPMD
processors analysis.

All Platforms

(Example: optistruct infile.fem mpi


np 4)
-optskip

N/A

Submit an analysis run without performing


check on optimization data (skip reading all
optimization related cards).

All Platforms

Cannot be used with check or restart.


(Example: optistruct infile.fem optskip)
-out

N/A

Echos the output file to the screen. This


takes precedence over the I/O option
SCREEN.

All Platforms

(Example: optistruct infile.fem -out)


-outfile

Prefix for Option to direct the output files to a directory All Platforms
output
different from the one in which the input file
filenames
exists. If such a directory does not exist, the
last part of the path is assumed to be the
prefix of the output files. This takes
precedence over the I/O option OUTFILE.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem outfile results); here OptiStruct will
output results.out, etc.

-rad

34

Run
RADIOSS
optimizati
on in
OptiStruct

Option to run RADIOSS optimization in


All Platforms
OptiStruct. A RADIOSS optimization file
<name>.rad should be input to OptiStruct and
the rad run option should be specified to
request an optimization run for a RADIOSS

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Option

Argument

Description

Available on

input deck.
Note: The RADIOSS Starter and input files
supporting the optimization input should
be available in the same directory as
the <name>.rad file.
Refer to RADIOSS Optimization in the Users
Guide for more information.
-ramdisk

Size of
virtual
disk (in
MB)

Option to specify area in RAM allocated to


store information which otherwise would be
stored in scratch files on the hard drive.

All Platforms

(Example: optistruct infile.fem


ramdisk 800)
For a more detailed description, see the
RAMDISK setting on I/O option SYSSETTING.

-reanal

Density
threshold

This option can only be used in combination


with -restart.

All Platforms

Inclusion of this option on a restart run will


cause the last iteration to be reanalyzed
without penalization.
If the "density threshold" given is less than
the value of MINDENS (default = 0.01) used
in the optimization, all elements will be
assigned the densities they had during the
final iteration of the optimization. As there is
no penalization, stiffness will now be
proportional to density.
If the "density threshold" given is greater
than the value of MINDENS, those elements
whose density is less than the given value will
have density equal to MINDENS, all others
will have a density of 1.0.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem restart -reanal 0.3)
-restart

filename.s Specify a restart run. If no argument is


All Platforms
h
provided, OptiStruct will look for the restart
file, which will have the same root as the
input file with the extension .sh. If you enter
an argument On PC, you will need to provide
the full path to the restart file including the
file name.

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Option

Argument

Description

Available on

Cannot be used with check, -analysis or


optskip.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem restart); here OptiStruct looks for the
restart file infile.sh.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem
restart C:\oldrun\old_infile.sh); here
OptiStruct looks for the restart file
old_infile.sh.
-rnp

Number of
Number of processors to be used in
processors OptiStruct SPMD for IMPDYN, EXPDYN, and
NLGEOM analysis types.

All Platforms

(Example: optistruct infile.fem mpi


rnp 4)
-rnt

Number of
cores

Number of cores to be used for OptiStruct


SMP for IMPDYN, EXPDYN, and NLGEOM
analysis types.

All Platforms

(Example: optistruct infile.fem -rnt 2)


-rsf

Safety
factor

Specify a safety factor over the limit of


allocated memory.

All Platforms

Not applicable when -maxlen is used.


(Example: optistruct infile.fem rsf
1.2)
(Example: optistruct infile.fem len 32
rsf 1.2)
(Example: optistruct infile.fem core
out rsf 1.2)
-scr
or
-tmpdir

Path,
Option to choose directories in which the
filesize=n scratch files are to be written. filesize=n
, slow=1
and slow=1 arguments are optional. Multiple
arguments may be comma separated.

All Platforms

path ; give the path to the directory for


scratch file storage.
filesize=n ; defines the maximum file size
(in GB) that may be written to that location.
slow=1 ; indicates a network drive.

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Option

Argument

Description

Available on

(Example: optistruct infile.fem scr


filesize=2,slow=1,/network_dir/tmp)
Multiple scratch directories may be defined
through repeated instances of tmpdir or
scr.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem tmpdir
C:\tmp tmpdir filesize=2,slow=1,Z:
\network_drive\tmp)
This overwrites the environment variable
OS_TMP_DIR, and the TMPDIR definition in the
I/O section of the input deck.
For a more detailed description, see the I/O
Option TMPDIR.
-scrfmode

basic,
buffered,
unbuffer,
smbuffer,
stripe,
mixfcio

Option to select different mode of storing


scratch files for linear solver (especially for
out-of-core and minimum-core solution
modes). Multiple arguments may be comma
separated.

All Platforms

(Example: optistruct infile.fem


scrfmode buffered, stripe tmpdir C:
\tmp)
For a description of the arguments, see the
SCRFMODE setting on I/O option
SYSSETTING.
-testmpi

N/A

Check if MPI is configured properly and if the All Platforms


SPMD version of the OptiStruct executables is
available for this system.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem mpi
np 4 mpipath /apps/hpmpi/bin -testmpi)

-uselen

RAM in
MBytes

Suggested dynamic memory usage limit.


All Platforms
OptiStruct will use more than the minimum
memory required up to this limit, but only
when it improves the speed of the solution.
This value is used only for some solution
sequences, which can profit from additional
memory available (for example, to use bigger
buffers to store intermediate results).
This value is automatically limited by the
value specified by len, so uselen can be

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Option

Argument

Description

Available on

set safely to a very large value.


-version

N/A

Checks version and build time information


from OptiStruct.

All Platforms

-xml

N/A

Option to specify that the input file is an XML


file for a multi-body dynamics solution
sequence.

All Platforms

Comments
1. Any arguments containing spaces or special characters must be quoted in {} , for
example: -mpipath {C:\Program Files\MPI}. File paths on Windows may use
backward "\" or forward slash "/" but must be within quotes when using a backslash "\".
2. Currently, the solver executable (OptiStruct) does not have a specific limit on the number
of processors/cores assigned to the SMP part of the run ( -nt/-nthread ). However,
practical tests indicate that there is little advantage in increasing this value beyond 4, and
if the value for this option is set too high, it may actually increase the run time. Therefore
the solver script is programmed to error out if the value of -nt exceeds 16. Users
interested in testing this limitation may edit the hwsolver.tcl script (text file) located
at:
{ALTAIR_HOME}/hwsolvers/scripts/
To do so, increase '16' in the following lines:
add_arg nthread

"-nproc="

range { 1 16 }

(Or)
add_arg nthread

"-nt="

range { 1 16 }

This line appears several times in the script, each appearance is clearly commented to
indicate the specific solver executable it applies to.
3. The above arguments are processed by solver script(s) and not by the actual executable.
If you are developing internal scripts which use the executable directly, then you may get
specific information about command line arguments that are accepted by the executable
by looking at the content of the .stat file, where these arguments are listed for each run,
or you can contact ossupport@altair.com for more information.
4. The order of the above options is arbitrary. However, options for which arguments are
optional should not be followed immediately by the INPUT_FILE_NAME argument.

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OptiStruct GPU
Introduction
A Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a system which can be used to improve the performance
of computationally intensive engineering applications. GPU Computing is a process which
uses the GPU to execute the time consuming sections of the application and the rest of the
code runs on the CPU.

Implementation
Starting from OptiStruct version 12.0, the GPU can be used to accelerate the sparse direct
equation solver through the NVIDIA CUDA programming model. GPU computing is
implemented by off-loading most of the computation intensive work to the GPU and
concurrently overlapping the communication and data transfer between the CPU cores and
the GPU.

Speedup
A speedup in the equation solver of up to 4 times, and up to 3 times overall when compared
to a Quad-core Intel Nehalem Xeon run, can be achieved. This heterogeneous computing
model is particularly suitable for jobs dominated by the equation solver. For example:
nonlinear static analysis on power train structures, topology optimization on blocky structures
and so on.

Compatibility
1. GPU computing is available for static analysis/optimization.
2. GPU computing is available in 64-bit Linux platform only.
3. GPU computing is NOT supported in the SPMD module.
4. NVIDIA Fermi and Kepler architecture based Tesla and Quadro graphic cards are
supported. Tesla C2050/C2070/M2090/K10/K20, Quadro 6000/K5000/K6000 cards are
recommended for computing by NVIDIA.

Activating OptiStruct GPU


Command option -gpu is used to activate OptiStruct GPU. Currently, only one graphics card
is supported, and gpuid can be used to pick the desired graphic card for computation
when multiple cards are present. Compatible drivers for the graphics card needs to be
installed by the user prior to launching OptiStruct GPU using the option -gpu.

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Command Line
Option

Value

Action
Activates GPU computing

-gpu
-gpuid

Integer: Optional, selects the GPU card


Default = 1

Note: I/O usually accounts for an appreciable percentage of the total


solution time in OptiStruct for an out-of-core or min-core run. This
cannot be addressed or improved through GPU computing.
Therefore, -core in (at least core out) is recommended when
the memory in system is large enough.
OptiStruct, currently only supports one graphics card of a GPU in a
specific solution. Each GPU card may typically consist of a
multitude of small cores (not comparable to a CPU core). Each GPU
graphics card is considered equivalent to 1 CPU core for licensing
purposes. Refer to the Altair HyperWorks 13.0 Product Licensing
Unit Draw page for OptiStruct GPU licensing information.

Recommended Tesla GPU Computing Processor List for OptiStruct


The following table lists the recommended Tesla graphic boards for use with the Altair
HyperWorks Solver suite of applications for high-powered GPU computing.

Manufacturer

Adaptor Type

Driver Version
(minimum or
higher)

NVIDIA
(Tesla C-CLASS
series)

C2070
C2075

Linux (64-bit):
295.59

NVIDIA
(Tesla M-CLASS
series)

M2090

Linux (64-bit):
295.59

NVIDIA
(Tesla Kepler)

K20

Linux (64-bit)

Note: The most recent vendor/manufacturer drivers should be used and


all driver support for these cards should be addressed to the
appropriate manufacturer of the graphic board.

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OptiStruct SPMD
Single Program, Multiple Data (SPMD) is a parallelization technique in computing that is
employed to achieve faster results by splitting the program into multiple subsets and running
them simultaneously on multiple processors/machines. SPMD typically implies running the
same process or program on different machines (Nodes) with different input data for each
individual task.

Supported Platforms
Supported platforms and MPI versions for subcase based parallelization are listed in Table 1:
Application

Version

Supported Platforms

Linux (64-bit)

OptiStruct SPMD

13.0

Windows (64-bit)

MPI
Requires IBM Platform
MPI (formerly HP-MPI)
(Version 7.1);
(or)
Intel MPI
(Version 3.2.011 (or)
Version 4.1)
Requires IBM Platform MPI
(formerly HP-MPI)
(Version 7.1);
(or)
Intel MPI
(Version 3.2.011 (or)
Version 4.1)
(or)
Microsoft MPI
(Version 3.04.4169)

Table 1: Supported Platforms for OptiStruct SPMD

However, SPMD can sometimes be implemented on a single machine with multiple processors
depending upon the program and hardware limitations/requirements. SPMD in OptiStruct is
implemented by the following three MPI-based functionalities:
Task-based parallelization (TBP)
Domain Decomposition Method (DDM)
Multi-model optimization (MMO)

Task-based parallelization
Task-based parallelization (TBP) in OptiStruct can be used when a run is distributed into
parallel tasks, as shown in Figure 1. The schematic shown in Figure 1 is applicable to an
SPMD run on multiple machines. The entire model is divided into parallelizable subcases,
Table 2 lists the various supported solution sequences and parallelizable steps.

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Figure 1: Overview of Task-based Parallelization in OptiStruct

In Task-based parallelization, the model (analysis/optimization) is split into several tasks,


as shown in Figure 1. The tasks are assigned to various nodes that run in parallel. Ideally,
if the model is split into N parallel tasks, then (N+1) nodes/machines would be required for
maximum efficiency. (This is dependent on various other factors like: type of tasks,
processing power of the nodes, memory allocation at each node and so on. During a TBP
run, using more than (N+1) nodes for N parallelizable tasks would not increase efficiency).
The extra node is known as the Manager Node. The manager node decides the nature of
data assigned to each node and the identity of the Master Node. The manager node also
distributes multiple input decks and tasks to various nodes. It does not require a machine
with high processing power, as no analysis or optimization is run on the manager node.
The Master Node, however, requires a higher amount of memory, since it contains the
main input deck and it also collects all results and performs all processes that cannot be
parallelized. Optimization is run on the Master Node. The platform dependent Message
Passing Interface (MPI) helps in the communication between various nodes and also
between the Master Node and the Slave Nodes.

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Note:
1. A Task is a minimum distribution unit used in parallelization.
Each buckling analysis subcase is one task. Each Left-Hand
Side (LHS) of the static analysis subcases is one task. Typically,
the static analysis subcases sharing the same SPC (Single Point
Constraint) belong to one task. Not all tasks can be run in
parallel at the same time (For example: A buckling subcase can
not start before the execution of its STATSUB subcase).
2. The manager can also be included within the master node by
specifying np = N+1 for N nodes and repeating the first node in
the appfile/hostfile in a cluster setup (-np option, appfile/
hostfile are explained in the following sections).

Supported Solution Sequences


OptiStruct can handle a variety of solution sequences as listed in the overview. However,
all solution sequences do not lend themselves to parallelization. In general, many steps in
a program execution are not parallelized. Steps like Pre-processing and Matrix Assembly
are repeated on all nodes, while response recovery, screening, approximation, optimization
and output of results are all executed on the Master Node.
Solution
Sequences that
Support
Parallelization
Static Analysis

Parallelizable Steps

Two or more static


Boundary Conditions are
parallelized (Matrix
Factorization is the step
that is parallelized since
it is computationally
intensive.)

Non-Parallelizable Steps

Iterative Solution is not


parallelized. (Only Direct
Solution is parallelized).

Sensitivities are
parallelized (Even for a
single Boundary
Condition as analysis is
repeated on all slave
nodes).
Buckling Analysis

Two or more Buckling


Subcases are
parallelized.
Sensitivities are
parallelized.

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Solution
Sequences that
Support
Parallelization
Direct Frequency
Response Analysis

Parallelizable Steps

Non-Parallelizable Steps

Loading Frequencies are


parallelized.
No Optimization.

Modal Frequency
Response Analysis

Loading Frequencies are


parallelized.

Modal FRF preprocessing is not


parallelized.
Sensitivities are not
parallelized.

Table 2: Task-based parallelization - Parallelizable Steps for various solution sequences

As of HyperWorks 11.0, the presence of non-parallelizable subcases WILL NOT make the
entire program non-parallelizable. The program execution will continue in parallel and the
non-parallelizable subcase will be executed as a serial run.

Number and Type of Nodes available for Parallelization


The types and functions of the nodes that are used in Task-based Parallelization are
indicated in Table 3. The first node is automatically selected as the manager, the second
node is the master node and the rest are slave nodes.
Node Type

Functions

Master Node

Runs all non-parallelizable tasks

(1 Node)

Optimization is run here

Slave Node

Runs all parallelizable tasks

(N-2 Nodes)

Input deck copies are provided

Manager Node

No tasks are run on this node, it manages the


way nodes are assigned tasks.

(1 Node)

Manager makes multiple copies of the input


deck and sends them to the slave nodes.
Table 3: Types and functions of the Nodes

This assignment is based on the sequence of nodes that you specify in the appfile. The
appfile is a text file which contains process counts and the list of programs. Nodes can be
repeated in the appfile, multiple cores of the repeated nodes will be assigned parallel
jobs in the same sequence discussed here.

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Frequently Asked Questions


How many nodes should I use?
Parallelization is based on task distribution. If the maximum number of tasks which can be
run at the same time is N, then using (N+1) nodes is ideal (the extra one node for the
manager distributing tasks). Using more than (N+1) nodes will not improve the
performance.
The .out file suggests the number of nodes you can use, based on your model.
When there are only M physical nodes available (M < N), then the correct way to start the
job is to use M+1 nodes in the hostfile/appfile. The manager node requires only a small
amount of resources and can be safely shared with the master: The way to assign such a
distribution is repeating the first physical host in the hostfile/appfile. For example: Hostfile
for Intel MPI can be:
Node1
Node1
Node2
Node3
.
Note: For Frequency Response Analysis any number of nodes may be used.
(up to the number of loading frequencies in the model.)
How to run OptiStruct SPMD on a dual/quad CPUs/Cores machine?
Follow the instructions to run OptiStruct SPMD on a single machine. The ideal number of
nodes is min(N+1, M), where N is the maximum number of tasks that can be run at the
same time, and M is the number of CPUs/Cores.
Note: For dual/quad code machines it may be more efficient to run OptiStruct
in serial + SMP mode. (that is, use nt argument in the solver script).

How to run OptiStruct SPMD over LAN?


It is possible to run OptiStruct SPMD over LAN. Follow the HP-MPI manual to setup
different working directories of each node the OptiStruct SPMD is launched.

Is it better to run on cluster of separate machines or on shared memory


machine(s) with multiple CPUs?
There is no easy answer to this question. If the computer has enough memory to run all
tasks in-core, then we can expect faster solution times as MPI communication is not slowed
down by the network speed. But if the tasks have to run out-of-core, then computations
are slowed down by disk read/write delay. Multiple tasks on the same machine may
compete for disk access, and (in extreme situations) even result in wall clock time slower
than that for serial (non-MPI) runs.

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Will OptiStruct SPMD use less memory on each node than in the serial run?
No, Memory estimates for serial runs and parallel runs on each node are the same. They
are based on the solution of a single (most demanding) subcase.

Will OptiStruct SPMD use less disk space on each node than in the serial run?
Yes. Disk space usage on each node will be smaller, because only temporary files related to
task(s) solved on this node will be stored. But the total amount of disk space will be larger
than that in the serial run and this can be noticed, especially in parallel runs on a sharedmemory machine.

I have a cluster with N nodes each with M cores. What is the most efficient way I
can use the resources that I possess?
1. When each host has sufficient RAM to execute only a single serial OptiStruct run, then
use multiple cores to activate SMP on each node. (using more than four cores is usually
not effective). For example: on a 4 host cluster, each with 8 cores, you can run:
optistruct <inputfile> -mpi <mode> -np 5 nt 4 hostfile
2. When each host has sufficient RAM to efficiently execute more than one serial run, then
you can assign multiple MPI nodes to each host. For example:
optistruct <inputfile> -mpi <mode> -np 9 nt 4 hostfile

Domain Decomposition Method

In addition to Task-based parallelization (TBP), OptiStruct SPMD includes another approach


for parallelization called Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) for static analysis and
optimization. DDM allows you to run a single subcase of static analysis and/or optimization
with multiple processors in either Shared Memory Processing (SMP) or Distributed Memory
Processing (DMP) cluster computers. The solution time will be significantly reduced in DDM
mode and the scalability is much higher compared to the legacy shared memory
processing parallelization approach, especially on machines with a high number of
processors (for example, greater than 8).

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Figure 2: Example illustrating Graph Partitioning for the DDM implementation in OptiStruct

The DDM process utilizes graph partition algorithms to automatically partition the
geometric structure into multiple domains (equal to the number of MPI nodes). During FEA
analysis/optimization, an individual domain only processes its domain related calculations.
Such procedures include element matrix assembly, linear solution, stress calculations,
sensitivity calculations, and so on. The necessary communication across domains is
accomplished by OptiStruct and is required to guarantee the accuracy of the final solution.
When the solution is complete, result data is collected and output to a single copy of the
.out file. From the users perspective, there will be no difference between DDM and serial
runs in this aspect.
Supported Solution Sequences
Linear and nonlinear static analysis/optimization solution sequences are generally
supported. The following solutions, however, are currently not supported.
1. Static analysis (iterative solver)
2. Level set method (Static optimization)
3. Preloading (static analysis)
Note:
1. The ddm run option can be used to activate DDM. Refer to the Setting up OptiStruct
SPMD and Launching OptiStruct SPMD for information on setting up and launching
Domain Decomposition in OptiStruct.
2. The installation steps and supported platforms for DDM are the same as that of the
Task-based parallelization (TBP) mode.
3. In DDM mode, there is no distinction between node types (for example, manager node,
master node, slave node, and so on). All nodes are considered as working nodes. If np
n is specified, OptiStruct partitions n geometric domains and assigns each domain to
one MPU node.

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4. Hybrid computation is supported. nt can be used to specify the number of threads in


an SMP run. Sometimes, hybrid performance may be better than pure MPI or pure SMP
mode, especially for blocky structures. It is also recommended that the total number of
cores (n x m) should not exceed the physical cores of the machine.

Multi-Model Optimization
In addition to Task-based parallelization (TBP) and Domain Decomposition Method (DDM),
OptiStruct SPMD includes another approach for MPI-based parallelization called Multi-Model
Optimization (MMO) for optimization of multiple structures with common design variables
in a single optimization run.
ASSIGN, MMO can be used to include multiple solver decks in a single run. Common design
variables are identified by common user identification numbers in multiple models. Design
variables with identical user identification numbers are linked across the models.
Responses in multiple models can be referenced via the DRESPM continuation lines on
DRESP2/DRESP3 entries. Common responses in different models can be qualified by using
the name of the model on the DRESPM continuation line. The model names can be
specified via ASSIGN, MMO for each model.

Figure 3: Example usecase for Multi-Model Optimization

Multi-model optimization is a MPI based parallelization method, requiring OptiStruct MPI


executables for it to run. Existing solver decks do not need any additional input, can be
easily included, and are fully compatible with the MMO mode. MMO allows greater
flexibility to optimize components across structures. The mmo run option can be used to
activate Multi-Model Optimization in OptiStruct.
Supported Solution Sequences
1. All optimization types are currently supported.
2. Multi-body Dynamics (OS-MBD) and Geometric Nonlinear Analysis (RADIOSS
Integration) are currently not supported.
3. MMO currently cannot be used in conjunction with the Domain Decomposition Method
(DDM).
4. The DTPG and DSHAPE entries are supported; however linking of design variables is
not. For example, it makes no difference to the solution if multiple DSHAPE entries in
different slave files contain the same IDs or not.

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Note:
1. The number of processes should be equal to one more than the number of models.
2. Refer to the Setting up OptiStruct SPMD and Launching OptiStruct SPMD sections for
information on setting up and launching Multi-Model Optimization in OptiStruct.
3. The installation steps and supported platforms for MMO are the same as that of the
Task-based parallelization (TBP) and Domain Decomposition (DDM) modes.
4. If multiple objective functions are defined across different models in the master/slaves,
then OptiStruct always uses minmax [Objective(i)] (where, i is the number of
objective functions) to define the overall objective for the solution.
5. The following entries are allowed in the Master deck:
Control cards:
SCREEN, DIAG/OSDIAG, DEBUG/OSDEBUG, TITLE, ASSIGN, RESPRINT, DESOBJ,
DESGLB, REPGLB, MINMAX, MAXMIN, ANALYSIS, LOADLIB
Bulk data cards:
DSCREEN, DOPTPRM (see section below), DRESP3, DRESP3, DOBJREF, DCONSTR,
DCONADD, DREPORT, DREPADD, DEQATN, DTABLE, PARAM
DOPTPRM parameters (these work from within the master deck all other DOPTPRMs
should be specified in the slave):
CHECKER, DDVOPT, DELSHP, DELSIZ, DELTOP, DESMAX, DISCRETE, OBJTOL,
OPTMETH, SHAPEOPT

Setting up OptiStruct SPMD


Linux Machines
Below are detailed instructions on installing and launching OptiStruct SPM on Linux
machines.

Installing OptiStruct SPMD


System Requirements
Operating system: Linux64
The MPI library: IBM Platform-MPI (Formerly HP-MPI) or Intel MPI must be installed
and accessible from every machine in the cluster.
Installing Software and activating the License
1. OptiStruct SPMD is included with the OptiStruct solver package and the SPMD
executables are included in the installation.
2. Test if OptiStruct SPMD is able to run in serial mode.

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Configuring the machines


1. The account used to run OptiStruct SPMD must exist on every node in the cluster.
2. OptiStruct SPMD executables must be accessible to all cluster nodes.
3. The local scratch directories must be the same (same path).
4. It is highly recommended to have all the computation (working) directories at the same
location on all cluster nodes.
SSH installation
1. IBM Platform MPI (formerly HP-MPI) default installation uses ssh to launch OptiStruct
SPMD on different nodes.
2. ssh should be configured to permit the connection on all hosts of the cluster without the
need to type passwords.
3. Refer to ssh man pages to generate and install rsa keys (ssh-keygen tool).
To check the functionality of ssh, the following test can be performed on the different
nodes:
[optistruct@host1] ssh host1 ls
[optistruct@host1] ssh host2 ls
...
[optistruct@host1] ssh host[n] ls
RSH (An alternative to SSH)
1. It is also possible to use rsh instead of ssh to launch OptiStruct SPMD.
2. Computation nodes need to be accessible to all the other nodes without need for a
password.
3. Refer to the rsh manpages for installation instructions. Check with IBM Platform MPI
(formerly HP-MPI) manual for instructions on how to use RSH instead of SSH.
4. To check the functionality of rsh, the following test can be performed on the different
nodes:
[optistruct@host1] rsh host1 ls
[optistruct@host1] rsh host2 ls
...
[optistruct@host1] rsh host[n] ls
IBM Platform MPI (formerly HP-MPI) installation
1. IBM Platform MPI (formerly HP-MPI) should be accessible to all computation nodes on
which OptiStruct SPMD will be launched.
2. Download the IBM Platform MPI images for the platform you desire to use from the
vendor (Contact IBM for help with procuring IBM Platform MPI).
3. Install the IBM Platform MPI package on each node.

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4. No license is required for Platform-MPI to run OptiStruct SPMD.


5. Add $MPI_ROOT/platform_mpi/lib/[platform] into LD_LIBRARY_PATH, if needed.
Intel-MPI installation
1. Intel-MPI must be accessible from all computation nodes on which OptiStruct SPMD will
be launched.
2. Users can download (purchase/trial) the Intel-MPI images for their respective platforms
from the following Intel MPI download site:
http://software.intel.com/en-us/intel-mpi-library
3. Install the Intel-MPI package on each node.
[root@host[i]] ./install.sh
A license is required to install Intel-MPI libraries. (However, OptiStruct SPMD does not
require a separate license).
4. Add $MPI_ROOT/intel/impi/3.2.2.006/lib into LD_LIBRARY_PATH, if needed.

Launching OptiStruct SPMD


There are several ways to launch parallel programs with OptiStruct SPMD. Remember to
propagate environment variables when launching OptiStruct SPMD, if needed. Refer to the
respective MPI vendors manual for more details.
Note:
1. A minimum of three processes are required to launch
OptiStruct SPMD.
2. OptiStruct SPMD must match the MPI implementation you
use.

Using Solver Scripts


On a single host (for IBM Platform MPI (Formerly HP-MPI) using solver script
Task-based Parallelization (TBP)
[optistruct@host1~]$ $ALTAIR_HOME/scripts/optistruct mpi [MPI_TYPE] np
[n] [INPUTDECK] [OS_ARGS]
Domain Decomposition Method (DDM)
[optistruct@host1~]$ $ALTAIR_HOME/scripts/optistruct ddm [MPI_TYPE] np
[n] [INPUTDECK] [OS_ARGS]
Multi Model Optimization (MMO)
[optistruct@host1~]$ $ALTAIR_HOME/scripts/optistruct mmo [MPI_TYPE] np
[n] [INPUTDECK] [OS_ARGS]
Where,
[MPI_TYPE]: is the MPI implementation used:
pl for IBM Platform-MPI (Formerly HP-MPI)
i for Intel MPI

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-- ( [MPI_TYPE] is optional, default MPI implementation on Linux machines is pl


Refer to the Run Options page for further information).
[n]: is the number of processors
[INPUTDECK]: is the input deck file name
[OS_ARGS]: lists the arguments to OptiStruct
-- ( [OS_ARGS] is optional. Refer to the Run Options page for further information).
Note:
1. Adding the command line option -testmpi, runs a small
program which verifies whether your MPI installation,
setup, library paths and so on are accurate.
2. OptiStruct SPMD can also be launched using the Run
Manager GUI. (Refer to HyperWorks Solver Run Manager)
3. It is also possible to launch OptiStruct SPMD without the
GUI/ Solver Scripts. (Refer to the Appendix)
4. Adding the optional command line option mpipath PATH
helps you find the MPI installation if it is not included in the
current search path or when multiple MPIs are installed.

Windows Machines
Below are detailed instructions on installing and launching OptiStruct SPM on Windows
machines.

Installing OptiStruct SPMD


System Requirements
Operating system: Windows XP/Vista/7: 64-bit only
The MPI library: IBM Platform-MPI (Formerly HP-MPI), Intel MPI or MS-MPI must be
installed and accessible to each machine in the cluster.
Software Installation and License Activation
1. OptiStruct SPMD is included with the OptiStruct solver package and the SPMD
executables are included in the installation.
2. Test if the OptiStruct SPMD be able to run in serial mode.
Machine Configuration
1. The account used to run OptiStruct SPMD must exist on every node in a cluster.
2. OptiStruct SPMD executables must be accessible to all cluster nodes. The local scratch
directories must be the same (same path). It is highly recommended that the
computation (working) directories also remain the same on all nodes in a cluster.

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IBM Platform-MPI, MS-MPI installation


On windows it is quite straightforward to install the MPI implementation. Refer to their
respective Installation Guides for further assistance.
Below are the instructions for MPI download:
1. Download the IBM Platform MPI images for the platform you desire to use from the
vendor (Contact IBM for help with procuring IBM Platform MPI).
2. Users can download (purchase/trial) the Intel-MPI images for their respective platforms
from the following Intel MPI download site:
http://software.intel.com/en-us/intel-mpi-library
3. Users can download (purchase/trial) the Microsoft-MPI images for their respective
platforms from the following Microsoft MPI (MS-MPI) download site:
http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=14737

Launching OptiStruct SPMD


There are several ways to launch parallel programs with each MPI. Below are some typical
ways to launch OptiStruct SPMD. Remember to propagate environment variables when
launching OptiStruct SPMD, if needed. Refer to corresponding MPIs manual for more
details.
Note:
1. A minimum of three processes are required to launch
OptiStruct SPMD.
2. OptiStruct SPMD must match the MPI implementation you
use.

Using Solver Scripts


On a single host using solver script (for HP-MPI, Platform-MPI, Intel-MPI and MSMPI)
Task-based Parallelization (TBP)
[optistruct@host1~]$ $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/scripts/optistruct.bat mpi
[MPI_TYPE] np [n] [INPUTDECK] [OS_ARGS]
Domain Decomposition Method (DDM)
[optistruct@host1~]$ $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/scripts/optistruct.bat ddm
[MPI_TYPE] np [n] [INPUTDECK] [OS_ARGS]
Multi Model Optimization (MMO)
[optistruct@host1~]$ $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/scripts/optistruct.bat mmo
[MPI_TYPE] np [n] [INPUTDECK] [OS_ARGS]
Where,
[MPI_TYPE]: is the MPI implementation used:
pl for versions 7 and older of IBM Platform-MPI (Formerly HP-MPI).

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pl8 for versions 8 and newer of IBM Platform-MPI


i for Intel MPI
ms for MS-MPI
-- ( [MPI_TYPE] is optional, default MPI implementation on Windows machines is pl
Refer to the Run Options page for further information)
[n]: is the number of processors
[INPUTDECK]: is the input deck file name
[OS_ARGS]: lists the arguments to OptiStruct
-- ( [OS_ARGS] is optional. Refer to the Run Options page for further information)
Notes:
1. Adding the command line option -testmpi, runs a small
program which verifies whether your MPI installation,
setup, library paths and so on are accurate.
2. OptiStruct SPMD can also be launched using the Run
Manager GUI. (Refer to HyperWorks Solver Run Manager)
3. It is also possible to launch OptiStruct SPMD without the
GUI/ Solver Scripts. (Refer to the Appendix)
4. Adding the optional command line option mpipath PATH
helps you find the MPI installation if it is not included in the
current search path or when multiple MPIs are installed.

Appendix
Launching OptiStruct SPMD on Linux Machines using Direct calls to
Executable
On a Single Host (for IBM Platform-MPI and Intel MPI)
Task-based Parallelization (TBP)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun -np [n] $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/
linux64/optistruct_spmd [INPUTDECK] [OS_ARGS] -mpimode
Domain Decomposition Method (DDM)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun -np [n] $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/
linux64/optistruct_spmd [INPUTDECK] [OS_ARGS] -ddmmode
Multi-Model Optimization (MMO)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun -np [n] $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/
linux64/optistruct_spmd [INPUTDECK] [OS_ARGS] -mmomode
Where,

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optistruct_spmd is the OptiStruct SPMD binary


[n]: is the number of processors
[INPUTDECK]: is the input deck file name
[OS_ARGS]: lists the arguments to OptiStruct other than mpimode/-ddmmode/-mmomode
-- ( [OS_ARGS] is optional. Refer to the Run Options page for further information).
Note: Running OptiStruct SPMD, using direct calls to the
executable, requires an additional command-line option
mpimode/-ddmmode/-mmomode (as shown above). If one of
these run options is not used, there will be no parallelization
and the entire program will be run on each node.

On a Linux cluster (for IBM Platform-MPI)


Task-based Parallelization (TBP)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun f [appfile]
-h [host i] -np [n] $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/linux64/
optistruct_spmd [INPUTDECK] -mpimode
Domain Decomposition Method (DDM)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun f [appfile]
-h [host i] -np [n] $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/linux64/
optistruct_spmd [INPUTDECK] -ddmmode
Multi-Model Optimization (MMO)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun f [appfile]
-h [host i] -np [n] $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/linux64/
optistruct_spmd [INPUTDECK] -mmomode
Where,
[appfile]: is a text file which contains process counts and a list of programs.
Note: Running OptiStruct SPMD, using direct calls to the
executable, requires an additional command-line option
mpimode/-ddmmode/-mmomode (as shown above). If one of
these options is not used, there will be no parallelization and
the entire program will be run on each node.
Example: 4 CPU job on 2 dual-CPU hosts (the two machines are named: c1 and c2)
[optistruct@host1~]$ cat appfile
-h c1 np 2 $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/linux64/optistruct_spmd
[INPUTDECK] -mpimode
-h c2 np 2 $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/linux64/optistruct_spmd
[INPUTDECK] mpimode

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On a Linux cluster (for Intel-MPI)


Task-based Parallelization (TBP)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun f [hostfile] -np [n] $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/
optistruct/bin/linux64/optistruct_spmd [INPUTDECK] [OS_ARGS] -mpimode
Domain Decomposition Method (DDM)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun f [hostfile] -np [n] $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/
optistruct/bin/linux64/optistruct_spmd [INPUTDECK] [OS_ARGS] -ddmmode
Multi-Model Optimization (MMO)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun f [hostfile] -np [n] $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/
optistruct/bin/linux64/optistruct_spmd [INPUTDECK] [OS_ARGS] -mmomode
Where,
[hostfile]: is a text file which contains the host names.
Line format is as follows:
[host i]
Note:
1. One host requires only one line.
2. Running OptiStruct SPMD, using direct calls to the executable,
requires an additional command-line option mpimode/ddmmode/-mmomode (as shown above). If one of these options is
not used, there will be no parallelization and the entire
program will be run on each node.
Example: 4 CPU job on 2 dual-CPU hosts (the two machines are named: c1 and c2)
[optistruct@host1~]$ cat hostfile
c1
c2

Launching OptiStruct SPMD on Windows Machines using Direct calls


to Executable
On a Single Host (for IBM Platform-MPI)
Task-based Parallelization (TBP)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun -np [n]
$ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/win64/optistruct_spmd
[OS_ARGS] -mpimode

[INPUTDECK]

Domain Decomposition Method (DDM)


[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun -np [n]
$ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/win64/optistruct_spmd
[OS_ARGS] -ddmmode

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[INPUTDECK]

Altair Engineering

Multi-Model Optimization (MMO)


[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun -np [n]
$ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/win64/optistruct_spmd
[OS_ARGS] -mmomode

[INPUTDECK]

Where,
optistruct_spmd is the OptiStruct SPMD binary
[n]: is the number of processors
[INPUTDECK]: is the input deck file name
[OS_ARGS]: lists the arguments to OptiStruct other than mpimode/-ddmmode/-mmomode
-- ( [OS_ARGS] is optional. Refer to the Run Options page for further information)
Note: Running OptiStruct SPMD, using direct calls to the
executable, requires an additional command-line option
-mpimode/-ddmmode/-mmomode (as shown above). If one
of these options is not used, there will be no
parallelization and the entire program will be run on
each node.

On a Single Host (for Intel-MPI and MS-MPI)


Task-based Parallelization (TBP)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpiexec -np [n]
$ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/win64/optistruct_spmd
[OS_ARGS] -mpimode

[INPUTDECK]

Domain Decomposition Method (DDM)


[optistruct@host1~]$ mpiexec -np [n]
$ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/win64/optistruct_spmd
[OS_ARGS] -ddmmode

[INPUTDECK]

Multi-Model Optimization (MMO)


[optistruct@host1~]$ mpiexec -np [n]
$ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/win64/optistruct_spmd
[OS_ARGS] -mmomode

[INPUTDECK]

Where,
optistruct_spmd is the OS SPMD binary
[n]: is the number of processors
[INPUTDECK]: is the input deck file name

[OS_ARGS]: lists the arguments to OptiStruct SPMD other than mpimode


-- ( [OS_ARGS] is optional. Refer to the Run Options page for further information)

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Note: Running OptiStruct SPMD, using direct calls to the


executable, requires an additional command-line option
mpimode/-ddmmode/-mmomode (as shown above). If
one of these options is not used, there will be no
parallelization and the entire program will be run on
each node.

On Multiple Windows Hosts (for IBM Platform-MPI)


Task-based Parallelization (TBP)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun f [appfile]
-h [host i] -np [n] $ALTAIR_HOME\optistruct

[INPUTDECK] -mpimode

Domain Decomposition Method (DDM)


[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun f [appfile]
-h [host i] -np [n] $ALTAIR_HOME\optistruct

[INPUTDECK] -ddmmode

Multi-Model Optimization (MMO)


[optistruct@host1~]$ mpirun f [appfile]
-h [host i] -np [n] $ALTAIR_HOME\optistruct

[INPUTDECK] -mmomode

Where,
[appfile]: is a text file which contains process counts and a list of programs.
Note: Running OptiStruct SPMD, using direct calls to the
executable, requires an additional command-line option
mpimode/-ddmmode/-mmomode (as shown above). If one
of these options is not used, there will be no
parallelization and the entire program will be run on
each node.
Example: 4 CPU job on 2 dual-CPU hosts (the two machines are named: c1 and c2)
[optistruct@host1~]$ cat appfile
-h c1 np 2 $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/win64/optistruct_spmd
[INPUTDECK] -mpimode
-h c2 np 2 $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/win64/optistruct_spmd
[INPUTDECK] mpimode

On Multiple Windows Hosts (for Intel-MPI and MS-MPI)


Task-based Parallelization (TBP)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpiexec configfile [config_file]
-host [host i] n [np] $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/win64/
optistruct_spmd [INPUTDECK] -mpimode

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Domain Decomposition Mode (DDM)


[optistruct@host1~]$ mpiexec configfile [config_file]
-host [host i] n [np] $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/win64/
optistruct_spmd [INPUTDECK] ddmmode
Multi-Model Optimization (MMO)
[optistruct@host1~]$ mpiexec configfile [config_file]
-host [host i] n [np] $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/win64/
optistruct_spmd [INPUTDECK] -mmomode
Where,
[config_file]: is a text file which contains the command for each host.
Note:
1. One host needs only one line.
2. Running OptiStruct SPMD, using direct calls to the
executable, requires an additional command-line option
mpimode/-ddmmode/-mmomode (as shown above). If one of
these options is not used, there will be no parallelization
and the entire program will be run on each node.
Example: 4 CPU job on 2 dual-CPU hosts (the two machines are named: c1 and c2)
[optistruct@host1~]$ cat hostfile
-host c1 n 2 $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/win64/optistruct_spmd
[INPUTDECK] -mpimode
-host c2 n 2 $ALTAIR_HOME/hwsolvers/optistruct/bin/win64/optistruct_spmd
[INPUTDECK] mpimode

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Platforms and Hardware Recommendations


Platforms
OptiStruct runs on the following platforms:
Operatin
Architecture
g System
Linux

64-bit

Windows

64-bit

Mac OS X

Version

SMP

SPMD

RHEL 5.9
RHEL 6.2
SLES 11 SP2

Yes

Yes

Windows/Vista/7/8.1

Yes*

Yes

Server 2008 (R2/HPC)

Yes

Yes

10.8

Yes

No

64-bit

SMP

Symmetric Multiprocessing (Multiple processors, single memory).

SPMD

Single Process Multiple Data (Massive parallel processing, Multiple


processors each having its own memory).

RHEL

Red Hat Enterprise Linux

SLES

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

Performance gain for SMP runs on Windows platforms is poor,


therefore using more than one processor on these platforms is not
recommended.

Hardware Recommendations
Altair does not recommend any particular brand of hardware. All hardware purchases are
going to balance the cost versus performance. The following are some items which can affect
the performance with OptiStruct.
CPU The faster the clock speed of the processor, along with the speed at which data is
exchanged between CPU cores of processor the better the performance.
Memory The amount of memory required by an analysis depends on the solution type,
types of elements in the model, and model size. Large OptiStruct solutions can require large
amounts of memory. Also, memory that is not used by OptiStruct is still available for I/O
caching. So the amount of free memory can dramatically effect the wall clock time of the
run. The more free memory, the less I/O wait time and the faster the job will run. Even if an
analysis is too large to run in-core, having extra memory available will increase the speed of
the analysis because unused RAM will be used by the operating system to buffer disk

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requests.
Disk drives OptiStruct solutions often require the writing of large temporary scratch files to
the hard drive. Therefore, it is important to have fast hard drives. The best solution is to
use two or more fast hard drives in RAID 0 (striped) as a dedicated place for scratch files
during the solution. A typical configuration is to have one drive for the operating system and
software, and then 2-15 drives striped together as the scratch space for the runs.
Interconnect The parallel SPMD versions of OptiStruct can run on multiple processors and/
or on multiple nodes in the cluster. To run parallel jobs on a cluster, each should have
enough RAM to run a full job in non-parallel mode. And, each node in a cluster should have
its own disk space that is sufficient to store all the scratch files on that node. Cluster
architecture with separate disks for each node will achieve better performance than single
shared RAID array of disks. A fast interconnect is important, but anything over Gigabit
Ethernet will not speed the solution visibly. When nodes use a shared scratch disk area, the
interconnect speed is a critical factor for all out-of-core jobs.
For a large NVH analysis, it is recommended to have at least 8 GB per CPU with at least 4
disks in RAID 0 for temporary scratch files.

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OptiStruct Configuration File


OptiStruct configuration files may be used to establish default settings for the OptiStruct.
Configuration files must be named optistruct.cfg. Any errors or warnings caused by the
content of these files will be echoed to the screen only.
Any default setting will be ignored if it is defined by an environment variable (see Running
OptiStruct), bulk data input deck entry (see The Input File), or command line argument (see
Run Options for OptiStruct).

File Location
The configuration file allows default settings to be established on five different levels:
1. System level
If a configuration file is located in the ${ALTAIR_HOME}/hwsolvers directory, the
default settings defined in this file apply to all solver runs.
A configuration file is included in the installation at this location. This configuration
file contains all of the configuration file options in a comment format. Uncommenting
an option will activate it. This file may be used as a template for all configuration
files.
If the ${ALTAIR_HOME} environment variable is not set, then the configuration file at
this location will not be used. This variable is automatically set when the
recommended HyperWorks installation and execution procedures are followed.
2. Corporate level
If a configuration file is located in the ${HW_CORPORATE_CUSTOMIZATION_DIR}
directory, the default settings defined in this file are added to the system defaults.
If a default setting, which was defined at the system level, is redefined at this level,
the redefined setting is used.
If the ${HW_CORPORATE_CUSTOMIZATION_DIR} environment variable is not set, then
the configuration file at this location will not be used.
3. Group level
If a configuration file is located in the ${HW_GROUP_CUSTOMIZATION_DIR} directory,
the default settings defined in this file are added to the system and corporate
defaults.
If a default setting, which was defined at the system or corporate level, is redefined
at this level, the redefined setting is used.
If the ${HW_GROUP_CUSTOMIZATION_DIR} environment variable is not set, then the
configuration file at this location will not be used.
4. User level
If a configuration file is located in the ${HOME} directory, the default settings defined
in this file are added to the system, corporate and group defaults.
If a default setting, which was defined at the system, corporate or group level, is
redefined at this level, the redefined setting is used.

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If the ${HOME} environment variable is not set, then the configuration file at this
location will not be used. This variable is normally set for UNIX and Linux operating
systems to point to a user's home directory, but it may vary for different versions of
the Windows operating system.
5. Local level
If a configuration file is located in the current directory, the default settings defined
in this file are added to the system, corporate, group and user defaults.
If a default setting, which was defined at the system, corporate, group or user level,
is redefined at this level, the redefined setting is used.

Entries and Format


Below is a list of entries recognized in the configuration file. As stated above, the
configuration file contained in the installation may be used as a template for other
configuration files.
The format of the entries (with the exception of ELEMQUAL) is similar to the format of the I/
O Options in the input deck, namely:
ENTRY = Argument
Comments may be inserted using the $ character; which indicates that everything which
follows on that line is a comment.
ELEMQUAL is a recognized entry in the configuration file. It is used as described in the bulk
data entry description ELEMQUAL with the condition that it must be written in free format
(see Guidelines for Bulk Data Entries).
Entry

Argument

Description

DOS_DRIVE_$

Path

Same as DOS_DRIVE_$ environment


variable (see Running OptiStruct).

SYNTAX

<ALLOWINT,
STRICT>

Same as SYNTAX setting on the I/O


option SYSSETTING.

SPSYNTAX

<STRICT, CHECK,
MIXED>

Same as SPSYNTAX setting on the I/O


option SYSSETTING.

CORE

<OFF, AUTO, IN,


OUT,MMIN>

Same as the core run option in the


Run Options for OptiStruct section.

SAVEFILE

<ALL, OUT, NONE>

Same as SAVEFILE setting on the I/O


option SYSSETTING.

RAMDISK

Integer

Same as RAMDISK setting on the I/O


option SYSSETTING.

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Entry

Argument

Description

SKIP10FIELD

<CHECK, WARN>

Same as SKIP10FIELD setting on the


I/O option SYSSETTING.

CARDLENGTH

Integer

Same as CARDLENGTH setting on the I/


O option SYSSETTING.

TABSTOPS

Integer

Used to change the default tab length


from 8 to another value.

MAXLEN

Integer

Used to define the maximum


allowable amount of memory to be
used in MB. There is no default.

MINLEN

Integer

Used to define the initial memory


allocation in MB. The default is 10%
of OS_RAM.

BUFFSIZE

Integer
Default = 16832

The maximum size in 8 byte words of


the records of data written to the
.op2 file. Use -1 to turn off buffering.

MSGLMT

Various

See MSGLMT setting on the I/O options


section MSGLMT.

ASSIGN, UPDATE,
filename

Various

See ASSIGN in the I/O options section.

LOADTEMP

<SHAREID>

Same as LOADTEMP setting on the I/O


option SYSSETTING.

OS_RAM

RAM in Mbytes

Same as SYSSETTING option OS_RAM.

PLOTELID

<UNIQUE,
ALLOWFIX>

Same as SYSSETTING option


PLOTELID.

RAM_SAFETY_FAC
TOR

Multiplier

Same as -rsf option for running from


the script (see Run Options for
OptiStruct).

FORMAT

<HM, H3D, ASCII,


Same as I/O option FORMAT.
OPTI, OS, NASTRAN,
PUNCH, O2, OUT2,
OUTPUT2, PATRAN,
APATRAN>

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Entry

Argument

Description

SCREEN

<OUT, LOG, NONE>

Same as I/O option SCREEN.

TMPDIR

Path

Same as I/O option TMPDIR.

SCRFMODE

<BASIC,
Same as SCRFMODE setting on the I/O
BUFFERED,
option SYSSETTING.
UNBUFFER,
STRIPE, MIXFCIO>

CHECKEL

<YES, NO, FULL>

Same as CHECKEL option for bulk data


entry PARAM.

OutputDefault

<AUTO, NONE>

The OutputDefault entry allows


default outputs to be disabled. This
entry controls output for subcases for
which there is no output requested.
AUTO: Output is automatically
generated for certain solution
sequences.
NONE: No output that is not
specifically requested is output.

CHECKMAT

<YES, NO, FULL>

Same as CHECKMAT option for bulk


data entry PARAM.

COUPMASS

<-1, 0, 1, YES, NO>

Same as COUPMASS option for bulk


data entry PARAM.

EFFMASS

Integer

Same as EFFMASS option for bulk data


entry PARAM.

PRGPST

<YES, NO>

Same as PRGPST option for bulk data


entry PARAM.

KGRGD

<YES, NO>

Same as KGRGD option for bulk data


entry PARAM.

WTMASS

Real > 0.0

Same as WTMASS option for bulk data


entry PARAM.

MBDH3D

<NODAL, MODAL,
BOTH, NONE>

Same as MBDH3D option for bulk data


entry PARAM.

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66

Entry

Argument

Description

FLEXH3D

<AUTO, YES, NO>

Same as FLEXH3D option for bulk data


entry PARAM.

USERAM

RAM in Mbytes

Same as SYSSETTING option USERAM.

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Expanded Error Message File


OptiStruct Expanded Error Message files may be used to expand the error and warning
messages for the OptiStruct. In this way, you can customize the error and warning
messages so that they are more meaningful and informative for you and others in your
organization. The Expanded Error Message file must be named optistruct_err.msg.
The file contains an expanded message for each message you wish to expand. If the same
message is expanded in multiple files, then all expansions will be printed. The expanded
error message is printed only for the first instance of the error.
The format of the file is to have four asterisks left justified on a line followed by the error
number to be expanded. The next lines contain the expanded error message. An example
for error 9009 and 9008 are below. Note that the order of the error message numbers does
not matter.
**** 9009
This error usually happens when there is
not enough room on the disk, but it can
happen also when one of the output files
does not have write permissions for the
current user, or when the directory
assigned for output or temporary files
does not exist, does not have write
permission or is located on a read-only
filesystem (e.g. on a CD). Please check
following cards: OUTFILE, TMPDIR,
EIGVSAVE, ASSIGN, or the command line
arguments. Note that TMPDIR may be
located in any of config files, and (on
Unix) the filenames may be affected by
Dos_drive conversion (e.g. DOS_DRIVE_n
environment variable).
**** 9008
This error usually happens when the
input file name is mistyped, either on a
command line or on any of following
cards: INFILE, INCLUDE, EIGVNAE,
RESTART, LOADLIB, ASSIGN. It can also
happen if the user does not have read
permission to an input file, or to any
directory on a path leading to the input
file.

File Location
The expanded error message file allows default settings to be established on four different
levels:
1. System level
If an expanded error message file is located in the ${ALTAIR_HOME}/hwsolvers

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directory, the expanded error messages defined in this file are added to all solver
runs.
An expanded error message file is included in the installation at this location. This
file contains samples of expanded messages. This file may be used as a template for
all expanded error message files.
If the ${ALTAIR_HOME} environment variable is not set, then the expanded error
message file at this location will not be used.
2. Corporate level
If an expanded error message file is located in the
${HW_CORPORATE_CUSTOMIZATION_DIR} directory, the expanded messages defined in
this file are added to the system expanded messages.
If the ${HW_CORPORATE_CUSTOMIZATION_DIR} environment variable is not set, then
the expanded error message file at this location will not be used.
3. Group level
If an expanded error message file is located in the ${HW_GROUP_CUSTOMIZATION_DIR}
directory, the expanded error message defined in this file are added to the system
and corporate messages.
If the ${HW_GROUP_CUSTOMIZATION_DIR} environment variable is not set, then the
expanded error message file at this location will not be used.
4. User level
If an expanded error message file is located in the ${HOME} directory, the expanded
error messages defined in this file are added to the system, corporate and group
expanded error messages.
If the ${HOME} environment variable is not set, then the expanded error message file
at this location will not be used. This variable is normally set for UNIX and Linux
operating systems to point to a user's home directory, but it may vary for different
versions of the Windows operating system.

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Memory Limitations
32-bit Versus 64-bit Computations
On 64-bit machines, when using a 64-bit compiled version of OptiStruct and a 64-bit
operating system, OptiStruct can use all memory available in the system (real RAM and
virtual memory). There are still some size limitations as a result of the size of standard
integer variables, but they should only occur in very rare cases. Currently, OptiStruct is built
with two versions of linear solvers: one using 32-bit integers, and the other one using 64-bit
integers. By default, the 32-bit solver is used (as it requires less memory/disk and runs
visibly faster), but the 64-bit solver is automatically selected when the size of a problem
requires it.

Virtual Versus Physical Memory


OptiStruct can use more memory than is actually installed on a given system (i.e. more than
the installed RAM). This is what the virtual memory (swap space) is for. OptiStruct is more
efficient, however, if it uses only actual RAM (remember to allow some RAM to be used by the
operating system and other codes running at the same time). When more memory is
requested than actual available RAM, OptiStruct will run much slower due to swapping. You
will hear disks working constantly with little CPU being used, and there will be a significant
difference between the elapsed time and the CPU time.
Memory specification for OptiStruct (using len command line option) is actually only giving
OptiStruct a hint about the amount of physical RAM available for the run (i.e. it should
specify the amount of physical memory not used by the operating system and other running
programs, and as explained above, always less than the total amount of RAM in the
computer). Based on this information, OptiStruct will try to use the fastest algorithm which
can run within the specified amount of memory. If no such algorithm is available, then the
algorithm with minimum memory requirement will be used. Specifying a larger value for
len than the amount of physical RAM may cause excessive swapping during computations,
and will significantly slow down the solution process.
On most machines OptiStruct asks operating systems for information about available
memory. This information is printed in the header of the .out file, and can be used to issue
a warning, when it is possible that the run may fail because of lack of this resource. This
information is dynamic (changes with other programs running at the machine) and therefore
is never used inside OptiStruct user supplied information (example: with len argument or
from the config file) is used instead.

Automatic Memory Allocation Versus Fixed Memory Runs


In standard modes of operation, OptiStruct automatically estimates the amount of memory
required, and this memory is requested in successive steps from the operating system.
Sometimes the memory could be used more efficiently if requested at once and not in
increments. This can be done using the "-fixlen" command line option (see Run Options).
When using the "-fixlen" option, OptiStruct may start to run, but fail after some time with a
memory allocation error. This can happen when almost all available memory is requested by

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the "-fixlen" argument, because in addition to the memory required by the OptiStruct
solver, OptiStruct launches a bandwidth minimizer, which uses an additional small amount of
memory. Requesting slightly less memory with the "-fixlen" option is a possible solution.
Again, you see that it is incorrect to assign too much memory to OptiStruct.

Additional Control of Used Memory


OptiStruct has new command line argument "-maxlen" which can be used in automatic
mode. This switch can be useful in some batch scheduling installations, as it will not allow
OptiStruct to use more than a given amount of memory. Note that for models which require
more memory than allowed by this argument, OptiStruct will abort during the solution,
potentially after spending some time in computations.
OptiStruct has a new command line argument -uselen which can be used in automatic
mode. uselen is used to specify an increased dynamic memory usage limit. If uselen is
not defined, then the algorithms which may use variable amount of memory try to use as
minimal an amount as possible. When this option is used, OptiStruct will use more than the
minimum memory required, up to this limit, but only when it improves the speed of the
solution. This value is used only for some solution sequences, which can profit from
additional memory available (for example, to use bigger buffers to store intermediate
results).
This value is automatically limited by the value specified by len, so uselen can be set
safely to a very large value.
(Example: optistruct infile.fem uselen 32)
Best practices for uselen specification:
The speed gain is usually modest, and is limited to certain solution sequences, therefore, this
run option should not be used unless solution speed is critical and excess memory is
available. For single-user hosts, it is useful to set this value to the same as len (or higher).
This maximizes the use of available memory to achieve possible better performance.
Different values of this run option may be used on systems shared by multiple jobs (for
example HyperMesh or other solvers). In such scenarios, using a lower value of this run
option (or not using it at all), will result in a lower use of memory and may improve overall
speed an response time.

OptiStruct Configuration File


All options for memory control can be specified in the OptiStruct Configuration File, however,
this is not advisable if the configuration file is shared on the common file server. The
configuration files should be tuned for specific hardware independently, and should be placed
in the configuration file local to each machine.

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Restarting OptiStruct
It is possible to restart an OptiStruct optimization by using the command line option restart (see Run Options), by adding the I/O option RESTART to the input file, or from the
OptiStruct panel in HyperMesh.
To restart an optimization, you will need information about the final iteration of the previous
optimization run. This information is stored in the .sh file.
The DESMAX entry on the DOPTPRM card, in the .fem file, specifies the maximum number of
additional iterations. To perform an analysis on the optimized structure, restart with DESMAX
set to 0. If DESMAX is not defined, then the default value of DESMAX is assumed (30 iterations
is the default value for DESMAX unless topology manufacturing constraints are used, in which
case the default is 80 iterations).
There are a number of conditions that must be observed when restarting an optimization:
The number of design variables or design elements cannot be changed.
It is invalid to restart with minimum member size control removed if it was present in
the original run.
It is invalid to restart with checkerboard control turned on if it was not activated in the
original run. It is, however, acceptable to deactivate checkerboard control in the restart
if it was activated in the original run.
It is invalid to restart with manufacturing constraints that differ from those of the
original run.
The purpose of the restart functionality is for restarting with unconverged optimization runs
or optimization runs that were terminated before completion (due to a power outage, etc.).
Output files from a restart run are appended with the extension _rst#, where # is a 3 digit
number indicating the starting iteration for the restart run. For example,
filename_rst030.out is the .out file created when restarting filename.fem from iteration
30.
Iterations for the restart are numbered starting with the iteration number in the .sh file (the
last iteration from the previous run).
You may manually append new .dens, .disp, and .strs files to old ones and post-process
the combined files.

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OptiStruct Compression Run


The OptiStruct solver can be used as a simple input deck preprocessor, intended to reduce
out matching material and property definitions. It is useful for models (produced on some
simpleminded mesh generator tools) which sometimes have unique property IDs and unique
material IDs assigned to each element, even in cases where actual data is identical. Such
models (although technically correct) will be expensive to solve, or slow to process in
HyperMesh or HyperView. In this special run mode, OptiStruct will simply read the model,
compare all material and property data, and remove redundant data.

Example of Run
optistruct infile.fem -compress
will produce a new bulk data file named:
infile.echo
which will contain a new model with all duplicate materials and properties deleted. All
references to removed data will be replaced with the remaining ones, so for all practical
purposes the model should yield identical results.
The additional argument to -compress represents the tolerance value in percent. All floating
point values in material and property data are compared using that tolerance. Using
tolerance may increase significantly run time.

Restrictions
1. Comparison is performed exactly (meaning all data are compared without allowing for any
tolerance or round-off). If optional tolerance value is specified, then the run is performed
in two passes: exact matches are removed first, then all remaining materials and
properties are compared with each other using following formula:
(2 * abs(value1-value2)) / (abs(value1)+abs(value2)) < tolerance *0.01.
2. Optimization data, nonlinear data, and thermal materials are not processed. If such data
are present they may reference removed entities, but a compress run will not adjust
references. The resulting file (<filename>.echo) may not be valid.
3. Cards which extend or modify Materials or Properties (such as MATT1, MATX02, MATS1,
or PSHELLX) are not used in comparison, and can also be left orphaned as a result of a
compress run.
4. SETs referencing Materials or Properties are not processed. This will not result in a bad
deck because SETs are allowed to reference non-existent IDs, however SETs in the output
file may be different from the input file.
5. After the .echo file is produced, OptiStruct terminates the run, therefore -compress
cannot be combined with any other option.

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The following cards are processed:


1. Properties:
PBEAM, PBAR, PBEAML, PBARL, PSOLID (also fluid), PCOMP, PSHELL, PROD, PWELD, and
PSHEAR
as well as properties not referring to materials:
PELAS, PBUSH, PVISC, PDAMP, PGAP, PCONT, PAABSF, and PACABS.
2. Materials:
MAT1, MAT2, MAT4, MAT5, MAT8, MAT9, and MAT10.
3. All elements referencing properties or materials, including PRBODY and PFBODY.

Any other cards present in the deck are allowed only if they do not reference materials or
properties; however OptiStruct does not verify this assumption. If such a card is present in
the deck (for example, DTPG referring to a list of properties), it may be printed with negative
IDs for removed entities.
The resulting file (<filename>.echo) is produced using the same routines which produce
ECHO; all restrictions present for ECHO will affect a -compress run; in particular:
Some optimization cards are currently known to produce incorrect ECHO, meaning an
ECHO of these cards cannot be read back into OptiStruct.
Results are formatted in fixed format, irrespective of the format used in the input file.
This limits the accuracy of most coefficients because of 8 character fields. Current
formatting preserves as many decimal places as possible within 8 characters, but for
values which require an exponential form, it is sometimes possible to retain accuracy to
only 3-4 decimal places. Exceptions: GRID and DMIG cards are printed in free format
with accuracy to at least 10 decimal places.
Only bulk data is printed to .echo file (no i/o or control sections).
Some cards are not printed: in particular, PARAM and DOPTRM do not appear in ECHO
files.

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Structural Analysis
The Structural Analysis section provides an overview of the following analyses:
Linear Static Analysis
Linear Buckling Analysis
Nonlinear Analysis
Normal Modes Analysis
Frequency Response Analysis
Complex Eigenvalue Analysis
Random Response Analysis
Response Spectrum Analysis
Transient Response Analysis

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Linear Static Analysis


The basic finite element equation to be solved for structures experiencing static loads can be
expressed as:

Ku

Where, K is the stiffness matrix of the structure (an assemblage of individual element
stiffness matrices). The vector u is the displacement vector, and P is the vector of loads
applied to the structure. The above equation is the equilibrium of external and internal
forces.
The stiffness matrix is singular, unless displacement boundary conditions are applied to fix
the rigid body degrees of freedom of the model.
The equilibrium equation is solved either by a direct or an iterative solver. By default, the
direct solver is invoked, whereby the unknown displacements are simultaneously solved
using a Gauss elimination method that exploits the sparseness and symmetry of the stiffness
matrix, K, for computational efficiency. Alternatively, an iterative solver using the
preconditioning conjugate gradient method may be used. While the direct solver is very
robust, accurate and efficient, the iterative solver is sometimes superior, in terms of speed,
for thick-walled solid structures. The iterative solver is selected through the SOLVTYP
subcase information entry, which in turn references a SOLVTYP bulk data entry.
Once the unknown displacements at the nodal points of the elements are calculated, the
stresses can be calculated by using the constitutive relations for the material. For linear
static analysis where the deformations are in the elastic range, ta=hat is the stresses,
, are
assumed to be linear functions of the strains, , Hookes law can be used to calculate the
stresses. Hookes law can be stated as:

C
with the elasticity matrix C of the material. The strains
displacements.

are a function of the

The static loads and boundary conditions are defined in the bulk data section of the input
deck. They need to be referenced in the subcase information section using an SPC and LOAD
statement in a SUBCASE. Each SUBCASE defines a load vector. Thermal loading is defined
by referencing bulk data entries with the TEMPERATURE statement in a SUBCASE.
Unconstrained models can be solved using inertia relief. SUPORT1 subcase statements can
then reference the boundary conditions that restrain the rigid body motions. Up to six
degrees of freedom can be restrained. These restraints can also be defined without subcase
reference using the SUPORT bulk data entry or automated using PARAM, INREL, -2.

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Linear Buckling Analysis


The problem of linear buckling in finite element analysis is solved by first applying a
reference level of loading, PRef , to the structure. A standard linear static analysis is then
carried out to obtain stresses which are needed to form the geometric stiffness matrix KG.
The buckling loads are then calculated by solving an eigenvalue problem:

KG x 0

Where, K is the stiffness matrix of the structure and is the multiplier to the reference load.
The solution of the eigenvalue problem generally yields n eigenvalues , where n is the
number of degrees of freedom (in practice, only a subset of eigenvalues is usually
calculated). The vector x is the eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue.
The eigenvalue problem is solved using a matrix method called the Lanczos method. Not all
eigenvalues are required. Only a small number of the lowest eigenvalues are normally
calculated for buckling analysis.
The lowest eigenvalue

PCr

Cr

is associated with buckling. The critical or buckling load is:

Cr PRe f

In order to run a linear buckling analysis, an EIGRL bulk data entry needs to be given
because it defines the number of modes to be extracted. The EIGRL card needs to be
referenced by a METHOD statement in a SUBCASE in the subcase information section. In
addition, it is necessary to use a STATSUB card to reference the appropriate referential static
loading, fre , SUBCASE. STATSUB cannot refer to a subcase that uses inertia relief.
The buckling analysis will ignore zero-dimensional elements, MPC, RBE3, and CBUSH
elements. These elements can be used in buckling analysis, but they do not contribute to the
geometric stiffness matrix, KG. By default, the contribution from the rigid elements to the
geometric stiffness matrix is not included. You have to add PARAM,KGRGD,YES to the bulk
data section to include the contribution of rigid elements to the geometric stiffness matrix.
In addition, through the EXCLUDE subcase information entry, you may decide to omit the
contribution of other elements to the geometric stiffness matrix, effectively allowing you to
control which parts of the structure are analyzed for buckling. The excluded properties are
only removed from the geometric stiffness matrix, resulting in a buckling analysis with elastic
boundary conditions. This means that the excluded properties may still be showing
movement in the buckling mode.
Buckling analysis cannot be performed if the referential static loading subcase uses inertia
relief. In such cases, the stiffness matrix is positive semi-definite and the buckling
eigenvalue solution ends in singularity.

Linear Buckling and Offset Elements


Some one-dimensional and shell elements can use offset to shift the element stiffness
relative to the location determined by elements nodes. For example, shell elements can be
offset from the plane defined by element nodes by means of ZOFFS. In this case all other

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information, such as material matrices or fiber locations for the calculation of stresses, are
given relative to the offset reference plane. Similarly, shell results, such as shell element
forces, are output on the offset reference plane.
Offset is applied to all element matrices (stiffness, mass, and geometric stiffness), and to
respective element loads (such as gravity). Hence, in principle offset can be used in all types
of analysis and optimization, including linear buckling. However, caution is advised when
interpreting the results. Without offset, a typical simple structure will bifurcate and loose
stability instantly at the critical load. With offset, though, the loss of stability is gradual
and asymptotically reaches a limit load, as shown below in figure (b):

In practice then, the structure with offset can reach excessive deformation before the limit
load is reached. (Note that more complex structures, such as frames or structures
experiencing bending moments, buckle via limit load, even in absence of ZOFFS on the
element card). Furthermore, in a fully nonlinear approach, additional instability points may
be present on the limit load path.

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Nonlinear Analysis
Nonlinear Quasi-Static Analysis
Large Displacement Nonlinear Static Analysis
Geometric Nonlinear Analysis

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Nonlinear Quasi-Static Analysis


This solution sequence performs quasi-static nonlinear analysis. Presently, the sources of
nonlinearity include CONTACT interfaces, GAP elements, and MATS1 elastic-plastic material.
Small deformation theory is used in the solution of nonlinear problems, similar to the way it
is used with Linear Static Analysis. Inertia relief is also possible. Small deformation theory
means that strains should be within linear elasticity range (some 5 percent strain), and
rotations within small rotation range (some 5 degrees rotation). This also means that there
is no update of gap/contact element locations or orientation due to the deformations they
remain the same throughout the nonlinear computations. The orientation may change,
however, due to geometry changes in optimization runs.

Nonlinear Solution Method


The basic Newton method is used for the solution of nonlinear problems. The principle of this
method is illustrated for a one-dimensional problem in the figure below and can be
formulated as follows:

Consider a nonlinear problem:

L(u ) P
Where, u is the displacement vector, P is the global load vector, and L(u) is the nonlinear
response of the system (nodal reactions). Note that for a linear problem, L(u) would simply
be Ku (as described in the Linear Static Analysis section). Application of Newton's method to
this equation leads to an iterative solution procedure:

K n un
un 1 un

Rn
un

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Where,

Kn
Rn

L(u ) / u at un
P L un

In the above formulas, Kn represents a "slope" matrix, defined as a tangent to the L(u) curve
at a point un , and Rn is the nonlinear residual. Repeating this procedure iteratively, under
certain convergence conditions, leads to systematic reduction of residual Rn and hence,
convergence.
Note that the above scheme is somewhat modified to an equivalent format wherein, instead
of calculating

K n un 1

u , the new solution u is directly obtained:


n+1

Rn

K n un

This form is readily produced by adding Kn un to both sides of Newton's equation, and has
certain advantages in practical implementations.

Incremental Loading
For a large class of problems satisfying certain stability and smoothness conditions, the
Newton's iterative method is proven to converge, provided that the initial guess is sufficiently
close to the true force-displacement path L(u). Hence, to improve convergence for strongly
nonlinear problems, the total loading P is often applied in smaller increments, as shown in
the figure below. At each of the intermediate loads, P1, P2, etc., the standard Newton
iterations are performed.

This procedure, known as incremental loading, helps to keep the consecutive iterations closer
to the true load path, thereby improving the chances of obtaining a final, converged solution
(though usually at the expense of an increased total number of iterations).

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Nonlinear Convergence Criteria


In order to assess whether the nonlinear process has converged, a number of convergence
criteria are available. These criteria and respective tolerances can be selected on the
NLPARM bulk data card. The basic principle in assessing nonlinear convergence is to
compare an error measure of the solution with a pre-determined tolerance level. When the
error falls below the prescribed tolerance, the problem is considered converged. In a case of
multiple, simultaneous convergence criteria, all criteria need to be satisfied for the solution
to be converged.
The relative error in displacements (printed in the convergence summary as EUI) is
calculated as:

EU

1 q

A u

Here, A is a normalizing vector consisting of square roots of diagonal elements of stiffness


matrix

K A1

Kii

Au

and the vector norm II. II is calculated as:

Ai ui

Furthermore, q is a contraction factor that corrects the increment of solution


represent the actual error in the nonlinear solution. It is expressed as:

un to better

un
un 1

In order to stabilize the behavior of q in practical computations, it is updated iteratively


according to the formula:

qn

2
3

un
un 1

1
q
3 n 1

starting from initial value q1 = 0.99. Note that the contraction factor is meaningful when the
solution is close to having converged it then reasonably well estimates the actual error
remaining in the nonlinear solution.
The relative error in terms of loads (printed in convergence summary as EPI) measures the
relative strength of the residual R, and is calculated as:

EP

R u
P u

The load vector P in this formula includes nodal reactions due to prescribed displacements.

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The relative error in terms of work (printed in convergence summary as EWI) measures
the relative change in solution energy, and is calculated as:

EW

P u

Note that the above norms only measure the error of the nonlinear iterative process. Their
values do not represent the accuracy of the finite element solution, only the fact that the
nonlinear process has converged properly.

Nonlinear Problem Setup


The setup for the nonlinear solution is very straightforward. The static loads and boundary
conditions are defined in the bulk data section of the input deck. They need to be referenced
in the subcase information section using an SPC and LOAD statement in a SUBCASE. Each
SUBCASE defines a load vector. Loads or enforced displacements are not mandatory for
nonlinear quasi-static solutions, if GAP or CONTACT elements are present in the model.
Unconstrained models can be solved using inertia relief. SUPORT1 subcase statements can
then reference the boundary conditions that restrain the rigid body motions. Up to six
degrees of freedom can be restrained. These restraints can also be defined without subcase
reference using the SUPORT bulk data entry or automated using PARAM, INREL, -2.
To indicate that a nonlinear solution is required for any subcase, a subcase information
command NLPARM needs to be present for the subcase. This command, in turn, points to the
bulk data NLPARM card that contains the convergence tolerances and other nonlinear
parameters.
Example:
SUBCASE 10
SPC = 1
LOAD = 2
NLPARM = 99
.
.
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM 99

12

UPW+1.1e-5

.
Note that nonlinear gap and contact analysis are also supported in optimization.

Nonlinear Convergence Considerations


The Newton's method is a reliable tool for the solution of nonlinear problems and can provide
a fast quadratic convergence rate. However, convergence is not guaranteed under all
circumstances. Contact problems, especially those with friction, often cause convergence
difficulties.
In order to improve the chances of a successfully converged solution, methods have been
built in to help problems converge that would otherwise oscillate back-and-forth and never

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converge. One method involves a "sticky gap," wherein a residual stickiness is introduced to
prevent the "undecided" nodes from bouncing in and out of contact. Another method is gap/
contact status freezing where, after a number of oscillating iterations, gap/contact elements
are not allowed to change their open/closed status. Note that these methods are activated
only for near-converging yet stagnated problems, and do not interfere with converging (or
radically diverging) cases.

User's Considerations for Nonlinear Convergence


There are a number of precautions you can take to increase the chances of a successful
convergence.
Realistic Problem Setup
Make sure that the nonlinear problem represents a realistic physical situation for which a
feasible solution exists. In particular, special care needs to be taken in selecting the proper
orientation of gap elements. This is especially important when using a prescribed gap
coordinate system. See the description of the CGAP and CGAPG elements for more details.
Sufficient Support
Since gap/contact elements only provide one-way support, it is possible to formulate the
problem in such a way that the individual components will have rigid body freedom under
certain loading conditions. This will manifest as zero pivot in the solution process. To avoid
such situations, it is advisable to provide sufficient support to all components so that, even
without gap/contact elements, there are no rigid body modes. If "solid" supports are not
feasible for all parts (the part needs to move), a very weak set of springs can be used to
prevent the part from "flying away" when gap/contact elements are not engaged. The
stiffness of such auxiliary springs can be selected so as to allow for large motion of the part,
compatible with the overall size of the model. If the gap elements and contact interfaces are
properly set up, such weak springs will exert virtually no effect when the solution has
converged.
Reasonable Gap Stiffness
The gap stiffness values KA and KT essentially represent penalty springs that are hard enough
to prevent perceptible penetration of contacting nodes. While, theoretically, higher stiffness
values enforce the contact conditions more precisely, excessively high values may cause
difficulties in convergence or poor conditioning of the stiffness matrix (this is especially true
for KT). If any such symptoms are observed, it may be beneficial to reduce the value of gap
stiffness. As a baseline recommendation, a reasonable range of gap stiffness is of the order
of:

103 to 106 * E * h
Where, E is the typical value of elastic modulus and h is the typical element size in the area
surrounding the gap elements. Such range will generally keep the gap penetration below one
thousandth / one millionth of the element size, respectively. A good value for KT is of the
order of 0.1*KA.
To facilitate reasonable values of KA and KT, OptiStruct supports the automatic calculation of
these parameters, specifically:

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Option KA=AUTO determines the value of KA for each gap element using the stiffness
of surrounding elements. Additional options SOFT and HARD create respectively softer
or harder penalties. SOFT can be used in cases of convergence difficulties and HARD
can be used if undesirable penetration is detected in the solution.
Option KT=AUTO automatically calculates the value of KT. If MU1>0, the result here is
the same as with blank KT -- its value is calculated as MU1*KA. However, if MU1=0 or
blank, KT=AUTO produces a non-zero value of KT, calculated as KT=0.1*KA.
Therefore, KT=AUTO can be used to prescribe enforced stick conditions.
Friction
The presence of friction, due to its strongly nonlinear, non-conservative nature, may cause
difficulties in nonlinear convergence, especially when sliding is present. Therefore, solving
the problem without friction can often provide convergence in otherwise failing problems. Or,
in cases when presence of frictional resistance is necessary and minimal sliding is expected,
enforcing a stick condition may be a viable solution, and will often lead to a better
convergence than Coulomb friction (see the PGAP and PCONT bulk data card for details).
Note that in cases of larger sliding motions, the stick condition may lead to divergence
through a "tumbling" mode.
Gap Offset
In order to provide theoretical correctness, friction produces bending moments in gap/contact
elements of non-zero length (this results from the transfer of frictional force from the contact
surface to the end nodes). This offset operation can, however, cause convergence problems
and counter-intuitive results. In problems with friction, it may be advisable to turn off the
offset operation via a parameter:
GAPPRM,GAPOFFS,NO
This will produce more intuitive results in the presence of friction. However, it may violate
the rigid body balance of the body, and should therefore be used with caution, especially for
problems without full SPC support. See the PGAP and PCONT bulk data card for details.
Incremental Loading
If the nonlinear procedure diverges in spite of taking the measures described above, the
incremental loading procedure (applying the total load in a number of increments) can be
used to achieve convergence. See the description of the NLPARM bulk data card for details.
Note, however, that if the problem is incorrectly formulated (the solution exhibits excessive
deformations, free rigid body motions, an ill-conditioned stiffness matrix, extremely high
nonlinear error, etc.), then incremental loading cannot be counted on to provide a converged
solution.
Nonlinear Expert System
In some difficult to converge cases an expert system can be used to achieve convergence:
PARAM,EXPERTNL,YES
The expert system will try to adjust the load increment and other nonlinear parameters to
achieve convergence. Note, however, that if the problem is incorrectly formulated (the
solution exhibits excessive deformations, free rigid body motions, an ill-conditioned stiffness
matrix, extremely high nonlinear error, etc.), then expert system cannot be counted on to
provide a converged solution.
Moreover, in some cases it can lead to long computational times without success. This may

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be due to using very small load increments or re-running the solution with modified nonlinear
parameters.

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Large Displacement Nonlinear Static Analysis


Large displacement nonlinear static analysis is used for the solution of problems wherein the
load-response relationship is nonlinear and structural large displacements are involved. The
source of this nonlinearity can be attributed to multiple system properties, for example,
materials, geometry, nonlinear loading and constraint. Currently, in OptiStruct the following
large displacement nonlinear capabilities are available, including large strain elasto-plasticity,
hyperelasticity of polynomial form, contact with small tangential motion, and rigid body
constraints.
Geometric Nonlinearity
In analyses involving geometric nonlinearity, changes in geometry as the structure deforms
are considered in formulating the constitutive and equilibrium equations. Many engineering
applications require the use of large deformation analysis based on geometric nonlinearity.
Applications such as metal forming, tire analysis, and medical device analysis. Small
deformation analysis based on geometric nonlinearity is required for some applications, like
analysis involving cables, arches and shells. Such applications involve small deformation,
except finite displacement or rotation.
Material Nonlinearity
Material nonlinearity involves the nonlinear behavior of a material based on current
deformation, deformation history, rate of deformation, temperature, pressure, and so on.
Constraint and Contact Nonlinearity
Constraint nonlinearity in a system can occur if kinematic constraints are present in the
model. The kinematic degrees of freedom of a model can be constrained by imposing
restrictions on its movement. In OptiStruct, constraints are enforced with Lagrange
multipliers.
In the case of contact, the constraint condition is based on inequalities and such a constraint
generally does not allow penetration between any two bodies in contact.

Nonlinear Solution Method


Nonlinear problems are generally history dependent. In order to achieve a certain level of
accuracy, the solution must be obtained in a series of small increments. For this purpose we
need to solve the equilibrium equation at each increment and a corresponding increment size
is selected.
Newtons method is used to solve the nonlinear equilibrium equation in OptiStruct. If the
solution is smooth, quadratic of rate of convergence may be achieved when compared with
other methods. This method is also very robust in highly nonlinear situations.
Choosing a suitable time increment is very important. In OptiStruct, an automatic time
increment control is available. It should be suitable for a wide range of nonlinear problems
and, in general, is a very reliable approach.
The automatic time increment control functionality measures the difficulty of convergence at
the current increment. If the calculated number of iterations is equal to optimal number of
iterations for convergence, OptiStruct will proceed with the same increment size. If a lesser
number of iterations is required to achiever convergence, the increment size will be increased
for next increment. Similarly if it is determined that too many iterations are required, the
current increment will be attempted again with a smaller increment size.

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Nonlinear Large Displacement Analysis Problem Setup


The setup for the large displacement nonlinear static solution is straightforward.
1. PARAM, LGDISP,1 is used to activate large displacement analysis.
2. To indicate that a nonlinear solution is required for any subcase, the NLPARM subcase
information entry should be included in the corresponding subcase.
3. This subcase entry, in turn, references a NLPARM bulk data entry that contains the
convergence tolerances and other nonlinear parameters.
4. If constraints or contacts are defined in the model, the matrix profile may be updated
over time, so it is recommended that hash assembly is used for nonlinear analysis. This is
activated using PARAM, HASHASSM,1.
5. The material MATS1 (TYPE=PLASTIC) is required in conjunction with PARAM, LGDISP,1 to
activate large strain elasto-plasticity analysis.
6. The material MATHE can be used in conjunction with PARAM, LGDISP, 1 to activate large
displacement analysis with hyperelastic materials.
Example
PARAM,LGDISP,1
PARAM,HASHASSM,YES
SUBCASE 10
SPC = 1
LOAD = 2
NLPARM = 99
.
.
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM 99

12

UPW+1.1e-5

Note:
1. Large displacement nonlinear analysis is supported only for solid elements, RROD, RBAR,
and RBE2 entries. (see Note 8 for further details).
2. 1D/3D Bolt Pretensioning and RBE3 rigid elements are not currently supported in large
displacement nonlinear analysis.
3. Direct Matrix Input (using the DMIG entry) is currently not supported in large
displacement nonlinear analysis.
4. Linear Buckling Analysis and Preloaded Analysis are not supported with large
displacement nonlinear analysis. However, you can use PARAM,PRESUBNL,YES to force
OptiStruct to run in such models. Linear Buckling Analysis or Preloaded Analysis is not
recommended in models with nonlinear materials or in large displacement nonlinear
analysis. It is the users responsibility to interpret the results with caution.
5. Currently, MATS1 (TYPE=PLASTIC) should be specified to conduct a large displacement
nonlinear analysis. However, if linear material properties are required, then a very large
value can be specified for the LIMIT1 field on the MATS1 entry.
6. The expert system (PARAM, EXPERTNL) is currently not supported with large displacement
nonlinear analysis.

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7. Nonlinear Heat Transfer Analysis is currently not supported with Large Displacement
Nonlinear Analysis.
8. Large Displacement Nonlinear Analysis is not supported in conjunction with the following
elements:
(a) The following elements can exist in the model, but they will be resolved using small
displacement theory:
SHELL, GASKET, BUSHING, RROD, RBAR, RBE2, CROD, CELAS, CONM
(b) The following elements are not allowed and OptiStruct will error out if they are
present:
CBAR, CBEAM, CGAP, CGAPG, CWELD, CSEAM, CFAST, RBE1, RBE3

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Geometric Nonlinear Analysis (RADIOSS Integration)


Geometric nonlinear analysis in OptiStruct is provided thru an integration of the RADIOSS
Starter and RADIOSS Engine via a translator. Implicit (static and dynamic), as well as
explicit integration schemes, are available. Transparent to you, OptiStruct input data is
directly translated into RADIOSS input data. The RADIOSS Starter and RADIOSS Engine are
then executed and the results are brought back into the OptiStruct output module to export
the different output formats.

Solution Method
This section discusses the basic concepts of the solution methods to highlight the
characteristics of the solution methods and to identify the use of certain parameters to
control convergence. The geometric nonlinear solution utilizes a general Newmark
integration scheme. The following equation of motion shall be solved.

Mu&& Cu& Ku P
The matrix M is the mass matrix, C is the damping matrix and K is the stiffness matrix.
These matrices are derived using finite elements. The vector P describes the external loads
and u is the displacement vector. The dots describe the derivatives with respect to time.
The equation of motion can be solved using a general Newmark integration scheme.
Newmark is a one-step time integration method. All solutions can be derived from it and are
formulated in terms of a time history (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Time History

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In general Newmark, the state vector is computed as follows:

u&t 1 u&t
ut 1 ut

u&&t

t 1
tu&t

u&&t 1

t 2 u&&t

t 2 u&&t 1

Then the equation of motion yields:

t 2 K u&&t 1

tC

P C u&t

tu&&t

K ut

tu&t

t 2 u&&t

This can be rewritten into:

1
M
t2

ut 1 ut

ut

C K

ut

P%t

using:

In short:

A u

P%

The matrix A is the dynamic stiffness. In nonlinear time-dependent problems, this system
becomes nonlinear and its solution requires an additional iteration loop at each time step
using a Newton-type method.
An implicit (quasi-)static analysis scheme follows directly when omitting mass and
damping terms. Therefore:

K (u ) ut

Pt

The linear static case reduces to the systems equation:

Ku

Normal modes analysis is a linear analysis that solves the eigenvalues problem.

M x 0

For implicit dynamic analysis, an extension of Newmark method, known as a-HHT, is the
default time integrator. This method is named after Hilber, Hughes, and Taylor it allows for
effective algorithmic damping of high-frequency spurious vibrations. This method introduces
additional parameter and assumes:

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1 2
,
2

with

1
M
t2

1
t

1
3

ut

P%t

The smaller the value of a, the more algorithmic damping is included in the numerical
solution. With a = 0.0 there is no numerical damping and the method is the trapezoidal
method.
The second method available is the general Newmark with user-defined
defaults are typically:

1 ,
2

and

. The

which is equivalent to HHT method with a = 0.0. This is an unconditionally stable implicit
integration scheme with:

u&t 1 u&t

ut 1 ut

&& &&
2 t ut ut 1

tu&t

2 && &&
4 t ut ut 1

And from the equation of motion:

4
M
t2

2
C K
t

ut

P%t

By default a Modified Newton method is employed to solve the implicit problems stated above
(Figure 2).

K (ut ) ui

Ri

ui 1 ui

ui

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Figure 2: Implicit scheme

Convergence for implicit (quasi-)static and dynamic analysis is controlled via NLPARM,
TSTEPNL bulk data entries, respectively. Modified Newton requires that the stiffness matrix
is kept constant thru a number of iterations (KSTEP) before it is rebuilt. This saves
computation time in terms of matrix factorizations, but may increase the number of
iterations. Full Newton can be achieved by using KSTEP = 1.
Convergence is defined by a change in results less than a specified tolerance. Relative
residual force (EPSP), relative displacement (EPSU), or relative residual energy (EPSW) can
be chosen as convergence criteria (CONV).
In implicit analysis the time step is controlled via NLPARMX, TSTEPNX bulk data entries,
respectively. Time step control includes a minimum (DTMIN) which terminates the solution,
a maximum (DTMAX) time step, as well as a maximum number of time steps which cannot
be exceeded. Using convergence acceleration methods (SACC), more control can be
asserted. If the number of iterations within a time step reaches a specified limit (LDTN),
then the iteration is repeated with a smaller time step. The time step is also reduced should
the iteration diverge. If the number of iterations is below a certain limit (ITW), then the time
step is increased.
A BFGS Quasi-Newton method is also available to solve the implicit equations. It works
similarly to Modified Newton. However, in addition to the tangential stiffness, it uses an
approximate Hessian to improve convergence.
A conditionally stable explicit integration scheme can be derived from the Newmark
scheme by setting:

2,

u&t 1 u&t

92

0
1

&& &&
2 t ut ut 1

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tu&t

ut 1 ut

2 &&
2 t ut

From these relationships the central differences explicit integration scheme can be derived.

u&t

1/2

u&t

t2 u&1 1/2

ut 1 ut
Mu&&t 1

t12 u&&t

1/2

P Cu&1 1/2 Kut 1

Figure 3 illustrates the relationships.

Figure 3: Explicit integration

Assuming that

Cu& t 1

Cu&t 1/2

The equation of motion for the central differences scheme simplifies to:

Mu&&t 1

P Cu&t 1 Kut 1

Mu&&t 1

Btt 1 t 1dV

This central differences scheme is used if explicit analysis is selected. The time step must
always be smaller than the critical time step to ensure stability of the solution. The critical
time step depends on the highest frequency in the system and is computed from the
corresponding angular frequency max as:

tcr

2
max

For a discrete system, the time step must be small enough to excite all frequencies in the
finite element mesh. This requires such a short time step that a shock wave does not miss
any node when traveling the mesh. Therefore,

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lc
c

with lc being the critical length of an element and c is the speed of sound in the given
material.
Different ways of time step control are available. The default method is the nodal time step
which is computed from the nodal mass m and the equivalent nodal stiffness k such that:

tcrn

min
n

2m
k

The element time step based on the critical length of each element is also available. The
choice can be made on the XSTEP bulk data entry.

Problem Setup
Geometric nonlinear analysis is defined thru a SUBCASE.
For implicit (quasi-)static analysis an NLPARM statement as well as ANALYSIS = NLGEOM
must be present in the subcase. To define the termination time a TTERM subcase entry can
be used. TTERM is mandatory if a nonlinear load NLOAD is used. NLPARM references an
NLPARM bulk data entry. Additional parameters to control the geometric nonlinear solution
can be defined on the optional NLPARMX bulk data entry. These include convergence
acceleration methods. In the case of post-buckling analysis Riks method can be selected.
Linear static analysis is provided as a debugging option. It is defined thru NLPARMX, ILIN.
Such analysis can help investigate the model for modeling errors. In linear static analysis
the load vector is determined at the termination time. Normal modes analysis requires a
METHOD subcase statement in addition.
For implicit dynamic analysis a TSTEPNL statement as well as ANALYSIS = IMPDYN must be
present in the subcase. To define the termination time a TTERM subcase entry is mandatory.
TSTEPNL references a TSTEPNL bulk data entry. Additional parameters to control the
geometric nonlinear solution can be defined on the optional TSTEPNX bulk data entry.
For explicit dynamic analysis an XSTEP statement as well as ANALYSIS = EXPDYN must be
present in the subcase. To define the termination time a TTERM subcase entry is mandatory.
XSTEP references an XSTEP bulk data entry. Time step control can be defined on the XSTEP
bulk data entry.
The implicit schemes require the solution of linear systems equations. By default, the direct
solver is invoked, whereby the unknowns are simultaneously solved using a Gauss
elimination method that exploits the sparseness and symmetry of the stiffness matrix, K, for
computational efficiency. Alternatively, an iterative solver using the preconditioning
conjugate gradient method may be used. While the direct solver is very robust, accurate and
efficient, the iterative solver is sometimes superior in terms of speed, for example for bulky
solid structures. The iterative solver is selected through the SOLVTYP subcase information
entry, which in turn references a SOLVTYP bulk data entry.
The definition of a unit system thru the DTI, UNITS or UNITS bulk data statement is required.
The geometric nonlinear analysis loads and boundary conditions are defined in the bulk data

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section of the input deck. They need to be referenced under the SUBCASE using an SPC,
NLOAD, LOAD, IC and RWALL statements in a SUBCASE. Each SUBCASE defines one loading
condition that is executed separately.
Subcase continuation is available thru the use of CNTNLSUB. Any number of explicit and
implicit analyses can be linked. However, geometric nonlinear (ANALYSIS = NLGEOM,
EXPDYN, or IMPDYN) analysis subcases cannot yet be linked with small displacement quasistatic nonlinear (ANALYSIS = NLSTAT) analysis subcases and vice versa.

Example for implicit (quasi-)static analysis


SUBCASE
1
ANALYSIS = NLGEOM
SPC = 1
NLOAD = 2
NLPARM = 3
TTERM = 1.0
DISP = ALL
STRESS = ALL
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,3
NLOAD1,2,2,,L,88
TABLED1,88,
+,0.0,0.0,1.0,1.0,ENDT
DTI,UNITS,1,kg,N,m,s

Alternative example for implicit (quasi-)static analysis


SUBCASE
1
ANALYSIS = NLGEOM
SPC = 1
LOAD = 4
NLPARM = 3
DISP = ALL
STRESS = ALL
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,3
FORCE,4,233,,1.0,0.0,0.0,1.0
DTI,UNITS,1,kg,N,m,s

Example for implicit dynamic analysis


SUBCASE
2
ANALYSIS = IMPDYN
SPC = 1
IC = 5
TSTEPNL = 3
TTERM = 0.2
DISP = ALL
STRESS = ALL
BEGIN BULK
TSTEPNL,3
TIC,5,123,1,,13.88
DTI,UNITS,1,kg,N,m,s

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Example for explicit analysis


SUBCASE
3
ANALYSIS = EXPDYN
SPC = 1
NLOAD = 2
XSTEP = 3
TTERM = 1.0
DISP = ALL
STRESS = ALL
BEGIN BULK
XSTEP,3
NLOAD1,2,2,,L,88
TABLED1,88,
+,0.0,0.0,1.0,1.0,ENDT
DTI,UNITS,1,kg,N,m,s

Example for subcase continuation


DISP = ALL
STRESS = ALL
SUBCASE
1
ANALYSIS = NLGEOM
SPC = 1
NLOAD = 2
NLPARM = 3
TTERM = 1.0
SUBCASE
2
ANALYSIS = EXPDYN
IC = 5
XSTEP = 4
TTERM = 1.1
CNTNLSUB = 1
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,3
XSTEP,4
NLOAD1,2,2,,L,88
GRAV,2,,9.81,0.0,0.0,1.0
TABLED1,88,
+,0.0,0.0,1.0,1.0ENDT
TIC,5,123,1,,13.88
DTI,UNITS,1,kg,N,m,s

Alternative example for subcase continuation for implicit (quasi-)


static analysis
DISP = ALL
STRESS = ALL
ANALYSIS = NLGEOM
CNTNLSUB, YES
SUBCASE
1
SPC = 1
LOAD = 2
NLPARM = 3
SUBCASE
2

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SPC = 1
LOAD = 4
NLPARM = 3
BEGIN BULK
NLPARM,3
GRAV,2,,9.81,0.0,0.0,1.0
FORCE,4,233,,1.0,0.0,0.0,1.0
UNITS = SI

User's Considerations
Geometric Nonlinear Analysis Properties and Materials
Special element types and nonlinear materials are available for geometric nonlinear analysis.
As a general rule property and material definitions that are only applicable in geometric
nonlinear analysis are defined on extensions to the original property and to a MAT1 material,
respectively. The extensions are grouped with the base entry by sharing the same PID or
MID. In the case of a subcase that is not a geometric nonlinear analysis, these extensions
are ignored. Property defaults can be set for shells (XSHLPRM) and solids (XSOLPRM) that
may replace the use of property extensions.
Property example:
PSHELL, 3, 7, 1.0, 7, , 7
PSHELLX, 3, 24, , , 5
Material example:
MAT1, 102, 60.4, , 0.33, 2.70e-6
MATX02, 102, 0.09026, 0.22313, 0.3746, 100.0, 0.175

Coordinate Systems
In geometric nonlinear analysis there are moving and fixed coordinate systems. Rectangular
coordinate systems that are defined thru grid points (CORD1R, CORD3R) are moving with the
deformations of the model. Systems defined in terms of point coordinates (CORD2R,
CORD4R) are fixed.
The behavior of loads depends on the coordinate system referenced. If the loads FORCE,
MOMENT are desired to be follower forces, a CID that references a moving coordinate system
(CORD1R, CORD3R) must be defined. Otherwise these loads are not following the
deformation. PLOAD always follows the deformations.

Difference Between Geometric Linear and Geometric Nonlinear Analysis


In geometric linear analysis all deformations and rotations are small (infinitesimal). As a
general rule, displacements of say 5% of the model dimension and rotations up to 5 degrees
can be treated as small. Rotations are trickier. A rotating body seems to get bigger linearly
under deformation even if defined as rigid. Nonlinearities can only come from contact or
materials. This type of analysis is supported in Nonlinear Quasi-Static Analysis with
ANALYSIS = NLSTAT. Loads stay in the undeformed coordinates and simply move along the

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axis they are defined in.


In geometric nonlinear analysis, displacements and rotations are large (finite). The
magnitude of a force actually matters. Changes in magnitude of a load can change
convergence behavior considerably. Also the direction of a force needs to be controlled.
Forces may follow the deformation or keep their direction. This can be controlled thru the
choice of coordinate systems (see above).
The images below display two examples of these differences. Figure 4 shows a cantilever
beam solved with small displacements, large displacements with a follower force, and large
displacements without a follower force. Figure 5 shows a simple rigid rotated by an angle
solved with small and finite rotations.

Figure 4: Cantilever beam with small (GLIN) and large (GNL) displacements

Figure 5: Small (GLIN) vs. finite (GNL) rotations

Difference Between Implicit and Explicit Analysis


Implicit static analysis has the following characteristics:
Involves matrix factorization
Stiffness matrix must be positive definite

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- Model must be sufficiently constraint


- No unattached parts
Iteration is needed to reach equilibrium
Equilibrium is achieved within iteration tolerances
Larger time steps
Long-term, (quasi-)static events

Implicit dynamic analysis has the following characteristics:


Involves matrix factorization
Dynamic stiffness matrix must be positive definite
Iteration is needed to reach equilibrium
Equilibrium is achieved within iteration tolerances
Larger time steps
Long-term events

Explicit (dynamic) analysis has the following characteristics:


In general a diagonal mass matrix is used
No matrix factorization necessary
Equilibrium is always guaranteed
Maximum stable time step needs to be respected
Small time steps
Short-term events
Implicit Contact
In an implicit contact analysis, you need to take care of the following two concerns:
First, there should be no initial penetrations in the mesh. Sometimes, initial penetration is
necessary to begin the simulation then only a small (< 0.01*GAP) value is recommended to
not change reality too much. With high initial penetrations, the solution will progress but
may lead to incorrect results. You will be warned about initial penetration during the check
run.
Secondly, in quasi-static analysis the model needs to be sufficiently constrained. For
example, having two blocks on top of each other (Figure 6) the top part is not constrained.
It is recommended to have the meshes completely depenetrated and to define a very small
GAP. This would create small springs constraining the upper body in vertical direction. Of
course, the other rigid body motions of the part have to be constrained too.
More information can be found in CONTACT, CONTPRM, and PCONTX bulk data definitions.

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Figure 6: Initial GAP

Implicit Snap-thru, Post-buckling Analysis


Some nonlinear problems with large deformations encounter bifurcations. The solution
becomes instable and the structure buckles or snaps from one state to another (Figure 7).
The load vs. displacement does not simply increase but may reduce until another stable point
is reached from which the load then can continue to increase (Figure 8). In the implicit
solution procedure it is clear that a simple load increment may not be sufficient to determine
the point where the force starts reducing.
A special method needs to be employed to find the proper search direction s for the solution
to stay on its path. This solution is called Riks method and can be defined via NLPARMX,
SACC. The search direction is defined by satisfying certain constraints of which two methods
can be selected via NLPARMX, CTYP.
There are currently some limitations in the way the results are written. Internal forces
cannot be plotted yet.

Figure 7: Snap-thru

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Figure 8: Snap-thru - Load vs. displacement

Not Sufficiently Constrained Model in Implicit (Quasi-)static Analysis


For models that are not sufficiently constrained, inertia stiffness can be used to overcome a
singular stiffness matrix (NLPARMX, KINER = ON). The inertia stiffness, Kinertia = 1 /
(DTSCQ * dt)2M, is added to the stiffness matrix K in a (quasi-)static analysis. Care needs
to be taken in the selection of DTSCQ. An added mass that is too large may lead to incorrect
results. This function is similar to inertia relief in other analysis types.

Implicit Convergence Issues


Sometimes the iteration process stops with TIME STEP LIMIT ERROR. This means the time
step reached DTMIN. In this case, the following measures can be taken to remedy the
situation:
Implicit (Quasi-)static
Check if there is any rigid motion by launching a linear run or eigenvalue analysis.
Double check the values and units of input parameters (material properties, loads, etc).
It is usually helpful to view the results of intermediate animation outputs.
Increase the number of load increments (NLPARM, NINC), decrease minimum time step
(NLPARMX, DTMIN), and/or decrease maximum time step (NLPARMX, DTMAX).
If post-buckling happens, activate RIKS method (NLPARMX, TSCTRL = RIKS).
Check the displacement, force and energy residual values during the iteration in the
.out file, find out which convergence criteria is causing the divergence, and then
modify convergence control criteria (NLPARM, CONV) and relax the tolerances
(NLPARM, EPSU, EPSW, and EPSP). It must be understood that reducing the
convergence tolerance may lead to inaccurate results.

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Use small displacement formulation (PARAM, SMDISP, 1) if the displacements and


rotations are small.
Implicit Dynamic
Double check the values and units of input parameters (material properties, loads, etc).
It is usually helpful to view the results of intermediate animation outputs.
Decrease the initial time step (TSTEPNL, NX), decrease minimum time step (TSTEPNX,
DTMIN), and/or decrease maximum time step (TSTEPNX, DTMAX).
Check the displacement, force and energy residual values during the iteration in the
.out file, find out which convergence criteria is causing the divergence, and then
modify convergence control criteria (NLPARM, CONV) and relax the tolerances
(NLPARM, EPSU, EPSW, and EPSP). It must be understood that reducing the
convergence tolerance may lead to inaccurate results.
Use small displacement formulation (PARAM, SMDISP, 1) if the displacements and
rotations are small.
Limitations
The solution will be terminated if unsupported Bulk Data entries are encountered.
The following Bulk Data properties and elements are currently not translated:
- PBUSHT (partially, KN is translated)
- PDAMP, CDAMPi
- PGAP, CGAP, CGAPG (partially, friction is not allowed)
- PMASS, CMASSi
- PSHEAR, CSHEAR
- PVISC, CVISC
Additional relevant Bulk Data entries (except loads) that are currently not translated:
- CORD1C, CORD1S, CORD2S
- DMIG
- MAT2, MAT4, MAT5, MAT8, MAT9, MAT10
- MATTi, TABLEST
- MPC, MPCADD
- RBE1, RROD
Relevant loads that are currently not translated:
- PLOAD1, PLOAD2
- PLOAD4 (partially, N1, N2, N3 cannot be used)
- RFORCE (partially, RACC is not supported)
- TLOAD1, TLOAD2

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Normal Modes Analysis


Normal Modes Analysis, also called eigenvalue analysis or eigenvalue extraction, is a
technique used to calculate the vibration shapes and associated frequencies that a structure
will exhibit. It is important to know these frequencies because if cyclic loads are applied at
these frequencies, the structure can go into a resonance condition that will lead to
catastrophic failure. It is also important to know the shapes in order to make sure that loads
are not applied at points that will cause the resonance condition.
Normal modes analysis is also required for modal frequency response and modal transient
analysis. In these analyses the problem is transformed from the direct mesh coordinates,
where the number of degrees of freedom can be in the millions, to the modal coordinates
where the number of degrees of freedom is just the number of modes used. Typically, the
upper bound frequency in this case is 1.5 times the highest loading frequency or response
frequency of interest.
In OptiStruct, normal modes analysis can be performed using one of two algorithms: Lanczos
or the automated multi-level sub-structuring eigenvalue solution (AMSES). The eigenvalue
extraction data for Lanczos is specified on the EIGRL data and for the automated multi-level
sub-structuring eigenvalue solution method, the EIGRA data is used.
In addition, OptiStruct has an interface to the AMLS software developed at the University of
Texas. AMLS uses the automated multi-level sub-structuring method for eigenvalue
extraction. The use of AMLS is triggered by using the PARAM, AMLS set to YES input data in
conjunction with the EIGRL card (only).
The Lanczos Method
The Lanczos method has the advantage that the eigenvalues and associated mode shapes are
calculated exactly. This method is efficient for calculations in which the number of modes is
small and the full shape of each mode is required. The disadvantage of the Lanczos method
is that it is slow for large problems with millions of degrees of freedom for which hundreds of
modes are required. The run times for these types of problems can easily stretch into days.
In these cases, the AMSES or AMLS method must be used.
The Automated Multi-level Sub-structuring Eigenvalue Solution Method (AMSES)
The AMSES method has the advantage that only a portion of the eigenvector need be
calculated. Since only a portion of the eigenvector is calculated, the disk space and disk I/O
is greatly reduced. This leads to much shorter run times. For typical NVH frequency
response analysis there is only about 100 degrees of freedom of interest. In these cases,
solutions of thousands of modes for meshes of millions of degrees of freedom can be solved
in just a few hours. The disadvantage of the AMSES method is that the calculations are not
exact. However, the modal frequencies are still accurate to a few digits. Also, for NVH
analysis it is important that the mode shapes form modal space that covers all possible
deformation patterns, but not so important that each individual mode shape is accurate.
AMSES Usage Guidelines
The following guidelines list the factors affecting AMSES usage:
1. The AMSES solution is, generally, much faster than Lanczos, but the results are
approximate. Accuracy of the lower modes is very high; therefore, AMSES is a good
candidate for solutions with a large number of modes (greater than a few hundred) where
an approximated eigen-space is sufficient (as in Modal Frequency Response and Modal
Transient Response Analysis). Although approximate, the large number of modes used for

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modal analysis will encompass the modal space and the resulting motion will match very
closely with the Lanczos results. Lanczos is recommended in solutions where accurate
mode shapes of a small number of modes are required.
2. AMSES is also recommended in cases where: 1) A low number of eigenvalues are
requested but the model consists of more than a million degrees of freedom, and/or; 2)
The upper bound (V2) is specified or the number of modes (ND) is greater than 50 on the
EIGRL entry. In such cases, it is likely that Lanczos runs are slower than AMSES runs.
3. For optimization runs, if accuracy of the eigenvector is important, normal modes analysis
with AMSES can be run first and then Lanczos can be run with precise lower and upper
bounds to check the AMSES run for accuracy. The AMSES upper bound can then be
adjusted to achieve acceptable accuracy of the desired eigenvectors. Now, AMSES can be
used for all optimization runs in this analysis.
4. The AMSES solution is much faster for flexible body generation and modal solutions with
many residual vectors.
5. AMSES should be used cautiously in situations with very large RBE3s (if the RBE3 is
connected to 1/4th of the structure). It may be better to eliminate such RBE3s.
6. AMSES solution speeds depend on the number of eigenvector degrees of freedom (DOF)
to be calculated. DISP=ALL will cause the entire eigenvector to be calculated and the
speedup will not be large. However, if results for only a few DOF are required (typical for
NVH analysis), AMSES can be up to 100 times faster than Lanczos. To improve AMSES
run times, it is recommended to request results only for the required DOF.
7. For an AMSES run with V1, V2 and ND specified on the EIGRA entry, AMSES calculates all
the modes up to the specified V2 (upper bound) regardless of the value of ND. Then ND
number of requested modes is output. Therefore, reducing ND by keeping the upper
bound (V2) the same will not significantly improve the AMSES run times, the upper bound
must also be correspondingly reduced to prevent the extraction of extra modes.
8. AMSES is also useful in checking for model irregularities. AMSES can be used to print the
list of grids associated with a massless mechanism or a singularity.

The Governing Equations


Normal Modes Analysis
The equilibrium equation for a structure performing free vibration appears as the eigenvalue
problem:

M x 0

Where, K is the stiffness matrix of the structure and M is the mass matrix. Damping is
neglected.
The solution of the eigenvalue problem yields n eigenvalues , where n is the number of
degrees of freedom. The vector { i } is the eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue.

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The eigenvalue problem is solved using Lanczos, AMSES, or AMLS.


The natural frequency fi follows directly from the eigenvalue .

fi

Input Specification
In order to run a normal modes analysis, an EIGRL or EIGRA bulk data entry needs to be
given to define the number of modes to be extracted. EIGRL or EIGRA data needs to be
referenced by a METHOD statement in a SUBCASE in the subcase information section.
It is not necessary to define boundary conditions using an SPC statement. If no boundary
conditions are applied, a zero eigenvalue is computed for each rigid body degree of freedom
of the model.
It is possible to request the computation of residual vectors in conjunction with a normal
modes analysis. Residual vectors are static displacements ortho-normalized with the
eigenvectors to be used in an external frequency response analysis. In order to get this
output, users have to define degrees of freedom using USET, USET1. The degrees of freedom
are then used to define loads in the unit load method to compute the residual vectors.
RESVEC = YES needs to be defined in the normal modes subcase, if the Lanczos eigensolver
is used. Residual vectors associated with USET and USET1 data are always created, if the
AMSES or AMLS eigensolvers are used. Boundary conditions defined using SPC or inertia
relief must be applied to create residual vectors.

Subcase Definition
A normal modes subcase may be explicitly identified by setting ANALYSIS=MODES, but it is
also implicitly chosen for any subcase containing the METHOD data selector (when the
ANALYSIS entry is not present).
The following data selectors are recognized for an normal modes subcase definition.
1. METHOD references an eigenvalue extraction bulk data definition (EIGRL or EIGRA).
This reference is required.
2. SPC references single point constraint bulk data entries (SPCADD, SPC or SPC1).
3. MPC references multi-point constraint bulk data entries (MPCADD or MPC).

Bulk Data
Bulk data entries which have particular significance for normal modes analysis include:
1. EIGRL specifies the modes to be calculated and solution parameters for the Lanczos
eigenvalue extraction method.
2. EIGRA specifies the modes to be calculated and solution parameters for the AMSES
eigenvalue extraction method.
3. PARAM,AMLS,YES specifies that the AMLS software will be used for eigenvalue
extraction based on the modal parameters on the EIGRL or EIGRA data.

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4. SPC, SPC1, and SPCADD - specify the base where excitation is applied and other
constraints.
5. MPC and MPCADD - specify multi-point constraints.

Sample Input
SUBCASE 100
SPC = 5
METHOD = 24
$
BEGIN BULK
$
EIGRL, 24, 0.0, 1000.
ENDDATA
$

Output
Results of interest from eigenvalue extraction include maximum displacement, modal
stresses, energies and multi-point constraint forces. These are requested via the I/O Options
DISPLACEMENT, EKE, ESE, STRESS, GPSTRESS and MPCFORCE respectively.

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Frequency Response Analysis


Frequency response analysis is used to calculate the response of a structure to steady state
oscillatory excitation. Typical applications are noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) analysis
of vehicles, rotating machinery, transmissions, and powertrain systems.
Frequency response analysis is used to compute the response of the structure, which is
actually transient, in a static frequency domain. The loading is sinusoidal. A simple case is a
load of given amplitude at a specified frequency. The response occurs at the same
frequency, and damping would lead to a phase shift (Figure 1).
The loads can be forces, displacements, velocity, and acceleration. They are dependent on
the excitation frequency .
The results from a frequency response analysis are displacements, velocities, accelerations,
forces, stresses, and strains. The responses are usually complex numbers that are either
given as magnitude and phase angle or as real and imaginary part.
OptiStruct supports Direct and Modal frequency response analysis.

Figure 1: Excitation and response of a frequency response analysis.

Direct Frequency Response Analysis


Direct frequency response analysis can be used to compute the structural responses directly
at discrete excitation frequencies by solving a set of complex matrix equations.

Mu&& Bu& Ku

Pei

The quantity is the angular loading frequency. The applied harmonic excitation can be
assumed to generate a harmonic response.

dei

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The vector u is the displacement vector. Substituting the assumed harmonic displacement
response into the equation of motion and rewriting the damping matrix (B), you get:

iGK iK E

i B1 dei

Pei

The matrix K is the stiffness matrix and the matrix M is the mass matrix.
There are three ways to define damping in the system.
1. Using a uniform structural damping coefficient G.
2. Structural element damping using the damping coefficients GE on the materials as well
as GE on bushing and spring element property definitions. These form the matrix KE.
3. Viscous damping generated by damper elements. These form the matrix B1.
The equation of motion is solved directly using complex algebra.

Running Direct Frequency Response Analysis using OptiStruct


The frequency response loads and boundary conditions are defined in the bulk data section of
the input deck. They need to be referenced in the subcase information section using an SPC
and DLOAD statement in a SUBCASE.
OptiStruct does not support inertia relief for direct frequency response analysis. The solver
will error out if it is attempted.
A frequency set must be referenced using a FREQUENCY statement.
In addition to the various damping elements and material damping, uniform structural
damping G can be applied using PARAM, G.

Modal Frequency Response Analysis


The modal method first performs a normal modes analysis to obtain the eigenvalues

2
i

i
and the corresponding eigenvectors
of the system. The response can be expressed
as a scalar product of the eigenvectors X and the modal responses d.

Xdei

The equation of motion without damping is then transformed into modal coordinates using
the eigenvectors.

X T MX

X T KX dei

X T Pei

The modal mass matrix X MX and the modal stiffness matrix X KX are diagonal. If the
eigenvectors are normalized with respect to the mass matrix, the modal mass matrix is the

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unity matrix and the modal stiffness matrix is a diagonal matrix holding the eigenvalues of
the system. This way, the system equation is reduced to a set of uncoupled equations for the
components of d that can be solved easily.
The inclusion of damping, as discussed in the direct method, yields:

X T KX

X T MX

iGX T KX

XTK X

iX T K E X

i X T B1 X dei

X T Pei

XTB X

E
1
Here, the matrices
and
are generally non-diagonal. Then the coupled
problem is similar to the system solved in the direct method, but of much lesser degree of
freedom. It is solved using the direct method.

The evaluation of the equation of motion is much faster if the equations can be kept
decoupled. This can be achieved if the damping is applied to each mode separately. This is
done through a damping table TABDMP1 that lists damping values g versus natural

frequency f . If this approach is used, no structural element or viscous damping should be

defined.
The decoupled equation is:
2

mi

bi / (2mi

Where,

ki di ei

i bi

pi ei

is the modal damping ratio, and

2
i

is the modal eigenvalue.

g (f )

Three types of modal damping values i i can be defined: G Structural damping, CRIT
Critical damping, and Q Quality factor. They are related through the following three
equations at resonance:

G:

bi
bcr

gi
2

CRIT : bcr

2mi

1
2 i

Q : Qi

1
gi

Modal damping is entered in to the complex stiffness matrix as structural damping if PARAM,
KDAMP, -1 is used. Then the uncoupled equation becomes:
2

mi

(1 ig ( )) * ki di ei

pi ei

A METHOD statement is required for the modal method to control the normal modes analysis.
The METHOD statement can refer to either EIGRL or EIGRA data.

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Residual Vector Generation (Increases accuracy)


The accuracy of the modal method can be vastly improved by adding the displacement
vectors of a static analysis based on the dynamic loading to the matrix of eigenvectors X.
These vectors are frequently referred to as residual vectors, the method as the modal
acceleration.
There are two ways this is implemented.
The unit load method generates residual vectors based on static loads which are unit
vectors at the dynamic load degrees of freedom. That is, the static loads for the
residual vector generation are unit vectors at the degrees of freedom where the
dynamic load is applied. The number of residual vectors is equal to the number of
loaded degrees of freedom. This is the default method since it is generally more
accurate.
The applied load method generates a maximum of two residual vectors which are the
dynamic load vector at a loading frequency of zero. If the real and the imaginary parts
of the dynamic load are the same, or if one of them is zero, only one of them is used.
In the case of excited displacements, the residual vectors are obtained by solving static load
cases with unit displacements at the same degrees of freedom as the dynamic excited
displacement degrees of freedom.
The following image illustrates the effect that the use of the residual vectors has on the result
accuracy of the modal frequency response analysis (FRA) compared to the accurate direct
method.

Running Modal Frequency Response Analysis using OptiStruct


The frequency response loads and boundary conditions are defined in the bulk data section of
the input deck. They need to be referenced in the subcase information section using an SPC
and DLOAD statement in a SUBCASE.
Residual vectors are relevant for modal FRF/acoustics/transient analysis. They enhance the
accuracy of these analyses and, hence, are computed by default. You can control RESVEC
calculations using the case control statement:
RESVEC(APPLOD/UNITLOD,DAMPLOD/NODAMP)=Value

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Where, Value can be Yes or No. The keyword(s) within parentheses are ignored if the Value
specified is No in this case all RESVEC calculations are turned off. The keyword APPLOD
generates RESVECs based on the dynamic loading of the modal FRF/acoustics/transient
analysis. The keyword UNITLOAD generates RESVECs based on unit loads at the dynamic
loadings degrees of freedom. The keyword DAMPLOD generates viscous damping RESVECs
based on unit loads at the viscous damping degrees of freedom. The keyword NODAMP turns
off the generation of the viscous damping RESVECs that are otherwise generated by default.
Even though DAMPLOD and NODAMP are options in the case control, they are global switches
that will be applied to all the modal FRF/acoustics/transient subcases in the model.
When the underlying eigenvalue analysis is done using the Lanczos method, the default
RESVECs are generated based on the applied loading and viscous damping degrees of
freedom. If the underlying eigenvalue analysis is done using AMSES or AMLS, the default
RESVECs are generated based on unit loading at the load degrees of freedom and viscous
damping degrees of freedom. Residual vectors are always generated if enforced
displacements, velocities or accelerations are defined. In addition, if there is USET U6 data,
residual vectors will be calculated if the AMSES or AMLS eigensolver is used. USET U6
residual vectors will not be calculated if the Lanczos eigensolver is used.
When residual vectors are included, inertia relief will be applied by default to unconstrained
models. If inertia relief is not desired for RESVECs, it has to be turned off using PARAM,
INREL, 0.
When residual vectors are included, the eigenmodes from the underlying eigenvalue analysis
of the FRF/transient subcase are used in inertia relief. All modes with eigenvalues below a
limit value (FZERO) are used as rigid body modes in the inertia relief analysis. If there are
no eigenmodes below FZERO, up to 6 global rigid body modes are internally generated based
on the geometry of the model and used in the inertia relief. You can set FZERO using
PARAM, FZERO, Value. The default value for FZERO is 0.1
A frequency set must be referenced using a FREQUENCY statement. A METHOD statement is
required for the modal method to control the normal modes analysis. In order to save
computational effort, previously saved eigenvectors can be retrieved using the EIGVRETRIEVE
subcase statement.
In addition to the various damping elements and material damping, uniform structural
damping G can be applied using PARAM, G.
Modal damping is being applied using the SDAMPING reference of a damping table TABDMP1.
The parameter PARAM, KDAMP is to define the method of applying the damping table.
Frequency-dependent materials (MATFi bulk data entries) can be used in Direct and Modal
Frequency Response Analysis, via TABLEDi entries for corresponding fields on the MATi
entries. MATF1, MATF2, MATF3, MATF8, MATF9 and MATF10 bulk data entries can be used to
define the currently available frequency-dependent materials.
Frequency-dependent properties (PBUSHT bulk data entry) can also be used in Frequency
Response Analysis, via TABLEDi entries for the corresponding fields on the PBUSHT entry.

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Output
The results of a frequency response analysis are displacements, velocities, accelerations,
forces, stresses, and strains. The usual output entries like STRESS, STRAIN, DISPLACEMENT,
etc. can be used to request corresponding output values.
PARAM, ENFMOTN, REL can be used to generate displacement, velocity and acceleration
output relative to the specified enforced motion. In such cases, subsequently calculated
outputs like stresses and forces are also generated relative to the specified enforced motion.
PARAM, ENFMOTN, TOTAL/ABS can be used to generate the total output values including the
specified enforced motion (TOTAL/ABS is the default).

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Complex Eigenvalue Analysis


Real eigenvalue analysis is used to compute the normal modes of a structure. Complex
eigenvalue analysis computes the complex modes of the structure. The complex modes
contain the imaginary part, which represents the cyclic frequency, and the real part which
represents the damping of the mode. If the real part is negative, then the mode is said to be
stable. If the real part is positive, then the mode is unstable. Complex eigenvalue analysis
is usually used to determine the stability of a structure when unsymmetric matrices are
presented due to special physical behavior. It is also used to determine the modes of a
damped structure.
The complex eigenvalue analysis is formulated in the following manner:

p2 M

pB

K igK i GE

Kf

Where,

K is the stiffness matrix of the structure


M is the mass matrix
GE is the element structural damping matrix
B is viscous damping matrix
g is global structural damping coefficient
Kf is the extra stiffness matrix by direct matrix input
f is the coefficient of extra stiffness matrix

i , and
The solution of the complex eigenvalue problem yields complex eigenvalue,
complex mode shape,
. Complex modes with positive real parts are considered unstable
modes. Unstable modes are often in pairs.

The circular frequency f is then calculated through the relationship:

The damping coefficient is also computed from the equation:

This corresponds to the real part of a complex eigenvalue; modes with negative damping
coefficients have positive real parts and are unstable modes.
The extraction of complex modes directly from the above formulation is usually quite
computationally expensive, especially if the problem size is not small. Instead, a modal
method is used to solve the complex eigenvalue problem. First, the real modes are
calculated via a normal modes analysis. Then, a complex eigenvalue problem is formed on

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the projected subspace spanned by the real modes and thus much smaller than the real
space. Finally, the complex modes extraction of the reduced problem follows the well known
Hessenberg reduction method.
In order to run a complex eigenvalue analysis, both the EIGRL bulk data and the EIGC bulk
data entry need to be given. They define the number of the real modes and the number of
complex modes to be extracted, respectively. The EIGRL card has to be referenced by a
METHOD statement in a SUBCASE definition. The EIGC card is referenced by a CMETHOD
statement in the same SUBCASE definition.
The complex eigen value analysis usually involves an unsymmetric matrix which represents
the source of the physical instability. The external matrix should be provided as a DMIG bulk
data entry, and then referenced by a K2PP statement in the SUBCASE definition. You can
define a specific coefficient for the external matrix by PARAM, FRIC. Otherwise, the default
value of the coefficient is 1.0.

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Random Response Analysis


Random response analysis is used when a structure is subjected to a nondeterministic,
continuous excitation. Cases likely to involve nondeterministic loads are those linked to
conditions such as turbulence on an airplane structure, road surface imperfections on a car
structure, noise loads on a given structure, etc.
The complex frequency response can be achieved by direct and modal frequency response.
If Hxa( f ) and Hxb( f ) are the complex frequency responses (displacement, velocity or
acceleration) of x th degree of freedom, due to load cases a and b respectively, the power
spectral density of the response of x th degree of freedom Rx( f ) is as follows:

Rx ( f ) H xa ( f )Sab ( f ) H xb ( f )
Sab( f ) is the power spectral density of the two sources, where the individual source a is the
excited load case and b is the applied load case. If Sa( f ) is the spectral density of the
individual source (a th load case), the power spectral density of the response of x th degree of
freedom due to a th load case will be:

Rx ( f )

H xa ( f ) Sa ( f )

b
The cross spectral density Sab( f ) with two different sources
could possibly be a
complex number. The power spectral density of the response of x th degree of freedom due
to a th and b th load cases will be:

Rx ( f ) H xa ( f )Sab ( f ) H xb ( f )
The total power spectral density of the response will be the summation of the power spectral
density of all individual load cases as well as all cross load cases.
The autocorrelation

of a variable x(t) can be defined by the following equation:

T /2

Ax ( )

x (t ) x (t

lim

) dt

T /2

The variance
of the x(t) will be equal to Ax(0). The variance
function of power spectral density Sx( f ) as follows:

Ax (0)

2 (x)

can be expressed as a

S x ( f ) df

The root mean square value of the response x(t) can also be written in the following equation:

xRMS

S x ( f ) df

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The autocorrelation function and the power spectral density are Fourier transforms of each
other. Therefore, the auto correlation can be described as follows:

Ax ( )

S x ( f ) exp(i 2 f ) df

There could be fatigue failure due to random vibration. The number of fatigue cycles of
random vibration is evaluated by multiplying the vibration duration and another parameter
called maximum number of positive zero crossing. The maximum number of positive zero
crossing is defined in the following equation:

Pc

f 2 S x ( f ) df
S x ( f ) df

Whenever there is a request for XYPLOT, XYPEAK or XYPUNCH, the root mean square value
and the maximum number of positive crossing will be exported to the *.peak file.
Setup for Random Response Analysis
Random response analysis is activated, for all subcases, through the inclusion of the
RANDOM data selector in the Subcase Information section of the input. This selector
identifies RANDPS and RANDT1 bulk data entries to be used for random response analysis.
The input spectral density is described by the RANDPS bulk data entry. The RANDPS data
refers to a TABRND1 bulk data entry, which contains the power spectral density of the
loading versus frequency. The RANDT1 bulk data entry describes the time span for the autocorrelation. The RCROSS bulk data is used to request the output of the cross-power spectral
density function for random response analysis and is referred to by the RCROSS I/O section
selector. Loading for each frequency response subcase may be distinct, but all frequency
response subcases must reference the same frequency data.
Results Output from Random Response Analysis
The random response Power Spectral Density Function (PSDF) can be written to the .h3d file
for DISP, VELO, and ACCE using the PSDF output option on these I/O option data selectors.
At the end of the output for all the frequencies is the RMS over frequencies output selector in
HyperView as shown below.
The random response Power Spectral Density Function (PSDF) can be written to the .h3d file
for CBUSH element forces using the FORCE I/O option by specifying the PSDF output option.
At the end of the output for each frequency is the RMS over frequencies output selector for
the .h3d file in HyperView as shown below.
The random response Power Spectral Density Function (PSDF) can be written to the .h3d and
.op2 files for solid and shell elements for stress and strain with the STRESS and STRAIN I/O
options using the PSDF output option. At the end of the output for each frequency is the
RMS over frequencies output selector for the .h3d file and the Simulation selector for the
.op2 file in HyperView as shown below.
Additionally, PSDF and RMS von Mises stress and strain results based on the Segalman
Method are also written to the .h3d file for Random Response Analysis (only available in the
H3D format).

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RMS output selection in .h3d file in HyperView

RMS output selection in .op2 file in HyperView

Plotting Output from Random Response Analysis


Three plotting output requests may be used for random response analysis results. These
output requests are placed in the I/O Options section of the input data. The three plotting
controllers are:
XYPEAK

Generates a .peak file containing a summary of the


requested output.

XYPLOT

Generates a HyperGraph session file (_rand.mvw file) and


related data file (.rand file) for the requested output. Also
generates the .peak file.

XYPUNCH

Generates a .pch file for the requested output. Also


generates the .peak file.

These output requests are different from most other OptiStruct output requests in that they
may be combined on the same line.

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The requests are formatted as follows:


Operation, Curve-type, Plot-type or / Grid (Component) list.
"Operation" can be any combination of XYPLOT, XYPUNCH, and XYPEAK.
"Curve-type" can be FORCE, STRESS, STRAIN, DISP, VELO, or ACCE to request force,
stress, strain, displacement, velocity or acceleration, respectively.
"Plot-type" can be either PSDF or AUTO to request power spectral density function or
autocorrelation, respectively.
"Grid (Component) list" must come after a slash "/". Each entry in the list is comma
separated. Each entry consists of a GRID or SPOINT ID followed by a component of
motion (T1, T2, T3, R1, R2, or R3) in parentheses. For SPOINTs the component must be
T1.
In addition, plot titles and axis labels may be controlled using TCURVE (plot title), XTITLE (xaxis label), and YTITLE (y-axis label). Default titles and labels are generated when these
controls are not used.

Example 1
Requesting random response results in a HyperGraph session file for the velocity PSDF for
GRIDs 3 and 6 for component T2:
XYPLOT, VELO, PSDF / 3(T2), 6(T2)

Example 2
Requesting random response summary results to be written to the .peak file for the
autocorrelation of displacement for GRID 223 for component R3:
XYPEAK, DISP, AUTO / 223(T3)

Example 3
Requesting random response results output, in all formats, for the acceleration PSDF for
GRIDS 8 and 9 for components T1 and T2:
XYPEAK, XYPLOT, XYPUNCH, ACCE, PSDF / 8(T1), 9(T1), 8(T2), 9(T2)
Here the XYPEAK request is valid, but redundant as it is always created when XYPLOT or
XYPUNCH is present.

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Response Spectrum Analysis


Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA) is a technique used to estimate the maximum response of
a structure for a transient event. Maximum displacement, stresses, and/or forces may be
determined in this manner. The technique combines response spectra for a prescribed
dynamic loading with results of a normal modes analysis. The time-history of the responses
are not available.
Response spectra describes the maximum response versus natural frequency of a 1-DOF
system for a prescribed dynamic loading. They are employed to calculate the maximum
modal response for each structural mode. These modal maxima may then be combined using
various methods, such as the Absolute Sum (ABS) method or the Complete Quadratic
Combination (CQC) method, to obtain an estimate of the peak structural response.
RSA is a simple and computationally inexpensive method to provide an approximation of
peak response, compared to conventional transient analysis. The major computational effort
is to obtain a sufficient number of normal modes in order to represent the entire frequency
range of input excitation and resulting response. Response spectra are usually provided by
design specifications; given these, peak responses under various dynamic excitations can be
quickly calculated. Therefore, it is widely used as a design tool in areas such as seismic
analysis of buildings.

The Governing Equations


Normal Modes Analysis
The equilibrium equation for a structure performing free vibration appears as the eigenvalue
problem:

[K

M]

Where, K is the stiffness matrix of the structure and M is the mass matrix. Damping is
neglected.
The solution of the eigenvalue problem yields n eigenvalues
degrees of freedom. The vector

, where n is the number of

is the eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue.

The eigenvalue problem is solved using the Lanczos or the AMLS method. Not all eigenvalues
are required and only a small number of the lowest eigenvalues are normally calculated. The
results of eigenvalue analysis are the fundamentals of response spectrum analysis.
Response spectrum analysis can be performed together with normal modes analysis in a
single run, or eigenvalue analysis with Lanczos solver can be performed first to save
eigenvalues and eigenvectors by using EIGVSAVE, which can be retrieved later by using
EIGVRETRIEVE for response spectrum analysis.

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Modal Combination
It is assumed each individual mode behaves like a single degree-of-freedom system. The
transient response at a degree of freedom is:

uk

ik

Where,
is the eigenvector,
spectrum

is modal participation factor, and X is the response

For loading due to base acceleration, the modal participation factor can be expressed as:

[ i ]T [ M ]{T }

Where,
is the eigenvector, M is the mass matrix, and T is rigid body motion due to
excitation
In ABS modal combination, the peak response is estimated by:

uk

ik

In CQC modal combination, the peak response is estimated by:

uk

vm
m

mn n

Where, m is the modal response associated with mode m, and


coefficient.

mn

is the cross-modal

Directional combination
In order to estimate peak response due to dynamic excitations in different directions, the
peak response in each direction must be combined to obtain total peak response. Methods
such as ALG (algebraic) and SRSS (square root of sum of squares) can be used.

Input Specification
Subcase Definition
An RSA subcase may be explicitly identified by setting ANALYSIS=RSPEC, but it is also
implicitly chosen for any subcase containing the RSPEC data selector (when the ANALYSIS
entry is not present).
The following data selectors are recognized for an RSA subcase definition.
METHOD references an eigenvalue extraction bulk data definition (EIGRL). Only
METHOD(STRUCTURE) is supported. This reference is required.
RSPEC references an RSPEC bulk data entry where the combination rules, excitation
DOF, and the input spectra are identified. This reference is required.

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SDAMPING references damping table bulk data entries (TABDMP1) to specify modal
damping. This reference is required.
SPC references single point constraint bulk data entries (SPCADD, SPC and SPC1).
For RSA analysis, these entries define the base degrees of freedom where excitation is
applied.
MPC references multi-point constraint bulk data entries (MPCADD or MPC).

Bulk Data
Bulk data entries which have particular significance for RSA include:
RSPEC specifies combination rules, excitation DOF, and references the input spectra.
DTI,SPECSEL defines response spectra.
EIGRL defines parameters for eigenvalue extraction.
PARAM, LFREQ and PARAM, HFREQ define the range of modes used in modal
combinations.
TABDMP1 specifies modal damping
SPC, SPC1, and SPCADD - specifies base where excitation is applied and other
constraints.

Sample input
SUBCASE 100
RSPEC = 2
SPC = 5
SDAMPING = 12
METHOD = 24
$
BEGIN BULK
$
PARAM, LFREQ, 0.1
PARAM, HFREQ, 1000.
EIGRL, 24, 0.0, 1000.
RSPEC, 2, ABS, CQC, 0.1
, 99, 2.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0
DTI, SPECSEL, 99, , A, 2, 0., 3, 0.02,
, 4, 0.04, ENDREC
TABDMP1, 12,
TABLED1, 2
+,
TABLED1, 3
+,
TABLED1, 4
+,

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ENDDATA
$

Output
Results of interest from RSA include maximum displacement, stress and force. These are
requested via the I/O Options DISPLACEMENT, STRESS and FORCE respectively.

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Transient Response Analysis


Transient response analysis is used to calculate the response of a structure to timedependent loads. Typical applications are structures subject to earthquakes, wind,
explosions, or a vehicle going through a pothole.
The loads are time-dependent forces and displacements. Initial conditions define the initial
displacement and initial velocities in grid points.
The results of a transient response analysis are displacements, velocities, accelerations,
forces, stresses, and strains. The responses are usually time-dependent.
The transient response analysis computes the structural responses solving the following
equation of motion with initial conditions in matrix form.

Mu&& Bu&

Ku

u (t

0)

u0

u& (t

0)

v0

P(t )

The matrix K is the global stiffness matrix, the matrix M the mass matrix, and the matrix B is
the damping matrix formed by the damping elements. The initial conditions are part of the
problem formulation and are applicable for the direct transient response only. The equation
of motion is integrated over time using the Newmark beta method. A time step and an end
time need to be defined.
Direct and modal transient response analysis methods are implemented as follows.

Direct Transient Response


The equation of motion is solved directly using the Newmark Beta method.
The use of complex coefficients for damping is not allowed in transient response analysis.
Therefore, structural damping is included using equivalent viscous damping.
The damping matrix B is composed of several contributions as follows:

B1

KE

Where, B1 is the matrix of the viscous damper elements, plus the external damping matrices
input through the DMIG bulk data entry; G is the overall structural damping (PARAM, G);
is the frequency of interest for the conversion of the overall structural damping into

equivalent viscous damping (PARAM, W3); 4 is the frequency of interest for the conversion
of the element structural damping into equivalent viscous damping (PARAM, W4); and KE is
the contribution from structural element damping coefficients GE.

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Running Direct Transient Response Analysis using OptiStruct


The transient response loads and boundary conditions are defined in the bulk data section of
the input deck. They need to be referenced in the subcase information section using an SPC
statement and a DLOAD statement in a SUBCASE.
Inertia relief is not supported for direct transient response analysis. OptiStruct will error out if
this is attempted.
Only one transient subcase can be defined. Initial conditions need to be referenced through
the IC subcase statement. The analysis time step and termination time need to be defined
through a TSTEP(TIME) subcase reference.
In addition to the various damping elements and material damping, uniform structural
damping G can be applied using PARAM, G.

Modal Transient Response


In the modal method, a normal modes analysis to obtain the eigenvalues

2
i

and the

i
corresponding eigenvectors
of the system is performed first. The state vector u
can be expressed as a scalar product of the eigenvectors X and the modal responses d.

Xd

The equation of motion without damping is then transformed into modal coordinates using
the eigenvectors:

X T MXd&&

X T KXd

XTP
T

The modal mass matrix X MX and the modal stiffness matrix X KX are diagonal. This
way the system equation is reduced to a set of uncoupled equations for the components of d
that can be solved easily.
The inclusion of damping yields:

X T MXd&&

X T BXd&

X T KXd

XTP

Here, the matrices X BX are generally non-diagonal. Then coupled problem is similar to
the system solved in the direct method, but of a much lesser degree of freedom. The
solution of the reduced equation of motion is performed using the Newmark Beta method.
The decoupling of the equations can be maintained if the damping is applied to each mode
separately. This is done through a damping table TABDMP1 that lists damping values
versus natural frequency

fi

gi

The decoupled equation is:

mi d&&i (t ) bi d&i (t ) ki di (t )

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or

d&&i (t ) 2
i

Where,

d&i (t )

2
i

bi / (2mi

di (t )

1
pi (t )
mi

is the modal damping ratio, and

2
i

is the modal eigenvalue.

g (f )

Three types of modal damping values i i can be defined: G Structural damping, CRIT
Critical damping, and Q Quality factor. They are related through the following three
equations at resonance:

G:

bi
bcr

CRIT : bcr

Q : Qi

1
2 i

gi
2
2mi

1
gi

Residual Vector Generation (Increases accuracy)


The accuracy of the modal method can be vastly improved by adding the displacement
vectors of a static analysis based on the dynamic loading to the matrix of eigenvectors X.
These vectors are frequently referred to as residual vectors, the method as modal
acceleration.
There are two ways this is implemented.
The unit load method generates residual vectors based on static loads, which are unit
vectors at the dynamic load degrees of freedom. That is, the static loads for the
residual vector generation are unit vectors at the degrees of freedom, where the
dynamic load is applied. The number of residual vectors is equal to the number of
loaded degrees of freedom.
The applied load method generates a maximum of two residual vectors which are the
dynamic load vector at loading frequency of zero. If the real and the imaginary parts of
the dynamic load are the same, or if one of them is zero, only one of them is used.
This is the default method since it is generally more efficient.
In the case of excited displacements, the residual vectors are obtained by solving static load
cases with unit displacements at the same degrees of freedom as the dynamic excited
displacement degrees of freedom.
Running Modal Transient Response Analysis using OptiStruct
Transient response loads and boundary conditions are defined in the bulk data section of the
input deck. They need to be referenced in the subcase information section using an SPC
statement and a DLOAD statement in a SUBCASE.
Residual vectors can be activated using the subcase statement RESVEC with the options
APPLOD or UNITLOD. They are computed by default. Residual vectors are always generated
if enforced displacements, velocities or accelerations are defined. Residual vectors are also
calculated for viscous damping DOF. These are created by default and can be turned off with

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the RESVEC option NODAMP. In addition, if there is USET U6 data, residual vectors will be
calculated if the AMSES or AMLS eigensolver is used. USET U6 residual vectors will not be
calculated if the Lanczos eigensolver is used.
When residual vectors are included, inertia relief can be applied to unconstrained models. A
SUPORT1 subcase entry references the boundary conditions that restrain the rigid body
motions. These restraints can also be defined without subcase reference using the SUPORT
bulk data entry or automated using PARAM, INREL, -2.
Only one transient subcase can be defined. Initial conditions cannot be defined if the modal
method is used. A METHOD statement is required for the modal method to control the
normal modes analysis. The METHOD statement can refer to either EIGRL or EIGRA data.
The analysis time step and termination time need to be defined through a TSTEP(TIME)
subcase reference. In order to save computational effort, previously saved eigenvectors can
be retrieved using the EIGVRETRIEVE subcase statement.
In addition to the various damping elements and material damping, uniform structural
damping G is applied using PARAM, G.
Modal damping can be applied using the SDAMPING reference of a damping table TABDMP1.
Output
The results of a transient response analysis are displacements, velocities, accelerations,
forces, stresses, and strains. The responses are usually time-dependent. The usual output
entries like STRESS, STRAIN, DISPLACEMENT, etc. can be used to request corresponding
output values.
PARAM, ENFMOTN, REL can be used to generate displacement, velocity and acceleration
output relative to the specified enforced motion. In such cases, subsequently calculated
outputs like stresses and forces are also generated relative to the specified enforced motion.
PARAM, ENFMOTN, TOTAL/ABS can be used to generate the total output values including the
specified enforced motion (TOTAL/ABS is the default).

Transient Response Analysis by Fourier Transformation


Using the Fourier transformation method, frequency response analysis can be used for the
transient analysis. The Fourier transformation method may be used to solve for the
transient response of structural models under periodic loads. A typical application for this
method is a vehicle on a bumpy road.
Time-dependent applied loads are transformed into the frequency domain and all
frequency dependent matrix calculations are completed. The frequency response results
are then transformed back into the time domain.
The results are displacements, velocities, accelerations, forces, stresses, and strains. The
responses are usually time-dependent.
The following equation of motion with initial conditions in matrix form is solved.

Mu&& Bu& Ku

P(t )

The matrix K is the stiffness matrix, the matrix M is the mass matrix, and the matrix B is
the damping matrix formed by the damping elements. Initial conditions cannot be defined.

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The load vector is transformed from the time domain into the frequency domain using:

The response in given by:

u%

P%

Where, h( ) is the frequency response due to unit load.


After the frequency response analysis, the time-dependent response can be recovered
using:

For the results to be accurate it is important to note that:


1. The system has to be reasonably well damped. Too little damping may lead to
incorrect results.
2. The forcing function should be zero for some time interval to allow decay.
3. The frequency interval should follow:
.
The direct and modal methods are implemented.

Direct Method
Direct frequency response analysis is applied (Frequency Response Analysis).
Transient response loads and boundary conditions are defined in the bulk data section of
the input deck. They need to be referenced in the subcase information section using an
SPC and DLOAD statement in a SUBCASE.
Inertia relief is not implemented for direct frequency response. The solver will error out if
it is attempted.
A frequency set must be referenced using a FREQUENCY statement. Initial conditions
cannot be applied. The analysis time step and termination time need to be defined
through a TSTEP(FOURIER) subcase reference.
In addition to the various damping elements and material damping, uniform structural
damping G can be applied using PARAM, G.

Modal Method
Modal frequency response analysis is applied (Frequency Response Analysis).

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Transient response loads and boundary conditions are defined in the bulk data section of
the input deck. They need to be referenced in the subcase information section using an
SPC statement and a DLOAD statement in a SUBCASE.
Residual vectors can be activated using the subcase statement RESVEC with the options
APPLOD or UNITLOD. They are computed by default. Residual vectors are always
generated if enforced displacements, velocities or accelerations are defined.
When residual vectors are included, inertia relief can be applied to unconstrained models.
A SUPORT1 subcase entry references the boundary conditions that restrain the rigid body
motions. These restraints can also be defined without subcase reference using the
SUPORT bulk data entry or automated using PARAM, INREL, -2.
A frequency set must be referenced using a FREQUENCY statement. Initial conditions
cannot be defined. A METHOD statement is required for the modal method to control the
normal modes analysis. The analysis time step and termination time need to be defined
through a TSTEP(FOURIER) subcase reference. In order to save computational effort,
previously saved eigenvectors can be retrieved using the EIGVRETRIEVE subcase
statement.
In addition to the various damping elements and material damping, uniform structural
damping G can be applied using PARAM, G.
Modal damping can be applied using the SDAMPING reference of a damping table
TABDMP1. The parameter PARAM, KDAMP is to define the method of applying the
damping table.

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Thermal Analysis
The Thermal Analysis section provides an overview of the following analyses:
Linear Steady-State Heat Transfer Analysis
Linear Transient Heat Transfer Analysis
Nonlinear Steady-State Heat Transfer Analysis
Contact-based Thermal Analysis

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Linear Steady-State Heat Transfer Analysis


Heat transfer analysis solves for unknown temperatures and fluxes under thermal loading.
Temperature represents the amount of thermal energy available, and fluxes represent the
flow of thermal energy. Conduction deals with thermal energy exchange by molecular
motion. Free convection deals with thermal energy exchange between solids and
surrounding fluids. Thermal loading is defined as energy flows into and out of the system.
In linear steady state analysis, material properties such as conductivity and convection
coefficient are linear. Temperature and fluxes at the final thermal equilibrium state are of
interest. The basic finite element equation is:

Kc

(1)

Where, [Kc] is the conductivity matrix, [H] is the boundary convection matrix due to free
convection, {T} is an unknown nodal temperature, {p} is the thermal loading vector. The
system of linear equation is solved to find nodal temperature {T}.
Thermal load vector can be expressed as:

PB

PH

PQ

(2)

Where, {PB} is the power due to heat flux at boundary specified by QBDY1 card, {PH} is the
boundary convection vector due to convection specified by CONV card, and {PQ} is the power
vector due to internal heat generation specified by QVOL card.
The matrix on the left hand side of equation (1) is singular unless temperature boundary
conditions are specified. The equilibrium equation is solved simultaneously for the unknown
temperatures using a Gauss elimination method that exploits the sparseness and symmetry
for computational efficiency. Once the unknown temperatures at the nodal points of the
elements are calculated, temperature gradient {
} can be calculated according to element
shape functions. Element fluxes can be calculated by using:

(3)

Where, [k] is the conductivity of the material.


An analogy of heat transfer analysis and structural analysis is shown in Table 1.
Heat Transfer

Structural

Temperature

Displacement

Temperature gradient

Strain

Flux

Stress

[Kc]

Conductivity matrix

Stiffness matrix

[H]

Boundary convection matrix

Elastic foundation stiffness matrix

{p}

Heat flux vector

Load vector

Unknown

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{PQp}

Heat Transfer

Structural

Element volumetric

Gravity load

Table 1. Analogy of heat transfer and structural analysis

The thermal loads and boundary conditions are defined in the bulk data section of the input
deck. They need to be referenced in the SUBCASE information section using an SPC or MPC
and LOAD statement in a SUBCASE.

Input Data for Thermal Structural Analysis


Both GRID and SPOINT can be used to specify a thermal point. Fixed temperatures are
specified with SPC/SPC1/SPCD data with the component ID blank or zero. MPC data can be
used to specify the relationship between temperatures of different points using component ID
blank or zero. If you want to use component ID 1, then SPSYNTAX=mixed must be specified
in the input deck. Rigid elements are ignored in heat transfer analysis.
For all elements that have property data that reference material data (CROD, CONROD,
CBAR, CBEAM, CQUAD4, CTRIA3, CQUAD8, CTRIA6, CHEXA, CHEXA20, CPENTA, CPENTA15,
CPYRA, CPYRA13, CTETRA, and CTET10) can be used as conduction elements. The property
data references MAT4 data for the isotropic conduction coefficient and MAT5 data for
anisotropic conduction coefficients. Note that the thermal material property data has the
same ID as the structural property data for any element. For CELAS1-4, the value of K is
treated as the conduction coefficient.
Elements that generate heat are listed in QVOL data. The heat generated by an element is
equal to the element volume * QVOL * HGEN, where HGEN is a scale factor (default=1.0)
listed on the material (MAT4 or MAT5) data.
Heat flux load QBDY1 and convective heat transfer CONV are applied to the structure through
surfaces identified by the CHBDYE card. The CHBDYE elements associate heat exchange
surfaces with conduction elements. A 1D element can have heat flux applied at each end and
along its length. A 2D element can have heat flux on its surface and along any edge. A 3D
element can have head flux applied on any face.
Fixed values of heat flux are specified using the QBDY1 card. This data lists the CHBDYE
element ID and the heat flux value (Q0). The power exchanged through a CHBDYE element
is equal to Q0 multiplied by the effective area of the CHBDYE element. For a 1D element, the
area at the end is the cross-sectional area of the element. For flux into the side of a 1D
element, the effective area is the length times the circumference of the element which is
calculated from the cross-sectional area, assuming that the cross-section is circular. For 2D
elements, the effective area for the surface of the element is its area and the effective area of
a side is equal to the length of the side multiplied by the thickness of the element. For 3D
elements, the effective area is just the area of the face.
Free convection heat flux is specified for CHBDYE elements using the CONV data which lists
the CHBDYE element ID, the ambient temperature (TAMB), and the ID of the PCONV data
which lists the MAT4 material ID. The MAT4 data contains the convection coefficient H. The
heat flux per unit area from convection is H*(T-TAMB), where T is the grid temperature.

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Coupled Thermal Structural Analysis and Optimization


Each heat transfer SUBCASE defines a temperature set, which can be referred by a structural
SUBCASE by TEMP(LOAD) to perform thermal-structural analysis. The temperature set
identification is the same as heat transfer SUBCASE identification by default. It can be
changed by using TSTRU card. If the temperature set identification is the same as a bulk
data temperature set identification, the temperatures from heat transfer analysis override
bulk data temperatures.
Coupled thermal structural analysis is done in the following fashion. Heat transfer analysis is
performed first to determine the temperature field of the structure. The temperature field is
used as part of the loading for structural analysis. A single finite element mesh is usually
used for both thermal and structural analysis. The finite element governing equation for
static structural analysis is:

K D

fT

(4)

Where, [K] is the global stiffness matrix, {D} is the unknown displacement vector, {fT} is the
temperature loading, and {f} is the structural loading such as forces, pressures, etc.
Displacement vector {D} is solved by the linear equation solver.
In coupled thermal structural optimization, {fT} sensitivities due to design changes are
calculated. Besides the usual responses such as displacement, stress, mass, etc.,
temperature can also be a response in optimization.
The coupling in thermal structural analysis is sequential, i.e. the thermal analysis affects the
subsequent structural analysis. On the other hand, in coupled thermal structural
optimization, the coupling works both ways, that is the thermal influence on structural and
the structural influence on thermal. In other words, the optimizer modifies the structural
design to satisfy constraints, which in turn affects the thermal analysis.
Temperature responses are supported in Sizing, Shape, Topography, and Topology
Optimization, but the CHBDYE element cannot be used in the Design Domain of Topology
Optimization.

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Linear Transient Heat Transfer Analysis


Linear transient heat transfer analysis can be used to calculate the temperature distribution
in a system with respect to time. The applied thermal loads can either be time-dependent or
time-invariant; transient thermal analysis is used to capture the thermal behavior of a
system over a specific period in time.
The basic finite element equation for transient heat transfer analysis is given by:

C T&

(1)

Where,

[C] is the heat capacity matrix


[K] is the conductivity matrix
[H] is the boundary convection matrix due to free convection
is the temperature derivative with respect to time

{T} is the unknown nodal temperature


{p} is the thermal loading vector.
The differential equation (1) is solved to find nodal temperature {T} at the specified time
steps. When equation (1) is compared to the steady-state heat transfer equation, you see
that there is an additional term

that captures the transient nature of the analysis.

Guide to Request a Linear Transient Heat Transfer Analysis


The following steps can be considered as a guide to define the linear transient heat transfer
subcase.
1. Use the solution sequence identifier (ANALYSIS) in the subcase information section to
select the linear transient heat transfer analysis using: ANALYSIS=HEAT.
2. Define the time step intervals at which the solutions will be calculated for transient
analysis using the TSTEP bulk data entry. This is referenced in the subcase information
section by the TSTEP subcase information entry which is used to select the integration
type (TSTEP=SID) for transient analysis.
3. The initial conditions for transient heat transfer analysis are selected by the use of the IC
subcase information entry. This entry can be used in the subcase information section to
specify the set identification number of the temperature field defined by TEMP or TEMPD
bulk data entries.
4.

Use the single point constraint (SPC) data entry to specify the fixed boundary conditions
for this analysis.

5.

Use the DLOAD subcase information entry to reference the set IDs of DLOAD, TLOAD1 and
TLOAD2 bulk data entries Use the TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 bulk data entries to specify:
(a) Time dependent thermal loading
The EXCITEID field of the TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 bulk data entries should point to the IDs
of QVOL, QBDY1 bulk data entries or a combination of them using LOADADD.

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(b) Temperature boundary condition


The EXCITEID field of the TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 bulk data entries should point to the ID of
the SPCD bulk data entry. Also, the TYPE field in the TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 entries should be
set to 1.
6. The MAT4 and MAT5 bulk data entries can be used to define thermal material properties
such as thermal conductivity [K], heat capacity [C], density [RHO], convection heat
transfer coefficient [H] and heat generation capability [HGEN] used in the QVOL data
entry.
7. The THERMAL I/O option can be used to request nodal temperature output {T} for
transient heat transfer analysis subcases. The FLUX I/O options entry can be used to
request temperature gradient and flux output for transient heat transfer analysis
subcases.

Applying Heat Flux Loads


In Step 5(a) of the guide above, the ability to use QBDY1 data to apply heat flux loading is
illustrated. This is accomplished as explained in the following steps:
1. The value of the heat flux load is input in the Q0 field of a QBDY1 data entry.
2. The EID# field in the QBDY1 data entry requires the identification number of CHBDYE
surface elements. These surface elements should be created on the surfaces of the model
to which heat flux loads are to be applied.
3. This is done in HyperMesh by creating an interface of type CONDUCTION, selecting all the
relevant surfaces and then adding CHBDYE surface elements to those surfaces.
4. These newly created surface elements via the interface group can then be referenced in
the EID# field of the QBDY1 data entry.
Refer to the OS-1090 tutorial for detailed information on setting up heat flux loads and free
convection for transient heat transfer analysis.

Coupled Thermal-structural Analysis


The temperature results from the final time step of a linear transient heat transfer analysis
can be applied to a structural subcase. Both TEMPERATURE(LOAD) and
TEMPERATURE(MATERIAL) are allowed to reference the subcase ID or temperature result sets
from the linear transient heat transfer analysis for use in either material property calculations
or thermal loading.
Note: Non-zero SPC will be considered as zero SPC for
transient thermal analysis, except when non-zero SPC are
used to specify ambient points for convection. When an
ambient point is controlled by TLOAD1/TLOAD2 via SPCD,
the corresponding SPC should be zero.

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Nonlinear Steady-State Heat Transfer Analysis


Nonlinear steady-state heat transfer analysis can be used to calculate the temperature
distribution in a system, in which material properties are a function of temperature.
The basic finite element equation for nonlinear heat transfer can be written as:

L(T) = P

(1)

Where, {T} is unknown temperature, P is the global power vector, and L(T) is the global
response (nodal power).
The system of equations (1) is solved using the Newtons method. Solution control is
provided by defining parameters on the NLPARM bulk data entry. TEMPERATURE (INITIAL)
can be used to provide a likely initial temperature distribution. The temperature results from
the nonlinear heat transfer analysis can be used in subsequent structural analysis.

Nonlinear Steady-State Heat Transfer Analysis Setup


The following steps can be considered as a guide to setup a nonlinear steady-state heat
transfer analysis:
1. Use the solution sequence identifier (ANALYSIS) in the subcase information section to
select the nonlinear steady-state heat transfer analysis using: ANALYSIS=NLHEAT.
2. The likely initial temperature distribution can be defined using the TEMPERATURE subcase
information entry (type=INITIAL). A good initial temperature estimate improves the
convergence of the solver.
3. The MATT4 bulk data entry can be used to define temperature dependent thermal
material properties.
4. To indicate that a nonlinear solution is required for any subcase, a NLPARM subcase
information entry is required. This subcase entry points to a NLPARM bulk data entry that
specifies convergence tolerances and other nonlinear parameters.
5. Loads and boundary conditions are defined in the bulk data section of the input deck.
These should be referenced in the subcase information section using SPC and LOAD
entries in a subcase. Each subcase defines a load vector.

Example
An example solver deck section showing the usage of ANALYSIS and NLPARM is shown
below:
SUBCASE 5
ANALYSIS=NLHEAT
SPC=10
LOAD=20
NLPARM=30

BEGIN BULK

NLPARM, 30

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ENDDATA

Note: Optimization based on nonlinear heat transfer analysis is


currently not supported.

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Contact-based Thermal Analysis


Introduction
In OptiStruct structural models involving contact are solved by using nonlinear quasi-static
analysis. The analysis involves finding the contact status, such as contact clearance and
pressure. Contact clearance spans the distance between the master and slave, while contact
pressure is developed between two surfaces in contact.
Motivation
The traditional thermal structural analysis is one-way coupling, in the sense that thermal
analysis influences structural analysis by providing temperature, but structural problem does
not affect the thermal problem.

Figure 1: Traditional thermal-structural analysis Thermal results affect the structural problem.

When contact problems are involved, thermal structural analysis becomes fully coupled since
contact status changes thermal conductivity.

Figure 2: Contact based (Coupled) Thermal-Structural Analysis contact status affects the thermal problem

In Figure 1, you can see that a change in contact status does not affect the thermal problem.
This may lead to inaccurate solutions if thermal conductivity depends on the contact status.
In Figure 2, the contact clearance and/or pressure changes during the course of the quasistatic nonlinear analysis, the corresponding change in the thermal conductivity will affect the
solution of the thermal problem.
Implementation
Thermal analysis is performed first using initial contact status. Nonlinear structural analysis is
employed to find contact status. Thermal conductivity at the contact interface is calculated
based on contact clearance or pressure or based on user-defined values. Coupling is essential
because the contact status is used to determine thermal conductivity. An iterative solution
process is developed to solve fully coupled nonlinear thermal structural problem, as shown in
Figure 3. Temperature results from thermal analysis are used as convergence criteria.

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Thermal conductivity across contact interface can be based on user-defined values,


clearance, or pressure. The PGAPHT and PCONTHT entries can be used to define the thermal
conductivity values.
Note:
1. For thermal contact problems with CGAP/CGAPG, PGAPHT is
required. The PGAPHT entry should have the same PID as
PGAP. For problems with CONTACT and PCONT, the
PCONTHT entry should be used and it requires the same PID
as PCONT.
2. For problems without PCONT, PCONTHT is not required.
3. Thermal conductivity based on the AUTO option (KC/KAHT
fields on PCONTHT/PGAPHT entries) can be used in thermal
analysis to allow OptiStruct to automatically determine the
conductivity values based on the conductivity of surrounding
elements.

Figure 3: Fully coupled contact-based thermal-structural analysis.

Theoretically, while higher conductivity values enforce a perfect conductor, excessively high
values may cause poor conditioning of the conductivity matrix. If such effects are observed, it
may be beneficial to reduce the value of conductivity, or use conductivity based contact
clearance and pressure.

Clearance based thermal conductivity (TCID on PCONTHT/PGAPHT, via TABLED#)


The clearance based conductivity values can be specified by you via TABLED# entries. The
typical conductivity values vary as follows:

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Figure 4: Thermal conductivity based on contact clearance.

Pressure based thermal conductivity (TPID on PCONTHT, via TABLED#)


The pressure based conductivity values can be specified by you via TABLED# entries. The
typical conductivity values vary as follows:

Figure 5: Thermal conductivity based on contact pressure.

Clearance and pressure based thermal conductivity (TCID and TPID on PCONTHT via
TABLED#)
The clearance and pressure based conductivity values can be specified by you via TABLED#
entries. The typical conductivity values vary as follows:

Figure 6: Thermal conductivity based on contact clearance and pressure.

Typical thermal conductivity values increase as the clearance between the master and slave
decreases. In the case of contact pressure, the thermal conductivity increases with a
corresponding increase in pressure.

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Acoustic Analysis
The Acoustic Analysis section provides an overview of the following analyses:
Coupled Frequency Response Analysis of Fluid-Structure Models
Radiated Sound Analysis

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Coupled Frequency Response Analysis of Fluid-Structure


Models
Coupled frequency response analysis of fluid-structure models, commonly termed acoustic
analysis, is generally performed to model sound propagation within a structural cavity, such
as the interior of a vehicle or a musical instrument.
OptiStruct allows both direct and modal frequency response analysis for fluid-structure
models. The responses of both the structural and fluid domains are computed; for the
structural domain, these responses are the displacements and rotations of the structural
grids, and for the fluid domain, these responses are the pressures at the fluid grid points.
The accelerations of structural grids at the fluid-structure interface excite the fluid domain
and conversely, the pressures on the fluid grids at the fluid-structure interface excite the
structural domain. Hence the problem is coupled and the motions of structural and fluid
degrees-of-freedom are solved simultaneously.
Loading is sinusoidal with excitation frequency , and can be in the form of forces, acoustic
sources enforced displacements, enforced velocities, and/or enforced accelerations.
Frequency response loads and boundary conditions are defined in the bulk data section of the
input deck. These are then referenced in a subcase definition through an SPC or DLOAD data
selector.
Damping may be defined for both the structural and fluid domains. For the structural domain
damping may be defined through structural damping elements, material damping, structural
damping (PARAM,G), or modal damping (SDAMPING referenced by a SDAMPING(STRUCT)
subcase data selector). For the fluid domain damping may be defined through material
damping, fluid damping (PARAM,GFL), or modal damping (SDAMPING referenced by a
SDAMPING(FLUID) subcase data selector). In addition, the normalized admittance coefficient
for porous materials can be specified by ALPHA on the MAT10 data.
Frequency dependent fluid acoustic absorber elements can be specified on the fluid faces of
the fluid-structure boundary using the CAABSF elements. The absorber elements can be
point, line, triangular, or quadrilateral in shape. The CAABSF data references the PAABSF
data which is used to specify the frequency dependent resistance (real part of the
impendence) and reactance (imaginary part of the impendence) as well as the area factors
for point and line elements.
Frequency dependent structural acoustic absorber elements can be specified on the fluidstructure boundary using the CHACAB elements. These absorbers are solid elements
between the fluid and structural meshes. The CHACAB data references the PACABS data
which is used to specify the frequency dependent resistance (real part of the impendence)
and reactance (imaginary part of the impendence). Another option is to calculate these
values mass, stiffness, and damping values per unit area specified in this data.
PARAM, LFREQFL and PARAM, HFREQFL can be used to exclude modes from a coupled modal
frequency response analysis (Acoustic analysis).
The acoustic analysis is based on inviscid flow with linear pressure-density relation as:

P u&& 0

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and the continuity equation is:

.u

Where,

P and u are the pressure of the fluid domain and displacement of the structural domain
respectively,
and
are the compressibility of the fluid domain and density of the structural domain
respectively.
Combining the above equations, the governing equation of the fluid domain is:

&&
P

2P

Effect of the structure on the fluid domain at the interface


After finite element discretization, the assembly of equations for the fluid domain is:

&& B p P& K p P Au&& S p


M pP
Where, Mp, Bp, Kp and Sp are the mass matrix, damping matrix, stiffness matrix and source
vector respectively, of the fluid domain.
The matrix A represents the interface matrix and is the acceleration of the structural grids
at the fluid-structure interface. (The pressure gradient at the interface will be influenced by
the acceleration of the structural grids).

Effect of fluid on the structural domain at the interface


The structural equation assembly can be written as:

M S u&& BS u&& K S u AT P

SS

Where, MS, BS, KS and SS are the mass matrix, damping matrix, stiffness matrix and source
vector respectively, of the structural domain.
The matrix A represents the transpose of the interface matrix and is the pressure at the
interface fluid grids at the fluid-structure interface (The displacement, velocity and
acceleration of the structural grids at the interface will be influenced by the pressure at the
interface fluid grids).

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Coupled Fluid-Structure interface equation


Therefore the combined fluid structure interface equation is:

The above equations are solved simultaneously for unknowns in the structural and the fluid
domains, either by direct frequency response or modal frequency response. For modal
frequency response, OptiStruct will calculate the eigenspace for both structure and fluid
domain automatically.

Loads on the Fluid Mesh


The fluid grid points can be loaded by specifying the load magnitude and GRID using the
SLOAD data. The SLOAD data is referenced by the ACSRCE data which defines the dynamic
characteristics of the load (DELAY, DPHASE, and a tabular listing of the load scale factor vs.
frequency). In addition, the density and bulk modulus of the loaded fluid are specified on the
ASRCE data. The material characteristics of the fluid must be specified in the ASRCE in case
the same fluid GRID is shared by two different fluid meshes.

Fluid-Structure Interface Visualization and Refinement


OptiStruct has support for both grid-to-grid matching and non-matching interfaces. The
interface is specified through the ACMODL card. If an ACMODL card is not specified in the
input deck, the fluid-structure interface is automatically defined by OptiStruct based on
default values for the ACMODL parameters.
Based on a search box specified on the ACMODL card, OptiStruct outputs an *.interface file,
containing information about the fluid-structure interface. With the model loaded in
HyperMesh, you can import the *.interface file to visualize the fluid-structure interface
(ensure that the FE overwrite option is activated on import). The ^Fluid Faces at
Interface component is created, which allows you to view the interface found between the
structural and fluid domains. If a component ^Acoustically Rigid Fluid Faces is created,
that means at those fluid surfaces, there are no structural grids found. A structural grid set
^Structural grids at Interface is also created to display the structural grids found at the
interface.
There are several steps you can take to improve the interface:
1. Perform an OptiStruct check run. This will create the *.interface file, allowing you to
visualize the interface.
2. If the interface is not as desired, you may create a new SET containing those fluid grids
that describe the fluid boundary.
3. You can then specify the newly created set on the ACMODL card under FSET.
4. Perform another OptiStruct check run, and review the new interface.

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Using an External Fluid Structure Coupling Definition File


OptiStruct can use the binary ftn.70 coupling file generated by AKUSMOD instead of
internally calculating the coupling. To use this option, add PARAM,AKUSMOD,YES to the
input deck.

Modal and Panel Participation


Modal participation is a measure of how much each mode participates at a given frequency in
a modal frequency response calculation. Output of modal participation may be requested for
structural degrees of freedom as well as for fluid degrees of freedom. Calculation and output
of modal participation can be requested, for any number of degrees of freedom, using the
PFMODE I/O Option.
Panel participation is a measure of the influence of sets of specified structural grids, defined
by PANEL bulk data entries. The response of a fluid grid is influenced through each panel or
each grid at the acoustic interface. Calculation and output of the contribution from each panel
at specific loading frequencies can be requested through the PFPANEL I/O Option, for modal
frequency response. Also, the calculation and output of the contribution from each grid at
the interface can be requested through the PFGRID I/O Option.
A file *.pfmode.pch is generated based on the definition of the I/O Options PFMODE and
PFPANEL. The output for PFGRID would be in a H3D file. The results for PFMODE and
PFPANEL are best plotted in HyperGraph, whereas the contour results for PFGRID are best
visualized in HyperView.

Non-Reflecting Boundary
To create a non-reflecting boundary, set the values of the TABLEDi entry referenced by the
TZREID field (Resistance-real part of Impedance) in the PAABSF data entry to be equal to
* C fluid

fluid

for all frequencies. This will allow the acoustic wave to propagate normally
through the boundary, without reflection. This condition is called the Sommerfeld boundary
condition.
Where,

is the density of the fluid, and

is the speed of sound in the fluid.

Input File - chacab.fem


$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$$
$
$$ NASTRAN Input Deck Generated by HyperMesh Version : 8.0SR1
$
$$ Generated using HyperMesh-Nastran Template Version : 8.0sr1
$$
$
$$
Template: general
$
$$
$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$$
Executive Control Cards
$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
SOL 111

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CEND
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$$
Case Control Cards
$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
SET 1 = 1734
DISPLACEMENT = 1
$
$HMNAME LOADSTEP
1"Load2"
SUBCASE
1
LABEL=
Load2
SPC =
4
FREQUENCY =
5
DLOAD =
2
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$$
Bulk Data Cards
$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
BEGIN BULK
$CHEXA
1056
2
1650
1661
1662
$+
1683
1672
CHACAB
1056
100
1650
1645
1657
+
1671
1672
PACABS,100,YES,1,2,3,1.5,10.0,2.0
PARAM,G,0.001
PARAM,COUPMASS,-1
PARAM,POST,-1
$ACMODL
DIFF
0.1
$$
EIGRL,20,,,300
EIGRL,21,,,300
$$ GRID Data
$$
GRID
1
2.0
2.0
0.0
GRID
2
2.0
1.5
0.0
GRID
3
2.0
1.0
0.0
GRID
4
2.0
0.5
0.0
GRID
5
2.0
0.0
0.0
GRID
6
2.0
-0.5
0.0
GRID
7
2.0
-1.0
0.0
GRID
8
2.0
-1.5
0.0
GRID
9
2.0
-2.0
0.0
GRID
10
1.5
2.0
0.0
GRID
11
1.5
1.5
0.0
GRID
12
1.5
1.0
0.0
GRID
13
1.5
0.5
0.0
GRID
14
1.5
0.0
0.0
GRID
15
1.5
-0.5
0.0
GRID
16
1.5
-1.0
0.0
GRID
17
1.5
-1.5
0.0
GRID
18
1.5
-2.0
0.0
GRID
19
1.0
2.0
0.0
GRID
20
1.0
1.5
0.0
GRID
21
1.0
1.0
0.0
GRID
22
1.0
0.5
0.0
GRID
23
1.0
0.0
0.0
GRID
24
1.0
-0.5
0.0
GRID
25
1.0
-1.0
0.0
GRID
26
1.0
-1.5
0.0
GRID
27
1.0
-2.0
0.0
GRID
28
0.5
2.0
0.0
GRID
29
0.5
1.5
0.0
GRID
30
0.5
1.0
0.0
GRID
31
0.5
0.5
0.0
GRID
32
0.5
0.0
0.0
GRID
33
0.5
-0.5
0.0
GRID
34
0.5
-1.0
0.0
GRID
35
0.5
-1.5
0.0
GRID
36
0.5
-2.0
0.0
GRID
37
0.0
2.0
0.0

Altair Engineering

1651
1658

1671
1676

1682+
1675+

-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

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GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

146

38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
-0.5
-0.5
-0.5
-0.5
-0.5
-0.5
-0.5
-0.5
-0.5
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.5
-1.5
-1.5
-1.5
-1.5
-1.5
-1.5
-1.5
-1.5
-2.0
-2.0
-2.0
-2.0
-2.0
-2.0
-2.0
-2.0
-2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
-2.5
-2.5
-2.5
-2.5
-2.5
-2.5
-2.5
-2.5
-2.5
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.0
1.5
1.5
1.0
1.0

1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5
-2.0
2.5
-2.5
2.5
-2.5
2.5
-2.5
2.5
-2.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
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0.0
0.0
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0.0
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-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

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Altair Engineering

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782

Altair Engineering

0.5
0.5
0.0
0.0
-0.5
-0.5
-1.0
-1.0
-1.5
-1.5
-2.0
-2.0
-2.5
-2.5
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.0

2.5
0.0
-2.5
0.0
2.5
0.0
-2.5
0.0
2.5
0.0
-2.5
0.0
2.5
0.0
-2.5
0.0
2.5
0.0
-2.5
0.0
2.5
0.0
-2.5
0.0
2.5
0.0
-2.5
0.0
2.5
1.0
2.0
1.0
2.0
1.0
2.5
1.0
1.5
1.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.5
1.0
0.5
1.0
-4.2E-191.0
-6.5E-201.0
-0.5
1.0
-0.5
1.0
-1.0
1.0
-1.0
1.0
-1.5
1.0
-1.5
1.0
-2.0
1.0
-2.0
1.0
-2.5
1.0
-2.5
1.0
2.0
1.0
2.5
1.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.5
1.0
-9.8E-211.0
-0.5
1.0
-1.0
1.0
-1.5
1.0
-2.0
1.0
-2.5
1.0
2.0
1.0
2.5
1.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.5
1.0
-1.5E-211.0
-0.5
1.0
-1.0
1.0
-1.5
1.0
-2.0
1.0
-2.5
1.0
2.0
1.0
2.5
1.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.5
1.0
-2.3E-221.0
-0.5
1.0
-1.0
1.0
-1.5
1.0
-2.0
1.0
-2.5
1.0
2.0
1.0

-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

147

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
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GRID
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148

783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
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850
851
852

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
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GRID
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GRID
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GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922

Altair Engineering

2.0
2.5
2.0
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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

149

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
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GRID
GRID
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GRID
GRID
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GRID
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GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

150

923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992

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2.0
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1.5
1.5

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-1

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
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GRID
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GRID
GRID
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GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062

Altair Engineering

1.5
1.5
3.0
1.5
1.0
3.0
1.5
0.5
3.0
1.5
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-1
-1
-1
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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

151

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
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GRID
GRID
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GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
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GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

152

1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132

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-1.5
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-1

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
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GRID
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GRID
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GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202

Altair Engineering

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-1
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-1
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-1
-1
-1
-1

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

153

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
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GRID
GRID
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GRID
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GRID
GRID
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GRID
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GRID
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GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

154

1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272

-2.5
1.0
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1.10E-164.0
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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
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GRID
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GRID
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GRID
GRID
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GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342

Altair Engineering

2.64E-16-1.0
5.0
2.07E-16-1.5
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1.5
1.5
0.0

-1
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-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
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-1
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-1
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-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

155

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID

156

1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

157

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

159

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

GRID
1705
-2.0
-2.5
1.0
GRID
1706
-2.0
2.5
1.0
GRID
1707
-1.5
-2.5
1.0
GRID
1708
-1.5
2.5
1.0
GRID
1709
-1.0
-2.5
1.0
GRID
1710
-1.0
2.5
1.0
GRID
1711
-0.5
-2.5
1.0
GRID
1712
-0.5
2.5
1.0
GRID
1713
-2.5E-18-2.5
1.0
GRID
1714
-2.5E-182.5
1.0
GRID
1715
0.5
-2.5
1.0
GRID
1716
0.5
2.5
1.0
GRID
1717
1.0
-2.5
1.0
GRID
1718
1.0
2.5
1.0
GRID
1719
1.5
-2.5
1.0
GRID
1720
1.5
2.5
1.0
GRID
1721
2.0
-2.5
1.0
GRID
1722
2.497764-2.497761.0
GRID
1723
2.5
-2.0
1.0
GRID
1724
2.5
-1.5
1.0
GRID
1725
2.5
-1.0
1.0
GRID
1726
2.5
-0.5
1.0
GRID
1727
2.5
-2.9E-181.0
GRID
1728
2.5
0.5
1.0
GRID
1729
2.5
1.0
1.0
GRID
1730
2.5
1.5
1.0
GRID
1731
2.0
2.5
1.0
GRID
1732
2.5
2.0
1.0
GRID
1733
2.4977642.4977641.0
GRID
1734
-0.25
3.33E-165.0
$$
$$ SPOINT Data
$$
$$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$$
Group Definitions
$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$$
$$ RBE2 Elements - Multiple dependent nodes
$$
RBE2
1553
1734 123456
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482+
+
1489
1493
1500
1504
1511
1515
1522
1526+
+
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
$
$HMMOVE
6
$
1553
$
$ CQUAD4 Elements
$
CQUAD4
1101
4
1332
1341
1342
1333
CQUAD4
1102
4
1333
1342
1343
1334
CQUAD4
1103
4
1334
1343
1344
1335
CQUAD4
1104
4
1335
1344
1345
1336
CQUAD4
1105
4
1336
1345
1346
1337
CQUAD4
1106
4
1337
1346
1347
1338
CQUAD4
1107
4
1338
1347
1348
1339
CQUAD4
1108
4
1339
1348
1349
1340
CQUAD4
1109
4
1341
1350
1351
1342
CQUAD4
1110
4
1342
1351
1352
1343
CQUAD4
1111
4
1343
1352
1353
1344
CQUAD4
1112
4
1344
1353
1354
1345
CQUAD4
1113
4
1345
1354
1355
1346
CQUAD4
1114
4
1346
1355
1356
1347
CQUAD4
1115
4
1347
1356
1357
1348
CQUAD4
1116
4
1348
1357
1358
1349
CQUAD4
1117
4
1350
1359
1360
1351
CQUAD4
1118
4
1351
1360
1361
1352
CQUAD4
1119
4
1352
1361
1362
1353
CQUAD4
1120
4
1353
1362
1363
1354
CQUAD4
1121
4
1354
1363
1364
1355

Altair Engineering

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

161

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

162

1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

1355
1356
1357
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1431
1433
1421
1340
1435
1349
1437
1358
1439
1367
1441

1364
1365
1366
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1433
1435
1340
1349
1437
1358
1439
1367
1441
1376
1443

1365
1366
1367
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1332
1341
1434
1436
1350
1438
1359
1440
1368
1442
1377

1356
1357
1358
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1332
1432
1434
1341
1436
1350
1438
1359
1440
1368

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261

Altair Engineering

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

1376
1443
1385
1445
1394
1447
1403
1449
1412
1431
1413
1414
1433
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1432
1434
1436
1435
1438
1437
1440
1439
1442
1441
1444
1443
1446
1445
1448
1447
1450
1449
1452
1451
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1732
1733
1730
1731
1729
1728
1727
1726
1725
1724
1723
1722
1721
1719
1720
1717
1718
1715
1716
1713
1714

1385
1445
1394
1447
1403
1449
1412
1451
1430
1733
1732
1730
1731
1729
1728
1727
1726
1725
1724
1723
1722
1721
1719
1720
1717
1718
1715
1716
1713
1714
1711
1712
1709
1710
1707
1708
1705
1706
1694
1703
1704
1702
1701
1700
1699
1698
1697
1696
1695
1692
1693
1690
1691
1689
1688
1687
1686
1685
1684
1683
1682
1681
1679
1680
1677
1678
1675
1676
1673
1674

1444
1386
1446
1395
1448
1404
1450
1422
1452
1731
1733
1732
1720
1730
1729
1728
1727
1726
1725
1724
1723
1722
1721
1718
1719
1716
1717
1714
1715
1712
1713
1710
1711
1708
1709
1706
1707
1703
1705
1704
1702
1701
1700
1699
1698
1697
1696
1695
1694
1693
1691
1692
1680
1690
1689
1688
1687
1686
1685
1684
1683
1682
1681
1678
1679
1676
1677
1674
1675
1672

1442
1377
1444
1386
1446
1395
1448
1404
1450
1433
1431
1413
1435
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1432
1434
1437
1436
1439
1438
1441
1440
1443
1442
1445
1444
1447
1446
1449
1448
1451
1450
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1452
1733
1731
1732
1720
1730
1729
1728
1727
1726
1725
1724
1723
1722
1721
1718
1719
1716
1717
1714
1715
1712

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

163

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

164

1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

1711
1712
1709
1710
1707
1708
1705
1706
1694
1703
1704
1702
1701
1700
1699
1698
1697
1696
1695
1692
1693
1690
1691
1689
1688
1687
1686
1685
1684
1683
1682
1681
1679
1680
1677
1678
1675
1676
1673
1674
1671
1672
1669
1670
1667
1668
1665
1666
1654
1663
1664
1662
1661
1660
1659
1658
1657
1656
1655
1652
1653
1650
1651
1649
1648
1647
1646
1645
1644
1643

1671
1672
1669
1670
1667
1668
1665
1666
1654
1663
1664
1662
1661
1660
1659
1658
1657
1656
1655
1652
1653
1650
1651
1649
1648
1647
1646
1645
1644
1643
1642
1641
1639
1640
1637
1638
1635
1636
1633
1634
1631
1632
1629
1630
1627
1628
1625
1626
1614
1623
1624
1622
1621
1620
1619
1618
1617
1616
1615
1612
1613
1610
1611
1609
1608
1607
1606
1605
1604
1603

1673
1670
1671
1668
1669
1666
1667
1663
1665
1664
1662
1661
1660
1659
1658
1657
1656
1655
1654
1653
1651
1652
1640
1650
1649
1648
1647
1646
1645
1644
1643
1642
1641
1638
1639
1636
1637
1634
1635
1632
1633
1630
1631
1628
1629
1626
1627
1623
1625
1624
1622
1621
1620
1619
1618
1617
1616
1615
1614
1613
1611
1612
1600
1610
1609
1608
1607
1606
1605
1604

1713
1710
1711
1708
1709
1706
1707
1703
1705
1704
1702
1701
1700
1699
1698
1697
1696
1695
1694
1693
1691
1692
1680
1690
1689
1688
1687
1686
1685
1684
1683
1682
1681
1678
1679
1676
1677
1674
1675
1672
1673
1670
1671
1668
1669
1666
1667
1663
1665
1664
1662
1661
1660
1659
1658
1657
1656
1655
1654
1653
1651
1652
1640
1650
1649
1648
1647
1646
1645
1644

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401

Altair Engineering

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

1642
1641
1639
1640
1637
1638
1635
1636
1633
1634
1631
1632
1629
1630
1627
1628
1625
1626
1614
1623
1624
1622
1621
1620
1619
1618
1617
1616
1615
1612
1613
1610
1572
1611
1569
1609
1567
1608
1565
1607
1563
1606
1561
1605
1559
1604
1557
1603
1555
1602
1601
1553
1599
1571
1568
1600
1566
1564
1562
1560
1558
1556
1554
1552
1597
1551
1549
1598
1548
1547

1602
1601
1599
1600
1597
1598
1595
1596
1593
1594
1591
1592
1589
1590
1587
1588
1585
1586
1574
1583
1584
1582
1581
1580
1579
1578
1577
1576
1575
1572
1573
1569
1571
1570
1568
1567
1566
1565
1564
1563
1562
1561
1560
1559
1558
1557
1556
1555
1554
1553
1552
1552
1541
1551
1549
1550
1548
1547
1546
1545
1544
1543
1542
1541
1530
1540
1538
1539
1537
1536

1603
1602
1601
1598
1599
1596
1597
1594
1595
1592
1593
1590
1591
1588
1589
1586
1587
1583
1585
1584
1582
1581
1580
1579
1578
1577
1576
1575
1574
1573
1570
1572
1570
1550
1571
1569
1568
1567
1566
1565
1564
1563
1562
1561
1560
1559
1558
1557
1556
1555
1553
1554
1552
1550
1551
1539
1549
1548
1547
1546
1545
1544
1543
1542
1541
1539
1540
1528
1538
1537

1643
1642
1641
1638
1639
1636
1637
1634
1635
1632
1633
1630
1631
1628
1629
1626
1627
1623
1625
1624
1622
1621
1620
1619
1618
1617
1616
1615
1614
1613
1611
1612
1573
1600
1572
1610
1569
1609
1567
1608
1565
1607
1563
1606
1561
1605
1559
1604
1557
1603
1602
1555
1601
1570
1571
1598
1568
1566
1564
1562
1560
1558
1556
1554
1599
1550
1551
1596
1549
1548

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

165

CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4
CQUAD4

166

1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

1546
1545
1544
1543
1542
1541
1595
1540
1538
1596
1537
1532
1531
1530
1593
1529
1527
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1526
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1510
1509
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1589
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1587
1496
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1485
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1482
1481
1480
1479
1478
1477
1476
1475
1574
1583
1474
1584
1472
1582
1471
1581
1470
1580
1469
1579

1535
1534
1533
1532
1531
1530
1519
1529
1527
1528
1526
1521
1520
1519
1508
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1515
1510
1509
1508
1497
1507
1505
1506
1504
1499
1498
1497
1486
1496
1494
1495
1493
1488
1487
1486
1475
1485
1483
1484
1482
1477
1476
1475
1464
1474
1472
1473
1471
1470
1469
1468
1467
1466
1465
1464
1453
1462
1463
1463
1461
1461
1460
1460
1459
1459
1458
1458

1536
1535
1534
1533
1532
1531
1530
1528
1529
1517
1527
1522
1521
1520
1519
1517
1518
1506
1516
1511
1510
1509
1508
1506
1507
1495
1505
1500
1499
1498
1497
1495
1496
1484
1494
1489
1488
1487
1486
1484
1485
1473
1483
1478
1477
1476
1475
1473
1474
1462
1472
1471
1470
1469
1468
1467
1466
1465
1464
1463
1462
1461
1463
1460
1461
1459
1460
1458
1459
1457

1547
1546
1545
1544
1543
1542
1597
1539
1540
1594
1538
1533
1532
1531
1595
1528
1529
1592
1527
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1517
1518
1590
1516
1511
1510
1509
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1506
1507
1588
1505
1500
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1589
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1494
1489
1488
1487
1587
1484
1485
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1482
1481
1480
1479
1478
1477
1476
1585
1584
1473
1582
1474
1581
1472
1580
1471
1579
1470
1578

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

CQUAD4
1492
4
1468
CQUAD4
1493
4
1578
CQUAD4
1494
4
1467
CQUAD4
1495
4
1577
CQUAD4
1496
4
1466
CQUAD4
1497
4
1576
CQUAD4
1498
4
1465
CQUAD4
1499
4
1575
CQUAD4
1500
4
1464
$
$ CHEXA Elements: First Order
$
CHEXA
601
1
100
+
729
728
CHEXA
602
1
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+
732
731
CHEXA
603
1
83
+
734
733
CHEXA
604
1
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+
736
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CHEXA
605
1
85
+
738
737
CHEXA
606
1
86
+
740
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CHEXA
607
1
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+
742
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CHEXA
608
1
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+
744
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CHEXA
609
1
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CHEXA
610
1
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+
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CHEXA
611
1
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+
749
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CHEXA
612
1
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CHEXA
613
1
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CHEXA
614
1
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CHEXA
615
1
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CHEXA
616
1
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CHEXA
617
1
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CHEXA
618
1
7
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757
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CHEXA
619
1
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620
1
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621
1
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CHEXA
622
1
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CHEXA
623
1
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763
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CHEXA
624
1
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+
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CHEXA
625
1
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765
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CHEXA
626
1
14
+
766
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CHEXA
627
1
15
+
767
756
CHEXA
628
1
16
+
768
757
CHEXA
629
1
17
+
769
758

Altair Engineering

1457
1457
1456
1456
1455
1455
1454
1454
1453

1458
1456
1457
1455
1456
1454
1455
1453
1454

1469
1577
1468
1576
1467
1575
1466
1574
1465

102

82

727

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83

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84

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85

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86

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87

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88

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103

101

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104

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10

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12

13

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13

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14

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15

16

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16

17

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17

18

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18

105

103

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106

19

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19

20

11

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20

21

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21

22

13

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22

23

14

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23

24

15

754

765+

24

25

16

755

766+

25

26

17

756

767+

26

27

18

757

768+

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

167

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

168

630
770
631
771
632
773
633
774
634
775
635
776
636
777
637
778
638
779
639
780
640
781
641
782
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643
785
644
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645
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646
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647
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648
790
649
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650
792
651
793
652
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653
796
654
797
655
798
656
799
657
800
658
801
659
802
660
803
661
804
662
806
663
807
664
808

1
759
1
760
1
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1
763
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
768
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
777
1
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1
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1
780
1
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1
782
1
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1
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1
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1
787
1
788
1
789
1
790
1
791
1
792
1
793
1
795
1
796
1
797

18

27

107

105

758

769+

106

108

28

19

761

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19

28

29

20

760

771+

20

29

30

21

762

773+

21

30

31

22

763

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22

31

32

23

764

775+

23

32

33

24

765

776+

24

33

34

25

766

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25

34

35

26

767

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26

35

36

27

768

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27

36

109

107

769

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108

110

37

28

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28

37

38

29

771

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29

38

39

30

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30

39

40

31

774

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31

40

41

32

775

786+

32

41

42

33

776

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33

42

43

34

777

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34

43

44

35

778

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35

44

45

36

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36

45

111

109

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110

112

46

37

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37

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47

38

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38

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39

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39

48

49

40

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40

49

50

41

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41

50

51

42

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42

51

52

43

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43

52

53

44

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44

53

54

45

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45

54

113

111

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112

114

55

46

794

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46

55

56

47

793

804+

47

56

57

48

795

806+

48

57

58

49

796

807+

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
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+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

665
809
666
810
667
811
668
812
669
813
670
814
671
815
672
817
673
818
674
819
675
820
676
821
677
822
678
823
679
824
680
825
681
826
682
828
683
829
684
830
685
831
686
832
687
833
688
834
689
835
690
836
691
837
692
839
693
840
694
841
695
842
696
843
697
844
698
845
699
846

Altair Engineering

1
798
1
799
1
800
1
801
1
802
1
803
1
804
1
806
1
807
1
808
1
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1
810
1
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1
812
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
825
1
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1
828
1
829
1
830
1
831
1
832
1
833
1
834
1
835

49

58

59

50

797

808+

50

59

60

51

798

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51

60

61

52

799

810+

52

61

62

53

800

811+

53

62

63

54

801

812+

54

63

115

113

802

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114

116

64

55

805

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55

64

65

56

804

815+

56

65

66

57

806

817+

57

66

67

58

807

818+

58

67

68

59

808

819+

59

68

69

60

809

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60

69

70

61

810

821+

61

70

71

62

811

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62

71

72

63

812

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63

72

117

115

813

824+

116

118

73

64

816

827+

64

73

74

65

815

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65

74

75

66

817

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66

75

76

67

818

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67

76

77

68

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68

77

78

69

820

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69

78

79

70

821

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70

79

80

71

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71

80

81

72

823

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72

81

119

117

824

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118

120

91

73

827

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73

91

92

74

826

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74

92

93

75

828

839+

75

93

94

76

829

840+

76

94

95

77

830

841+

77

95

96

78

831

842+

78

96

97

79

832

843+

79

97

98

80

833

844+

80

98

99

81

834

845+

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

169

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

170

700
847
701
850
702
853
703
855
704
857
705
859
706
861
707
863
708
865
709
867
710
869
711
870
712
872
713
873
714
874
715
875
716
876
717
877
718
878
719
879
720
880
721
881
722
883
723
884
724
885
725
886
726
887
727
888
728
889
729
890
730
891
731
892
732
894
733
895
734
896

1
836
1
849
1
852
1
854
1
856
1
858
1
860
1
862
1
864
1
866
1
868
1
850
1
853
1
855
1
857
1
859
1
861
1
863
1
865
1
867
1
869
1
870
1
872
1
873
1
874
1
875
1
876
1
877
1
878
1
879
1
880
1
881
1
883
1
884
1
885

81

99

121

119

835

846+

727

730

729

728

848

851+

728

729

732

731

849

850+

731

732

734

733

852

853+

733

734

736

735

854

855+

735

736

738

737

856

857+

737

738

740

739

858

859+

739

740

742

741

860

861+

741

742

744

743

862

863+

743

744

746

745

864

865+

745

746

748

747

866

867+

730

750

749

729

851

871+

729

749

751

732

850

870+

732

751

752

734

853

872+

734

752

753

736

855

873+

736

753

754

738

857

874+

738

754

755

740

859

875+

740

755

756

742

861

876+

742

756

757

744

863

877+

744

757

758

746

865

878+

746

758

759

748

867

879+

750

761

760

749

871

882+

749

760

762

751

870

881+

751

762

763

752

872

883+

752

763

764

753

873

884+

753

764

765

754

874

885+

754

765

766

755

875

886+

755

766

767

756

876

887+

756

767

768

757

877

888+

757

768

769

758

878

889+

758

769

770

759

879

890+

761

772

771

760

882

893+

760

771

773

762

881

892+

762

773

774

763

883

894+

763

774

775

764

884

895+

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

735
897
736
898
737
899
738
900
739
901
740
902
741
903
742
905
743
906
744
907
745
908
746
909
747
910
748
911
749
912
750
913
751
914
752
916
753
917
754
918
755
919
756
920
757
921
758
922
759
923
760
924
761
925
762
927
763
928
764
929
765
930
766
931
767
932
768
933
769
934

Altair Engineering

1
886
1
887
1
888
1
889
1
890
1
891
1
892
1
894
1
895
1
896
1
897
1
898
1
899
1
900
1
901
1
902
1
903
1
905
1
906
1
907
1
908
1
909
1
910
1
911
1
912
1
913
1
914
1
916
1
917
1
918
1
919
1
920
1
921
1
922
1
923

764

775

776

765

885

896+

765

776

777

766

886

897+

766

777

778

767

887

898+

767

778

779

768

888

899+

768

779

780

769

889

900+

769

780

781

770

890

901+

772

783

782

771

893

904+

771

782

784

773

892

903+

773

784

785

774

894

905+

774

785

786

775

895

906+

775

786

787

776

896

907+

776

787

788

777

897

908+

777

788

789

778

898

909+

778

789

790

779

899

910+

779

790

791

780

900

911+

780

791

792

781

901

912+

783

794

793

782

904

915+

782

793

795

784

903

914+

784

795

796

785

905

916+

785

796

797

786

906

917+

786

797

798

787

907

918+

787

798

799

788

908

919+

788

799

800

789

909

920+

789

800

801

790

910

921+

790

801

802

791

911

922+

791

802

803

792

912

923+

794

805

804

793

915

926+

793

804

806

795

914

925+

795

806

807

796

916

927+

796

807

808

797

917

928+

797

808

809

798

918

929+

798

809

810

799

919

930+

799

810

811

800

920

931+

800

811

812

801

921

932+

801

812

813

802

922

933+

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

171

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

172

770
935
771
936
772
938
773
939
774
940
775
941
776
942
777
943
778
944
779
945
780
946
781
947
782
949
783
950
784
951
785
952
786
953
787
954
788
955
789
956
790
957
791
958
792
960
793
961
794
962
795
963
796
964
797
965
798
966
799
967
800
968
801
971
802
974
803
976
804
978

1
924
1
925
1
927
1
928
1
929
1
930
1
931
1
932
1
933
1
934
1
935
1
936
1
938
1
939
1
940
1
941
1
942
1
943
1
944
1
945
1
946
1
947
1
949
1
950
1
951
1
952
1
953
1
954
1
955
1
956
1
957
1
970
1
973
1
975
1
977

802

813

814

803

923

934+

805

816

815

804

926

937+

804

815

817

806

925

936+

806

817

818

807

927

938+

807

818

819

808

928

939+

808

819

820

809

929

940+

809

820

821

810

930

941+

810

821

822

811

931

942+

811

822

823

812

932

943+

812

823

824

813

933

944+

813

824

825

814

934

945+

816

827

826

815

937

948+

815

826

828

817

936

947+

817

828

829

818

938

949+

818

829

830

819

939

950+

819

830

831

820

940

951+

820

831

832

821

941

952+

821

832

833

822

942

953+

822

833

834

823

943

954+

823

834

835

824

944

955+

824

835

836

825

945

956+

827

838

837

826

948

959+

826

837

839

828

947

958+

828

839

840

829

949

960+

829

840

841

830

950

961+

830

841

842

831

951

962+

831

842

843

832

952

963+

832

843

844

833

953

964+

833

844

845

834

954

965+

834

845

846

835

955

966+

835

846

847

836

956

967+

848

851

850

849

969

972+

849

850

853

852

970

971+

852

853

855

854

973

974+

854

855

857

856

975

976+

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

805
980
806
982
807
984
808
986
809
988
810
990
811
991
812
993
813
994
814
995
815
996
816
997
817
998
818
999
819
1000
820
1001
821
1002
822
1004
823
1005
824
1006
825
1007
826
1008
827
1009
828
1010
829
1011
830
1012
831
1013
832
1015
833
1016
834
1017
835
1018
836
1019
837
1020
838
1021
839
1022

Altair Engineering

1
979
1
981
1
983
1
985
1
987
1
989
1
971
1
974
1
976
1
978
1
980
1
982
1
984
1
986
1
988
1
990
1
991
1
993
1
994
1
995
1
996
1
997
1
998
1
999
1
1000
1
1001
1
1002
1
1004
1
1005
1
1006
1
1007
1
1008
1
1009
1
1010
1
1011

856

857

859

858

977

978+

858

859

861

860

979

980+

860

861

863

862

981

982+

862

863

865

864

983

984+

864

865

867

866

985

986+

866

867

869

868

987

988+

851

871

870

850

972

992+

850

870

872

853

971

991+

853

872

873

855

974

993+

855

873

874

857

976

994+

857

874

875

859

978

995+

859

875

876

861

980

996+

861

876

877

863

982

997+

863

877

878

865

984

998+

865

878

879

867

986

999+

867

879

880

869

988

1000+

871

882

881

870

992

1003+

870

881

883

872

991

1002+

872

883

884

873

993

1004+

873

884

885

874

994

1005+

874

885

886

875

995

1006+

875

886

887

876

996

1007+

876

887

888

877

997

1008+

877

888

889

878

998

1009+

878

889

890

879

999

1010+

879

890

891

880

1000

1011+

882

893

892

881

1003

1014+

881

892

894

883

1002

1013+

883

894

895

884

1004

1015+

884

895

896

885

1005

1016+

885

896

897

886

1006

1017+

886

897

898

887

1007

1018+

887

898

899

888

1008

1019+

888

899

900

889

1009

1020+

889

900

901

890

1010

1021+

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

173

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

174

840
1023
841
1024
842
1026
843
1027
844
1028
845
1029
846
1030
847
1031
848
1032
849
1033
850
1034
851
1035
852
1037
853
1038
854
1039
855
1040
856
1041
857
1042
858
1043
859
1044
860
1045
861
1046
862
1048
863
1049
864
1050
865
1051
866
1052
867
1053
868
1054
869
1055
870
1056
871
1057
872
1059
873
1060
874
1061

1
1012
1
1013
1
1015
1
1016
1
1017
1
1018
1
1019
1
1020
1
1021
1
1022
1
1023
1
1024
1
1026
1
1027
1
1028
1
1029
1
1030
1
1031
1
1032
1
1033
1
1034
1
1035
1
1037
1
1038
1
1039
1
1040
1
1041
1
1042
1
1043
1
1044
1
1045
1
1046
1
1048
1
1049
1
1050

890

901

902

891

1011

1022+

893

904

903

892

1014

1025+

892

903

905

894

1013

1024+

894

905

906

895

1015

1026+

895

906

907

896

1016

1027+

896

907

908

897

1017

1028+

897

908

909

898

1018

1029+

898

909

910

899

1019

1030+

899

910

911

900

1020

1031+

900

911

912

901

1021

1032+

901

912

913

902

1022

1033+

904

915

914

903

1025

1036+

903

914

916

905

1024

1035+

905

916

917

906

1026

1037+

906

917

918

907

1027

1038+

907

918

919

908

1028

1039+

908

919

920

909

1029

1040+

909

920

921

910

1030

1041+

910

921

922

911

1031

1042+

911

922

923

912

1032

1043+

912

923

924

913

1033

1044+

915

926

925

914

1036

1047+

914

925

927

916

1035

1046+

916

927

928

917

1037

1048+

917

928

929

918

1038

1049+

918

929

930

919

1039

1050+

919

930

931

920

1040

1051+

920

931

932

921

1041

1052+

921

932

933

922

1042

1053+

922

933

934

923

1043

1054+

923

934

935

924

1044

1055+

926

937

936

925

1047

1058+

925

936

938

927

1046

1057+

927

938

939

928

1048

1059+

928

939

940

929

1049

1060+

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

875
1062
876
1063
877
1064
878
1065
879
1066
880
1067
881
1068
882
1070
883
1071
884
1072
885
1073
886
1074
887
1075
888
1076
889
1077
890
1078
891
1079
892
1081
893
1082
894
1083
895
1084
896
1085
897
1086
898
1087
899
1088
900
1089
901
1092
902
1095
903
1097
904
1099
905
1101
906
1103
907
1105
908
1107
909
1109

Altair Engineering

1
1051
1
1052
1
1053
1
1054
1
1055
1
1056
1
1057
1
1059
1
1060
1
1061
1
1062
1
1063
1
1064
1
1065
1
1066
1
1067
1
1068
1
1070
1
1071
1
1072
1
1073
1
1074
1
1075
1
1076
1
1077
1
1078
1
1091
1
1094
1
1096
1
1098
1
1100
1
1102
1
1104
1
1106
1
1108

929

940

941

930

1050

1061+

930

941

942

931

1051

1062+

931

942

943

932

1052

1063+

932

943

944

933

1053

1064+

933

944

945

934

1054

1065+

934

945

946

935

1055

1066+

937

948

947

936

1058

1069+

936

947

949

938

1057

1068+

938

949

950

939

1059

1070+

939

950

951

940

1060

1071+

940

951

952

941

1061

1072+

941

952

953

942

1062

1073+

942

953

954

943

1063

1074+

943

954

955

944

1064

1075+

944

955

956

945

1065

1076+

945

956

957

946

1066

1077+

948

959

958

947

1069

1080+

947

958

960

949

1068

1079+

949

960

961

950

1070

1081+

950

961

962

951

1071

1082+

951

962

963

952

1072

1083+

952

963

964

953

1073

1084+

953

964

965

954

1074

1085+

954

965

966

955

1075

1086+

955

966

967

956

1076

1087+

956

967

968

957

1077

1088+

969

972

971

970

1090

1093+

970

971

974

973

1091

1092+

973

974

976

975

1094

1095+

975

976

978

977

1096

1097+

977

978

980

979

1098

1099+

979

980

982

981

1100

1101+

981

982

984

983

1102

1103+

983

984

986

985

1104

1105+

985

986

988

987

1106

1107+

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

175

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

176

910
1111
911
1112
912
1114
913
1115
914
1116
915
1117
916
1118
917
1119
918
1120
919
1121
920
1122
921
1123
922
1125
923
1126
924
1127
925
1128
926
1129
927
1130
928
1131
929
1132
930
1133
931
1134
932
1136
933
1137
934
1138
935
1139
936
1140
937
1141
938
1142
939
1143
940
1144
941
1145
942
1147
943
1148
944
1149

1
1110
1
1092
1
1095
1
1097
1
1099
1
1101
1
1103
1
1105
1
1107
1
1109
1
1111
1
1112
1
1114
1
1115
1
1116
1
1117
1
1118
1
1119
1
1120
1
1121
1
1122
1
1123
1
1125
1
1126
1
1127
1
1128
1
1129
1
1130
1
1131
1
1132
1
1133
1
1134
1
1136
1
1137
1
1138

987

988

990

989

1108

1109+

972

992

991

971

1093

1113+

971

991

993

974

1092

1112+

974

993

994

976

1095

1114+

976

994

995

978

1097

1115+

978

995

996

980

1099

1116+

980

996

997

982

1101

1117+

982

997

998

984

1103

1118+

984

998

999

986

1105

1119+

986

999

1000

988

1107

1120+

988

1000

1001

990

1109

1121+

992

1003

1002

991

1113

1124+

991

1002

1004

993

1112

1123+

993

1004

1005

994

1114

1125+

994

1005

1006

995

1115

1126+

995

1006

1007

996

1116

1127+

996

1007

1008

997

1117

1128+

997

1008

1009

998

1118

1129+

998

1009

1010

999

1119

1130+

999

1010

1011

1000

1120

1131+

1000

1011

1012

1001

1121

1132+

1003

1014

1013

1002

1124

1135+

1002

1013

1015

1004

1123

1134+

1004

1015

1016

1005

1125

1136+

1005

1016

1017

1006

1126

1137+

1006

1017

1018

1007

1127

1138+

1007

1018

1019

1008

1128

1139+

1008

1019

1020

1009

1129

1140+

1009

1020

1021

1010

1130

1141+

1010

1021

1022

1011

1131

1142+

1011

1022

1023

1012

1132

1143+

1014

1025

1024

1013

1135

1146+

1013

1024

1026

1015

1134

1145+

1015

1026

1027

1016

1136

1147+

1016

1027

1028

1017

1137

1148+

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

945
1150
946
1151
947
1152
948
1153
949
1154
950
1155
951
1156
952
1158
953
1159
954
1160
955
1161
956
1162
957
1163
958
1164
959
1165
960
1166
961
1167
962
1169
963
1170
964
1171
965
1172
966
1173
967
1174
968
1175
969
1176
970
1177
971
1178
972
1180
973
1181
974
1182
975
1183
976
1184
977
1185
978
1186
979
1187

Altair Engineering

1
1139
1
1140
1
1141
1
1142
1
1143
1
1144
1
1145
1
1147
1
1148
1
1149
1
1150
1
1151
1
1152
1
1153
1
1154
1
1155
1
1156
1
1158
1
1159
1
1160
1
1161
1
1162
1
1163
1
1164
1
1165
1
1166
1
1167
1
1169
1
1170
1
1171
1
1172
1
1173
1
1174
1
1175
1
1176

1017

1028

1029

1018

1138

1149+

1018

1029

1030

1019

1139

1150+

1019

1030

1031

1020

1140

1151+

1020

1031

1032

1021

1141

1152+

1021

1032

1033

1022

1142

1153+

1022

1033

1034

1023

1143

1154+

1025

1036

1035

1024

1146

1157+

1024

1035

1037

1026

1145

1156+

1026

1037

1038

1027

1147

1158+

1027

1038

1039

1028

1148

1159+

1028

1039

1040

1029

1149

1160+

1029

1040

1041

1030

1150

1161+

1030

1041

1042

1031

1151

1162+

1031

1042

1043

1032

1152

1163+

1032

1043

1044

1033

1153

1164+

1033

1044

1045

1034

1154

1165+

1036

1047

1046

1035

1157

1168+

1035

1046

1048

1037

1156

1167+

1037

1048

1049

1038

1158

1169+

1038

1049

1050

1039

1159

1170+

1039

1050

1051

1040

1160

1171+

1040

1051

1052

1041

1161

1172+

1041

1052

1053

1042

1162

1173+

1042

1053

1054

1043

1163

1174+

1043

1054

1055

1044

1164

1175+

1044

1055

1056

1045

1165

1176+

1047

1058

1057

1046

1168

1179+

1046

1057

1059

1048

1167

1178+

1048

1059

1060

1049

1169

1180+

1049

1060

1061

1050

1170

1181+

1050

1061

1062

1051

1171

1182+

1051

1062

1063

1052

1172

1183+

1052

1063

1064

1053

1173

1184+

1053

1064

1065

1054

1174

1185+

1054

1065

1066

1055

1175

1186+

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

177

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

178

980
1188
981
1189
982
1191
983
1192
984
1193
985
1194
986
1195
987
1196
988
1197
989
1198
990
1199
991
1200
992
1202
993
1203
994
1204
995
1205
996
1206
997
1207
998
1208
999
1209
1000
1210
1001
1213
1002
1216
1003
1218
1004
1220
1005
1222
1006
1224
1007
1226
1008
1228
1009
1230
1010
1232
1011
1233
1012
1235
1013
1236
1014
1237

1
1177
1
1178
1
1180
1
1181
1
1182
1
1183
1
1184
1
1185
1
1186
1
1187
1
1188
1
1189
1
1191
1
1192
1
1193
1
1194
1
1195
1
1196
1
1197
1
1198
1
1199
1
1212
1
1215
1
1217
1
1219
1
1221
1
1223
1
1225
1
1227
1
1229
1
1231
1
1213
1
1216
1
1218
1
1220

1055

1066

1067

1056

1176

1187+

1058

1069

1068

1057

1179

1190+

1057

1068

1070

1059

1178

1189+

1059

1070

1071

1060

1180

1191+

1060

1071

1072

1061

1181

1192+

1061

1072

1073

1062

1182

1193+

1062

1073

1074

1063

1183

1194+

1063

1074

1075

1064

1184

1195+

1064

1075

1076

1065

1185

1196+

1065

1076

1077

1066

1186

1197+

1066

1077

1078

1067

1187

1198+

1069

1080

1079

1068

1190

1201+

1068

1079

1081

1070

1189

1200+

1070

1081

1082

1071

1191

1202+

1071

1082

1083

1072

1192

1203+

1072

1083

1084

1073

1193

1204+

1073

1084

1085

1074

1194

1205+

1074

1085

1086

1075

1195

1206+

1075

1086

1087

1076

1196

1207+

1076

1087

1088

1077

1197

1208+

1077

1088

1089

1078

1198

1209+

1090

1093

1092

1091

1211

1214+

1091

1092

1095

1094

1212

1213+

1094

1095

1097

1096

1215

1216+

1096

1097

1099

1098

1217

1218+

1098

1099

1101

1100

1219

1220+

1100

1101

1103

1102

1221

1222+

1102

1103

1105

1104

1223

1224+

1104

1105

1107

1106

1225

1226+

1106

1107

1109

1108

1227

1228+

1108

1109

1111

1110

1229

1230+

1093

1113

1112

1092

1214

1234+

1092

1112

1114

1095

1213

1233+

1095

1114

1115

1097

1216

1235+

1097

1115

1116

1099

1218

1236+

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

1015
1238
1016
1239
1017
1240
1018
1241
1019
1242
1020
1243
1021
1244
1022
1246
1023
1247
1024
1248
1025
1249
1026
1250
1027
1251
1028
1252
1029
1253
1030
1254
1031
1255
1032
1257
1033
1258
1034
1259
1035
1260
1036
1261
1037
1262
1038
1263
1039
1264
1040
1265
1041
1266
1042
1268
1043
1269
1044
1270
1045
1271
1046
1272
1047
1273
1048
1274
1049
1275

Altair Engineering

1
1222
1
1224
1
1226
1
1228
1
1230
1
1232
1
1233
1
1235
1
1236
1
1237
1
1238
1
1239
1
1240
1
1241
1
1242
1
1243
1
1244
1
1246
1
1247
1
1248
1
1249
1
1250
1
1251
1
1252
1
1253
1
1254
1
1255
1
1257
1
1258
1
1259
1
1260
1
1261
1
1262
1
1263
1
1264

1099

1116

1117

1101

1220

1237+

1101

1117

1118

1103

1222

1238+

1103

1118

1119

1105

1224

1239+

1105

1119

1120

1107

1226

1240+

1107

1120

1121

1109

1228

1241+

1109

1121

1122

1111

1230

1242+

1113

1124

1123

1112

1234

1245+

1112

1123

1125

1114

1233

1244+

1114

1125

1126

1115

1235

1246+

1115

1126

1127

1116

1236

1247+

1116

1127

1128

1117

1237

1248+

1117

1128

1129

1118

1238

1249+

1118

1129

1130

1119

1239

1250+

1119

1130

1131

1120

1240

1251+

1120

1131

1132

1121

1241

1252+

1121

1132

1133

1122

1242

1253+

1124

1135

1134

1123

1245

1256+

1123

1134

1136

1125

1244

1255+

1125

1136

1137

1126

1246

1257+

1126

1137

1138

1127

1247

1258+

1127

1138

1139

1128

1248

1259+

1128

1139

1140

1129

1249

1260+

1129

1140

1141

1130

1250

1261+

1130

1141

1142

1131

1251

1262+

1131

1142

1143

1132

1252

1263+

1132

1143

1144

1133

1253

1264+

1135

1146

1145

1134

1256

1267+

1134

1145

1147

1136

1255

1266+

1136

1147

1148

1137

1257

1268+

1137

1148

1149

1138

1258

1269+

1138

1149

1150

1139

1259

1270+

1139

1150

1151

1140

1260

1271+

1140

1151

1152

1141

1261

1272+

1141

1152

1153

1142

1262

1273+

1142

1153

1154

1143

1263

1274+

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

179

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

1050
1276
1051
1277
1052
1279
1053
1280
1054
1281
1055
1282

1
1265
1
1266
1
1268
1
1269
1
1270
1
1271

1143

1154

1155

1144

1264

1275+

1146

1157

1156

1145

1267

1278+

1145

1156

1158

1147

1266

1277+

1147

1158

1159

1148

1268

1279+

1148

1159

1160

1149

1269

1280+

1149

1160

1161

1150

1270

1281+

CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+

1057
1284
1058
1285
1059
1286
1060
1287
1061
1288
1062
1290
1063
1291
1064
1292
1065
1293
1066
1294
1067
1295
1068
1296
1069
1297
1070
1298
1071
1299
1072
1301
1073
1302
1074
1303
1075
1304
1076
1305
1077
1306
1078
1307
1079
1308
1080
1309
1081
1310
1082
1312
1083
1313
1084
1314

1
1273
1
1274
1
1275
1
1276
1
1277
1
1279
1
1280
1
1281
1
1282
1
1283
1
1284
1
1285
1
1286
1
1287
1
1288
1
1290
1
1291
1
1292
1
1293
1
1294
1
1295
1
1296
1
1297
1
1298
1
1299
1
1301
1
1302
1
1303

1151

1162

1163

1152

1272

1283+

1152

1163

1164

1153

1273

1284+

1153

1164

1165

1154

1274

1285+

1154

1165

1166

1155

1275

1286+

1157

1168

1167

1156

1278

1289+

1156

1167

1169

1158

1277

1288+

1158

1169

1170

1159

1279

1290+

1159

1170

1171

1160

1280

1291+

1160

1171

1172

1161

1281

1292+

1161

1172

1173

1162

1282

1293+

1162

1173

1174

1163

1283

1294+

1163

1174

1175

1164

1284

1295+

1164

1175

1176

1165

1285

1296+

1165

1176

1177

1166

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1297+

1168

1179

1178

1167

1289

1300+

1167

1178

1180

1169

1288

1299+

1169

1180

1181

1170

1290

1301+

1170

1181

1182

1171

1291

1302+

1171

1182

1183

1172

1292

1303+

1172

1183

1184

1173

1293

1304+

1173

1184

1185

1174

1294

1305+

1174

1185

1186

1175

1295

1306+

1175

1186

1187

1176

1296

1307+

1176

1187

1188

1177

1297

1308+

1179

1190

1189

1178

1300

1311+

1178

1189

1191

1180

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1180

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1192

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1301

1312+

1181

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1193

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180

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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1325+
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1196
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1327+
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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

181

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182

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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Altair Engineering

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

183

$
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9
XYPUNCH DISP 1/
11(T1)
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43(T1)
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55(T1)
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67(T1)
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79(T1)
XYPUNCH DISP 1/
91(T1)
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115(T1)
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184

0.492

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

185

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186

80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
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111
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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

GRID
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150
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159
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165
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184
185
186
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190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
522
523
524
525
526
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528
529
530
531
532
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534
535
536
537
538
539

Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

187

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

GRID
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610
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612
613
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Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

189

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
GRID
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750
751
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753
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755
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760
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764
765
766
767
768
769
770
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934
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969
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971
972
973
974
975
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977
978
979

Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

191

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

193

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

195

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

197

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

199

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

201

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

205

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

209

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

211

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

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OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

213

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-18.6044
-18.9045
-18.9045
-19.2045
-19.2045
-19.5046
-19.5046
-19.8047
-19.8047
-20.1048
-20.1048
-20.4048
-20.4048
-20.7049
-20.7049
-21.005
-21.005
-21.3051
-21.3051
-21.6051
-21.6051

-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
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-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

GRID
4110
GRID
4111
GRID
4112
GRID
4113
GRID
4114
GRID
4115
GRID
4116
GRID
4117
GRID
4118
GRID
4119
GRID
4120
GRID
4121
GRID
4122
GRID
4123
GRID
4124
GRID
4125
GRID
4126
GRID
4127
GRID
4128
GRID
4129
GRID
4130
GRID
4131
GRID
4132
GRID
4133
GRID
6776
GRID
6777
GRID
6778
GRID
6779
GRID
6780
GRID
6781
GRID
6782
GRID
6783
GRID
6784
GRID
6785
GRID
6786
GRID
6787
GRID
6788
GRID
6789
GRID
6790
GRID
6791
GRID
6792
GRID
6793
GRID
6794
GRID
6795
GRID
6796
GRID
6797
GRID
6798
GRID
6799
GRID
6800
$$
$$ SPOINT Data
$$
$
$ CQUAD4 Elements
$
CQUAD4
5627
CQUAD4
5629
CQUAD4
6116
CQUAD4
6122
CQUAD4
6125
CQUAD4
6520
CQUAD4
6521
CQUAD4
6523
CQUAD4
6528
CQUAD4
6954
CQUAD4
7220
CQUAD4
7647
CQUAD4
7652
CQUAD4
7945
CQUAD4
7948

Altair Engineering

0.246
0.492
0.246
0.492
0.246
0.492
0.246
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0.246
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0.246
0.492
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0.246
0.492
0.246
0.492
-0.246
0.246
0.0
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0.0
0.246
0.492
0.492
0.246
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0.0
0.492
0.492
0.246
0.0
-0.246
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0.0
0.246
0.492

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

-0.492
-0.492
-0.492
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-0.246
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-0.246
0.246
0.246
0.246
0.246
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.246
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

6778
6782
6777
6783
6799
6779
6776
6780
6781
6797
6788
6787
6798
6786
6789

-21.9052
-21.9052
-22.2053
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-22.5053
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-22.8054
-22.8054
-23.1055
-23.1055
-23.4056
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-23.7056
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-24.0057
-24.0057
-24.3058
-24.3058
-24.6059
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-24.9059
-24.9059
-25.206
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8.589-16
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0.0
1.718-15
1.718-15
8.589-16
0.0
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-1.72-15
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8.589-16
0.0
-1.72-15
-1.72-15
-8.59-16
0.0
8.589-16
1.718-15
1.718-15
1.718-15
8.589-16
0.0
-8.59-16
-1.72-15

6798
6778
6799
6777
6798
6796
6797
6779
6776
6796
6787
6795
6797
6788
6786

6799
6777
6800
6785
6788
6797
6798
6776
6778
6795
6793
6794
6787
6792
6791

-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

6777
6783
6785
6784
6786
6776
6778
6781
6782
6787
6792
6793
6788
6791
6790

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

215

CQUAD4
7955
1
6800
$
$HMMOVE
5
$
5627
5629
6116
$
6528
6954
7220
$
$
$ CHEXA Elements: First Order
$
CHEXA
17
2
10
+
36
37
CHEXA
18
2
34
+
40
41
CHEXA
19
2
38
+
44
45
CHEXA
20
2
42
+
48
49
CHEXA
21
2
46
+
52
53
CHEXA
22
2
50
+
56
57
CHEXA
23
2
54
+
60
61
CHEXA
24
2
58
+
64
65
CHEXA
25
2
62
+
68
69
CHEXA
26
2
66
+
72
73
CHEXA
27
2
70
+
76
77
CHEXA
28
2
74
+
80
81
CHEXA
29
2
78
+
84
85
CHEXA
30
2
82
+
88
89
CHEXA
31
2
86
+
92
93
CHEXA
32
2
90
+
96
97
CHEXA
33
2
94
+
100
101
CHEXA
34
2
98
+
104
105
CHEXA
35
2
102
+
108
109
CHEXA
36
2
106
+
112
113
CHEXA
37
2
110
+
116
117
CHEXA
38
2
114
+
120
121
CHEXA
39
2
118
+
124
125
CHEXA
40
2
122
+
128
129
CHEXA
41
2
126
+
132
133
CHEXA
42
2
130
+
136
137
CHEXA
43
2
134
+
140
141
CHEXA
44
2
138
+
144
145
CHEXA
45
2
142
+
148
149
CHEXA
46
2
146
+
152
153
CHEXA
47
2
150

216

6799

6786

6789

6122
7647

6125
7652

6520THRU
7945
7948

11

21

23

34

35

35

36

37

38

39

39

40

41

42

43

43

44

45

46

47

47

48

49

50

51

51

52

53

54

55

55

56

57

58

59

59

60

61

62

63

63

64

65

66

67

67

68

69

70

71

71

72

73

74

75

75

76

77

78

79

79

80

81

82

83

83

84

85

86

87

87

88

89

90

91

91

92

93

94

95

95

96

97

98

99

99

100

101

102

103

103

104

105

106

107

107

108

109

110

111

111

112

113

114

115

115

116

117

118

119

119

120

121

122

123

123

124

125

126

127

127

128

129

130

131

131

132

133

134

135

135

136

137

138

139

139

140

141

142

143

143

144

145

146

147

147

148

149

150

151

151

152

153

154

155

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

6521
7955

6523

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
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CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
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CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

156
48
160
49
164
50
168
51
172
52
176
53
180
54
184
55
188
56
192
57
196
58
200
139
524
140
528
141
532
142
536
143
540
144
544
145
548
146
552
147
556
148
560
149
564
150
568
151
572
152
576
153
580
154
584
155
588
156
592
157
596
158
600
159
604
160
608
161
612
162

Altair Engineering

157
2
161
2
165
2
169
2
173
2
177
2
181
2
185
2
189
2
193
2
197
2
201
2
525
2
529
2
533
2
537
2
541
2
545
2
549
2
553
2
557
2
561
2
565
2
569
2
573
2
577
2
581
2
585
2
589
2
593
2
597
2
601
2
605
2
609
2
613
2

154

155

156

157

158

159

158

159

160

161

162

163

162

163

164

165

166

167

166

167

168

169

170

171

170

171

172

173

174

175

174

175

176

177

178

179

178

179

180

181

182

183

182

183

184

185

186

187

186

187

188

189

190

191

190

191

192

193

194

195

194

195

196

197

198

199

198

199

200

201

522

523

522

523

524

525

526

527

526

527

528

529

530

531

530

531

532

533

534

535

534

535

536

537

538

539

538

539

540

541

542

543

542

543

544

545

546

547

546

547

548

549

550

551

550

551

552

553

554

555

554

555

556

557

558

559

558

559

560

561

562

563

562

563

564

565

566

567

566

567

568

569

570

571

570

571

572

573

574

575

574

575

576

577

578

579

578

579

580

581

582

583

582

583

584

585

586

587

586

587

588

589

590

591

590

591

592

593

594

595

594

595

596

597

598

599

598

599

600

601

602

603

602

603

604

605

606

607

606

607

608

609

610

611

610

611

612

613

614

615

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

217

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

218

616
163
620
164
624
165
628
166
632
167
636
168
640
169
644
170
648
171
652
172
656
173
660
174
664
175
668
176
672
177
676
178
680
179
684
180
688
181
37
182
41
183
45
184
49
185
53
186
57
187
61
188
65
189
69
190
73
191
77
192
81
193
85
194
89
195
93
196
97
197

617
2
621
2
625
2
629
2
633
2
637
2
641
2
645
2
649
2
653
2
657
2
661
2
665
2
669
2
673
2
677
2
681
2
685
2
689
2
691
2
693
2
695
2
697
2
699
2
701
2
703
2
705
2
707
2
709
2
711
2
713
2
715
2
717
2
719
2
721
2

614

615

616

617

618

619

618

619

620

621

622

623

622

623

624

625

626

627

626

627

628

629

630

631

630

631

632

633

634

635

634

635

636

637

638

639

638

639

640

641

642

643

642

643

644

645

646

647

646

647

648

649

650

651

650

651

652

653

654

655

654

655

656

657

658

659

658

659

660

661

662

663

662

663

664

665

666

667

666

667

668

669

670

671

670

671

672

673

674

675

674

675

676

677

678

679

678

679

680

681

682

683

682

683

684

685

686

687

10

23

20

690

34

690

34

37

691

692

38

692

38

41

693

694

42

694

42

45

695

696

46

696

46

49

697

698

50

698

50

53

699

700

54

700

54

57

701

702

58

702

58

61

703

704

62

704

62

65

705

706

66

706

66

69

707

708

70

708

70

73

709

710

74

710

74

77

711

712

78

712

78

81

713

714

82

714

82

85

715

716

86

716

86

89

717

718

90

718

90

93

719

720

94

720

94

97

721

722

98

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

101
198
105
199
109
200
113
201
117
202
121
203
125
204
129
205
133
206
137
207
141
208
145
209
149
210
153
211
157
212
161
213
165
214
169
215
173
216
177
217
181
218
185
219
189
220
193
221
197
222
201
303
525
304
529
305
533
306
537
307
541
308
545
309
549
310
553
311
557
312

Altair Engineering

723
2
725
2
727
2
729
2
731
2
733
2
735
2
737
2
739
2
741
2
743
2
745
2
747
2
749
2
751
2
753
2
755
2
757
2
759
2
761
2
763
2
765
2
767
2
769
2
771
2
773
2
935
2
937
2
939
2
941
2
943
2
945
2
947
2
949
2
951
2

722

98

101

723

724

102

724

102

105

725

726

106

726

106

109

727

728

110

728

110

113

729

730

114

730

114

117

731

732

118

732

118

121

733

734

122

734

122

125

735

736

126

736

126

129

737

738

130

738

130

133

739

740

134

740

134

137

741

742

138

742

138

141

743

744

142

744

142

145

745

746

146

746

146

149

747

748

150

748

150

153

749

750

154

750

154

157

751

752

158

752

158

161

753

754

162

754

162

165

755

756

166

756

166

169

757

758

170

758

170

173

759

760

174

760

174

177

761

762

178

762

178

181

763

764

182

764

182

185

765

766

186

766

186

189

767

768

190

768

190

193

769

770

194

770

194

197

771

772

198

772

198

201

773

934

522

934

522

525

935

936

526

936

526

529

937

938

530

938

530

533

939

940

534

940

534

537

941

942

538

942

538

541

943

944

542

944

542

545

945

946

546

946

546

549

947

948

550

948

550

553

949

950

554

950

554

557

951

952

558

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

219

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

220

561
313
565
314
569
315
573
316
577
317
581
318
585
319
589
320
593
321
597
322
601
323
605
324
609
325
613
326
617
327
621
328
625
329
629
330
633
331
637
332
641
333
645
334
649
335
653
336
657
337
661
338
665
339
669
340
673
341
677
342
681
343
685
344
689
345
1018
346
1020
347

953
2
955
2
957
2
959
2
961
2
963
2
965
2
967
2
969
2
971
2
973
2
975
2
977
2
979
2
981
2
983
2
985
2
987
2
989
2
991
2
993
2
995
2
997
2
999
2
1001
2
1003
2
1005
2
1007
2
1009
2
1011
2
1013
2
1015
2
1017
2
1019
2
1021
2

952

558

561

953

954

562

954

562

565

955

956

566

956

566

569

957

958

570

958

570

573

959

960

574

960

574

577

961

962

578

962

578

581

963

964

582

964

582

585

965

966

586

966

586

589

967

968

590

968

590

593

969

970

594

970

594

597

971

972

598

972

598

601

973

974

602

974

602

605

975

976

606

976

606

609

977

978

610

978

610

613

979

980

614

980

614

617

981

982

618

982

618

621

983

984

622

984

622

625

985

986

626

986

626

629

987

988

630

988

630

633

989

990

634

990

634

637

991

992

638

992

638

641

993

994

642

994

642

645

995

996

646

996

646

649

997

998

650

998

650

653

999

1000

654

1000

654

657

1001

1002

658

1002

658

661

1003

1004

662

1004

662

665

1005

1006

666

1006

666

669

1007

1008

670

1008

670

673

1009

1010

674

1010

674

677

1011

1012

678

1012

678

681

1013

1014

682

1014

682

685

1015

1016

686

23

21

17

18

37

36

37

36

1018

1019

41

40

41

40

1020

1021

45

44

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

1022
348
1024
349
1026
350
1028
351
1030
352
1032
353
1034
354
1036
355
1038
356
1040
357
1042
358
1044
359
1046
360
1048
361
1050
362
1052
363
1054
364
1056
365
1058
366
1060
367
1062
368
1064
369
1066
370
1068
371
1070
372
1072
373
1074
374
1076
375
1078
376
1080
377
1082
378
1084
379
1086
380
1088
381
1090
382

Altair Engineering

1023
2
1025
2
1027
2
1029
2
1031
2
1033
2
1035
2
1037
2
1039
2
1041
2
1043
2
1045
2
1047
2
1049
2
1051
2
1053
2
1055
2
1057
2
1059
2
1061
2
1063
2
1065
2
1067
2
1069
2
1071
2
1073
2
1075
2
1077
2
1079
2
1081
2
1083
2
1085
2
1087
2
1089
2
1091
2

45

44

1022

1023

49

48

49

48

1024

1025

53

52

53

52

1026

1027

57

56

57

56

1028

1029

61

60

61

60

1030

1031

65

64

65

64

1032

1033

69

68

69

68

1034

1035

73

72

73

72

1036

1037

77

76

77

76

1038

1039

81

80

81

80

1040

1041

85

84

85

84

1042

1043

89

88

89

88

1044

1045

93

92

93

92

1046

1047

97

96

97

96

1048

1049

101

100

101

100

1050

1051

105

104

105

104

1052

1053

109

108

109

108

1054

1055

113

112

113

112

1056

1057

117

116

117

116

1058

1059

121

120

121

120

1060

1061

125

124

125

124

1062

1063

129

128

129

128

1064

1065

133

132

133

132

1066

1067

137

136

137

136

1068

1069

141

140

141

140

1070

1071

145

144

145

144

1072

1073

149

148

149

148

1074

1075

153

152

153

152

1076

1077

157

156

157

156

1078

1079

161

160

161

160

1080

1081

165

164

165

164

1082

1083

169

168

169

168

1084

1085

173

172

173

172

1086

1087

177

176

177

176

1088

1089

181

180

181

180

1090

1091

185

184

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

221

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

222

1092
383
1094
384
1096
385
1098
386
1100
467
1262
468
1264
469
1266
470
1268
471
1270
472
1272
473
1274
474
1276
475
1278
476
1280
477
1282
478
1284
479
1286
480
1288
481
1290
482
1292
483
1294
484
1296
485
1298
486
1300
487
1302
488
1304
489
1306
490
1308
491
1310
492
1312
493
1314
494
1316
495
1318
496
1320
497

1093
2
1095
2
1097
2
1099
2
1101
2
1263
2
1265
2
1267
2
1269
2
1271
2
1273
2
1275
2
1277
2
1279
2
1281
2
1283
2
1285
2
1287
2
1289
2
1291
2
1293
2
1295
2
1297
2
1299
2
1301
2
1303
2
1305
2
1307
2
1309
2
1311
2
1313
2
1315
2
1317
2
1319
2
1321
2

185

184

1092

1093

189

188

189

188

1094

1095

193

192

193

192

1096

1097

197

196

197

196

1098

1099

201

200

201

200

1100

1101

525

524

525

524

1262

1263

529

528

529

528

1264

1265

533

532

533

532

1266

1267

537

536

537

536

1268

1269

541

540

541

540

1270

1271

545

544

545

544

1272

1273

549

548

549

548

1274

1275

553

552

553

552

1276

1277

557

556

557

556

1278

1279

561

560

561

560

1280

1281

565

564

565

564

1282

1283

569

568

569

568

1284

1285

573

572

573

572

1286

1287

577

576

577

576

1288

1289

581

580

581

580

1290

1291

585

584

585

584

1292

1293

589

588

589

588

1294

1295

593

592

593

592

1296

1297

597

596

597

596

1298

1299

601

600

601

600

1300

1301

605

604

605

604

1302

1303

609

608

609

608

1304

1305

613

612

613

612

1306

1307

617

616

617

616

1308

1309

621

620

621

620

1310

1311

625

624

625

624

1312

1313

629

628

629

628

1314

1315

633

632

633

632

1316

1317

637

636

637

636

1318

1319

641

640

641

640

1320

1321

645

644

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

1322
498
1324
499
1326
500
1328
501
1330
502
1332
503
1334
504
1336
505
1338
506
1340
507
1342
508
1344
509
1019
510
1021
511
1023
512
1025
513
1027
514
1029
515
1031
516
1033
517
1035
518
1037
519
1039
520
1041
521
1043
522
1045
523
1047
524
1049
525
1051
526
1053
527
1055
528
1057
529
1059
530
1061
531
1063
532

Altair Engineering

1323
2
1325
2
1327
2
1329
2
1331
2
1333
2
1335
2
1337
2
1339
2
1341
2
1343
2
1345
2
1346
2
1347
2
1348
2
1349
2
1350
2
1351
2
1352
2
1353
2
1354
2
1355
2
1356
2
1357
2
1358
2
1359
2
1360
2
1361
2
1362
2
1363
2
1364
2
1365
2
1366
2
1367
2
1368
2

645

644

1322

1323

649

648

649

648

1324

1325

653

652

653

652

1326

1327

657

656

657

656

1328

1329

661

660

661

660

1330

1331

665

664

665

664

1332

1333

669

668

669

668

1334

1335

673

672

673

672

1336

1337

677

676

677

676

1338

1339

681

680

681

680

1340

1341

685

684

685

684

1342

1343

689

688

20

23

18

19

691

37

691

37

1019

1346

693

41

693

41

1021

1347

695

45

695

45

1023

1348

697

49

697

49

1025

1349

699

53

699

53

1027

1350

701

57

701

57

1029

1351

703

61

703

61

1031

1352

705

65

705

65

1033

1353

707

69

707

69

1035

1354

709

73

709

73

1037

1355

711

77

711

77

1039

1356

713

81

713

81

1041

1357

715

85

715

85

1043

1358

717

89

717

89

1045

1359

719

93

719

93

1047

1360

721

97

721

97

1049

1361

723

101

723

101

1051

1362

725

105

725

105

1053

1363

727

109

727

109

1055

1364

729

113

729

113

1057

1365

731

117

731

117

1059

1366

733

121

733

121

1061

1367

735

125

735

125

1063

1368

737

129

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

223

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

224

1065
533
1067
534
1069
535
1071
536
1073
537
1075
538
1077
539
1079
540
1081
541
1083
542
1085
543
1087
544
1089
545
1091
546
1093
547
1095
548
1097
549
1099
550
1101
631
1263
632
1265
633
1267
634
1269
635
1271
636
1273
637
1275
638
1277
639
1279
640
1281
641
1283
642
1285
643
1287
644
1289
645
1291
646
1293
647

1369
2
1370
2
1371
2
1372
2
1373
2
1374
2
1375
2
1376
2
1377
2
1378
2
1379
2
1380
2
1381
2
1382
2
1383
2
1384
2
1385
2
1386
2
1387
2
1468
2
1469
2
1470
2
1471
2
1472
2
1473
2
1474
2
1475
2
1476
2
1477
2
1478
2
1479
2
1480
2
1481
2
1482
2
1483
2

737

129

1065

1369

739

133

739

133

1067

1370

741

137

741

137

1069

1371

743

141

743

141

1071

1372

745

145

745

145

1073

1373

747

149

747

149

1075

1374

749

153

749

153

1077

1375

751

157

751

157

1079

1376

753

161

753

161

1081

1377

755

165

755

165

1083

1378

757

169

757

169

1085

1379

759

173

759

173

1087

1380

761

177

761

177

1089

1381

763

181

763

181

1091

1382

765

185

765

185

1093

1383

767

189

767

189

1095

1384

769

193

769

193

1097

1385

771

197

771

197

1099

1386

773

201

773

201

1101

1387

935

525

935

525

1263

1468

937

529

937

529

1265

1469

939

533

939

533

1267

1470

941

537

941

537

1269

1471

943

541

943

541

1271

1472

945

545

945

545

1273

1473

947

549

947

549

1275

1474

949

553

949

553

1277

1475

951

557

951

557

1279

1476

953

561

953

561

1281

1477

955

565

955

565

1283

1478

957

569

957

569

1285

1479

959

573

959

573

1287

1480

961

577

961

577

1289

1481

963

581

963

581

1291

1482

965

585

965

585

1293

1483

967

589

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

1295
648
1297
649
1299
650
1301
651
1303
652
1305
653
1307
654
1309
655
1311
656
1313
657
1315
658
1317
659
1319
660
1321
661
1323
662
1325
663
1327
664
1329
665
1331
666
1333
667
1335
668
1337
669
1339
670
1341
671
1343
672
1345
673
1512
674
1516
675
1520
676
1524
677
1528
678
1532
679
1536
680
1540
681
1544
682

Altair Engineering

1484
2
1485
2
1486
2
1487
2
1488
2
1489
2
1490
2
1491
2
1492
2
1493
2
1494
2
1495
2
1496
2
1497
2
1498
2
1499
2
1500
2
1501
2
1502
2
1503
2
1504
2
1505
2
1506
2
1507
2
1508
2
1509
2
1513
2
1517
2
1521
2
1525
2
1529
2
1533
2
1537
2
1541
2
1545
2

967

589

1295

1484

969

593

969

593

1297

1485

971

597

971

597

1299

1486

973

601

973

601

1301

1487

975

605

975

605

1303

1488

977

609

977

609

1305

1489

979

613

979

613

1307

1490

981

617

981

617

1309

1491

983

621

983

621

1311

1492

985

625

985

625

1313

1493

987

629

987

629

1315

1494

989

633

989

633

1317

1495

991

637

991

637

1319

1496

993

641

993

641

1321

1497

995

645

995

645

1323

1498

997

649

997

649

1325

1499

999

653

999

653

1327

1500

1001

657

1001

657

1329

1501

1003

661

1003

661

1331

1502

1005

665

1005

665

1333

1503

1007

669

1007

669

1335

1504

1009

673

1009

673

1337

1505

1011

677

1011

677

1339

1506

1013

681

1013

681

1341

1507

1015

685

1015

685

1343

1508

1017

689

12

13

14

22

1510

1511

1510

1511

1512

1513

1514

1515

1514

1515

1516

1517

1518

1519

1518

1519

1520

1521

1522

1523

1522

1523

1524

1525

1526

1527

1526

1527

1528

1529

1530

1531

1530

1531

1532

1533

1534

1535

1534

1535

1536

1537

1538

1539

1538

1539

1540

1541

1542

1543

1542

1543

1544

1545

1546

1547

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

225

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

226

1548
683
1552
684
1556
685
1560
686
1564
687
1568
688
1572
689
1576
690
1580
691
1584
692
1588
693
1592
694
1596
695
1600
696
1604
697
1608
698
1612
699
1616
700
1620
701
1624
702
1628
703
1632
704
1636
705
1640
706
1644
707
1648
708
1652
709
1656
710
1660
711
1664
712
1668
713
1672
714
1676
795
2000
796
2004
797

1549
2
1553
2
1557
2
1561
2
1565
2
1569
2
1573
2
1577
2
1581
2
1585
2
1589
2
1593
2
1597
2
1601
2
1605
2
1609
2
1613
2
1617
2
1621
2
1625
2
1629
2
1633
2
1637
2
1641
2
1645
2
1649
2
1653
2
1657
2
1661
2
1665
2
1669
2
1673
2
1677
2
2001
2
2005
2

1546

1547

1548

1549

1550

1551

1550

1551

1552

1553

1554

1555

1554

1555

1556

1557

1558

1559

1558

1559

1560

1561

1562

1563

1562

1563

1564

1565

1566

1567

1566

1567

1568

1569

1570

1571

1570

1571

1572

1573

1574

1575

1574

1575

1576

1577

1578

1579

1578

1579

1580

1581

1582

1583

1582

1583

1584

1585

1586

1587

1586

1587

1588

1589

1590

1591

1590

1591

1592

1593

1594

1595

1594

1595

1596

1597

1598

1599

1598

1599

1600

1601

1602

1603

1602

1603

1604

1605

1606

1607

1606

1607

1608

1609

1610

1611

1610

1611

1612

1613

1614

1615

1614

1615

1616

1617

1618

1619

1618

1619

1620

1621

1622

1623

1622

1623

1624

1625

1626

1627

1626

1627

1628

1629

1630

1631

1630

1631

1632

1633

1634

1635

1634

1635

1636

1637

1638

1639

1638

1639

1640

1641

1642

1643

1642

1643

1644

1645

1646

1647

1646

1647

1648

1649

1650

1651

1650

1651

1652

1653

1654

1655

1654

1655

1656

1657

1658

1659

1658

1659

1660

1661

1662

1663

1662

1663

1664

1665

1666

1667

1666

1667

1668

1669

1670

1671

1670

1671

1672

1673

1674

1675

1674

1675

1676

1677

1998

1999

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

2008
798
2012
799
2016
800
2020
801
2024
802
2028
803
2032
804
2036
805
2040
806
2044
807
2048
808
2052
809
2056
810
2060
811
2064
812
2068
813
2072
814
2076
815
2080
816
2084
817
2088
818
2092
819
2096
820
2100
821
2104
822
2108
823
2112
824
2116
825
2120
826
2124
827
2128
828
2132
829
2136
830
2140
831
2144
832

Altair Engineering

2009
2
2013
2
2017
2
2021
2
2025
2
2029
2
2033
2
2037
2
2041
2
2045
2
2049
2
2053
2
2057
2
2061
2
2065
2
2069
2
2073
2
2077
2
2081
2
2085
2
2089
2
2093
2
2097
2
2101
2
2105
2
2109
2
2113
2
2117
2
2121
2
2125
2
2129
2
2133
2
2137
2
2141
2
2145
2

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

2035

2034

2035

2036

2037

2038

2039

2038

2039

2040

2041

2042

2043

2042

2043

2044

2045

2046

2047

2046

2047

2048

2049

2050

2051

2050

2051

2052

2053

2054

2055

2054

2055

2056

2057

2058

2059

2058

2059

2060

2061

2062

2063

2062

2063

2064

2065

2066

2067

2066

2067

2068

2069

2070

2071

2070

2071

2072

2073

2074

2075

2074

2075

2076

2077

2078

2079

2078

2079

2080

2081

2082

2083

2082

2083

2084

2085

2086

2087

2086

2087

2088

2089

2090

2091

2090

2091

2092

2093

2094

2095

2094

2095

2096

2097

2098

2099

2098

2099

2100

2101

2102

2103

2102

2103

2104

2105

2106

2107

2106

2107

2108

2109

2110

2111

2110

2111

2112

2113

2114

2115

2114

2115

2116

2117

2118

2119

2118

2119

2120

2121

2122

2123

2122

2123

2124

2125

2126

2127

2126

2127

2128

2129

2130

2131

2130

2131

2132

2133

2134

2135

2134

2135

2136

2137

2138

2139

2138

2139

2140

2141

2142

2143

2142

2143

2144

2145

2146

2147

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

227

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

228

2148
833
2152
834
2156
835
2160
836
2164
837
1513
838
1517
839
1521
840
1525
841
1529
842
1533
843
1537
844
1541
845
1545
846
1549
847
1553
848
1557
849
1561
850
1565
851
1569
852
1573
853
1577
854
1581
855
1585
856
1589
857
1593
858
1597
859
1601
860
1605
861
1609
862
1613
863
1617
864
1621
865
1625
866
1629
867

2149
2
2153
2
2157
2
2161
2
2165
2
36
2
40
2
44
2
48
2
52
2
56
2
60
2
64
2
68
2
72
2
76
2
80
2
84
2
88
2
92
2
96
2
100
2
104
2
108
2
112
2
116
2
120
2
124
2
128
2
132
2
136
2
140
2
144
2
148
2
152
2

2146

2147

2148

2149

2150

2151

2150

2151

2152

2153

2154

2155

2154

2155

2156

2157

2158

2159

2158

2159

2160

2161

2162

2163

11

12

22

21

35

1510

35

1510

1513

36

39

1514

39

1514

1517

40

43

1518

43

1518

1521

44

47

1522

47

1522

1525

48

51

1526

51

1526

1529

52

55

1530

55

1530

1533

56

59

1534

59

1534

1537

60

63

1538

63

1538

1541

64

67

1542

67

1542

1545

68

71

1546

71

1546

1549

72

75

1550

75

1550

1553

76

79

1554

79

1554

1557

80

83

1558

83

1558

1561

84

87

1562

87

1562

1565

88

91

1566

91

1566

1569

92

95

1570

95

1570

1573

96

99

1574

99

1574

1577

100

103

1578

103

1578

1581

104

107

1582

107

1582

1585

108

111

1586

111

1586

1589

112

115

1590

115

1590

1593

116

119

1594

119

1594

1597

120

123

1598

123

1598

1601

124

127

1602

127

1602

1605

128

131

1606

131

1606

1609

132

135

1610

135

1610

1613

136

139

1614

139

1614

1617

140

143

1618

143

1618

1621

144

147

1622

147

1622

1625

148

151

1626

151

1626

1629

152

155

1630

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

1633
868
1637
869
1641
870
1645
871
1649
872
1653
873
1657
874
1661
875
1665
876
1669
877
1673
878
1677
959
2001
960
2005
961
2009
962
2013
963
2017
964
2021
965
2025
966
2029
967
2033
968
2037
969
2041
970
2045
971
2049
972
2053
973
2057
974
2061
975
2065
976
2069
977
2073
978
2077
979
2081
980
2085
981
2089
982

Altair Engineering

156
2
160
2
164
2
168
2
172
2
176
2
180
2
184
2
188
2
192
2
196
2
200
2
524
2
528
2
532
2
536
2
540
2
544
2
548
2
552
2
556
2
560
2
564
2
568
2
572
2
576
2
580
2
584
2
588
2
592
2
596
2
600
2
604
2
608
2
612
2

155

1630

1633

156

159

1634

159

1634

1637

160

163

1638

163

1638

1641

164

167

1642

167

1642

1645

168

171

1646

171

1646

1649

172

175

1650

175

1650

1653

176

179

1654

179

1654

1657

180

183

1658

183

1658

1661

184

187

1662

187

1662

1665

188

191

1666

191

1666

1669

192

195

1670

195

1670

1673

196

199

1674

199

1674

1677

200

523

1998

523

1998

2001

524

527

2002

527

2002

2005

528

531

2006

531

2006

2009

532

535

2010

535

2010

2013

536

539

2014

539

2014

2017

540

543

2018

543

2018

2021

544

547

2022

547

2022

2025

548

551

2026

551

2026

2029

552

555

2030

555

2030

2033

556

559

2034

559

2034

2037

560

563

2038

563

2038

2041

564

567

2042

567

2042

2045

568

571

2046

571

2046

2049

572

575

2050

575

2050

2053

576

579

2054

579

2054

2057

580

583

2058

583

2058

2061

584

587

2062

587

2062

2065

588

591

2066

591

2066

2069

592

595

2070

595

2070

2073

596

599

2074

599

2074

2077

600

603

2078

603

2078

2081

604

607

2082

607

2082

2085

608

611

2086

611

2086

2089

612

615

2090

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

229

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

230

2093
983
2097
984
2101
985
2105
986
2109
987
2113
988
2117
989
2121
990
2125
991
2129
992
2133
993
2137
994
2141
995
2145
996
2149
997
2153
998
2157
999
2161
1000
2165
1001
2166
1002
2168
1003
2170
1004
2172
1005
2174
1006
2176
1007
2178
1008
2180
1009
2182
1010
2184
1011
2186
1012
2188
1013
2190
1014
2192
1015
2194
1016
2196
1017

616
2
620
2
624
2
628
2
632
2
636
2
640
2
644
2
648
2
652
2
656
2
660
2
664
2
668
2
672
2
676
2
680
2
684
2
688
2
2167
2
2169
2
2171
2
2173
2
2175
2
2177
2
2179
2
2181
2
2183
2
2185
2
2187
2
2189
2
2191
2
2193
2
2195
2
2197
2

615

2090

2093

616

619

2094

619

2094

2097

620

623

2098

623

2098

2101

624

627

2102

627

2102

2105

628

631

2106

631

2106

2109

632

635

2110

635

2110

2113

636

639

2114

639

2114

2117

640

643

2118

643

2118

2121

644

647

2122

647

2122

2125

648

651

2126

651

2126

2129

652

655

2130

655

2130

2133

656

659

2134

659

2134

2137

660

663

2138

663

2138

2141

664

667

2142

667

2142

2145

668

671

2146

671

2146

2149

672

675

2150

675

2150

2153

676

679

2154

679

2154

2157

680

683

2158

683

2158

2161

684

687

2162

22

14

15

16

1513

1512

1513

1512

2166

2167

1517

1516

1517

1516

2168

2169

1521

1520

1521

1520

2170

2171

1525

1524

1525

1524

2172

2173

1529

1528

1529

1528

2174

2175

1533

1532

1533

1532

2176

2177

1537

1536

1537

1536

2178

2179

1541

1540

1541

1540

2180

2181

1545

1544

1545

1544

2182

2183

1549

1548

1549

1548

2184

2185

1553

1552

1553

1552

2186

2187

1557

1556

1557

1556

2188

2189

1561

1560

1561

1560

2190

2191

1565

1564

1565

1564

2192

2193

1569

1568

1569

1568

2194

2195

1573

1572

1573

1572

2196

2197

1577

1576

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

2198
1018
2200
1019
2202
1020
2204
1021
2206
1022
2208
1023
2210
1024
2212
1025
2214
1026
2216
1027
2218
1028
2220
1029
2222
1030
2224
1031
2226
1032
2228
1033
2230
1034
2232
1035
2234
1036
2236
1037
2238
1038
2240
1039
2242
1040
2244
1041
2246
1042
2248
1123
2410
1124
2412
1125
2414
1126
2416
1127
2418
1128
2420
1129
2422
1130
2424
1131
2426
1132

Altair Engineering

2199
2
2201
2
2203
2
2205
2
2207
2
2209
2
2211
2
2213
2
2215
2
2217
2
2219
2
2221
2
2223
2
2225
2
2227
2
2229
2
2231
2
2233
2
2235
2
2237
2
2239
2
2241
2
2243
2
2245
2
2247
2
2249
2
2411
2
2413
2
2415
2
2417
2
2419
2
2421
2
2423
2
2425
2
2427
2

1577

1576

2198

2199

1581

1580

1581

1580

2200

2201

1585

1584

1585

1584

2202

2203

1589

1588

1589

1588

2204

2205

1593

1592

1593

1592

2206

2207

1597

1596

1597

1596

2208

2209

1601

1600

1601

1600

2210

2211

1605

1604

1605

1604

2212

2213

1609

1608

1609

1608

2214

2215

1613

1612

1613

1612

2216

2217

1617

1616

1617

1616

2218

2219

1621

1620

1621

1620

2220

2221

1625

1624

1625

1624

2222

2223

1629

1628

1629

1628

2224

2225

1633

1632

1633

1632

2226

2227

1637

1636

1637

1636

2228

2229

1641

1640

1641

1640

2230

2231

1645

1644

1645

1644

2232

2233

1649

1648

1649

1648

2234

2235

1653

1652

1653

1652

2236

2237

1657

1656

1657

1656

2238

2239

1661

1660

1661

1660

2240

2241

1665

1664

1665

1664

2242

2243

1669

1668

1669

1668

2244

2245

1673

1672

1673

1672

2246

2247

1677

1676

1677

1676

2248

2249

2001

2000

2001

2000

2410

2411

2005

2004

2005

2004

2412

2413

2009

2008

2009

2008

2414

2415

2013

2012

2013

2012

2416

2417

2017

2016

2017

2016

2418

2419

2021

2020

2021

2020

2420

2421

2025

2024

2025

2024

2422

2423

2029

2028

2029

2028

2424

2425

2033

2032

2033

2032

2426

2427

2037

2036

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

231

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

232

2428
1133
2430
1134
2432
1135
2434
1136
2436
1137
2438
1138
2440
1139
2442
1140
2444
1141
2446
1142
2448
1143
2450
1144
2452
1145
2454
1146
2456
1147
2458
1148
2460
1149
2462
1150
2464
1151
2466
1152
2468
1153
2470
1154
2472
1155
2474
1156
2476
1157
2478
1158
2480
1159
2482
1160
2484
1161
2486
1162
2488
1163
2490
1164
2492
1165
2167
1166
2169
1167

2429
2
2431
2
2433
2
2435
2
2437
2
2439
2
2441
2
2443
2
2445
2
2447
2
2449
2
2451
2
2453
2
2455
2
2457
2
2459
2
2461
2
2463
2
2465
2
2467
2
2469
2
2471
2
2473
2
2475
2
2477
2
2479
2
2481
2
2483
2
2485
2
2487
2
2489
2
2491
2
2493
2
1018
2
1020
2

2037

2036

2428

2429

2041

2040

2041

2040

2430

2431

2045

2044

2045

2044

2432

2433

2049

2048

2049

2048

2434

2435

2053

2052

2053

2052

2436

2437

2057

2056

2057

2056

2438

2439

2061

2060

2061

2060

2440

2441

2065

2064

2065

2064

2442

2443

2069

2068

2069

2068

2444

2445

2073

2072

2073

2072

2446

2447

2077

2076

2077

2076

2448

2449

2081

2080

2081

2080

2450

2451

2085

2084

2085

2084

2452

2453

2089

2088

2089

2088

2454

2455

2093

2092

2093

2092

2456

2457

2097

2096

2097

2096

2458

2459

2101

2100

2101

2100

2460

2461

2105

2104

2105

2104

2462

2463

2109

2108

2109

2108

2464

2465

2113

2112

2113

2112

2466

2467

2117

2116

2117

2116

2468

2469

2121

2120

2121

2120

2470

2471

2125

2124

2125

2124

2472

2473

2129

2128

2129

2128

2474

2475

2133

2132

2133

2132

2476

2477

2137

2136

2137

2136

2478

2479

2141

2140

2141

2140

2480

2481

2145

2144

2145

2144

2482

2483

2149

2148

2149

2148

2484

2485

2153

2152

2153

2152

2486

2487

2157

2156

2157

2156

2488

2489

2161

2160

2161

2160

2490

2491

2165

2164

21

22

16

17

36

1513

36

1513

2167

1018

40

1517

40

1517

2169

1020

44

1521

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

2171
1168
2173
1169
2175
1170
2177
1171
2179
1172
2181
1173
2183
1174
2185
1175
2187
1176
2189
1177
2191
1178
2193
1179
2195
1180
2197
1181
2199
1182
2201
1183
2203
1184
2205
1185
2207
1186
2209
1187
2211
1188
2213
1189
2215
1190
2217
1191
2219
1192
2221
1193
2223
1194
2225
1195
2227
1196
2229
1197
2231
1198
2233
1199
2235
1200
2237
1201
2239
1202

Altair Engineering

1022
2
1024
2
1026
2
1028
2
1030
2
1032
2
1034
2
1036
2
1038
2
1040
2
1042
2
1044
2
1046
2
1048
2
1050
2
1052
2
1054
2
1056
2
1058
2
1060
2
1062
2
1064
2
1066
2
1068
2
1070
2
1072
2
1074
2
1076
2
1078
2
1080
2
1082
2
1084
2
1086
2
1088
2
1090
2

44

1521

2171

1022

48

1525

48

1525

2173

1024

52

1529

52

1529

2175

1026

56

1533

56

1533

2177

1028

60

1537

60

1537

2179

1030

64

1541

64

1541

2181

1032

68

1545

68

1545

2183

1034

72

1549

72

1549

2185

1036

76

1553

76

1553

2187

1038

80

1557

80

1557

2189

1040

84

1561

84

1561

2191

1042

88

1565

88

1565

2193

1044

92

1569

92

1569

2195

1046

96

1573

96

1573

2197

1048

100

1577

100

1577

2199

1050

104

1581

104

1581

2201

1052

108

1585

108

1585

2203

1054

112

1589

112

1589

2205

1056

116

1593

116

1593

2207

1058

120

1597

120

1597

2209

1060

124

1601

124

1601

2211

1062

128

1605

128

1605

2213

1064

132

1609

132

1609

2215

1066

136

1613

136

1613

2217

1068

140

1617

140

1617

2219

1070

144

1621

144

1621

2221

1072

148

1625

148

1625

2223

1074

152

1629

152

1629

2225

1076

156

1633

156

1633

2227

1078

160

1637

160

1637

2229

1080

164

1641

164

1641

2231

1082

168

1645

168

1645

2233

1084

172

1649

172

1649

2235

1086

176

1653

176

1653

2237

1088

180

1657

180

1657

2239

1090

184

1661

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

233

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

234

2241
1203
2243
1204
2245
1205
2247
1206
2249
1287
2411
1288
2413
1289
2415
1290
2417
1291
2419
1292
2421
1293
2423
1294
2425
1295
2427
1296
2429
1297
2431
1298
2433
1299
2435
1300
2437
1301
2439
1302
2441
1303
2443
1304
2445
1305
2447
1306
2449
1307
2451
1308
2453
1309
2455
1310
2457
1311
2459
1312
2461
1313
2463
1314
2465
1315
2467
1316
2469
1317

1092
2
1094
2
1096
2
1098
2
1100
2
1262
2
1264
2
1266
2
1268
2
1270
2
1272
2
1274
2
1276
2
1278
2
1280
2
1282
2
1284
2
1286
2
1288
2
1290
2
1292
2
1294
2
1296
2
1298
2
1300
2
1302
2
1304
2
1306
2
1308
2
1310
2
1312
2
1314
2
1316
2
1318
2
1320
2

184

1661

2241

1092

188

1665

188

1665

2243

1094

192

1669

192

1669

2245

1096

196

1673

196

1673

2247

1098

200

1677

200

1677

2249

1100

524

2001

524

2001

2411

1262

528

2005

528

2005

2413

1264

532

2009

532

2009

2415

1266

536

2013

536

2013

2417

1268

540

2017

540

2017

2419

1270

544

2021

544

2021

2421

1272

548

2025

548

2025

2423

1274

552

2029

552

2029

2425

1276

556

2033

556

2033

2427

1278

560

2037

560

2037

2429

1280

564

2041

564

2041

2431

1282

568

2045

568

2045

2433

1284

572

2049

572

2049

2435

1286

576

2053

576

2053

2437

1288

580

2057

580

2057

2439

1290

584

2061

584

2061

2441

1292

588

2065

588

2065

2443

1294

592

2069

592

2069

2445

1296

596

2073

596

2073

2447

1298

600

2077

600

2077

2449

1300

604

2081

604

2081

2451

1302

608

2085

608

2085

2453

1304

612

2089

612

2089

2455

1306

616

2093

616

2093

2457

1308

620

2097

620

2097

2459

1310

624

2101

624

2101

2461

1312

628

2105

628

2105

2463

1314

632

2109

632

2109

2465

1316

636

2113

636

2113

2467

1318

640

2117

640

2117

2469

1320

644

2121

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

2471
1318
2473
1319
2475
1320
2477
1321
2479
1322
2481
1323
2483
1324
2485
1325
2487
1326
2489
1327
2491
1328
2493
1329
35
1330
39
1331
43
1332
47
1333
51
1334
55
1335
59
1336
63
1337
67
1338
71
1339
75
1340
79
1341
83
1342
87
1343
91
1344
95
1345
99
1346
103
1347
107
1348
111
1349
115
1350
119
1351
123
1352

Altair Engineering

1322
2
1324
2
1326
2
1328
2
1330
2
1332
2
1334
2
1336
2
1338
2
1340
2
1342
2
1344
2
2495
2
2497
2
2499
2
2501
2
2503
2
2505
2
2507
2
2509
2
2511
2
2513
2
2515
2
2517
2
2519
2
2521
2
2523
2
2525
2
2527
2
2529
2
2531
2
2533
2
2535
2
2537
2
2539
2

644

2121

2471

1322

648

2125

648

2125

2473

1324

652

2129

652

2129

2475

1326

656

2133

656

2133

2477

1328

660

2137

660

2137

2479

1330

664

2141

664

2141

2481

1332

668

2145

668

2145

2483

1334

672

2149

672

2149

2485

1336

676

2153

676

2153

2487

1338

680

2157

680

2157

2489

1340

684

2161

684

2161

2491

1342

688

2165

33

12

11

31

2494

1510

2494

1510

35

2495

2496

1514

2496

1514

39

2497

2498

1518

2498

1518

43

2499

2500

1522

2500

1522

47

2501

2502

1526

2502

1526

51

2503

2504

1530

2504

1530

55

2505

2506

1534

2506

1534

59

2507

2508

1538

2508

1538

63

2509

2510

1542

2510

1542

67

2511

2512

1546

2512

1546

71

2513

2514

1550

2514

1550

75

2515

2516

1554

2516

1554

79

2517

2518

1558

2518

1558

83

2519

2520

1562

2520

1562

87

2521

2522

1566

2522

1566

91

2523

2524

1570

2524

1570

95

2525

2526

1574

2526

1574

99

2527

2528

1578

2528

1578

103

2529

2530

1582

2530

1582

107

2531

2532

1586

2532

1586

111

2533

2534

1590

2534

1590

115

2535

2536

1594

2536

1594

119

2537

2538

1598

2538

1598

123

2539

2540

1602

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

235

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

236

127
1353
131
1354
135
1355
139
1356
143
1357
147
1358
151
1359
155
1360
159
1361
163
1362
167
1363
171
1364
175
1365
179
1366
183
1367
187
1368
191
1369
195
1370
199
1451
523
1452
527
1453
531
1454
535
1455
539
1456
543
1457
547
1458
551
1459
555
1460
559
1461
563
1462
567
1463
571
1464
575
1465
579
1466
583
1467

2541
2
2543
2
2545
2
2547
2
2549
2
2551
2
2553
2
2555
2
2557
2
2559
2
2561
2
2563
2
2565
2
2567
2
2569
2
2571
2
2573
2
2575
2
2577
2
2739
2
2741
2
2743
2
2745
2
2747
2
2749
2
2751
2
2753
2
2755
2
2757
2
2759
2
2761
2
2763
2
2765
2
2767
2
2769
2

2540

1602

127

2541

2542

1606

2542

1606

131

2543

2544

1610

2544

1610

135

2545

2546

1614

2546

1614

139

2547

2548

1618

2548

1618

143

2549

2550

1622

2550

1622

147

2551

2552

1626

2552

1626

151

2553

2554

1630

2554

1630

155

2555

2556

1634

2556

1634

159

2557

2558

1638

2558

1638

163

2559

2560

1642

2560

1642

167

2561

2562

1646

2562

1646

171

2563

2564

1650

2564

1650

175

2565

2566

1654

2566

1654

179

2567

2568

1658

2568

1658

183

2569

2570

1662

2570

1662

187

2571

2572

1666

2572

1666

191

2573

2574

1670

2574

1670

195

2575

2576

1674

2576

1674

199

2577

2738

1998

2738

1998

523

2739

2740

2002

2740

2002

527

2741

2742

2006

2742

2006

531

2743

2744

2010

2744

2010

535

2745

2746

2014

2746

2014

539

2747

2748

2018

2748

2018

543

2749

2750

2022

2750

2022

547

2751

2752

2026

2752

2026

551

2753

2754

2030

2754

2030

555

2755

2756

2034

2756

2034

559

2757

2758

2038

2758

2038

563

2759

2760

2042

2760

2042

567

2761

2762

2046

2762

2046

571

2763

2764

2050

2764

2050

575

2765

2766

2054

2766

2054

579

2767

2768

2058

2768

2058

583

2769

2770

2062

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

587
1468
591
1469
595
1470
599
1471
603
1472
607
1473
611
1474
615
1475
619
1476
623
1477
627
1478
631
1479
635
1480
639
1481
643
1482
647
1483
651
1484
655
1485
659
1486
663
1487
667
1488
671
1489
675
1490
679
1491
683
1492
687
1493
1510
1494
1514
1495
1518
1496
1522
1497
1526
1498
1530
1499
1534
1500
1538
1501
1542
1502

Altair Engineering

2771
2
2773
2
2775
2
2777
2
2779
2
2781
2
2783
2
2785
2
2787
2
2789
2
2791
2
2793
2
2795
2
2797
2
2799
2
2801
2
2803
2
2805
2
2807
2
2809
2
2811
2
2813
2
2815
2
2817
2
2819
2
2821
2
2494
2
2496
2
2498
2
2500
2
2502
2
2504
2
2506
2
2508
2
2510
2

2770

2062

587

2771

2772

2066

2772

2066

591

2773

2774

2070

2774

2070

595

2775

2776

2074

2776

2074

599

2777

2778

2078

2778

2078

603

2779

2780

2082

2780

2082

607

2781

2782

2086

2782

2086

611

2783

2784

2090

2784

2090

615

2785

2786

2094

2786

2094

619

2787

2788

2098

2788

2098

623

2789

2790

2102

2790

2102

627

2791

2792

2106

2792

2106

631

2793

2794

2110

2794

2110

635

2795

2796

2114

2796

2114

639

2797

2798

2118

2798

2118

643

2799

2800

2122

2800

2122

647

2801

2802

2126

2802

2126

651

2803

2804

2130

2804

2130

655

2805

2806

2134

2806

2134

659

2807

2808

2138

2808

2138

663

2809

2810

2142

2810

2142

667

2811

2812

2146

2812

2146

671

2813

2814

2150

2814

2150

675

2815

2816

2154

2816

2154

679

2817

2818

2158

2818

2158

683

2819

2820

2162

30

13

12

33

2822

1511

2822

1511

1510

2494

2823

1515

2823

1515

1514

2496

2824

1519

2824

1519

1518

2498

2825

1523

2825

1523

1522

2500

2826

1527

2826

1527

1526

2502

2827

1531

2827

1531

1530

2504

2828

1535

2828

1535

1534

2506

2829

1539

2829

1539

1538

2508

2830

1543

2830

1543

1542

2510

2831

1547

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

237

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

238

1546
1503
1550
1504
1554
1505
1558
1506
1562
1507
1566
1508
1570
1509
1574
1510
1578
1511
1582
1512
1586
1513
1590
1514
1594
1515
1598
1516
1602
1517
1606
1518
1610
1519
1614
1520
1618
1521
1622
1522
1626
1523
1630
1524
1634
1525
1638
1526
1642
1527
1646
1528
1650
1529
1654
1530
1658
1531
1662
1532
1666
1533
1670
1534
1674
1615
1998
1616
2002
1617

2512
2
2514
2
2516
2
2518
2
2520
2
2522
2
2524
2
2526
2
2528
2
2530
2
2532
2
2534
2
2536
2
2538
2
2540
2
2542
2
2544
2
2546
2
2548
2
2550
2
2552
2
2554
2
2556
2
2558
2
2560
2
2562
2
2564
2
2566
2
2568
2
2570
2
2572
2
2574
2
2576
2
2738
2
2740
2

2831

1547

1546

2512

2832

1551

2832

1551

1550

2514

2833

1555

2833

1555

1554

2516

2834

1559

2834

1559

1558

2518

2835

1563

2835

1563

1562

2520

2836

1567

2836

1567

1566

2522

2837

1571

2837

1571

1570

2524

2838

1575

2838

1575

1574

2526

2839

1579

2839

1579

1578

2528

2840

1583

2840

1583

1582

2530

2841

1587

2841

1587

1586

2532

2842

1591

2842

1591

1590

2534

2843

1595

2843

1595

1594

2536

2844

1599

2844

1599

1598

2538

2845

1603

2845

1603

1602

2540

2846

1607

2846

1607

1606

2542

2847

1611

2847

1611

1610

2544

2848

1615

2848

1615

1614

2546

2849

1619

2849

1619

1618

2548

2850

1623

2850

1623

1622

2550

2851

1627

2851

1627

1626

2552

2852

1631

2852

1631

1630

2554

2853

1635

2853

1635

1634

2556

2854

1639

2854

1639

1638

2558

2855

1643

2855

1643

1642

2560

2856

1647

2856

1647

1646

2562

2857

1651

2857

1651

1650

2564

2858

1655

2858

1655

1654

2566

2859

1659

2859

1659

1658

2568

2860

1663

2860

1663

1662

2570

2861

1667

2861

1667

1666

2572

2862

1671

2862

1671

1670

2574

2863

1675

2863

1675

1674

2576

2944

1999

2944

1999

1998

2738

2945

2003

2945

2003

2002

2740

2946

2007

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

2006
1618
2010
1619
2014
1620
2018
1621
2022
1622
2026
1623
2030
1624
2034
1625
2038
1626
2042
1627
2046
1628
2050
1629
2054
1630
2058
1631
2062
1632
2066
1633
2070
1634
2074
1635
2078
1636
2082
1637
2086
1638
2090
1639
2094
1640
2098
1641
2102
1642
2106
1643
2110
1644
2114
1645
2118
1646
2122
1647
2126
1648
2130
1649
2134
1650
2138
1651
2142
1652

Altair Engineering

2742
2
2744
2
2746
2
2748
2
2750
2
2752
2
2754
2
2756
2
2758
2
2760
2
2762
2
2764
2
2766
2
2768
2
2770
2
2772
2
2774
2
2776
2
2778
2
2780
2
2782
2
2784
2
2786
2
2788
2
2790
2
2792
2
2794
2
2796
2
2798
2
2800
2
2802
2
2804
2
2806
2
2808
2
2810
2

2946

2007

2006

2742

2947

2011

2947

2011

2010

2744

2948

2015

2948

2015

2014

2746

2949

2019

2949

2019

2018

2748

2950

2023

2950

2023

2022

2750

2951

2027

2951

2027

2026

2752

2952

2031

2952

2031

2030

2754

2953

2035

2953

2035

2034

2756

2954

2039

2954

2039

2038

2758

2955

2043

2955

2043

2042

2760

2956

2047

2956

2047

2046

2762

2957

2051

2957

2051

2050

2764

2958

2055

2958

2055

2054

2766

2959

2059

2959

2059

2058

2768

2960

2063

2960

2063

2062

2770

2961

2067

2961

2067

2066

2772

2962

2071

2962

2071

2070

2774

2963

2075

2963

2075

2074

2776

2964

2079

2964

2079

2078

2778

2965

2083

2965

2083

2082

2780

2966

2087

2966

2087

2086

2782

2967

2091

2967

2091

2090

2784

2968

2095

2968

2095

2094

2786

2969

2099

2969

2099

2098

2788

2970

2103

2970

2103

2102

2790

2971

2107

2971

2107

2106

2792

2972

2111

2972

2111

2110

2794

2973

2115

2973

2115

2114

2796

2974

2119

2974

2119

2118

2798

2975

2123

2975

2123

2122

2800

2976

2127

2976

2127

2126

2802

2977

2131

2977

2131

2130

2804

2978

2135

2978

2135

2134

2806

2979

2139

2979

2139

2138

2808

2980

2143

2980

2143

2142

2810

2981

2147

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

239

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

240

2146
1653
2150
1654
2154
1655
2158
1656
2162
1657
2495
1658
2497
1659
2499
1660
2501
1661
2503
1662
2505
1663
2507
1664
2509
1665
2511
1666
2513
1667
2515
1668
2517
1669
2519
1670
2521
1671
2523
1672
2525
1673
2527
1674
2529
1675
2531
1676
2533
1677
2535
1678
2537
1679
2539
1680
2541
1681
2543
1682
2545
1683
2547
1684
2549
1685
2551
1686
2553
1687

2812
2
2814
2
2816
2
2818
2
2820
2
2987
2
2989
2
2991
2
2993
2
2995
2
2997
2
2999
2
3001
2
3003
2
3005
2
3007
2
3009
2
3011
2
3013
2
3015
2
3017
2
3019
2
3021
2
3023
2
3025
2
3027
2
3029
2
3031
2
3033
2
3035
2
3037
2
3039
2
3041
2
3043
2
3045
2

2981

2147

2146

2812

2982

2151

2982

2151

2150

2814

2983

2155

2983

2155

2154

2816

2984

2159

2984

2159

2158

2818

2985

2163

28

33

31

27

2986

2494

2986

2494

2495

2987

2988

2496

2988

2496

2497

2989

2990

2498

2990

2498

2499

2991

2992

2500

2992

2500

2501

2993

2994

2502

2994

2502

2503

2995

2996

2504

2996

2504

2505

2997

2998

2506

2998

2506

2507

2999

3000

2508

3000

2508

2509

3001

3002

2510

3002

2510

2511

3003

3004

2512

3004

2512

2513

3005

3006

2514

3006

2514

2515

3007

3008

2516

3008

2516

2517

3009

3010

2518

3010

2518

2519

3011

3012

2520

3012

2520

2521

3013

3014

2522

3014

2522

2523

3015

3016

2524

3016

2524

2525

3017

3018

2526

3018

2526

2527

3019

3020

2528

3020

2528

2529

3021

3022

2530

3022

2530

2531

3023

3024

2532

3024

2532

2533

3025

3026

2534

3026

2534

2535

3027

3028

2536

3028

2536

2537

3029

3030

2538

3030

2538

2539

3031

3032

2540

3032

2540

2541

3033

3034

2542

3034

2542

2543

3035

3036

2544

3036

2544

2545

3037

3038

2546

3038

2546

2547

3039

3040

2548

3040

2548

2549

3041

3042

2550

3042

2550

2551

3043

3044

2552

3044

2552

2553

3045

3046

2554

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

2555
1688
2557
1689
2559
1690
2561
1691
2563
1692
2565
1693
2567
1694
2569
1695
2571
1696
2573
1697
2575
1698
2577
1779
2739
1780
2741
1781
2743
1782
2745
1783
2747
1784
2749
1785
2751
1786
2753
1787
2755
1788
2757
1789
2759
1790
2761
1791
2763
1792
2765
1793
2767
1794
2769
1795
2771
1796
2773
1797
2775
1798
2777
1799
2779
1800
2781
1801
2783
1802

Altair Engineering

3047
2
3049
2
3051
2
3053
2
3055
2
3057
2
3059
2
3061
2
3063
2
3065
2
3067
2
3069
2
3231
2
3233
2
3235
2
3237
2
3239
2
3241
2
3243
2
3245
2
3247
2
3249
2
3251
2
3253
2
3255
2
3257
2
3259
2
3261
2
3263
2
3265
2
3267
2
3269
2
3271
2
3273
2
3275
2

3046

2554

2555

3047

3048

2556

3048

2556

2557

3049

3050

2558

3050

2558

2559

3051

3052

2560

3052

2560

2561

3053

3054

2562

3054

2562

2563

3055

3056

2564

3056

2564

2565

3057

3058

2566

3058

2566

2567

3059

3060

2568

3060

2568

2569

3061

3062

2570

3062

2570

2571

3063

3064

2572

3064

2572

2573

3065

3066

2574

3066

2574

2575

3067

3068

2576

3068

2576

2577

3069

3230

2738

3230

2738

2739

3231

3232

2740

3232

2740

2741

3233

3234

2742

3234

2742

2743

3235

3236

2744

3236

2744

2745

3237

3238

2746

3238

2746

2747

3239

3240

2748

3240

2748

2749

3241

3242

2750

3242

2750

2751

3243

3244

2752

3244

2752

2753

3245

3246

2754

3246

2754

2755

3247

3248

2756

3248

2756

2757

3249

3250

2758

3250

2758

2759

3251

3252

2760

3252

2760

2761

3253

3254

2762

3254

2762

2763

3255

3256

2764

3256

2764

2765

3257

3258

2766

3258

2766

2767

3259

3260

2768

3260

2768

2769

3261

3262

2770

3262

2770

2771

3263

3264

2772

3264

2772

2773

3265

3266

2774

3266

2774

2775

3267

3268

2776

3268

2776

2777

3269

3270

2778

3270

2778

2779

3271

3272

2780

3272

2780

2781

3273

3274

2782

3274

2782

2783

3275

3276

2784

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

241

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

242

2785
1803
2787
1804
2789
1805
2791
1806
2793
1807
2795
1808
2797
1809
2799
1810
2801
1811
2803
1812
2805
1813
2807
1814
2809
1815
2811
1816
2813
1817
2815
1818
2817
1819
2819
1820
2821
1821
2494
1822
2496
1823
2498
1824
2500
1825
2502
1826
2504
1827
2506
1828
2508
1829
2510
1830
2512
1831
2514
1832
2516
1833
2518
1834
2520
1835
2522
1836
2524
1837

3277
2
3279
2
3281
2
3283
2
3285
2
3287
2
3289
2
3291
2
3293
2
3295
2
3297
2
3299
2
3301
2
3303
2
3305
2
3307
2
3309
2
3311
2
3313
2
2986
2
2988
2
2990
2
2992
2
2994
2
2996
2
2998
2
3000
2
3002
2
3004
2
3006
2
3008
2
3010
2
3012
2
3014
2
3016
2

3276

2784

2785

3277

3278

2786

3278

2786

2787

3279

3280

2788

3280

2788

2789

3281

3282

2790

3282

2790

2791

3283

3284

2792

3284

2792

2793

3285

3286

2794

3286

2794

2795

3287

3288

2796

3288

2796

2797

3289

3290

2798

3290

2798

2799

3291

3292

2800

3292

2800

2801

3293

3294

2802

3294

2802

2803

3295

3296

2804

3296

2804

2805

3297

3298

2806

3298

2806

2807

3299

3300

2808

3300

2808

2809

3301

3302

2810

3302

2810

2811

3303

3304

2812

3304

2812

2813

3305

3306

2814

3306

2814

2815

3307

3308

2816

3308

2816

2817

3309

3310

2818

3310

2818

2819

3311

3312

2820

29

30

33

28

3314

2822

3314

2822

2494

2986

3315

2823

3315

2823

2496

2988

3316

2824

3316

2824

2498

2990

3317

2825

3317

2825

2500

2992

3318

2826

3318

2826

2502

2994

3319

2827

3319

2827

2504

2996

3320

2828

3320

2828

2506

2998

3321

2829

3321

2829

2508

3000

3322

2830

3322

2830

2510

3002

3323

2831

3323

2831

2512

3004

3324

2832

3324

2832

2514

3006

3325

2833

3325

2833

2516

3008

3326

2834

3326

2834

2518

3010

3327

2835

3327

2835

2520

3012

3328

2836

3328

2836

2522

3014

3329

2837

3329

2837

2524

3016

3330

2838

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

2526
1838
2528
1839
2530
1840
2532
1841
2534
1842
2536
1843
2538
1844
2540
1845
2542
1846
2544
1847
2546
1848
2548
1849
2550
1850
2552
1851
2554
1852
2556
1853
2558
1854
2560
1855
2562
1856
2564
1857
2566
1858
2568
1859
2570
1860
2572
1861
2574
1862
2576
1943
2738
1944
2740
1945
2742
1946
2744
1947
2746
1948
2748
1949
2750
1950
2752
1951
2754
1952

Altair Engineering

3018
2
3020
2
3022
2
3024
2
3026
2
3028
2
3030
2
3032
2
3034
2
3036
2
3038
2
3040
2
3042
2
3044
2
3046
2
3048
2
3050
2
3052
2
3054
2
3056
2
3058
2
3060
2
3062
2
3064
2
3066
2
3068
2
3230
2
3232
2
3234
2
3236
2
3238
2
3240
2
3242
2
3244
2
3246
2

3330

2838

2526

3018

3331

2839

3331

2839

2528

3020

3332

2840

3332

2840

2530

3022

3333

2841

3333

2841

2532

3024

3334

2842

3334

2842

2534

3026

3335

2843

3335

2843

2536

3028

3336

2844

3336

2844

2538

3030

3337

2845

3337

2845

2540

3032

3338

2846

3338

2846

2542

3034

3339

2847

3339

2847

2544

3036

3340

2848

3340

2848

2546

3038

3341

2849

3341

2849

2548

3040

3342

2850

3342

2850

2550

3042

3343

2851

3343

2851

2552

3044

3344

2852

3344

2852

2554

3046

3345

2853

3345

2853

2556

3048

3346

2854

3346

2854

2558

3050

3347

2855

3347

2855

2560

3052

3348

2856

3348

2856

2562

3054

3349

2857

3349

2857

2564

3056

3350

2858

3350

2858

2566

3058

3351

2859

3351

2859

2568

3060

3352

2860

3352

2860

2570

3062

3353

2861

3353

2861

2572

3064

3354

2862

3354

2862

2574

3066

3355

2863

3355

2863

2576

3068

3436

2944

3436

2944

2738

3230

3437

2945

3437

2945

2740

3232

3438

2946

3438

2946

2742

3234

3439

2947

3439

2947

2744

3236

3440

2948

3440

2948

2746

3238

3441

2949

3441

2949

2748

3240

3442

2950

3442

2950

2750

3242

3443

2951

3443

2951

2752

3244

3444

2952

3444

2952

2754

3246

3445

2953

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

243

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

244

2756
1953
2758
1954
2760
1955
2762
1956
2764
1957
2766
1958
2768
1959
2770
1960
2772
1961
2774
1962
2776
1963
2778
1964
2780
1965
2782
1966
2784
1967
2786
1968
2788
1969
2790
1970
2792
1971
2794
1972
2796
1973
2798
1974
2800
1975
2802
1976
2804
1977
2806
1978
2808
1979
2810
1980
2812
1981
2814
1982
2816
1983
2818
1984
2820
1985
690
1986
692
1987

3248
2
3250
2
3252
2
3254
2
3256
2
3258
2
3260
2
3262
2
3264
2
3266
2
3268
2
3270
2
3272
2
3274
2
3276
2
3278
2
3280
2
3282
2
3284
2
3286
2
3288
2
3290
2
3292
2
3294
2
3296
2
3298
2
3300
2
3302
2
3304
2
3306
2
3308
2
3310
2
3312
2
3479
2
3481
2

3445

2953

2756

3248

3446

2954

3446

2954

2758

3250

3447

2955

3447

2955

2760

3252

3448

2956

3448

2956

2762

3254

3449

2957

3449

2957

2764

3256

3450

2958

3450

2958

2766

3258

3451

2959

3451

2959

2768

3260

3452

2960

3452

2960

2770

3262

3453

2961

3453

2961

2772

3264

3454

2962

3454

2962

2774

3266

3455

2963

3455

2963

2776

3268

3456

2964

3456

2964

2778

3270

3457

2965

3457

2965

2780

3272

3458

2966

3458

2966

2782

3274

3459

2967

3459

2967

2784

3276

3460

2968

3460

2968

2786

3278

3461

2969

3461

2969

2788

3280

3462

2970

3462

2970

2790

3282

3463

2971

3463

2971

2792

3284

3464

2972

3464

2972

2794

3286

3465

2973

3465

2973

2796

3288

3466

2974

3466

2974

2798

3290

3467

2975

3467

2975

2800

3292

3468

2976

3468

2976

2802

3294

3469

2977

3469

2977

2804

3296

3470

2978

3470

2978

2806

3298

3471

2979

3471

2979

2808

3300

3472

2980

3472

2980

2810

3302

3473

2981

3473

2981

2812

3304

3474

2982

3474

2982

2814

3306

3475

2983

3475

2983

2816

3308

3476

2984

3476

2984

2818

3310

3477

2985

32

10

24

3478

34

3478

34

690

3479

3480

38

3480

38

692

3481

3482

42

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

694
1988
696
1989
698
1990
700
1991
702
1992
704
1993
706
1994
708
1995
710
1996
712
1997
714
1998
716
1999
718
2000
720
2001
722
2002
724
2003
726
2004
728
2005
730
2006
732
2007
734
2008
736
2009
738
2010
740
2011
742
2012
744
2013
746
2014
748
2015
750
2016
752
2017
754
2018
756
2019
758
2020
760
2021
762
2022

Altair Engineering

3483
2
3485
2
3487
2
3489
2
3491
2
3493
2
3495
2
3497
2
3499
2
3501
2
3503
2
3505
2
3507
2
3509
2
3511
2
3513
2
3515
2
3517
2
3519
2
3521
2
3523
2
3525
2
3527
2
3529
2
3531
2
3533
2
3535
2
3537
2
3539
2
3541
2
3543
2
3545
2
3547
2
3549
2
3551
2

3482

42

694

3483

3484

46

3484

46

696

3485

3486

50

3486

50

698

3487

3488

54

3488

54

700

3489

3490

58

3490

58

702

3491

3492

62

3492

62

704

3493

3494

66

3494

66

706

3495

3496

70

3496

70

708

3497

3498

74

3498

74

710

3499

3500

78

3500

78

712

3501

3502

82

3502

82

714

3503

3504

86

3504

86

716

3505

3506

90

3506

90

718

3507

3508

94

3508

94

720

3509

3510

98

3510

98

722

3511

3512

102

3512

102

724

3513

3514

106

3514

106

726

3515

3516

110

3516

110

728

3517

3518

114

3518

114

730

3519

3520

118

3520

118

732

3521

3522

122

3522

122

734

3523

3524

126

3524

126

736

3525

3526

130

3526

130

738

3527

3528

134

3528

134

740

3529

3530

138

3530

138

742

3531

3532

142

3532

142

744

3533

3534

146

3534

146

746

3535

3536

150

3536

150

748

3537

3538

154

3538

154

750

3539

3540

158

3540

158

752

3541

3542

162

3542

162

754

3543

3544

166

3544

166

756

3545

3546

170

3546

170

758

3547

3548

174

3548

174

760

3549

3550

178

3550

178

762

3551

3552

182

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

245

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

246

764
2023
766
2024
768
2025
770
2026
772
2107
934
2108
936
2109
938
2110
940
2111
942
2112
944
2113
946
2114
948
2115
950
2116
952
2117
954
2118
956
2119
958
2120
960
2121
962
2122
964
2123
966
2124
968
2125
970
2126
972
2127
974
2128
976
2129
978
2130
980
2131
982
2132
984
2133
986
2134
988
2135
990
2136
992
2137

3553
2
3555
2
3557
2
3559
2
3561
2
3723
2
3725
2
3727
2
3729
2
3731
2
3733
2
3735
2
3737
2
3739
2
3741
2
3743
2
3745
2
3747
2
3749
2
3751
2
3753
2
3755
2
3757
2
3759
2
3761
2
3763
2
3765
2
3767
2
3769
2
3771
2
3773
2
3775
2
3777
2
3779
2
3781
2

3552

182

764

3553

3554

186

3554

186

766

3555

3556

190

3556

190

768

3557

3558

194

3558

194

770

3559

3560

198

3560

198

772

3561

3722

522

3722

522

934

3723

3724

526

3724

526

936

3725

3726

530

3726

530

938

3727

3728

534

3728

534

940

3729

3730

538

3730

538

942

3731

3732

542

3732

542

944

3733

3734

546

3734

546

946

3735

3736

550

3736

550

948

3737

3738

554

3738

554

950

3739

3740

558

3740

558

952

3741

3742

562

3742

562

954

3743

3744

566

3744

566

956

3745

3746

570

3746

570

958

3747

3748

574

3748

574

960

3749

3750

578

3750

578

962

3751

3752

582

3752

582

964

3753

3754

586

3754

586

966

3755

3756

590

3756

590

968

3757

3758

594

3758

594

970

3759

3760

598

3760

598

972

3761

3762

602

3762

602

974

3763

3764

606

3764

606

976

3765

3766

610

3766

610

978

3767

3768

614

3768

614

980

3769

3770

618

3770

618

982

3771

3772

622

3772

622

984

3773

3774

626

3774

626

986

3775

3776

630

3776

630

988

3777

3778

634

3778

634

990

3779

3780

638

3780

638

992

3781

3782

642

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

994
2138
996
2139
998
2140
1000
2141
1002
2142
1004
2143
1006
2144
1008
2145
1010
2146
1012
2147
1014
2148
1016
2149
34
2150
38
2151
42
2152
46
2153
50
2154
54
2155
58
2156
62
2157
66
2158
70
2159
74
2160
78
2161
82
2162
86
2163
90
2164
94
2165
98
2166
102
2167
106
2168
110
2169
114
2170
118
2171
122
2172

Altair Engineering

3783
2
3785
2
3787
2
3789
2
3791
2
3793
2
3795
2
3797
2
3799
2
3801
2
3803
2
3805
2
3478
2
3480
2
3482
2
3484
2
3486
2
3488
2
3490
2
3492
2
3494
2
3496
2
3498
2
3500
2
3502
2
3504
2
3506
2
3508
2
3510
2
3512
2
3514
2
3516
2
3518
2
3520
2
3522
2

3782

642

994

3783

3784

646

3784

646

996

3785

3786

650

3786

650

998

3787

3788

654

3788

654

1000

3789

3790

658

3790

658

1002

3791

3792

662

3792

662

1004

3793

3794

666

3794

666

1006

3795

3796

670

3796

670

1008

3797

3798

674

3798

674

1010

3799

3800

678

3800

678

1012

3801

3802

682

3802

682

1014

3803

3804

686

31

11

10

32

2495

35

2495

35

34

3478

2497

39

2497

39

38

3480

2499

43

2499

43

42

3482

2501

47

2501

47

46

3484

2503

51

2503

51

50

3486

2505

55

2505

55

54

3488

2507

59

2507

59

58

3490

2509

63

2509

63

62

3492

2511

67

2511

67

66

3494

2513

71

2513

71

70

3496

2515

75

2515

75

74

3498

2517

79

2517

79

78

3500

2519

83

2519

83

82

3502

2521

87

2521

87

86

3504

2523

91

2523

91

90

3506

2525

95

2525

95

94

3508

2527

99

2527

99

98

3510

2529

103

2529

103

102

3512

2531

107

2531

107

106

3514

2533

111

2533

111

110

3516

2535

115

2535

115

114

3518

2537

119

2537

119

118

3520

2539

123

2539

123

122

3522

2541

127

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

247

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

248

126
2173
130
2174
134
2175
138
2176
142
2177
146
2178
150
2179
154
2180
158
2181
162
2182
166
2183
170
2184
174
2185
178
2186
182
2187
186
2188
190
2189
194
2190
198
2271
522
2272
526
2273
530
2274
534
2275
538
2276
542
2277
546
2278
550
2279
554
2280
558
2281
562
2282
566
2283
570
2284
574
2285
578
2286
582
2287

3524
2
3526
2
3528
2
3530
2
3532
2
3534
2
3536
2
3538
2
3540
2
3542
2
3544
2
3546
2
3548
2
3550
2
3552
2
3554
2
3556
2
3558
2
3560
2
3722
2
3724
2
3726
2
3728
2
3730
2
3732
2
3734
2
3736
2
3738
2
3740
2
3742
2
3744
2
3746
2
3748
2
3750
2
3752
2

2541

127

126

3524

2543

131

2543

131

130

3526

2545

135

2545

135

134

3528

2547

139

2547

139

138

3530

2549

143

2549

143

142

3532

2551

147

2551

147

146

3534

2553

151

2553

151

150

3536

2555

155

2555

155

154

3538

2557

159

2557

159

158

3540

2559

163

2559

163

162

3542

2561

167

2561

167

166

3544

2563

171

2563

171

170

3546

2565

175

2565

175

174

3548

2567

179

2567

179

178

3550

2569

183

2569

183

182

3552

2571

187

2571

187

186

3554

2573

191

2573

191

190

3556

2575

195

2575

195

194

3558

2577

199

2577

199

198

3560

2739

523

2739

523

522

3722

2741

527

2741

527

526

3724

2743

531

2743

531

530

3726

2745

535

2745

535

534

3728

2747

539

2747

539

538

3730

2749

543

2749

543

542

3732

2751

547

2751

547

546

3734

2753

551

2753

551

550

3736

2755

555

2755

555

554

3738

2757

559

2757

559

558

3740

2759

563

2759

563

562

3742

2761

567

2761

567

566

3744

2763

571

2763

571

570

3746

2765

575

2765

575

574

3748

2767

579

2767

579

578

3750

2769

583

2769

583

582

3752

2771

587

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

586
2288
590
2289
594
2290
598
2291
602
2292
606
2293
610
2294
614
2295
618
2296
622
2297
626
2298
630
2299
634
2300
638
2301
642
2302
646
2303
650
2304
654
2305
658
2306
662
2307
666
2308
670
2309
674
2310
678
2311
682
2312
686
2313
3479
2314
3481
2315
3483
2316
3485
2317
3487
2318
3489
2319
3491
2320
3493
2321
3495
2322

Altair Engineering

3754
2
3756
2
3758
2
3760
2
3762
2
3764
2
3766
2
3768
2
3770
2
3772
2
3774
2
3776
2
3778
2
3780
2
3782
2
3784
2
3786
2
3788
2
3790
2
3792
2
3794
2
3796
2
3798
2
3800
2
3802
2
3804
2
3807
2
3809
2
3811
2
3813
2
3815
2
3817
2
3819
2
3821
2
3823
2

2771

587

586

3754

2773

591

2773

591

590

3756

2775

595

2775

595

594

3758

2777

599

2777

599

598

3760

2779

603

2779

603

602

3762

2781

607

2781

607

606

3764

2783

611

2783

611

610

3766

2785

615

2785

615

614

3768

2787

619

2787

619

618

3770

2789

623

2789

623

622

3772

2791

627

2791

627

626

3774

2793

631

2793

631

630

3776

2795

635

2795

635

634

3778

2797

639

2797

639

638

3780

2799

643

2799

643

642

3782

2801

647

2801

647

646

3784

2803

651

2803

651

650

3786

2805

655

2805

655

654

3788

2807

659

2807

659

658

3790

2809

663

2809

663

662

3792

2811

667

2811

667

666

3794

2813

671

2813

671

670

3796

2815

675

2815

675

674

3798

2817

679

2817

679

678

3800

2819

683

2819

683

682

3802

2821

687

26

32

24

25

3806

3478

3806

3478

3479

3807

3808

3480

3808

3480

3481

3809

3810

3482

3810

3482

3483

3811

3812

3484

3812

3484

3485

3813

3814

3486

3814

3486

3487

3815

3816

3488

3816

3488

3489

3817

3818

3490

3818

3490

3491

3819

3820

3492

3820

3492

3493

3821

3822

3494

3822

3494

3495

3823

3824

3496

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

249

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

250

3497
2323
3499
2324
3501
2325
3503
2326
3505
2327
3507
2328
3509
2329
3511
2330
3513
2331
3515
2332
3517
2333
3519
2334
3521
2335
3523
2336
3525
2337
3527
2338
3529
2339
3531
2340
3533
2341
3535
2342
3537
2343
3539
2344
3541
2345
3543
2346
3545
2347
3547
2348
3549
2349
3551
2350
3553
2351
3555
2352
3557
2353
3559
2354
3561
2435
3723
2436
3725
2437

3825
2
3827
2
3829
2
3831
2
3833
2
3835
2
3837
2
3839
2
3841
2
3843
2
3845
2
3847
2
3849
2
3851
2
3853
2
3855
2
3857
2
3859
2
3861
2
3863
2
3865
2
3867
2
3869
2
3871
2
3873
2
3875
2
3877
2
3879
2
3881
2
3883
2
3885
2
3887
2
3889
2
4051
2
4053
2

3824

3496

3497

3825

3826

3498

3826

3498

3499

3827

3828

3500

3828

3500

3501

3829

3830

3502

3830

3502

3503

3831

3832

3504

3832

3504

3505

3833

3834

3506

3834

3506

3507

3835

3836

3508

3836

3508

3509

3837

3838

3510

3838

3510

3511

3839

3840

3512

3840

3512

3513

3841

3842

3514

3842

3514

3515

3843

3844

3516

3844

3516

3517

3845

3846

3518

3846

3518

3519

3847

3848

3520

3848

3520

3521

3849

3850

3522

3850

3522

3523

3851

3852

3524

3852

3524

3525

3853

3854

3526

3854

3526

3527

3855

3856

3528

3856

3528

3529

3857

3858

3530

3858

3530

3531

3859

3860

3532

3860

3532

3533

3861

3862

3534

3862

3534

3535

3863

3864

3536

3864

3536

3537

3865

3866

3538

3866

3538

3539

3867

3868

3540

3868

3540

3541

3869

3870

3542

3870

3542

3543

3871

3872

3544

3872

3544

3545

3873

3874

3546

3874

3546

3547

3875

3876

3548

3876

3548

3549

3877

3878

3550

3878

3550

3551

3879

3880

3552

3880

3552

3553

3881

3882

3554

3882

3554

3555

3883

3884

3556

3884

3556

3557

3885

3886

3558

3886

3558

3559

3887

3888

3560

3888

3560

3561

3889

4050

3722

4050

3722

3723

4051

4052

3724

4052

3724

3725

4053

4054

3726

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

3727
2438
3729
2439
3731
2440
3733
2441
3735
2442
3737
2443
3739
2444
3741
2445
3743
2446
3745
2447
3747
2448
3749
2449
3751
2450
3753
2451
3755
2452
3757
2453
3759
2454
3761
2455
3763
2456
3765
2457
3767
2458
3769
2459
3771
2460
3773
2461
3775
2462
3777
2463
3779
2464
3781
2465
3783
2466
3785
2467
3787
2468
3789
2469
3791
2470
3793
2471
3795
2472

Altair Engineering

4055
2
4057
2
4059
2
4061
2
4063
2
4065
2
4067
2
4069
2
4071
2
4073
2
4075
2
4077
2
4079
2
4081
2
4083
2
4085
2
4087
2
4089
2
4091
2
4093
2
4095
2
4097
2
4099
2
4101
2
4103
2
4105
2
4107
2
4109
2
4111
2
4113
2
4115
2
4117
2
4119
2
4121
2
4123
2

4054

3726

3727

4055

4056

3728

4056

3728

3729

4057

4058

3730

4058

3730

3731

4059

4060

3732

4060

3732

3733

4061

4062

3734

4062

3734

3735

4063

4064

3736

4064

3736

3737

4065

4066

3738

4066

3738

3739

4067

4068

3740

4068

3740

3741

4069

4070

3742

4070

3742

3743

4071

4072

3744

4072

3744

3745

4073

4074

3746

4074

3746

3747

4075

4076

3748

4076

3748

3749

4077

4078

3750

4078

3750

3751

4079

4080

3752

4080

3752

3753

4081

4082

3754

4082

3754

3755

4083

4084

3756

4084

3756

3757

4085

4086

3758

4086

3758

3759

4087

4088

3760

4088

3760

3761

4089

4090

3762

4090

3762

3763

4091

4092

3764

4092

3764

3765

4093

4094

3766

4094

3766

3767

4095

4096

3768

4096

3768

3769

4097

4098

3770

4098

3770

3771

4099

4100

3772

4100

3772

3773

4101

4102

3774

4102

3774

3775

4103

4104

3776

4104

3776

3777

4105

4106

3778

4106

3778

3779

4107

4108

3780

4108

3780

3781

4109

4110

3782

4110

3782

3783

4111

4112

3784

4112

3784

3785

4113

4114

3786

4114

3786

3787

4115

4116

3788

4116

3788

3789

4117

4118

3790

4118

3790

3791

4119

4120

3792

4120

3792

3793

4121

4122

3794

4122

3794

3795

4123

4124

3796

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+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

252

3797
2473
3799
2474
3801
2475
3803
2476
3805
2477
3478
2478
3480
2479
3482
2480
3484
2481
3486
2482
3488
2483
3490
2484
3492
2485
3494
2486
3496
2487
3498
2488
3500
2489
3502
2490
3504
2491
3506
2492
3508
2493
3510
2494
3512
2495
3514
2496
3516
2497
3518
2498
3520
2499
3522
2500
3524
2501
3526
2502
3528
2503
3530
2504
3532
2505
3534
2506
3536
2507

4125
2
4127
2
4129
2
4131
2
4133
2
3806
2
3808
2
3810
2
3812
2
3814
2
3816
2
3818
2
3820
2
3822
2
3824
2
3826
2
3828
2
3830
2
3832
2
3834
2
3836
2
3838
2
3840
2
3842
2
3844
2
3846
2
3848
2
3850
2
3852
2
3854
2
3856
2
3858
2
3860
2
3862
2
3864
2

4124

3796

3797

4125

4126

3798

4126

3798

3799

4127

4128

3800

4128

3800

3801

4129

4130

3802

4130

3802

3803

4131

4132

3804

27

31

32

26

2987

2495

2987

2495

3478

3806

2989

2497

2989

2497

3480

3808

2991

2499

2991

2499

3482

3810

2993

2501

2993

2501

3484

3812

2995

2503

2995

2503

3486

3814

2997

2505

2997

2505

3488

3816

2999

2507

2999

2507

3490

3818

3001

2509

3001

2509

3492

3820

3003

2511

3003

2511

3494

3822

3005

2513

3005

2513

3496

3824

3007

2515

3007

2515

3498

3826

3009

2517

3009

2517

3500

3828

3011

2519

3011

2519

3502

3830

3013

2521

3013

2521

3504

3832

3015

2523

3015

2523

3506

3834

3017

2525

3017

2525

3508

3836

3019

2527

3019

2527

3510

3838

3021

2529

3021

2529

3512

3840

3023

2531

3023

2531

3514

3842

3025

2533

3025

2533

3516

3844

3027

2535

3027

2535

3518

3846

3029

2537

3029

2537

3520

3848

3031

2539

3031

2539

3522

3850

3033

2541

3033

2541

3524

3852

3035

2543

3035

2543

3526

3854

3037

2545

3037

2545

3528

3856

3039

2547

3039

2547

3530

3858

3041

2549

3041

2549

3532

3860

3043

2551

3043

2551

3534

3862

3045

2553

3045

2553

3536

3864

3047

2555

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA
+
CHEXA

3538
2508
3540
2509
3542
2510
3544
2511
3546
2512
3548
2513
3550
2514
3552
2515
3554
2516
3556
2517
3558
2518
3560
2599
3722
2600
3724
2601
3726
2602
3728
2603
3730
2604
3732
2605
3734
2606
3736
2607
3738
2608
3740
2609
3742
2610
3744
2611
3746
2612
3748
2613
3750
2614
3752
2615
3754
2616
3756
2617
3758
2618
3760
2619
3762
2620
3764
2621
3766
2622

Altair Engineering

3866
2
3868
2
3870
2
3872
2
3874
2
3876
2
3878
2
3880
2
3882
2
3884
2
3886
2
3888
2
4050
2
4052
2
4054
2
4056
2
4058
2
4060
2
4062
2
4064
2
4066
2
4068
2
4070
2
4072
2
4074
2
4076
2
4078
2
4080
2
4082
2
4084
2
4086
2
4088
2
4090
2
4092
2
4094
2

3047

2555

3538

3866

3049

2557

3049

2557

3540

3868

3051

2559

3051

2559

3542

3870

3053

2561

3053

2561

3544

3872

3055

2563

3055

2563

3546

3874

3057

2565

3057

2565

3548

3876

3059

2567

3059

2567

3550

3878

3061

2569

3061

2569

3552

3880

3063

2571

3063

2571

3554

3882

3065

2573

3065

2573

3556

3884

3067

2575

3067

2575

3558

3886

3069

2577

3069

2577

3560

3888

3231

2739

3231

2739

3722

4050

3233

2741

3233

2741

3724

4052

3235

2743

3235

2743

3726

4054

3237

2745

3237

2745

3728

4056

3239

2747

3239

2747

3730

4058

3241

2749

3241

2749

3732

4060

3243

2751

3243

2751

3734

4062

3245

2753

3245

2753

3736

4064

3247

2755

3247

2755

3738

4066

3249

2757

3249

2757

3740

4068

3251

2759

3251

2759

3742

4070

3253

2761

3253

2761

3744

4072

3255

2763

3255

2763

3746

4074

3257

2765

3257

2765

3748

4076

3259

2767

3259

2767

3750

4078

3261

2769

3261

2769

3752

4080

3263

2771

3263

2771

3754

4082

3265

2773

3265

2773

3756

4084

3267

2775

3267

2775

3758

4086

3269

2777

3269

2777

3760

4088

3271

2779

3271

2779

3762

4090

3273

2781

3273

2781

3764

4092

3275

2783

3275

2783

3766

4094

3277

2785

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


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253

+
3768
4096
CHEXA
2623
2
3277
2785
3768
4096
3279
2787
+
3770
4098
CHEXA
2624
2
3279
2787
3770
4098
3281
2789
+
3772
4100
CHEXA
2625
2
3281
2789
3772
4100
3283
2791
+
3774
4102
CHEXA
2626
2
3283
2791
3774
4102
3285
2793
+
3776
4104
CHEXA
2627
2
3285
2793
3776
4104
3287
2795
+
3778
4106
CHEXA
2628
2
3287
2795
3778
4106
3289
2797
+
3780
4108
CHEXA
2629
2
3289
2797
3780
4108
3291
2799
+
3782
4110
CHEXA
2630
2
3291
2799
3782
4110
3293
2801
+
3784
4112
CHEXA
2631
2
3293
2801
3784
4112
3295
2803
+
3786
4114
CHEXA
2632
2
3295
2803
3786
4114
3297
2805
+
3788
4116
CHEXA
2633
2
3297
2805
3788
4116
3299
2807
+
3790
4118
CHEXA
2634
2
3299
2807
3790
4118
3301
2809
+
3792
4120
CHEXA
2635
2
3301
2809
3792
4120
3303
2811
+
3794
4122
CHEXA
2636
2
3303
2811
3794
4122
3305
2813
+
3796
4124
CHEXA
2637
2
3305
2813
3796
4124
3307
2815
+
3798
4126
CHEXA
2638
2
3307
2815
3798
4126
3309
2817
+
3800
4128
CHEXA
2639
2
3309
2817
3800
4128
3311
2819
+
3802
4130
CHEXA
2640
2
3311
2819
3802
4130
3313
2821
+
3804
4132
$
$HMMOVE
2
$
17THRU
58
139THRU
222
303THRU
386
$
467THRU
550
631THRU
714
795THRU
878
$
959THRU
1042
1123THRU
1206
1287THRU
1370
$
1451THRU
1534
1615THRU
1698
1779THRU
1862
$
1943THRU
2026
2107THRU
2190
2271THRU
2354
$
2435THRU
2518
2599THRU
2640
$
$$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$$
HyperMesh name and color information for generic components
$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$HMNAME COMP
2"Air"
2 "Air" 5
$HWCOLOR COMP
2
5
$
$HMNAME COMP
5"Piston"
$HWCOLOR COMP
5
8
$
$HMNAME COMP
6"absorber"
$HWCOLOR COMP
6
3
$
$
$HMDPRP
$
17THRU
58
139THRU
222
303THRU
386
$
467THRU
550
631THRU
714
795THRU
878
$
959THRU
1042
1123THRU
1206
1287THRU
1370
$
1451THRU
1534
1615THRU
1698
1779THRU
1862
$
1943THRU
2026
2107THRU
2190
2271THRU
2354
$
2435THRU
2518
2599THRU
2640
5627
5629
6116
$
6122
6125
6520THRU
6521
6523
6528
6954
7220
$
7647
7652
7945
7948
7955
$

254

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

$
$$
$$ PSHELL Data
$$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$HMNAME PROP
1"tube" 4
$HWCOLOR PROP
1
52
PSHELL
1
20.1
2
2
0.0
$$
$$ PSOLID Data
$$
$HMNAME PROP
2"Air" 5
$HWCOLOR PROP
2
4
PSOLID
2
1
PFLUID
$$
$$ MAT1 Data
$$
$HMNAME MAT
2"alum" "MAT1"
$HWCOLOR MAT
2
3
MAT1
21.0+7
0.3
0.000254
$$
$$ MAT10 Data
$HMNAME MAT
1"Air" "MAT10"
$HWCOLOR MAT
1
3
MAT10
1
1.21-7 13000.0
$$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$$ HyperMesh Commands for loadcollectors name and color information $
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$HMNAME LOADCOL
2"spc"
$HWCOLOR LOADCOL
2
6
$$
$HMNAME LOADCOL
8"Force"
$HWCOLOR LOADCOL
8
7
$$
$HMNAME LOADCOL
12"SPC"
$HWCOLOR LOADCOL
12
5
$$
$$
$$ FREQi cards
$$
$HMNAME LOADCOL
3"Freq"
$HWCOLOR LOADCOL
3
6
$FREQ1
3
0.0
5.0
600
FREQ
3480.
$
$$
$$ RLOAD1 cards
$$
$HMNAME LOADCOL
6"Rload"
$HWCOLOR LOADCOL
6
6
RLOAD1
6
8
7
0
VELO
$$
$$
$$ TABLED1 cards
$$
$HMNAME LOADCOL
7"Table"
$HWCOLOR LOADCOL
7
6
TABLED1
7 LINEAR LINEAR
+
0.0
1.0 3000.0
1.0ENDT
$$
$HMNAME LOADCOL
10"reactance"

Altair Engineering

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

255

$HWCOLOR LOADCOL
10
5
TABLED1
10 LINEAR LINEAR
+
0.0 0.00154 3000.0 0.00154ENDT
$$
$HMNAME LOADCOL
11"Impedance"
$HWCOLOR LOADCOL
11
5
TABLED1
11 LINEAR LINEAR
+
0.0
0.0 3000.0
0.0ENDT
$$
$$
$$ DLOAD cards
$$
$HMNAME LOADCOL
9"Dload"
$HWCOLOR LOADCOL
9
6
DLOAD
91.0
1.0
6
$$
$$ EIGRL cards
$$
$HMNAME LOADCOL
4"EigrlTube"
$HWCOLOR LOADCOL
4
6
EIGRL
4
5
$HMNAME LOADCOL
5"EigrlAir"
$HWCOLOR LOADCOL
5
6
EIGRL
5
30
$$
$$ SPC Data
$$
SPC1
12123456 6776
thru
6800
spcd
86776
3
1.0
spcd
86777
3
1.0
spcd
86778
3
1.0
spcd
86779
3
1.0
spcd
86780
3
1.0
spcd
86781
3
1.0
spcd
86782
3
1.0
spcd
86783
3
1.0
spcd
86784
3
1.0
spcd
86785
3
1.0
spcd
86786
3
1.0
spcd
86788
3
1.0
spcd
86789
3
1.0
spcd
86790
3
1.0
spcd
86791
3
1.0
spcd
86792
3
1.0
spcd
86793
3
1.0
spcd
86794
3
1.0
spcd
86795
3
1.0
spcd
86796
3
1.0
spcd
86797
3
1.0
spcd
86798
3
1.0
spcd
86799
3
1.0
spcd
86800
3
1.0
$
$ DAREA Data
$
$$
$$ DAREA Data
$$
DAREA
8
6798
3-15.0
$$
$$
CAABSF
7957
5
689
688
687
CAABSF
7960
5
1017
689
686
CAABSF
7964
5
1345
1344
688
CAABSF
7969
5
1509
1345
689
CAABSF
7972
5
2165
2164
2163
CAABSF
7977
5
688
2165
2162
CAABSF
7978
5
4133
3805
3804
CAABSF
7980
5
2493
2492
2164
CAABSF
7984
5
1344
2493
2165

256

MASS
MASS

686
1016
689
1017
2162
687
4132
2165
688

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

CAABSF
7985
5
2821
687
2162
2820
CAABSF
7988
5
2820
2162
2163
2985
CAABSF
7990
5
3313
2821
2820
3312
CAABSF
7994
5
3312
2820
2985
3477
CAABSF
7996
5
3805
1016
686
3804
CAABSF
7998
5
3804
686
687
2821
CAABSF
8003
5
4132
3804
2821
3313
PAABSF
5
11
10
ENDDATA
$$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$$
$$
Data Definition for AutoDV
$$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$$
$$
$$-----------------------------------------------------------------------------$$
$$
Design Variables Card for Control Perturbations
$$
$$-----------------------------------------------------------------------------$$
$
$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$
Domain Element Definitions
$
$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$$
$$
Nodeset Definitions
$$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$$
$$ Design domain node sets
$$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$$
$$
Control Perturbation
$$
$$------------------------------------------------------------------------------$$
$$
$$
$$ CONTROL PERTURBATION Data
$$

ALTDOCTAG "0mjpRI@DXd^3_0ASnbi`;l;q6A23R@9_67hgW8R?OiZ]
Eq:PeN``A;WXh3ITgJeq5NZRd5jSHQK3X@:`a12;n4qD_I^RYMo"
ADI0.1.0 2011-02-11T20:16:20 0of1 OSQA
ENDDOCTAG

Altair Engineering

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

257

Radiated Sound Analysis


Radiated Sound Output
Radiated Sound Output can be requested for grid points on the structural surface and in the
exterior acoustic field. Grid points are used to represent microphones to record the radiated
sound, sound power, and sound intensity.

Guide for Requesting Radiated Sound Output


The following procedure can be considered as a guide for requesting radiated sound
output:
1. Microphones that record sound levels in the acoustic field can be defined as grid point
sets using the RADSND (MSET field) bulk data entry.
2. PANELG (TYPE=SOUND/Blank) can be used to define the sound generating panel(s)
which are to be considered for radiated sound output calculations.
3. The PANEL continuation line in the RADSND bulk data entry can be used to list the
panel IDs of the panels defined using PANELG (TYPE=SOUND/Blank). This allows the
definition of the sound generating panels that contribute to the calculation of radiated
sound output at the microphones (Grid points) listed in the MSET field of the RADSND
bulk data entry.
4. The value of the speed of sound c required to define the wave number and the
complex particle velocity vector is input using PARAM, SPLC. The density of the acoustic
medium e used in the calculation of the complex acoustic sound pressure and the
complex particle velocity vector is defined using PARAM, SPLRHO. An additional scale
factor q can be specified using PARAM, SPLFAC in the Sound Pressure Level
calculation.
5. Various outputs can be requested for this analysis. SPOWER output request can be
used to request sound power, SINTENS can be used to request sound intensity and SPL
can be used to request sound pressure.

258

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Figure 1: Radiated sound output from a panel.

The set up guide for radiated sound output calculation is described in the previous section.
The procedure is based on the following set of equations for the calculation of each output
type.

Analytical Background for Radiated Sound Output


The sound radiated from the sound generating panel is reduced to sound generation from
discrete point sources. The grid points of the finite element mesh on the surface of the panel
are considered as sound sources. Sound power and sound intensity can be requested for
both the source grids and the microphone grids.

At the Microphone Location


Wave Number
The wave number, k is defined as follows:

2 f
c

Where,

c is the speed of sound defined by PARAM, SPLC.


f is the frequency of the sound wave in the medium.

Altair Engineering

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

259

Velocity Flux of the Source Grid


The velocity flux of the source grid is the rate at which panel material in an infinitesimal
area surrounding the grid point moves through the medium.

Figure 2: Defining the Velocity Flux

For each frequency, it is calculated as follows:

V flux f

V f

uuur
A

Where,
is the velocity vector of the source grid.
is the area vector associated with the source grid defined as follows:

uuur
A

r
AX n s

Where,

A is the area associated with the source grid.


is the unit normal to the panel surface at the source grid (see Figure 2).

Complex Acoustic Sound Pressure (Requested using SPL)


The complex acoustic sound pressure is the deviation from the ambient atmospheric
pressure caused by a sound wave. This is denoted by
and is defined as the sound
pressure deviation, due to a single sound panel grid j at the microphone location for each
frequency as follows:

Total Complex Acoustic Sound Pressure requested by SPL is:

260

OptiStruct 13.0 User's Guide


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Altair Engineering

Where,
is the frequency of the sound wave in the medium.
is the density of the acoustic medium defined by PARAM, SPLRHO.

rj is the distance from the acoustic source grid j on the panel to the microphone
location grid (see Figure 1).
is the velocity flux of the source grid.

k is the wave number as defined in Wave Number.


i is the square root of -1
np is the number of source grids (see Figure 1).
q is the value of the scale factor specified using the parameter PARAM, SPLFAC.
The Sound Pressure Level in decibels (SPLdB - Also requested using SPL) can be calculated
using the following equation:

SPLdB

20.0 * log10 (

SPL
SPLREFDB

Where,

SPLdB is the Sound Pressure Level in decibels.

SPL

is the magnitude of the acoustic sound pressure.

SPLREFDB is the reference sound pressure value specified using the parameter PARAM,
SPLREFDB

Complex Particle Velocity Vector


The complex particle velocity vector is the velocity of a particle in a medium measured as a
wave passes through it. The particle velocity is not the velocity of the wave itself; rather it
is the velocity of a particle as it oscillates about a mean position, due to the passage of the
wave. It is denoted by
at the location of the microphone, due to the source grid
(see Figure 1) and is defined for each frequency as follows:

uuur
( pv) j ( f )

pj ( f ) X
j

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Where,
is the complex acoustic pressure, due to source grid,
is the unit vector from the source grid

r
Xj
r
Xj

X
j

j at the microphone location.

j to the microphone grid (see Figure 1).

r
Xj
rj

is the density of the acoustic medium defined by PARAM, SPLRHO.

c is the speed of sound defined by PARAM, SPLC.


k is the wave number as defined in Wave Number.
rj is the distance from the acoustic source grid j on the panel to the microphone grid
(see Figure 1).

i is the square root of -1


Total Sound Power (Requested using SPOWER)
The total sound power is the rate of change of sound energy with time in the domain of
reference. The total sound power
, due to all the source grids can be calculated at a
microphone location for each frequency as follows:
np

sp( f )

real p j ( f ). p j ( f )
j 1

Where,
is the acoustic pressure at a microphone location, due to the source grid "j".
is the complex conjugate of

np is the number of source grids (see Figure 1).


Total Complex Intensity Vector (Requested using SINTENS)
The total complex intensity vector is the sound power per unit area. The sound intensity
can be defined as a product of sound pressure and the particle velocity vector. For multiple
source grids, the total sound intensity at a microphone location for each frequency is given
as follows:

uur

iv( f )

262

1
2

np

uuuur

real p j ( f ).( pv) j ( f )


j 1

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Where,
is the acoustic pressure at the microphone location due to the sound generated at
the source grid "j".
is the complex conjugate of
, which is the complex particle velocity
vector at the microphone location, due to the sound generated at the source grid "j".

At the Source Grid Location


Wave Number
The wave number is independent of the location of the grid points. Now define a set of
displacement vectors that relate source grids to one another. To do this, each source grid
is considered to be associated with an area (A) on the panel.

Figure 3: Displacement vectors at the source grids.

The vector addition operation for displacement vectors from Figure 3 is as follows:

uuur

Xs

uur uuur

Xr

Where,
is the vector from a source grid (1) to the source grid (2) of interest.
is defined as:

uuur

Xr

1 Ar
Xn s
2

Where,

A is the area associated with a source grid.


is the unit normal to the area,

A associated with a source grid.

Complex Acoustic Sound Pressure [at the source grid]


The complex acoustic sound pressure is the deviation from the ambient atmospheric

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pressure caused by a sound wave. This is denoted using


source grid for each frequency as follows:

f
V
f
(rs ) j flux

( ps ) j f

ie

and is defined at the

ik ( rs ) j

Total Complex Acoustic Sound Pressure at a source grid requested by SPL is:
( np 1)

( ps )total f
j 1

f
V
f
(rs ) j flux

ie

ik ( rs ) j

Where,
is the frequency of the sound wave in the medium.
is the density of the acoustic medium defined by PARAM, SPLRHO.
is equal to
, for each grid, j (j=1 to np), the magnitude (length) of
in At the Source Grid Location (see Figure 1).
is the velocity flux of the source grid,

as defined

j (see Velocity Flux of the Source Grid)

k is the wave number as defined in Wave Number.


i is the square root of -1
np is the number of source grids (see Figure 1).
q is the value of the scale factor specified using the parameter PARAM, SPLFAC.

Total Sound Power (Requested using SPOWER) [at the source grid]
The total sound power is the rate of change of sound energy with time in the domain of
reference. The total sound power
, due to all the source grids can be calculated at a
source grid of interest for each frequency as follows:
( np 1)

real ( ps ) j f .( ps )* j f

( sp) s ( f )
j 1

Where,
is the acoustic pressure at a source grid, due to the source grid "j".
is the complex conjugate of

np is the number of source grids (see Figure 1).

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Total Complex Intensity Vector (Requested using SINTENS) [at the


source grid]
The total complex intensity vector is the sound power per unit area. The sound intensity
can be defined as a product of sound pressure and the normal velocity vector. For multiple
source grids, the sound intensity

uuuuur

(iv) s ( f )

for each frequency is given as follows:

uuuur
1 ( np 1)
real ( ps ) j f . ( pv) s ( f )
2 j1

Where,
is the acoustic pressure at the source grid location of interest, due to the
sound generated at the source grid "j".

is the complex conjugate of the normal velocity vector


source grid of interest.

of the

Where the normal velocity vector of the source grid of interest is given as:

Vn

r
r
V f .X n s X n s

Refer to at the source grid location and velocity flux of the source grid sections for a
description of the terms.

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Fatigue Analysis
Fatigue analysis, using S-N (stress-life), E-N (strain-life), and Dang Van Criterion (Factor of
Safety) approaches for predicting the life (number of loading cycles) of a structure under
cyclical loading may be performed by using OptiStruct.
The stress-life method works well in predicting fatigue life when the stress level in the
structure falls mostly in the elastic range. Under such cyclical loading conditions, the
structure typically can withstand a large number of loading cycles; this is known as highcycle fatigue. When the cyclical strains extend into plastic strain range, the fatigue
endurance of the structure typically decreases significantly; this is characterized as low-cycle
fatigue. The generally accepted transition point between high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue is
around 10,000 loading cycles. For low-cycle fatigue prediction, the strain-life (E-N) method
is applied, with plastic strains being considered as an important factor in the damage
calculation.
Sections of a model on which fatigue analysis is to be performed must be identified on a
FATDEF bulk data entry. The appropriate FATDEF bulk data entry may be referenced from a
fatigue subcase definition through the FATDEF Subcase Information entry.
The Dang Van criterion is used to predict if a component will fail in its entire load history. The
conventional fatigue result that specifies the minimum fatigue cycles to failure is not
applicable in such cases. It is necessary to consider if any fatigue damage will occur during
the entire load history of the component. If damage does occur, the component cannot
experience infinite life.

The Stress-Life (S-N) Approach


S-N Curve
The S-N curve, first developed by Whler, defines a relationship between stress and number
of cycles to failure. Typically, the S-N curve (and other fatigue properties) of a material is
obtained from experiment; through fully reversed rotating bending tests. Due to the large
amount of scatter that usually accompanies test results, statistical characterization of the
data should also be provided (certainty of survival is used to modify the S-N curve according
to the standard error of the curve and a higher reliability level requires a larger certainty of
survival).

Figure 1: S-N data from testing

When S-N testing data is presented in a log-log plot of alternating nominal stress amplitude

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Sa or range SR versus cycles to failure N, the relationship between S and N can be described
by straight line segments. Normally, a one or two segment idealization is used.

Figure 2: One segment S-N curves in log-log scale

S1 N f

b1

for segment 1 (1)

Where,

S is the nominal stress range


Nf are the fatigue cycles to failure
b1 is the first fatigue strength exponent
S1 is the fatigue strength coefficient
The S-N approach is based on elastic cyclic loading, inferring that the S-N curve should be
confined, on the life axis, to numbers greater than 1000 cycles. This ensures that no
significant plasticity is occurring. This is commonly referred to as high-cycle fatigue.
S-N curve data is provided for a given material on a MATFAT bulk data entry. It is referenced
through a Material ID (MID) which is shared by a structural material definition.

Damage Model
Palmgren-Miner's linear damage summation rule is used. Failure is predicted when:

Di

ni
Nif

1.0
(2)

Where,
Nif is the materials fatigue life (number of cycles to failure) from its S-N curve at a
combination of stress amplitude and means stress level i

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ni is the number of stress cycles at load level i


Di is the cumulative damage under ni load cycle
The linear damage summation rule does not take into account the effect of the load sequence
on the accumulation of damage due to cyclic fatigue loading. However, it has been proved to
work well for many applications.

Cycle Counting
Cycle counting is used to extract discrete simple "equivalent" constant amplitude cycles from
a random loading sequence. One way to understand cycle counting is as a changing stressstrain versus time signal. Cycle counting will count the number of stress-strain hysteresis
loops and keep track of their range/mean or maximum/minimum values.
Rainflow cycle counting is the most widely used cycle counting method. It requires that the
stress time history be rearranged so that it contains only the peaks and valleys and it starts
either with the highest peak or the lowest valley (whichever is greater in absolute
magnitude). Then, three consecutive stress points (S1, S2, and S3) will define two
consecutive ranges as

S1 = |S1 - S2| and S2 = |S2 - S3| . A cycle from S1 to S2 is only


extracted if S1
S2. Once a cycle is extracted, the two points forming the cycle are
discarded and the remaining points are connected to each other. This procedure is repeated
until the remaining data points are exhausted.

Figure 3: Determine cycles using rainflow cycle counting method

Parameters affecting rainflow cycle counting may be defined on a FATPARM bulk data entry.
The appropriate FATPARM bulk data entry may be referenced from a fatigue subcase
definition through the FATPARM Subcase Information entry.

Equivalent Nominal Stress


Since S-N theory deals with uniaxial stress, the stress components need to be resolved into
one combined value for each calculation point, at each time step, and then used as
equivalent nominal stress applied on the S-N curve.

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Various stress combination types are available with the default being Absolute maximum
principle stress. In general Absolute maximum principle stress is recommended for brittle
materials, while Signed von Mises stress is recommended for ductile material. The sign on
the signed parameters is taken from the sign of the Maximum Absolute Principal value.
Parameters affecting stress combination may be defined on a FATPARM bulk data entry. The
appropriate FATPARM bulk data entry may be referenced from a fatigue subcase definition
through the FATPARM Subcase Information entry.

Mean Stress Influence


Generally S-N curves are obtained from standard experiments with fully reversed cyclic
loading. However, the real fatigue loading could not be fully reversed and the normal mean
stresses have significant effect on fatigue performance of components. Tensile normal mean
stresses are detrimental and compressive normal mean stresses are beneficial, in terms of
fatigue strength. Mean stress correction is used to take into account the effect of non-zero
mean stresses.
The Gerber parabola and the Goodman line in Haigh's coordinates are widely used when
considering mean stress influence, and can be expressed as:

Sa

Se

Sm
Su

Gerber:

(3)

Sa

Se

Sm
Su

1
Goodman:

(4)

Where,
Mean stress S

m = (Smax + Smin) / 2

Stress amplitude S = (S

max - Smin) / 2

Se is the stress range for fully reversed loading that is equivalent to the load case with a
stress range SR and a mean stress Sm

Su is ultimate strength
The Gerber method treats positive and negative mean stress correction in the same way that
mean stress always accelerates fatigue failure, while the Goodman method ignores the
negative means stress. Both methods give conservative result for compressive means stress.
The Goodman method is recommended for brittle material while the Gerber method is
recommended for ductile material. For the Goodman method, if the tensile means stress is
greater than UTS, the damage will be greater than 1.0. For Gerber method, if the mean
stress is greater than UTS, no matter tensile or compressive, the damage will be greater than
1.0.

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A Haigh diagram characterizes different combinations of stress amplitude and mean stress for
a given number of cycles to failure.

Figure 4: Haigh diagram and mean stress correction methods

Parameters affecting mean stress influence may be defined on a FATPARM bulk data entry.
The appropriate FATPARM bulk data entry may be referenced from a fatigue subcase
definition through the FATPARM Subcase Information entry.

The Strain-Life (E-N) Approach


Monotonic Stress-Strain Behavior
Relative to the current configuration, the true stress and strain relationship can be defined
as:

P/ A

(5)

(6)
Where, A is the current cross-section area, l is the current specimen length, l0 is the initial
specimen length, and and
are the true stress and strain, respectively, Figure 5 shows
the monotonic stress-strain curve in true stress-strain space. In the whole process, the
stress continues increasing to a large value until the specimen fails at C.

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Figure 5: Monotonic stress-strain curve

The curve in Figure 5 is comprised of two typical segments, namely the elastic segment OA
and plastic segment AC. The segment OA keeps the linear relationship between stress and
elastic strain following Hooke Law:

E e

(7)

Where, E is elastic modulus and e is elastic strain. The formula can also be rewritten as:

/E

(8)

by expressing elastic strain in terms of stress. For most of materials, the relationship
between the plastic strain and the stress can be represented by a simple power law of the
form:
n

(9)

Where, p is plastic strain, K is strength coefficient, and n is work hardening coefficient.


Similarly, the plastic strain can be expressed in terms of stress as:

1n
p

(10)

The total strain induced by loading the specimen up to point B or D is the sum of plastic
strain and elastic strain:

1n
e

(11)

Cyclic Stress-Strain Curve


Material exhibits different behavior under cyclic load compared with that of monotonic load.
Generally, there are four kinds of response.

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stable state
cyclically hardening
cyclically softening
softening or hardening depending on strain range
Which response will occur depends on its nature and initial condition of heat treatment.
Figure 6 illustrates the effect of cyclic hardening and cyclic softening where the first two
hysteresis loops of two different materials are plotted. In both cases, the strain is
constrained to change in fixed range, while the stress is allowed to change arbitrarily. If the
stress range increases relative to the former cycle under fixed strain range, as shown in the
upper part of Figure 6, it is called cyclic hardening; otherwise, it is called cyclic softening, as
shown in the lower part of Figure 6. Cyclic response of material can also be described by
specifying the stress range and leaving strain unconstrained. If the strain range increases
relative to the former cycle under fixed stress range, it is called cyclic softening; otherwise, it
is called cyclic hardening. In fact, the cyclic behavior of material will reach a steady state
after a short time which generally occupies less than 10 percent of the material total life.
Through specifying different strain ranges, a series of hysteresis loops at steady state can be
obtained. By placing these hysteresis loops in one coordinate system, as shown in Figure 7,
the line connecting all the vertices of these hysteresis loops determine cyclic stress-strain
curve which can be expressed in the similar form with monotonic stress-strain curve as:

Figure 6: Material cyclic response (a) Cyclic hardening; (b) Cyclic softening

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Figure 7: Definition of stable stress-strain curve

1 n'
e

K'

(12)

Where, K' is cyclic strength coefficient, n' is strain cyclic hardening exponent.

Hysteresis Loop Shape


Bauschinger observed that after the initial load had caused plastic strain, load reversal
caused materials to exhibit anisotropic behavior. Based on experiment evidence, Massing put
forward the hypothesis that a stress-strain hysteresis loop is geometrically similar to the
cyclic stress strain curve, but with twice the magnitude. This implies that when the quantity

is two times of
, the stress-strain cycle will lie on the hysteresis loop. This can
be expressed with formulas:

(13)

(14)

Expressing
in terms of
,
in terms of
hysteresis loop formula can be deduced as:

, and substituting it into Eq. 12, the

1 n'

2K '

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(15)

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Strain-Life Approach
Almost a century ago, Basquin observed the linear relationship between stress and fatigue
life in log scale when the stress is limited. He put forward the following fatigue formula
controlled by stress:
'
f

2N f

(16)

Where, a is stress amplitude,


fatigue strength coefficient, b fatigue strength exponent.
Later in the 1950s, Coffin and Manson independently proposed that plastic strain may also be
related with fatigue life by a simple power law:

pa

' 2N
f
f

(17)

Where,
is plastic strain amplitude,
fatigue ductility coefficient, c fatigue ductility
exponent. Morrow combined the work of Basquin, Coffin and Manson to consider both elastic
strain and plastic strain contribution to the fatigue life. He found out that the total strain has
more direct correlation with fatigue life. By applying Hooke Law, Basquin rule can be
rewritten as:

ea

'
f

2N f

b
(18)

Where,
is elastic strain amplitude. Total strain amplitude, which is the sum of the elastic
strain and plastic stain, therefore, can be described by applying Basquin formula and CoffinManson formula:

'
f
a

ea

pa

2N f

' 2N
f
f

c
(19)

Where, is the total strain amplitude, the other variable is the same with above. Figure 8
illustrates three methods in log scale in stress-life space. Two straight lines, which represent
Basquin formula and Coffin-Manson rule respectively, intersect at a point where elastic strain
is equal to the plastic strain and the fatigue life predicted by the two methods is the same.
The fatigue life at the intersection point is called transition life and can be calculated as:
' E/
f

2 Nt

'
f

1 b c

(20)

by combining Eq.17 and Eq.18, at the same time, applying the conditions:
ea

Nt

pa

(21)

Nf

(22)

Where, Nt is the transition life. When fatigue life is less than the transition life, plastic strain
plays the controlling role in life prediction; otherwise, elastic strain plays the key role.

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Figure 8: Strain-life curve in log scale

Damage Accumulation Model


In the E-N approach, use the same damage accumulation model as the S-N approach, which
is Palmgren-Miner's linear damage summation rule.

Mean Stress Influence


The fatigue experiments carried out in the laboratory are always fully reversed, whereas in
practice, the mean stress is inevitable, thus the fatigue law established by the fully reversed
experiments must be corrected before applied to engineering problems. Morrow is the first to
consider the effect of mean stress through introducing the mean stress 0 in fatigue strength
coefficient by:
'
f
ea

2N f

(23)

Thus the entire fatigue life formula becomes:


'
f
a

2N f

'
f

2N f

(24)

Morrow's equation is consistent with the observation that mean stress effects are significant
at low value of plastic strain and of little effect at high plastic strain.
Smith, Watson and Topper proposed a different method to account for the effect of mean
stress by considering the maximum stress during one cycle (for convenience, this method is
called SWT in the following). In this case, the damage parameter is modified as the product
of the maximum stress and strain range in one cycle. For a fully reversed cycle, the
maximum stress is given by:
max

'
f

2N f

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(25)

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By multiplying Eq.19 with Eq.25, it can be rewritten as:

'
f
max a

2N f

2b

' ' 2N
f f
f

b c
(26)

The SWT method will predict that no damage will occur when the maximum stress is zero or
negative, which is not consistent with the reality.
When comparing the two methods, the SWT method predicted conservative life for loads
predominantly tensile, whereas, the Morrow approach provides more realistic results when
the load is predominantly compressive.

Neuber Correction
Strain-life analysis is based on the fact that many critical locations such as notch roots have
stress concentration, which will have obvious plastic deformation during the cyclic loading
before fatigue failure. Thus, the elastic-plastic strain results are essential for performing
strain-life analysis. Neuber correction is the most popular practice to correct elastic analysis
results into elastic-plastic results.
In order to derive the local stress from the nominal stress that is easier to obtain, the
concentration factors are introduced such as the local stress concentration factor
the local strain concentration factor

K , and

K .

/S

(27)

/e

(28)

Where,
is the local stress, is the local strain, S is the nominal stress, and e is the nominal
strain. If nominal stress and local stress are both elastic, the local stress concentration factor
is equal to the local strain concentration factor. However, if the plastic strain is present, the

relationship between
and
no long holds. Thereafter, focusing on this situation,
Neuber introduced a theoretically elastic stress concentration factor Kt defined as:

Kt2

K K

(29)

Substitute Eq.27 and Eq.28 into Eq.29, the theoretical stress concentration factor Kt can be
rewritten as:

Kt2

(30)

Through linear static FEA, the local stress instead of nominal stress is provided, which implies
the effect of the geometry in Eq.30 is removed, thus you can set Kt as 1 and rewrite Eq.30
as:
e e

Where,
,

276

(31)
is locally elastic stress and locally elastic strain obtained from elastic analysis,

the stress and strain at the presence of plastic strain. Both

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from Eq.31 together with the equations for the cyclic stress-strain curve and hysteresis loop.

Dang Van Criterion (Factor of Safety)


The Dang Van criterion is used to predict if a component will fail in its entire load history. In
certain physical systems, components may be required to last infinitely long. For example,
automobile components which undergo multiaxial cyclic loading at high rotational velocities
(like propeller shafts) reach their high cycle fatigue limit within a short operating life. The
conventional fatigue result that specifies the minimum fatigue cycles to failure is not
applicable in such cases. It is not necessary to quantify the amount of fatigue damage, but
just to consider if any fatigue damage will occur during the entire load history of the
component. If damage does occur, the component cannot experience infinite life. Fatigue
analysis based on the Dang Van criterion is designed for this purpose.
Fatigue crack initiation usually occurs at zones of stress concentration such as geometric
discontinuities, fillets, notches and so on. This phenomenon takes place in the microscopic
level and is localized to certain regions like grains which have undergone local plastic
deformation in characteristic intra-crystalline bands. The Dang Van approach postulates a
fatigue criterion using microscopic variables in the apparent stabilization state; this is a state
of elastic shakedown if no damage occurs. The main principle of the criterion is that the usual
characterization of the fatigue cycle is replaced by the local loading path and so damaging
loads can be distinguished.
The general procedure of Dang Van fatigue analysis is:
1. Evaluate the macroscopic stresses
2. Split the macroscopic stress

ij

(t )

ij

(t )

, for each location at a different point in time.

into a hydrostatic part

3. Calculate the stabilized microscopic residual stress


equation:

dev

dev

p (t ) and a deviatoric part Sij (t ) .

based on the following

Min( Max( J 2 ( Sij (t ) dev )))

The expression is minimized with respect to

and maximized with respect to t.

4. Calculate the deviatoric part of microscopic stress.

sij (t )

Sij (t ) dev

5. Calculate factor of safety (FOS):

FOS

(t )

Min

b
(t ) ap (t )

0.5Tresca ( sij (t ))

Where, b and a are material constants.


If FOS is less than 1, the component cannot experience infinite life.

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OptiStruct Factor of Safety setup


1. The torsion fatigue limit and hydrostatic stress sensitivity values required for an FOS
analysis can be set in the optional FOS continuation line on the MATFAT bulk data entry.
2. The Dang Van criterion type can be selected on the FATPARM bulk data entry.
3. Factor of Safety output can be requested using the FOS I/O options entry.

Other Factors Affecting Fatigue


Surface Condition (Finish and Treatment)
Surface condition is an extremely important factor influencing fatigue strength, as fatigue
failures nucleate at the surface. Surface finish and treatment factors are considered to
correct the fatigue analysis results.
Surface finish correction factor Cfinish is used to characterize the roughness of the surface.
It's presented on diagrams that categorize finish by means of qualitative terms such as
polished, machined or forged.

Figure 9*: Surface finish correction factor for steels


(* Source: Yung-Li Lee, Jwo. Pan, Richard B. Hathaway and Mark E. Barekey. Fatigue testing and analysis: Theory
and practice, Elsevier, 2005)

Surface treatment can improve the fatigue strength of components. NITRIDED, SHOTPEENED, COLD-ROLLED are considered for surface treatment correction. It is also possible to
input a value to specify the surface treatment factor Ctreat.
In general cases, the total correction factor is Csur = Ctreat * Cfinish.
If treatment type is NITRIDED, then the total correction is Csur = 2.0 * Cfinish (Ctreat = 2.0).
If treatment type is SHOT-PEENED or COLD-ROLLED, then the total correction is Csur = 1.0.
It means you will ignore the effect of surface finish.
The fatigue endurance limit FL will be modified by Csur as: FL' = FL * Csur. For two segment
S-N curve, the stress at the transition point is also modified by multiplying by Csur.

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Surface conditions may be defined on a PFAT bulk data entry. Surface conditions are then
associated with sections of the model through the FATDEF bulk data entry.

Fatigue Strength Reduction Factor


In addition to the factors mentioned above, there are various others factors that could affect
the fatigue strength of a structure, e.g., notch effect, size effect, loading type. Fatigue
strength reduction factor Kf is introduced to account for the combined effect of all such
corrections. The fatigue endurance limit FL will be modified by Kf as: FL' = FL / Kf
The fatigue strength reduction factor may be defined on a PFAT bulk data entry. It may then
be associated with sections of the model through the FATDEF bulk data entry.
If both Csur and Kf are specified, the fatigue endurance limit FL will be modified as: FL' = FL
* Csur / Kf.
Csur and Kf have similar influences on the E-N formula through its elastic part as on the S-N
formula. In the elastic part of the E-N formula, a nominal fatigue endurance limit FL is
calculated internally from the reversal limit of endurance Nc. FL will be corrected if Csur and
Kf are presented. The elastic part will be modified as well with the updated nominal fatigue
limit.

Setting Up a Fatigue Analysis


Linear Superposition of Multiple FEA/Load Time History Load Cases
When there are several load cases at the same time, all of which vary independently of one
another, the principle of linear superposition will be used to combine all load cases together
to determine the stress variation at each calculation point due to the combination of all loads.
The formula is:
n
ij (t )

ij ,k

Pk (t )
k 1 PFEA,k

(32)

Where,
n is the total number of load cases
Pk(t) and

are, respectively, the time variation of the k-th load time history and the

total stress tensor


PFEA,k and

are, respectively, the k-th load magnitude and stress tensor from FE

analysis

Load Time History Compression


This option is used to save calculation time. It will remove small cycles (defined by a gate
value) and intermediate points.

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Figure 10: Sample showing removal of small cycles

When removing small cycles, adjacent turning points, where the difference is less than the
maximum range multiplied by relative gate value, will be removed from each channel.
However, phase relationship will be maintained, when peaks and valleys occur on different
channels at different times. This is shown by the sample above. In the first channel (top),
the points at time 4 and 5 will be removed when the absolute gate equals one, while in the
second channel (bottom), the points at time 1 and 2 will not be removed in order to keep the
phase relationship between channels.

Figure 11: Sample showing removal of intermediate points

Removing intermediate points is another important mechanism to save computation time. If


any point on the load-time history is neither a peak nor valley point, it will not contribute in
determining any stress cycle. Such points could be screened out in the fatigue computation
without losing the accuracy, but the computation time could be saved significantly. For
example, the left column in Fig 11 shows three load-time histories of three super-positioned

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loadcases, respectively. After removing the intermediate points, the three load-time histories
are obtained as in the right column, which can produce the same fatigue results as the left
column, but use much less time. This mechanism is built in OptiStruct and is effective
automatically.

Fatigue Loads, Events and Sequences


Fatigue loading is defined by scaling a static subcase with a load-time history.
A fatigue event consists of one or more static loadcases applied simultaneously in the same
time duration scaled by load-time histories. For fatigue events with more than one static
loadcase stress, linear superposition is used.
A fatigue sequence consists of a number of fatigue events and repeated instances of these
events. A fatigue sequence can be made up of other sub fatigue sequences and/or fatigue
events. In this way, you can define very complex events and sequences for fatigue analysis.
In OptiStruct, fatigue sequences defined in fatigue subcases (referred by FATSEQ) are the
basic loading blocks. The fatigue life results of these fatigue subcases are calculated as the
number of repeats of the loading block.
Below is an example of a "tree-like" fatigue sequence, which can be defined in OptiStruct,
with FSEQ# identifying fatigue sequences and FEVN# identifying fatigue events:

Figure 12: Example of a "tree-like" fatigue sequence

Fatigue loading is defined by a FATLOAD bulk data entry, where a static subcase and a loadtime history are associated.
A fatigue loading event is defined by a FATEVNT bulk data entry, where one or more fatigue
loads (FATLOAD) are selected.
A fatigue loading sequence is defined by a FATSEQ bulk data entry, where a sequence of one
or more fatigue loading events or other fatigue loading sequences is given. The appropriate
FATSEQ bulk data entry may be referenced from a fatigue subcase definition through the
FATSEQ Subcase Information entry.

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Multi-body Dynamics Simulation


A multi-body system is defined to be an assembly of sub-systems (bodies, components, or
sub-structures). The motion of the sub-systems may be kinematically constrained and each
sub-system or component may undergo large translational and rotational displacements.
Bodies can be considered rigid or flexible. Rigid bodies do not undergo deformations. Rigid
body motion can be described completely by using six generalized coordinates. The resulting
mathematical model is highly nonlinear. Neglecting the body deformations can lead to
inaccurate results. Therefore, some of the bodies are considered flexible, that is they can
undergo deformations. Modal reduction procedures are used to include flexible bodies in
multi-body dynamics simulations.
Joints, force elements, and controls connect the bodies. Initial velocities, forces, and motions
may be applied to the system.
Different types of analysis can be performed on a multi-body system to determine its
behavior under certain loading, applied motion, and initial velocity. Transient (kinematic,
dynamic) analysis determines the response under time dependent loading. Static and quasistatic analyses determine the static equilibrium of a system. The multi-body solution is
based on an extended absolute coordinates formulation.

Multi-body system

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This implementation is targeted at the typical finite-element user who wants to solve multibody dynamics problems in the context of a finite element model, and is still somewhat
limited. HyperMesh is used for modeling. All geometry entities are defined in terms of a
finite element mesh. Flexible body modeling is fully integrated.
HyperStudy can be used for optimization. Shape optimization of rigid and flexible bodies is
available through the use of HyperMorph.

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Transient Analysis for MBD


Transient analysis is used to calculate the response of a multi-body system to timedependent loads and motions.
Forces and motions are time-dependent. Body initial conditions define the initial body
velocities, while joint initial conditions define the initial displacement of a particular joint.
The results of a transient analysis are displacements, velocities, accelerations, forces, as well
as modal contributions to stresses and strains in flexible bodies. The responses are usually
time-dependent.
The equation of motion is given in the following form:

M q&& P(t )
q& (t 0) v0
The matrix M is the mass matrix, the vector P is the vector of external forces, and the vector
q represents the generalized coordinates. Stiffness, damping, constraint forces, external
loads, and gravity are all included in the external force vector P. An initial and maximum
integration time step, an end time, and integrator tolerance need to be defined.
Two analyses, kinematic and dynamic, are defined depending on the degree of freedom of
the system analysis.
A kinematic simulation is performed if all degrees of freedom are constrained through
appropriate joints and/or motions, making it a zero degree of freedom model. A kinematics
simulation finds a system configuration that satisfies all kinematic constraints and motion
equations at any given time. The configuration is obtained by solving a system of nonlinear
algebraic equations representing constraints.
During a kinematic simulation, there is no need to integrate the differential equations of
motion because the system configuration is fully determined by solving the constraint and
motion equations alone. Even though forces are not used to compute the kinematics
solution, joint reaction forces can be computed at any given time. The mass and inertia
properties of bodies involved, and external forces acting on them, do not affect the resultant
system configuration, but they do affect the joint reaction forces requested as outputs.
A dynamic simulation is employed whenever the model has one or more degrees of freedom.
A dynamic simulation involves integrating the differential equations of motion subject to
nonlinear algebraic equations representing kinematics constraints. In other words, the
solution is obtained by solving a mixed system of differential-algebraic equations.
The resultant solution takes into account various dynamic effects and is dependent upon
mass and inertia properties of bodies, damping within the system, and applied forces and
motions. Additional simulation parameters, such as the integration scheme, integration time
step, convergence tolerance, etc. could also affect the solution and; therefore, need to be
specified appropriately.
If a simulation type of transient is requested, the solver automatically determines whether to
run a kinematic or dynamic solution from the degree of freedom.
The equation of motion is solved using one of the three different integrators that are
available. The choice is based on the stiffness of the problem. A problem is stiff if the
numerical solution has its step size limited more severely by the stability of the numerical
technique than by the accuracy of the technique. These are systems with high damping and

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low transience.
VSTIFF (Default) Implicit integrator that utilizes the Variable Coefficient
Differential Equation Solver (VODE). It is suited for stiff and non-stiff
problems.
MSTIFF Implicit integrator that utilizes the Modified Extended Backward
Differentiation Formula (MEBDF) to solve the nonlinear equations of motion.
It is suited for stiff problems.
ABAM (Adams-Bashforth-Adams-Moulton) Explicit integrator that uses a
finite differences scheme to solve the nonlinear equations of motion. This
integrator is suitable for systems that are non-stiff.
A multi-body subcase needs to be defined in the input deck. Only one such subcase can be
used in a model. The simulation type "transient" is defined on an MBSIM bulk data entry
which must be referenced through a subcase statement MBSIM. The MBSIM bulk data entity
also defines the integrator, end time, and time step. A sequence of several simulations of
different types can be defined by referring to an MBSEQ bulk data statement instead. Loads
and motions are referenced on MLOAD and MOTION subcase entries, respectively. Initial
velocity is referenced through INVEL. SPC type constraints in Multi-body Dynamics analysis
are allowed only for MBD-ESL optimization of a flexible body if displacements are used as
constraints. Further information on loads and boundary conditions can be obtained from the
sections Applied Forces and Motions and Initial Velocity.
The unit system for the simulation can be defined using a DTI, UNITS bulk data entry.

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Static Analysis for MBD


A static simulation is also called an equilibrium simulation. The system must have at least
one degree of freedom to undergo a static simulation and an initial configuration must be
specified. A zero degree of freedom system is always considered to be in static equilibrium
once all of the kinematic constraints are satisfied.
Starting with the user-specified initial configuration, a final configuration is arrived at
iteration-by-iteration, such that there are no unbalanced forces or torques on any of the
bodies in the system and all of the kinematics constraints are satisfied. All of the velocities
and accelerations are set to zero.
A multi-body subcase needs to be defined in the input deck. Only one such subcase can be
used in a model. The simulation type "static" is defined on an MBSIM bulk data entry which
must be referenced through a subcase statement MBSIM. The MBSIM bulk data entity also
defines the integrator, end time, and time step. A sequence of several simulations of
different types can be defined by referring to an MBSEQ bulk data statement instead. Loads
and motions are referenced on MLOAD and MOTION subcase entries, respectively. Initial
velocities do not apply here. SPC type constraints in Multi-body Dynamics analysis are
allowed only for MBD-ESL optimization of a flexible body if displacements are used as
constraints. Further information on loads and boundary conditions can be obtained from the
sections Applied Forces and Motions and Initial Velocity.
The unit system for the simulation can be defined using a DTI, UNITS bulk data entry.

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Quasi-static Analysis for MBD


A quasi-static simulation is a sequence of static simulation steps applied to a model over a
given duration at specified intervals. A quasi-static simulation is employed when you have
time-dependent forces or motions in the model and you want a static equilibrium
configuration at every time step. The system must have at least one degree of freedom to
undergo a quasi-static simulation and you must specify the initial configuration.
For the first time step, the user-specified initial configuration is used as a starting point,
whereas for all other time-steps, a configuration from the previous time step is used as the
starting point for equilibrium simulation at that time step. A final configuration is arrived at
iteration-by-iteration, such that there are no unbalanced forces or torques on any of the
bodies in the system and all of the kinematic constraints are satisfied at that time step. For
every step, all velocities and accelerations are set to zero.
A multi-body subcase needs to be defined in the input deck. Only one such subcase can be
used in a model. The simulation type "quasi-static" is defined on an MBSIM bulk data entry
which must be referenced through a subcase statement MBSIM. The MBSIM bulk data entity
also defines the integrator, end time, and time step. A sequence of several simulations of
different types can be defined by referring to a MBSEQ bulk data statement instead. Loads
and motions are referenced on MLOAD and MOTION subcase entries, respectively. Initial
velocities do not apply here. SPC type constraints in Multi-body Dynamics analysis are
allowed only for MBD-ESL optimization of a flexible body if displacements are used as
constraints. Further information on loads and boundary conditions can be obtained from the
sections Applied Forces and Motions and Initial Velocity.
The unit system for the simulation can be defined using a DTI, UNITS bulk data entry.

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Linear Analysis for MBD


In linearization analysis, the nonlinear representations of force, motion, stiffness, or damping
are linearized. A linearization can be performed on these models to prepare a model for use
with Matlab or to obtain eigenmodes characteristics of the model. In the case of performing
a linear analysis on the mechanical system, optional files of type eig_info, Simulink MDL,
and Matlab ABCD matrices are available to be exported.
A multi-body subcase needs to be defined in the input deck. Only one such subcase can be
used in a model. A linear simulation is defined by referring an MBSIM subcase entry to a
MBLIN bulk data statement. The MBLIN bulk data entity also selects linear analysis types,
EIGEN or STMAT. A sequence of several simulations of different types can be defined by
referring to an MBSEQ bulk data statement instead. Loads and motions are referenced on
MLOAD and MOTION subcase entries, respectively. SPC type constraints in Multi-body
Dynamics analysis are allowed only for MBD-ESL optimization of a flexible body if
displacements are used as constraints. Initial velocities do not apply here. Further
information on loads and boundary conditions can be obtained from the sections Applied
Forces and Motions and Initial Velocity.
The unit system for the simulation can be defined using a DTI, UNITS bulk data entry.

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Bodies
Bodies are the model elements that have mass and inertia. Bodies can be rigid or flexible.
A rigid body has only mass and inertia, and does not deform during the simulation. An initial
velocity can be assigned. Mass and inertia information can be omitted for kinematic, static,
and quasi-static simulations. It does not affect displacement, velocity, and acceleration
results of kinematic simulation or displacement results of a static or a quasi-static simulation.
Mass and inertia information must be correctly specified if joint-reaction forces are of
interest in kinematic, static, or quasi-static simulations.
A flexible body deforms during the simulation. Mass and inertia are determined by the
geometry and material of the structure defining the body. An initial velocity and damping
can be assigned. Flexible bodies are formulated using an orthogonal set of modes that
represent the displacements u of the flexible body such that

q
where, q are the modal coordinates which are to be determined by the multi-body dynamics
analysis. The set of orthogonal modes is determined in a Component Mode Synthesis (CMS).
Depending on the model, CMS can be performed as a pre-processing step using a special
simulation (see Direct Matrix Approach). Besides displacements, velocities, and
accelerations, stresses and strains can also be computed for flexible bodies.
One special rigid body is the ground body. It describes the reference environment, and does
not add any degrees of freedom to the system. It is at absolute rest. Any grounded body is
merged into one.
Bodies are defined in terms of a finite element model. A body is formed by a group of
properties, elastic, rigid, and mass elements as well as grid points.
Rigid bodies are defined on a PRBODY entry. Mass and inertia are either determined from
the geometric entities or can be entered on PRBODY.
The ground body is defined using the GROUND bulk data entry.
Flexible bodies are defined using the PFBODY bulk data entry. The interface grid points are
automatically determined or are defined on PFBODY using the FLXNODE flag. The procedure,
as described in Direct Matrix Approach, is applied to each PFBODY definition. The procedure
is fully integrated in the multi-body dynamics solution sequence, where flexh3d files are
generated for multiple flexible bodies in the same model. The parameter PARAM, FLEXH3D
may be used to control the regeneration of flexh3d files for subsequent runs.

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Markers
A marker is a coordinate system attached to a body at a geometric point. Markers are used
as a reference for joints, compliant elements, applied loads, and output requests.
Markers are defined using a grid point and a coordinate system. The MARKER bulk data
entry is used.

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Constraints
The multi-body system must be sufficiently constrained.
Typical types of constraints like joints, couplers, and high-pair joints can be defined. Higherpair joints include point-to-curve, point-to-surface, and curve-to-curve constraints. They can
connect rigid bodies, flexible bodies, or a rigid and flexbody.
Before running the solver, any redundant constraints in the model are removed. Since the
constraint forces associated with redundant constraints are set to zero, it is important to
review all of the constraints in the model to make sure they are physically meaningful and
that there are no unintended redundant constraints.
Joints connect two grid points that belong to a body. They constrain the motion between the
bodies. They are defined using the JOINT or JOINTM bulk data entries. SPC type constraints
in Multi-body Dynamics analysis are allowed only for MBD-ESL optimization of a flexible body
if displacements are used as constraints.

Joint Type

Constrained Degrees of
Freedom

Number of
GRIDs

Translation

Rotation

Fixed

Revolute

Translational

Cylindrical

Universal

Planar

Ball

Perpendicular

Parallel axes

Orientation

In-plane

Inline

Constant
velocity

(development
source only)

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Couplers are constraints between the translational and/or the rotational motion of two or
three joints. They are defined using the COUPLER bulk data entries.
Higher-pair joints are connecting points, curves and surfaces. They can be rigid or
deformable.
Higher-pair Joint
Type

Bulk Data
Entry

Point-to-curve

MBPTCV

Point-to-deformable MBPTDCV
curve
Point-to-deformable MBPTDSF
surface
Curve-to-curve

MBCVCV

These entries refer to the parametric curve definition (MBPCRV), deformable curve definition
(MBPTDCV), and deformable surface definition (MBDSRF).

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Contact
The contact modeling capability for multi-body dynamics can handle complex contact
scenarios between rigid bodies and rigid and flexible bodies. For the definition you have to
identify geometries on one body that can contact a different set of geometries on a second
body. You also specify the contact material properties such as coefficient of restitution and
friction. The solver monitors the proximity of the specified geometries to each other. When
contact between the two sets of geometry occurs, a force based on the defined physical
properties is generated. This represents the contact force. Both normal and frictional forces
are modeled. When the bodies separate, the force becomes zero.
There are four key features to the contact capability:
Modeling the geometry of the bodies that are in contact
Detecting the onset of contact
Applying the contact force
Detecting the end of a contact "incident" and removing the contact force
Two contact types are available: Rigid body to rigid body (MBCNTR) which is defined as the
contact of two element sets (SET) and rigid to flexible body (MBCNTDS) which is defined as
the contact between a node set (SET) and a deformable surface. The deformable surface
must be defined by the MBDSRF bulk data entry.
When the onset of a collision is detected, the collision detection algorithm returns a set of
interfering polygons. From those the solver computes the following:
The point of contact and surface normal vector
The magnitude and direction of the normal and friction forces
Once the point of contact and surface normal vector are known, the normal and friction force
magnitudes are computed using a penalty-based Poisson contact normal force model. The
two primary inputs to this model are the penalty and the coefficient of restitution (COR).
COR is defined as the ratio of relative speed of separation to the relative speed of approach of
the colliding bodies. A COR of 1.0 implies a perfectly elastic collision and a COR of 0.0
represents a perfectly plastic collision. One may think of the COR as damping and penalty as
stiffness. Too high of a penalty value may cause numerical difficulties, while too small of a
value may lead to excessive penetration. Some fine-tuning of these two parameters is
usually required to reach stable and accurate results.
The frictional force is modeled as a viscous force according to the following law:

In the above equations:


is the current slip speed at the point of contact.
is the coefficient of static friction.
is the coefficient of dynamic friction.
is the stiction transition slip speed at which the full value of
coefficient of friction.

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is the dynamic friction slip speed at which the full value of


coefficient of friction.

is used for the

is the friction force that is to be applied. The friction force opposes the direction of
the slip velocity.

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Compliant Elements
Compliant elements are bushings, spring-dampers, and beams. For each, the relevant
information such as stiffness, damping, preload, attachment markers, etc. needs to be
defined. Stiffness and damping value numbers should correctly represent the actual system
and must be physically meaningful. Otherwise, the system may inadvertently turn out to be
numerically stiff, even though the physical system may not be.
Compliant elements can be defined with respect to grid points or with respect to markers.
CMBEAM and CMBEAMM bulk data entries define beam elements.
CMBUSH and CMBUSHM bulk data entries define bushing elements. A bushing element has
linear stiffness and damping properties.
CMSPDP and CMSPDPM bulk data entries define spring-damper elements.

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Applied Forces and Motions


Forces and moments can be present in the system. There are action-only forces which are
applied to one point, and action-reaction forces which are applied to two points. Force
components can be a constant value, a curve, an expression, or a user-written subroutine.
A special force is gravity. Acceleration is applied to a body and from mass and acceleration,
the gravitational force is computed.
Motion is a scalar constraint to the system. Displacement, velocity, and acceleration-type
motions are possible. The motion must depend only on time and not on any other measures
in the model that could change during the simulation. In other words, at every time step
with only time as the independent parameter, the solver should be able to evaluate the
expression completely without using any other information about the model. For example,
the motion cannot depend upon displacement or velocity or acceleration between two points
in the model.
Motion can be specified as a constant value, a curve, an expression, or user-written
subroutine. Motion is either defined as motion between two points or joint motion. When a
motion is applied on a joint, one joint degree of freedom is controlled as a function of time.
When a motion is applied between two points, movement along a user-specified direction is
controlled as a function of time.
Forces are always defined at grid points, and can be applied to one grid point (action-only) or
two (action-reaction). The bulk data entry MBFRC defines constant force; the entry MBFRCC
defines force by a curve; and the entry MBFRCE defines a force by equation.
Moments are always defined at grid points, and can be applied to one grid point (action-only)
or two (action-reaction). The bulk data entry MBMNT defines constant moment; the entry
MBMNTC defines moment by a curve; and the entry MBMNTE defines a moment by equation.
GRAV defines the gravity acceleration.
The entry MLOAD can be used to derive force and moment set combinations.
Motion can be defined as grid point motion or as joint motion. Grid point motion can be
applied to one grid point or two (relative motion). The bulk data entry MOTNG defines
constant motion; the entry MOTNGC defines motion by a curve, and MOTNGE defines motion
by an equation. Joint motion can be applied to translational or revolute joints only. The bulk
data entry MOTNJ defines constant motion; the entry MOTNJC defines motion by a curve, and
MOTNJE defines motion by an equation. The entry MOTION can be used to derive motion set
combinations.

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Initial Velocity
Initial velocity is part of the problem formulation of the equation of motion. It can be applied
to bodies or to cylindrical, translational, and rotational joints.
The INVELB bulk data entry defines body initial velocity. The entry INVEL can be used to
derive initial velocity set combinations.

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Function Expressions
Expressions can be used in many places. They formulate relationships as functions of time,
displacements, velocities, acceleration, forces, etc. If geometric points are used in an
equation, they are always related to markers.
The bulk data entry MBVAR is used to define equations.

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Results of a Multi-body Dynamics Analysis


The primary results in a multi-body dynamics analysis are the motions of the bodies. They
are written as nodal displacements, velocities, and accelerations. For flexible bodies, element
results such as deformations, stresses, and strains are derived from those results. These
results can be displayed in an animation of the entire system in a graphical toll such as Altair
HyperView (see figure). Aside from the full nodal results, the solver provides a more
compressed form of animation data only for multi-body dynamics analysis that can only be
displayed in Altair HyperView, where HyperView does many of the typical transformations
and final computations.
See the Results of a Finite Element Analysis section to find more information on how to postprocess nodal and elemental results.
Measures like body displacements, velocities, accelerations, joint forces, and user-defined
expressions are being written as time history. Marker time history can be written upon
request. These results can be plotted in a graphical plotting tool such as Altair HyperGraph.
The definitions of the output options can be found in the I/O Options Section. An overview of
the result files can be found in the Results Output by OptiStruct section.

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Rotor Dynamics
Introduction
Rotor dynamics is the analysis of structures containing rotating components. The dynamic
behavior of such structures is influenced by the type and angular velocity of rotating
components and their locations within the model. Rotor dynamics is available in OptiStruct
for modal frequency response and complex eigenvalue analyses.
Motivation
When a component within the structure rotates, additional forces like the gyroscopic force
and circular damping force act on it. It is important to determine the effects of rotating
components on the system as a whole. The natural frequencies of a system usually change, if
gyroscopic forces act on the model due to a rotating component. Circulating damping forces
due to rotating components can lead to system instability. These forces are a function of the
frequency of rotating component. In OptiStruct, they are included in the calculation of the
response of the structure of interest when required in applicable subcases.

Figure 1: Example illustration depicting an application of Rotor Dynamics analysis

In Figure 1, the rotating components of the structure are the shafts on which gears are
mounted. The design of the rotors and their angular frequencies can affect the dynamic
response of the structure. Any design will most likely lead to asymmetrical mass distribution
about the rotor axes. This unbalanced mass, even if it isnt significant, can result in deflection
of the rotor depending on various factors. The magnitude of these deflections will be
augmented when the rotating speed of the shafts equals the natural frequency of the
structure (Resonance), and can lead to catastrophic failure of the system.
Implementation
The Rotor Dynamics functionality is activated in OptiStruct with the use of the RGYRO
subcase information entry (RGYRO = ID). This RGYRO entry references the identification
number of a RGYRO bulk data entry. Related bulk data entries, RSPINR, UNBALNC, ROTORG
and RSPEED are defined in the model for Rotor Dynamics. Parameters PARAM, GYROAVG,
PARAM, WR3, and PARAM, WR4 are also used.

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Whirl
A rotor is a structure that rotates about its own axis at a specific angular velocity. If a lateral
force is applied to the rotor, it will deform in the lateral direction. This deformation is
dependent on various factors, such as, magnitude of the applied force, rotor material
properties, stator stiffness, and damping within the system. Due to rotor rotation, the
deformed rotor will also whirl about an axis.
Synchronous and Asynchronous Analysis
The whirling speed can either be the same as rotor speed or it can be different from it. The
type of analysis performed if the whirling speed and the rotor speed match is known as
synchronous analysis. If the speeds dont match, then asynchronous analysis is used to
determine the dynamic response of the model. In OptiStruct, the RGYRO bulk data entry can
be used to select synchronous/asynchronous analysis.

Figure 2: Illustration depicting the types of Whirl and the two analysis types that are dependent on the angular
frequency of a rotor.

Forward Whirl and Backward Whirl


The type of whirl depends on the spin direction of a rotor. If the rotor spin direction is the
same as that of its whirl direction, then it is termed as forward whirl. If the rotor spin
direction is opposite to the whirl direction, it is termed as backward whirl. In complex
eigenvalue analysis, you can determine and differentiate between the modes of a structure
undergoing backward whirl and forward whirl.

Supported solution sequences


OptiStruct supports the Rotor dynamics functionality in the following solution sequences:
Frequency Response Analysis
The response of a structure with rotating components to a specified external excitation can
be determined using the rotor dynamics functionality in frequency response analysis.
Asynchronous analysis (RGYRO = ASYNC)
If ASYNC is specified in the RGYRO bulk data entry, the rotors within the structure have userdefined spin rates. The excitation frequency (FREQi entries) is independent of the reference
rotor speed defined in the RGYRO entry.
Synchronous analysis (RGYRO = SYNC)

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If SYNC is specified in the RGYRO bulk data entry, the reference rotor spin rate is equal to (or
synchronous with) the excitation frequency. The reference rotor speed is not input via the
RGYRO entry and the FREQi entry values are used in this analysis.
Complex Eigenvalue Analysis
The eigenvalues and critical speeds of a structure with rotating components can be
determined using the rotor dynamics functionality in complex eigenvalue analysis.
Asynchronous analysis (RGYRO = ASYNC)
If ASYNC is specified in the RGYRO bulk data entry, the rotors within the structure have userdefined spin rates via the RSPEED entry and the Campbell Diagram can be plotted to find the
critical speeds. Additionally, since the calculated eigenvalues are complex, you can determine
unstable modes by studying the real parts of the calculated eigenvalues. If the real part of a
complex eigenvalue is positive, then the corresponding system mode is unstable.
Synchronous analysis (RGYRO = SYNC)
If SYNC is specified in the RGYRO bulk data entry, only the critical speeds are calculated as
the rotor speeds are equal to the whirl frequencies. These critical speeds can lead to
structural resonance and the design should be modified to change its whirl frequencies or the
operating rotor spin rate should be limited to avoid reaching the critical speeds.
Note: In a frequency response analysis, the synchronous
analysis (SYNC) option is generally used to model rotors
with an inherent unbalance. The rotor unbalance can be
specified as a force or via the UNBALNC entry. The
analysis is synchronous because the unbalanced load
vibrates at the whirl frequency of the system which is
equal to the rotor spin speed.
Implementation - Frequency Response Analysis (ASYNC)
Asynchronous analysis is activated using the RGYRO=ASYNC option. Frequency response
analysis in rotor dynamics involves defining the excitation either as an external varying load
as a function of frequency or as a rotor unbalance via the UNBALNC entry (or as a force that
simulates the effect of the rotor unbalance). Asynchronous frequency response analysis in
OptiStruct is designed for an external varying force at a specific set of frequencies. The
following equation implements the external loading functionality in OptiStruct. The rotor
speeds should be specified by you for Asynchronous frequency response analysis.
2

[ M ] i ([ BS ] [ BR ]
(1 i GR

j 1

Rj

ref

R1

[M R ]

R2

[ K R ]) (1 i G )[ K S ] i [ K 4 S ]

)[ K Rj ] i [ K 4 Rj ])

G
C
) i [ BRj
] [ BRj
]

u( )
R1

C
[ M Rj
]

R2

C
[ K Rj
]

GR

C
[ K Rj
]

[ K 4CRj ]

The response of a system with rotating components to an external load in the frequency
domain is calculated based on the above equation.

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F( )

Frequency Response Analysis (SYNC)


Synchronous analysis is activated using the RGYRO=SYNC option. Frequency response
analysis in rotor dynamics involves defining the excitation either as an external varying load
as a function of frequency or as a rotor unbalance via the UNBALNC entry (or as a force that
simulates the effect of the rotor unbalance). Synchronous frequency response analysis in
OptiStruct is designed to calculate the response of a system with a rotor unbalance. The
following equation implements the rotor unbalance functionality in OptiStruct. The rotor
speeds are determined from the FREQi entries for Synchronous frequency response analysis.
2
ref

[M ] i

ref

([ BS ] [ BR ]

R1

[M R ]

R2

[ K R ]) (1 iG )[ K S ] i[ K 4 S ]

(1 i GR j )[ K Rj ] i[ K 4 Rj ])

N
j 1

Rj

) i

ref

ref

u(

[ BRjG ] [ BRjC ]

R1

[ M RjC ]

R2

GR

[ K RjC ]

[ K RjC ]

ref

ref

F(

[ K 4CRj ]

ref

The response of a system with rotating components to a rotor imbalance which is considered
as a force acting in the frequency domain is calculated based on the above equation.
Frequency Response Analysis with WR3 and WR4 (ASYNC)
Parameters PARAM, WR3 and PARAM, WR4 can be used to avoid frequency dependent
calculation of the rotor speeds in systems with multiple rotors. The frequency values in the
circulation damping terms are replaced with the values of the parameters as shown in the
equation below.
2

[ M ] i ([ BS ] [ BR ]

R1

[M R ]

R2

[ K R ]) (1 iG )[ K S ] i[ K 4 S ]

(1 i GR j )[ K Rj ] i[ K 4 Rj ])

N
j 1

Rj

ref

u( )

) i [ BRjG ] [ BRjC ]

R1

[ M RjC ]

R2

[ K RjC ]

GR
[ K RjC ]
WR3

F( )

1
[ K 4CRj ]
WR 4

Frequency Response Analysis with WR3 and WR4 (SYNC)


Parameters PARAM, WR3 and PARAM, WR4 can be used to avoid frequency dependent
calculation of the rotor speeds in systems with multiple rotors. The rotor speeds can be
calculated as a linear function of the reference rotor spin rate (see description of terms
below). The reference rotor spin rate values in the circulation damping terms are replaced
with the values of the parameters as shown in the equation below.
2
ref

N
j 1

[M ] i

ref

([ BS ] [ BR ]

R1

[M R ]

R2

[ K R ]) (1 iG )[ K S ] i[ K 4 S ]

(1 i GR j )[ K Rj ] i[ K 4 Rj ])
Rj

ref

Altair Engineering

) i

ref

[ BRjG ] [ BRjC ]

u(
R1

[ M RjC ]

R2

[ K RjC ]

GR
[ K RjC ]
WR3

1
[ K 4CRj ]
WR 4

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ref

F(

Complex Eigenvalue Analysis with WR3 and WR4 (ASYNC)


The eigenvalues and critical speeds of a structure with rotating components can be
determined using the rotor dynamics functionality in complex eigenvalue analysis. In
asynchronous analysis the critical speeds can also be determined by plotting the Campbell
diagram for frequencies specified using the RSPEED entry. The parameters PARAM, WR3 and
PARAM, WR4 can be used to replace the values of WR3 and WR4 in the equation below.
2

[ M ] i ([ BS ] [ BR ]

R1

[M R ]

R2

[ K R ]) (1 iG )[ K S ] i[ K 4 S ]

(1 i GR j )[ K Rj ] i[ K 4 Rj ])

N
j 1

Rj

ref

u( )

) i [ BRjG ] [ BRjC ]

R1

[ M RjC ]

R2

[ K RjC ]

GR
[ K RjC ]
WR3

1
[ K 4CRj ]
WR 4

Complex Eigenvalue Analysis with WR3 and WR4 (SYNC)


Only the rotor speeds are required to perform the synchronous complex eigenvalue analysis
as the whirl frequencies are equal to the reference rotor spin rates. Only the critical speeds
are output as a result of this analysis. The parameters PARAM, WR3 and PARAM, WR4 can be
used to replace the values of WR3 and WR4 in the equation below.
2
ref

[M ] i

j 1

Rj

ref

Where,

ref

([ BS ] [ BR ]

R1

[M R ]

R2

[ K R ]) (1 iG )[ K S ] i[ K 4 S ]

(1 i GR j )[ K Rj ] i[ K 4 Rj ])

Rj

ref

ref

) i

ref

[ BRjG ] [ BRjC ]

u(
R1

[ M RjC ]

R2

[ K RjC ]

GR
[ K RjC ]
WR3

1
[ K 4CRj ]
WR 4

is the reference rotor spin rate

Rj
ref
is the spin rate of rotor j as a function of the reference rotor spin rate.
can be determined for each excitation frequency or it can be calculated as a linear function of
the reference rotor spin rate:

Rj

ref

ref

and j are scaling factors calculated from the relative spin rates defined in the RSPINR
bulk data entry.
[M] is the structural mass

[ BS ]

is the viscous damping of the support

[ BR ]

is the rotor viscous damping

[M R ]

is the rotor mass

[K R ]

is the rotor stiffness

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ref

[ K 4R ]
C
R

[B ]

is the rotor material damping

is the circulation due to rotor viscous damping

[ M RC ]
C
R

[K ]

is the circulation due to rotor mass


is the circulation due to rotor structural stiffness

C
R

[K 4 ]
[K S ]

is the circulation due to rotor material damping

is the stiffness of the support

[ K 4S ]

is the material damping of the support

N is the number of rotors in the model

u ( ) is the displacement as a function of frequency


u(

ref

is the displacement as a function of reference rotor spin rate

F ( ) is the external excitation as a function of frequency


F(

ref

is the unbalanced load as a function of reference rotor spin rate (via DAREA or
UNBALNC entries)
G is the structural damping value of the support defined using PARAM, G
GR is the structural damping value of the rotor defined using PARAM, G
R1

and

R2

[ BR ]Rayleigh

are used to define the Rayleigh viscous damping as follows:


R1

[M R ]

R2

[K R ]

and

[ BRC ]Rayleigh

R1

[ M RC ]

R2

[K CR ]

R and
R are used to define the scale factors of the linear fit (between SPDLOW and
SPDHIGH on the ROTORG entry) of the rotor speed to the reference rotor speed.

WR3 and WR4 are defined by the parameters PARAM, WR3, PARAM, WR4, respectively.
The general form of a circulation damping term is given as:

[ DC ]

1
[T ][ D] [ D][T ]
2

Where, [D] is the regular damping matrix and [T] is a rotation matrix defined as follows:

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[T ]

[ BRG ]

0
1
0
0

1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0 1
0 0

0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0

is the gyroscopic matrix defined in a rotor coordinate system as follows:

[ BRG ]

0 0 0 0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
I 33

I 33

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0 0 0 0

Model Restrictions
1D Rotor model
The OptiStruct rotor dynamics feature currently supports only 1D rotors. Rotor shafts
modeled with 1D elements like CBEAM, CBAR, or CBUSH only can be used. CONM1 or CONM2
entries should be used to define the mass and inertia of the rotors. Grid points are necessary
for the definition of mass and inertia via CONM1 or CONM2. All grid points that belong to
rotors should be listed in the ROTORG entries and only grids listed in the ROTORG entries are
included in the calculation of gyroscopic terms. The I33 field on CONM1/CONM2 entries
should contain meaningful values as only the inertia about the local Z axis plays a role in the
gyroscopic forces (see above description).
Detached Rotor model
The rotor should be detached from the rest of the structure. Only rigid elements (RBEi) can
be used to attach rotors to the ground or to flexible bearings. If any connection exists
between the rotor and other parts of the structure using elements other than RBEi, then the
program will error out.
Symmetric rotor in a fixed reference frame
Rotor dynamics analysis in OptiStruct is performed based on assumption that the rotor is
symmetric. Therefore, the rotor model is required to be symmetric about the rotation axis.
The implementation is based on equations of motion formulated in a fixed reference frame.
Asymmetric rotors in a rotating reference frame is planned to be implemented in future
versions of OptiStruct.

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Multiple Rotors
During synchronous analysis, the calculations are performed with respect to the reference
rotor. In synchronous frequency response analysis, the reference rotor is rotating at the
frequency of the unbalanced load and in synchronous complex eigenvalue analysis, the
reference rotor is rotating at the whirl frequency of the system. The interpretation of results
in a multiple rotor system should always be done with respect to the reference rotor. Any
deduction of results from the behavior of rotors other than the reference rotor will be
inaccurate and can lead to incorrect results. If the behavior of a rotor other than the
reference rotor is to be studied, a different analysis should be run with the rotor of interest as
the reference rotor.

Campbell Diagram
The critical speeds of a rotating structure should be calculated and the design parameters can
then be altered if necessary to restrict the operating speeds of the structure from attaining
those resonant speeds. The structure may undergo excessive amplitude and phase changes if
its operating speeds reach critical speeds. The calculation of critical speeds in OptiStruct can
be undertaken in two ways:
1. Synchronous Complex Eigenvalue Analysis
The RGYRO=SYNC option in Complex Eigenvalue Analysis can be used to determine the
exact critical speeds of the rotating structure. During a synchronous analysis, the rotor
speed is equal to the whirl frequency of the structure, which by definition, are the critical
speeds of the structure that should be avoided during its operation.

Figure 3: An example Campbell Diagram to calculate the critical speeds.

2. Asynchronous Complex Eigenvalue Analysis


The RGYRO=ASYNC option and the RSPEED bulk data entry in Complex Eigenvalue
Analysis can be used to determine the whirl frequencies (backward whirl and forward
whirl) of the structure. These Whirl frequencies can be calculated for a sequence of rotor
spin rates. Forward Whirl and Backward Whirl frequencies can then be plotted against the
range of rotor spin rates (Figure 3). The critical speeds can be calculated by
superimposing the Rotor Spin Rate = Whirl Frequencies line on the plot. The points of
intersection are the critical speeds.

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Note: The rotor speeds specified on the RSPEED entry should


be input with sufficiently fine resolution to be able to
capture the critical speeds. If the specified rotor speeds
are too far apart, the critical speeds may be missed.

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NVH Applications and Techniques


The NVH Applications and Techniques section provides an overview of the following:
Transfer Path Analysis on an Automobile
Residual Runs using Super Elements
Basic OptiStruct NVH Output Files
Global Search Option
Create Door and Deck Lid Seals
Create a HyperGraph Template for Reading in Multiple Files
Using AMSES (Automatic Multi-Level Sub-Structuring Eigensolver Solution)
Poroelastic Materials (Biot theory)

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Transfer Path Analysis on an Automobile


Transfer Function Body Analysis
The function of the transfer path analysis is to determine which body interface dominates the
critical NVH response in the interior of the body for a given type of vehicle loading.
The first step is to determine all the transfer functions at all the body interfaces, such as the
front and rear cradle mounts, front and rear suspension attachments, powertrain mounts,
exhaust hangers and steering system. The major component file in this first run is the fully
trimmed body.
One issue that needs to be determined is whether or not the steering column and steering
wheel are part of the body model to start with. This would determine to which component
these attachments belong. If one of the critical response points is the steering wheel
response, then both the steering column and steering wheel must be included with the body
model.
The front cradle can also be included in the model and the paths from the front suspension to
the front cradle can also be evaluated.
Another requirement is that the body model is in its fully trimmed state and that it contains
all bolt-on components that belong to the body, such as the doors, deck lid, hood, seats,
instrument panel, etc.
Also the body model will need to include the air cavities, if the transfer path can determine
the critical paths causing interior noise problems in the vehicle.
Below is an example of how to set up the first deck to obtain the needed attachment results.
The results from this run are used later to determine the transfer load paths for a full vehicle
model subjected to a powertrain loading.

Example
OUTPUT, H3D
OUTPUT, MASSPROP
PARAM, AMLS,
YES
PARAM, AMLSNCPU, 4
PARAM, AUTOSPC, YES
PARAM, CHECKEL, NO
TITLE = TRIM BODY MOBILITY ANALYSIS
SUBTITLE = WITH CAVITY RESPONSE
METHOD(FLUID) =
2
METHOD(STRUCTURE) =
3
FREQUENCY=
1
$ DRIVER'S EAR ACOUSTIC RESPONSE
SET 2 = 80000000
ACCELERATION(PUNCH,PHASE) = 1
$
$ UNIT INPUT LOAD AT EACH ATTACHEMENT POINT IN ALL 6 DOF'S
$
SUBCASE 2
LABEL = 4003003:+X<>3003:+X<>Frt Susp.:LCA - Frt Bush:LHS:+X
DLOAD = 101
DISPLACEMENT (PUNCH,PHASE) = 2
SET 3 = 4003003

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VELOCITY (PUNCH,PHASE) =
3
$
SUBCASE 3
LABEL = 4003003:+Y<>3003:+Y<>Frt Susp.:LCA - Frt Bush:LHS:+Y
DLOAD = 102
DISPLACEMENT (PUNCH,PHASE) = 2
SET 4 = 4003003
VELOCITY (PUNCH,PHASE) = 4
$
SUBCASE 4
LABEL = 4003003:+Z<>3003:+Z<>Frt Susp.:LCA - Frt Bush:LHS:+Z
DLOAD = 103
DISPLACEMENT (PUNCH,PHASE) = 2
SET 5 = 4003003
VELOCITY (PUNCH,PHASE) = 5
$
SUBCASE 5
LABEL = 4003003:+RX<>3003:+RX<>Frt Susp.:LCA - Frt Bush:LHS:+RX
DLOAD = 104
DISPLACEMENT (PUNCH,PHASE) = 2
SET 6 = 4003003
VELOCITY (PUNCH,PHASE) = 6
$
SUBCASE 6
LABEL = 4003003:+RY<>3003:+RY<>Frt Susp.:LCA - Frt Bush:LHS:+RY
DLOAD = 105
DISPLACEMENT (PUNCH,PHASE) = 2
SET 7 = 4003003
VELOCITY (PUNCH,PHASE) = 7
$
SUBCASE 7
LABEL = 4003003:+RZ<>3003:+RZ<>Frt Susp.:LCA - Frt Bush:LHS:+RZ
DLOAD = 106
DISPLACEMENT (PUNCH,PHASE) = 2
SET 8 = 4003003
VELOCITY (PUNCH,PHASE) = 8
$
$ Not all subcases are shown in this example
------------------------------------------------------------------SUBCASE 273
LABEL = 9005852:+RX<>9011999:+RX<>Frt Susp.:Int. Shaft to Col.::+RX
DLOAD = 372
DISPLACEMENT (PUNCH,PHASE) = 2
SET 274 = 9005852
VELOCITY (PUNCH,PHASE) = 274
$
SUBCASE 274
LABEL = 9005852:+RY<>9011999:+RY<>Frt Susp.:Int. Shaft to Col.::+RY
DLOAD = 373
DISPLACEMENT (PUNCH,PHASE) = 2
SET 275 = 9005852
VELOCITY (PUNCH,PHASE) = 275
$
SUBCASE 275
LABEL = 9005852:+RZ<>9011999:+RZ<>Frt Susp.:Int. Shaft to Col.::+RZ
DLOAD = 374
DISPLACEMENT (PUNCH,PHASE) = 2
SET 276 = 9005852
VELOCITY (PUNCH,PHASE) = 276

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$
$
BEGIN BULK
$
$ PARAM CARDS FOR ANALYSIS
PARAM
WTMASS 1.
$==01==><==02==><==03==><==04==><==05==><==06==><==07==><==08==><==09==><==10
==>
$
FREQ1
1
5.0
1.0
195
$==01==><==02==><==03==><==04==><==05==><==06==><==07==><==08==><==09==><==10
==>
EIGRL
2
600.
EIGRL
3
300.
ACMODL
4.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
$==01==><==02==><==03==><==04==><==05==><==06==><==07==><==08==><==09==><==10
==>
$
$ 4003003 +X
DLOAD
101
1.0
1.0
401
RLOAD1
401
1001
0
0
400
0
DAREA
1001 4003003
1
1.0
$ 4003003 +Y
DLOAD
102
1.0
1.0
402
RLOAD1
402
1002
0
0
400
0
DAREA
1002 4003003
2
1.0
$ 4003003 +Z
DLOAD
103
1.0
1.0
403
RLOAD1
403
1003
0
0
400
0
DAREA
1003 4003003
3
1.0
$ 4003003 +RX
DLOAD
104
1.0
1.0
404
RLOAD1
404
1004
0
0
400
0
DAREA
1004 4003003
4
1.0
$ 4003003 +RY
DLOAD
105
1.0
1.0
405
RLOAD1
405
1005
0
0
400
0
DAREA
1005 4003003
5
1.0
$ 4003003 +RZ
DLOAD
106
1.0
1.0
406
RLOAD1
406
1006
0
0
400
0
DAREA
1006 4003003
6
1.0
$
$ Not all load cards are shown in this example
---------------------------------------------------------------------------$
$==01==><==02==><==03==><==04==><==05==><==06==><==07==><==08==><==09==><==10
==>
TABLED1
400
+400A
+400A
20.0
1.0
400.0
1.0
ENDT
$
INCLUDE '/ANALYSIS/TRIM_BODY_CONNECTIONS.dat'
INCLUDE '/MODELS/CAVITY/CAVITY.dat'
INCLUDE '/ANALYSIS/TRIM_BODY_FILES.dat'
INCLUDE '/MODELS/FRONT_CRADLE/FRONT_CRADLE.dat'
INCLUDE '/MODELS/STEERING/STEERING_COLUMN.dat'
INCLUDE '/MODELS/STEERING/STEERING_WHEEL.dat'
ENDDATA

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Note: Around 275 subcases were needed to define all the


interface point unit loads in all six degrees of freedom for
this example.
The label card: LABEL = 4003003:+X<>3003:+X<>Frt Susp.:LCA - Frt Bush:LHS:+X
The first parameter defines the input attachment point and its loading direction. The second
parameter defines a shortened version of this input attachment point. The third parameter
defines the attachment by its name and also includes the loading direction. The creation of
the subcases and this labeling information will be automated in a future release of NVH
Director.
The major output from this analysis is the displacement and velocity output in the .pch file,
which can be around 40 MB in size.

Full Vehicle Load Case


The second run is a full vehicle model analysis with a particular critical loading on one of the
non-body components. Below is an example of a P/T type of analysis. A torque loading is
applied to the crankshaft and the acoustic response at the drivers ear is captured.

Example
OUTPUT, H3D
OUTPUT, MASSPROP
PARAM, AMLS,
YES
PARAM, AMLSNCPU, 4
PARAM, AUTOSPC, YES
PARAM, CHECKEL, NO
$MODEL,100
$
TITLE = P/T FULL VEHICLE ANALYSIS
SUBTITLE = BASELINE COMPONENTS
MPC =
406
SPC =
1
$ Acoustic response output set
SET 1 = 80000000, 80000002, 80000004, 80000006
$ Structural response output set
SET 2 = 1006001,9106012
$ Body attachment forces
SET 3 = 1002001,1002001,1002002,1002003,1002004,1003015,1003016,
1003521,1004503,1004507,1004515,1004523,1005003,1005004,
1005011,1005012,1005013,1005014,1005015,1005016,1005017,
1005018,2005807,2005809,2005810,4003003,4003004,4003005,
4003006,4003007,4003008,4003501,4003511,4003541,4005811,
4005812,9005852
INCLUDE 'display_set.dat'
$ This file contains set 200 that has the full vehicle plotel grid points
identified.
$
SUBCASE 1 $ MODAL DEFLECTION SHAPE
LABEL = P over T Modal

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METHOD(FLUID) =
2
METHOD(STRUCTURE) =
3
DISPLACEMENT(H3D)=
200
$
SUBCASE 2 $ FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS
LABEL = P over T Baseline
METHOD(FLUID) =
2
METHOD(STRUCTURE) =
3
DLOAD = 110
FREQUENCY=
1
GPFORCE (PUNCH,PHASE) =
3
DISPLACEMENT(PUNCH,PHASE)=
1
DISPLACEMENT(H3D,PHASE)=
1
ACCELERATION (PUNCH,PHASE) =
2
ACCELERATION (H3D,PHASE) =
2
$
SUBCASE 3 $ OPERATING DEFLECTION MODE SHAPE
LABEL = P over T Post
METHOD(FLUID) =
2
METHOD(STRUCTURE) =
3
$ Critical Frequencies specified in set 300
SET 300 = 54.0,64.0,80.0,92.0,104.0,114.0,146.0
OFREQ =
300
DLOAD =
110
FREQUENCY=
1
DISPLACEMENT(H3D)=
200
$
BEGIN BULK
$
$ PARAM CARDS FOR ANALYSIS
PARAM
WTMASS 1.
$
$==01==><==02==><==03==><==04==><==05==><==06==><==07==><==08==><==09==><==10
==>
FREQ1
1
5.0
1.0
195
EIGRL
2
600.
EIGRL
3
300.
ACMODL
4.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
$
INCLUDE '/ANALYSIS/P_OVER_T/PT_LOADS.dat'
$
INCLUDE '/ANALYSIS/P_OVER_T/PT_CONNECTIONS_FULL.dat'
$
INCLUDE '/ANALYSIS/FULL_VEHICLE_FILES_W_CAVITY.dat'
ENDDATA
This run also puts out a large .pch file that includes the response and the body attachment
forces.
Once these two runs are completed, a transfer patch analysis can be performed in
HyperView.

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Transfer Path Analysis


To perform a transfer path analysis on this model, open up HyperView.
1. From the File menu, select Load > Preference File.
2. From the Preference dialog, select NVH Utilities and click Load.
3. From the NVH menu, select Transfer Path Analysis.
4. Click on the file browser icon to select a Transfer Function file.
This is the PCH from the first run.
5. Click on the file browser icon to select a Force file.
6. Select Load.

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Residual Runs using Super Elements


Super Elements Only with No Structure in the Residual Run
To run an analysis on just a super element model with no residual structure, you must
include a dummy grid point or include the .seplot file generated with the super element.
OUTPUT, H3D
ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,BODY,/H3D/TRIMMED_BODY23_H3D.h3d
TITLE = TRIM BODY MOBILITY ANALYSIS
METHOD=1
FREQUENCY=1
$
SET 2 = 1006001
ACCELERATION (PUNCH,SORT1,PHASE) = 2
$
SUBCASE 2
LABEL = 1002001: +X
DLOAD = 101
DISPLACEMENT = NONE
SET 3 = 1002001
VELOCITY (PUNCH,SORT1,PHASE) = 3
$
SUBCASE 3
LABEL = 1002001: +Y
DLOAD = 102
DISPLACEMENT = NONE
SET 4 = 1002001
VELOCITY (PUNCH,SORT1,PHASE) = 4
$
BEGIN BULK
GRID, 1
$
FREQ1
1
10.0
1.0
490
EIGRL
1
450.0
$
$ 1002001 +X
DLOAD
101
1.0
1.0
401
RLOAD1 401
1001
0
0
400
0
DAREA
1001
1002001 1
1.0
$ 1002001 +Y
DLOAD
102
1.0
1.0
402
RLOAD1 402
1002
0
0
400
0
DAREA
1002
1002001 2
1.0
TABLED1 400
+400A
10.0
1.0
500.0
1.0
ENDT
$
INCLUDE '/MODELS/SEPLOTS/TRIMMED_BODY23_H3DFF.seplot'
ENDDATA

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Residual Run Containing Several Super Elements


An example to combine super elements in a residual run is shown in the following example.
OUTPUT, H3D
OUTPUT, MASSCOMP
PARAM, AUTOSPC, YES
PARAM, CHECKEL, NO
INCLUDE '/ANALYSIS/H3D_FILES_W_CAVITY.dat'
TITLE =
SUBTITLE =
SPC = 1
SUBCASE 1
LABEL = UNIT TORQUE INPUT
DLOAD = 1000
METHOD(FLUID) = 2
METHOD(STRUCTURE) = 3
FREQUENCY=1
SET 1 = 80000000, 80000002, 80000004, 80000006
DISPLACEMENT(PUNCH,SORT2,PHASE)=
1
SET 2 = 1006001,9106012
ACCELERATION (PUNCH,SORT2,PHASE) = 2
$
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
TCURVE = DRIVER'S ACOUSTIC RESPONSE
XYPUNCH DISP RESPONSE / 80000000(T1RM)
TCURVE = FRONT PASSENGER ACOUSTIC RESPONSE
XYPUNCH DISP RESPONSE / 80000002(T1RM)
TCURVE = RIGHT REAR PASSENGER ACOUSTIC RESPONSE
XYPUNCH DISP RESPONSE / 80000004(T1RM)
TCURVE = LEFT REAR PASSENGER ACOUSTIC RESPONSE
XYPUNCH DISP RESPONSE / 80000006(T1RM)
BEGIN BULK
$==01==><==02==><==03==><==04==><==05==><==06==><==07==><==08==><==09==><==10=
=>
FREQ1
1
50.0
2.0
49
EIGRL
2
600.
EIGRL
3
300.
$==01==><==02==><==03==><==04==><==05==><==06==><==07==><==08==><==09==><==10=
=>
ACMODL
$
INCLUDE '/LOADS.dat'
$
INCLUDE '/CONNECTIONS_BETWEEN_COMPONENTS.dat'
$
INCLUDE '/NON_H3D_FILES.dat'
ENDDATA
Where the '/ANALYSIS/H3D_FILES_W_CAVITY.dat' looks like this.
ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,BODY,/H3D/TRIMMED_BODY23_W_CAVITY_H3DFF.h3d
ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,EXHAUS,/H3D/EXHAUST_H3DFF.h3d
ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,FRCALLS,/H3D/FRONT_CALIPHER_LS_H3DFF.h3d
ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,FRCALRS,/H3D/FRONT_CALIPHER_RS_H3DFF.h3d
ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,FRCRAD,/H3D/FRONT_CRADLE_H3DFF.h3d
ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,FRDILS,/H3D/FRONT_DISC_LS_H3DFF.h3d
ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,FRDIRS,/H3D/FRONT_DISC_RS_H3DFF.h3d

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-------------------------------------------------ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,RRKNRS,/H3D/REAR_KNUCKLE_RS_H3DFF.h3d
ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,RRRLLS,/H3D/REAR_LAT_LINK_LS_H3DFF.h3d
ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,RRRLRS,/H3D/REAR_LAT_LINK_RS_H3DFF.h3d
ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,RRSTAB,/H3D/REAR_STAB_BAR_H3DFF.h3d
ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,RRSTLS,/H3D/REAR_STRUT_LS_H3DFF.h3d
ASSIGN,H3DDMIG,RRSTRS,/H3D/REAR_STRUT_RS_H3DFF.h3d
A unique name, six or less characters long, must be entered in the third field for each
component.
Note: A residual run with a large Craig-Chang super element
should be run in either Lanczos or the Direct method. It
will be extremely slow with AMLS. AMLS is not needed
since the residual run is small in size.
Note that to get results for interior points in the super element response points that were not
included in the list with the interface points, output using the PUNCH command; you must
also include the DEBUG,SETDMIG,1 line in the file. It is the only output command that
requires this extra line.

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Basic OptiStruct NVH Output Files


For more detail information, refer to Files Created by OptiStruct.

From a Standard Modal or Frequency Response Analysis


*.h3d

This file contains the super element information from a super element
creation run, the modal information from a modal run, the response output
from a frequency response run, or the output from an optimization run.
Information in this file can come from various types of analysis. This is a
binary file that is used by HyperView.

*.html

This file contains a problem summary and results summary of the run. This
file is created by default, but can be turned off using OUTPUT=HTML,NO.
Open up this file in an internet browser like Internet Explorer or Firefox. It
is very useful in debugging modal problems.

*.interface

This file contains the coupling between the cavity model and the structural
model. This file can be viewed by reading in both the cavity and structure
file first and then reading in the file through the standard file input selection
in HyperMesh. This file is created if there are both structural and fluid
meshes in the input data file.

*.mvw

This file contains the information to quickly load in the requested output
information into HyperGraph. It references the .pch file information.

*.op2

Duplicates the standard Nastran .op2 file information. File is created by the
OUTPUT2 output format command. Binary file.

*.out

This file contains the run information such as warning and error messages,
mass information, memory requirements, and AMLS information. This file is
always created.

*.pch

This file can contains output in both the XYPUNCH or PUNCH Nastran
format. This file is created when XYPEAK, XYPLOT, XYPUNCH or PUNCH
output is requested. ASCII format.

*.peak

This file contains the peak response information from a random response
run. It contains RMS value, the number of positive crossings, and the peak
power spectral density and responses. ASCII format.

*.res

The .res file is a HyperMesh binary results file. Output results can be view
in HyperMesh Post capabilities. This file is created when the
OUTPUT,HM,YES is turned on.

*.stat

This file contains the module timing information. This file is created by
default, but can be turned off with OUTPUT=STAT,NO. ASCII format.

*_frames.html This file is used by the *.html file to view the H3D results in the HyperView
Player browser plug-in.
*_menu.html

This file is used by the *.html file to view the H3D results in the HyperView
Player browser plug-in.

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From an Optimization Run


*.desvar

Updated design variables at final iteration. ASCII format.

*.prop

Update property values at final iteration. Output is for all property values
even those not being optimized. Creation of this file is controlled by the
PROPERTY I/O option. ASCII format.

*.slk

This file contains the sensitivity information for the selected DESVARS. This
output can be viewed in Excel. This file is created when the SENSITIVITY
command is used.

*_noengl.slk

This file is always generated if sensitivity information is requested. NonEnglish version of the .slk file.

*.hgdata

This file contains the iteration history of the objective function, constraint
functions, design variables, and response functions. Contents of this file are
controlled by the I/O option HISOUT. This file can be read into HyperGraph
to display its contents. ASCII format.

*.hist

This file contains the iteration history of the objective function, maximum
constraint violation, design variables, DRESP1 type responses, and DRESP2
type responses. Contents of this file are controlled by the I/O option
HISOUT. ASCII format.

*.sh

This file is created when an optimization is performed. Contains information


necessary to restart the optimization from a given iteration. Output of this
file is controlled by the I/O Option SHRES.

*_s#.h3d

This file is a compressed binary file, containing both model and result data.
It can be used to post-process results in HyperView or using the HyperView
Player. The _s#.h3d file is created when the H3D format is chosen.

*_des.h3d

This file is a compressed binary file, containing both model and result data.
It can be used to post-process results in HyperView or when using the
HyperView Player. The _des.h3d file is created when the H3D format is
chosen (see I/O option FORMAT), and an optimization run is performed.

*_gauge.0.h3d This file is a compressed binary file containing both model and result data.
It can be used to post-process shell thickness (gauge) sensitivity in
HyperView. The *_gauge.0.h3d file is created when the H3D format is
chosen (see I/O option FORMAT), and an optimization run is performed.
*_hist.mvw

320

This file is a HyperView session file and may be opened from the File menu
in HyperView or HyperGraph. The file automatically creates individual plots
for each of the results contained in the .hist file. Each plot occupies its
own page within HyperView (HyperGraph). This file is created when an
optimization is performed. Creation of this file is controlled by the I/O
option DESHIS.

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From PFMODE, PFGRID Analysis


*.pfmode.pch

This file contains the output from PFMODE and PFPANEL requests. This
information can be viewed in the HyperView NVH PFMODE-PFGRID module.
In version 12.0, this file is only available when output=punch is requested
in PFMODE and PFPANEL. It is recommended to export the modal and panel
participation data into a H3D file, due to the large volume of data.

*.h3d

This file contains the output from PFMODE, PFPANEL, and PFGRID requests.
Results of PFGRID is only available in H3D file.

From a Super Element Creation Analysis


*.seplot

This file contains the exterior and interior grids, plotels and plate plotels,
retained in the super element creation run. This file is created when the
PARAM, SEPLOT,YES command is included in the run. ASCII format.

*.h3d

This file contains the super element binary information to be included in a


future residual run. Always created for a super element run. This file is
created by default, but can be turned off with OUTPUT,H3D, NO.

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Global Search Option


The global search option is incorporated directly in OptiStruct. It does not require an external
program to run with OptiStruct.
Below is an example on how it can be used to optimize engine mount locations in a full
vehicle model for a simple rough road shake input.
Initially here are the main cards for the global search option. Everything is controlled by the
DGLOBAL card.
Now, this card might seem daunting and overloaded with parameters, but try running with
default values first. Most parameters were implemented for advanced usage and for futureproofing the feature. Here's all you need for basic usage:
DGLOBAL = 10
...
BEGIN BULK
...
DGLOBAL 10

Engine Mount Optimization Example


PARAM, MASSPROP
DGLOBAL = 10
SENSITIVITY = ALL
SENSOUT = FL
$
INCLUDE '/ANALYSIS/H3D_FILES.dat'
TITLE = ENGINE MOUNT LOCATION OPTIMIZATION
$ ENGINE MOUNT LOCATIONS
SET 400 = 6966 6967 6968 6998 6999 7000
DESVAR = 400
DESOBJ = 1
RANDOM =
2400
SET 2 =1006001,9006002
ACCE(SORT1,PHASE,PLOT,PSDF) = 2
SUBCASE 10 $RIGHT SIDE INPUT
DLOAD=10
ANALYSIS = MFREQ
FREQUENCY = 100
SPC =
1
MPC =
400
METHOD = 1
SUBCASE 20 $LEFT SIDE INPUT
DLOAD=20
FREQUENCY = 100
ANALYSIS = MFREQ
SPC =
1
MPC =
400
METHOD = 1
$
OUTPUT(XYPLOT)
XYPUNCH ACCE PSDF / 1006001(T1)
XYPUNCH ACCE PSDF / 1006001(T2)
XYPUNCH ACCE PSDF / 1006001(T3)

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XYPUNCH ACCE PSDF / 9006002(T1)


XYPUNCH ACCE PSDF / 9006002(T2)
XYPUNCH ACCE PSDF / 9006002(T3)
BEGIN BULK
$-----------------------------------------------------------------------------$ PARAM CARDS FOR ANALYSIS
PARAM
WTMASS 1.
$==01==><==02==><==03==><==04==><==05==><==06==><==07==><==08==><==09==><==10
==>
$
FREQ1
1
1.0
0.2
95
EIGRL
1
45.0
$
$-----------------------------------------------------------------------------$==01==><==02==><==03==><==04==><==05==><==06==><==07==><==08==><==09==><==10
==>
DOPTPRM
DESMAX
50
DGLOBAL 10
$-----------------------------------------------------------------------------$==01==><==02==><==03==><==04==><==05==><==06==><==07==><==08==><==09==><==10
==>
$
$-----------------------------------------------------------------------$
$ Left Engine Mount Point of Action
$
GRID
4500
1250.0 -325.0
747.0
GRID
4505
1250.0 -325.0
747.0
GRID
4501
1260.0 -325.0
747.0
123456
GRID
4503
1250.0 -325.0
757.0
123456
CBUSH
5955
5964
4505
4500
5901
CORD1R
5901
4500
4503
4501
$--1---|---2---|---3---|---4---|---5---|---6---|---7---|---8---|--9---|-------|
RBE2
5961 4004501 123456
4500
RBE2
5962 6004501 123456
4505
CONM2
5956 6004501
00.0035 0.0
0.0
0.0
CONM2
5957 4004501
00.0035 0.0
0.0
0.0
DESVAR
6966 EM4501X
10.0 -70.00
80.00
0.2
DVGRID
6966
4505
1.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
DVGRID
6966
4500
1.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
DESVAR
6967 EM4501Y
10.0 -60.00
30.00
0.2
DVGRID
6967
4505
1.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
DVGRID
6967
4500
1.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
DESVAR
6968 EM4501Z
10.0 -90.00
70.00
0.2
DVGRID
6968
4505
1.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
DVGRID
6968
4500
1.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
$--1---|---2---|---3---|---4---|---5---|---6---|---7---|---8---|--9---|-------|
PLOTEL
5977 6004501
4501
PLOTEL
5979 6004501
4503
$
PBUSH
5964
K
450.0
300.0
500.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
B
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
GE
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.0
0.0
0.0
$-----------------------------------------------------------------------$
$ Right Engine Mount Point of Action

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$
$
GRID
4510
1250.0
325.0
747.0
GRID
4515
1250.0
325.0
747.0
GRID
4511
1260.0
325.0
747.0
123456
GRID
4517
1250.0
325.0
757.0
123456
CBUSH
5964
5964
4515
4510
6001
CORD1R
6001
4510
4517
4511
$--1---|---2---|---3---|---4---|---5---|---6---|---7---|---8---|--9---|-------|
RBE2
5994 4004511 123456
4510
RBE2
5995 6004511 123456
4515
CONM2
5996 6004511
00.0035 0.0
0.0
0.0
CONM2
5997 4004511
00.0035 0.0
0.0
0.0
DESVAR
6998 EM4511X
10.0 -75.00
80.00
0.2
DVGRID
5998
4515
1.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
DVGRID
5998
4510
1.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
DESVAR
6999 EM4511Y
10.0 -20.00
80.00
0.2
DVGRID
6999
4515
1.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
DVGRID
6999
4510
1.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
DESVAR
7000 EM4511Z
10.0 -65.00
60.00
0.2
DVGRID
7000
4515
1.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
DVGRID
7000
4510
1.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
$--1---|---2---|---3---|---4---|---5---|---6---|---7---|---8---|--9---|-------|
PLOTEL
6011 6004511
4511
PLOTEL
6013 6004511
4517
PLOTEL
24511 6004511 4004511
INCLUDE '/ANALYSIS/OPTIMIZATION_CARDS.dat'
INCLUDE '/ANALYSIS/SIMPLE_ROAD_INPUT.dat'
INCLUDE '/ANALYSIS/CONNECTIONS_WO_ENGING_MOUNTS.dat'
INCLUDE '/ANALYSIS/NON_H3D_FILES.dat'
ENDDATA
In this model, the left and right mount locations are being optimized for improving the
drivers seat track for a simple rough road shake input. Most of the component files are in
the CMS super element format. The simple component files are in OptiStruct. The super
elements are required in order to make each optimization run faster.
This run will make several optimization runs from different starting points. Each optimization
output will be put into a separate directory. The .pch files from each directory can be viewed
in HyperGraph and the best results can be chosen.
The resulting .grid file for the best results can be included in the basic model file by the
ASSIGN UPDATE card. This will automatically update the engine mount locations for you.

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Create Door and Deck Lid Seals


1. The first thing that needs to be done is to save this HyperMesh macro in one of your
directories. The best directory to use is the Work_dir_hw11. This is the default directory
for the HyperMesh command window. It orients the seal CBUSH elements properly.
2. The easiest way to create the door seals is to isolate both side of the structure that the
seal is attached to. To do this, open up the body model in HyperMesh and save the outer
door frame in a separate file. Do the same thing with the door inner panel to which the
door seal contacts.
3. Open up both the body side frame and the door inner panel in HyperMesh.
4. Display only the body side frame.
5. Go to the Geom panel and select lines.
6. In the Lines panel, select node list and smooth as the two options displayed.
7. Start at one point on the door side frame where the seal is attached to the body. Do
not select the edge point if the door seal is perpendicular to the door edge. For the deck
lid seal the deck lid edge is parallel to the seal and the edge points can be picked. Do not
pick nodes that are shared by two components.
8. Continue around the perimeter selecting points. The points can be spaced far apart if
they are in a straight line. Around the curve areas, select enough points to adequately
follow the curve surface. Select almost each point around a curve. If you select a wrong
point, right-click on the last point to remove it. The right-click option can be performed
several times to remove the last few points. Do not close the line. Select the last point
close to the first point.
9. Click create. A line will be created along the path chosen.
10. Click return.
11. In the Geom panel, select Nodes.
12. Select on line.
Number of nodes =: around 200
bias style: linear
bias intensity: 0.0
13. Click the lines button and select the line just created.
14. Click create. The temporary nodes will be created equidistant from each other.
15. Display just these new nodes using the Model panel on the left side. Turn off the body
side frame. Note the distance between nodes using the distance option in the Geom
panel and selecting two sequential points.
Record this distance for future use.
16. Select the 1D panel at the bottom. Then click connectors > spot.
17. Select the spot selection.
Location: nodes

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connect with: comps


type = sealing
fe file; <<econfig.cfg
prop file: <<sealing.tcl
diameter: 0.0
mesh: independent
no systems
Tolerance: 100
18. Click the nodes button and select displayed.
19. Bring up the body side frame and the door inner panel. Click comps and then select both
the body side frame and the door inner panel to which the door seal will attach to.
20. Click create.
The spot welds representing the door seals will be created. A message at the bottom left
hand corner appears reporting how many good spot welds have been created. There
should not be any bad spot welds.
21. Go to the Geom panel and select temp nodes.
22. Click nodes, then select all:
23. Click add and then clear all. This will remove the initial temporary nodes create with the
line command.
24. Go to Mask by Config in the left hand panel. Select Springs/Gaps. To isolate just the
spot welds, select 1. Just the CBUSH elements of the spot welds will appear.
25. Go to the Tool panel and select renumber. Select nodes.
26. Click nodes and select displayed.
27. Select a start with value that will move these nodes above all other nodes in the full
vehicle model.
Increment by 1 Offset 0.
28. Click renumber > return.
29. Go to the Properties selection on the top menu line. Select Edit > Prop and select the
PBUSH0 property that represent the property for the spot weld CBUSH elements.
Note that there may be multiple PBUSH properties for the door seals. The Spot command
creates a new property card when one of the components that the door seal attaches to
changes. The following needs to be performed for each door seal property card.
30. Click Select > update/edit.
This will bring up the PBUSH card. Enter your values for the door seal properties. The
seal stiffness properties will normally be given in stiffness per unit length for each of the
three translation directions. Multiply these numbers by the length distance recorded
above and enter the values into the K1, K2 and K3 locations. K1 will be the compressive
direction; K2 the direction along the seal length; and K3 the direction perpendicular to
the seal length.

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31. For K4, K5 and K6, enter 0.0.


32. Click Return twice.
33. Go to the Model panel on the left hand side and turn on the spot welds auto1.
34. Select the Tool > renumber panel.
35. Select elems. Click the elems button and select displayed.
36. Enter a start with value that moves the element IDs above all the rest of the elements in
the full vehicle model.
37. Click the renumber button.
38. Go to Mask by Config in the left hand panel. Select the Springs/Gaps to isolate just
the spot welds. Just the CBUSH elements of the spot welds will appear.
39. Now select lines and click the + symbol. This will bring up the line created initially.
40. Now use the macro to align the CBUSH elements properly. Go to the top line in the
HyperMesh window and select View; select command window, if it is not already
present.
41. Enter the macro name source orienttbc. in the white command window.
42. Click enter.
43. In the bottom window there is a button named nodes list, which is highlighted. Expand
the CBUSH elements. Select the node closest to the line on each CBUSH element. This is
the GA point for the CBUSH element. Click proceed at any time and the macro will align
just those CBUSHs that were selected. Vectors that are created pointing along the line
direction are shown. This defines the XY plane for the CBUSH elements. You can
restart the macro by moving the curser into the command window and hitting the up
arrow button.
44. Click enter. Now proceed to do all the seal CBUSH elements.
45. Go to the Model panel on the left hand side and turn on the spot welds auto1.
46. Either keep the welds with the body or the door, or the seals can be put into a separate
file by going to the file output panel entering a new name for the file and set export to
Displayed.
47. Click Export.
48. Presently in HyperMesh 10.0, the PBUSH ID cannot be renumbered initially. If the seal
model is put in a separate file, close HyperMesh and reopen it and read this seal model
back in.
49. The PBUSH property can now be renumbered by clicking Tool > Renumber. Select prop
and click the prop button. Now select the PBUSH associated with the door seal CBUSHs.
50. Enter a start with value that moves the property ID above all the rest of the properties
in the full vehicle model.
51. Click the renumber button. You will now need to resave the door seal file.
52. If you save the door seals in a separate file for use with your trim body model, the body
and door seal grid points from the deck will need to be removed. You will also need to
remove the control cards at the top of the deck and the enddata card at the end of the
deck, so that when it is included with the body and doors there will be no duplicate IDs.

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Create a HyperGraph Template for Reading in Multiple Files


All the .pch files should be in the same directory and the $label values should be the same.
1. Open HyperGraph.
2. Read in file number 1.
3. To read in multiple curves at one time, select one Y Type. Select multiple Y Request.
Select multiple Y Components.
4. From the Layout menu, select One curve per plot.
5. Click Apply. Multiple plots will be created.
6. From the File menu, select Save as > Report Template.
same directory as where the .pch files are located.

Save file as a .tpl in the

7. From the File menu, select New > Session. This will restart HyperGraph.
8. From the Tools toolbar, select Open Reports Panel.
9. In the Report definition list, the .tpl file will be listed.
10. Click Apply. The original curves will be shown.
11. Click Add to open another file to compare the results.
12. Select Overlay.
13. Once you have finished adding the files, Save the .tpl.
14. You can now open the .tpl file in HyperGraph and enter new file names for different
comparisons.

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Using AMSES (Automatic Multi-Level Sub-Structuring


Eigensolver Solution)
For the solution of large eigenvalue problems, the AMSES solution can be used instead of the
Lanczos eigensolver. The resulting eigenvalues and eigenvectors are used in eigenvalue
analysis, CMS Super Element creation, Modal Frequency Response, and Modal Transient
Analysis. In addition, the AMSES solver can be used during topology, topography, shape,
and sizing optimizations. The AMSES solver can be 2-100 times faster than Lanczos.
AMSES is a multi-threaded application and can use any number of processors. AMSES will
use the same number of processors that OptiStruct is using.
Activating AMSES
To use AMSES, one of the following must be defined:
1. Use of the EIGRA data, instead of EIGRL data.
2. Use of AMSES solver keyword on the CMSMETH data

AMSES Usage Guidelines


The following guidelines list the factors affecting AMSES usage:
1. The AMSES solution is, generally, much faster than Lanczos, but the results are
approximate. Accuracy of the lower modes is very high; therefore, AMSES is a good
candidate for solutions with a large number of modes (greater than a few hundred) where
an approximated eigen-space is sufficient (as in Modal Frequency Response and Modal
Transient Response Analysis). Although approximate, the large number of modes used for
modal analysis will encompass the modal space and the resulting motion will match very
closely with the Lanczos results. Lanczos is recommended in solutions where accurate
mode shapes of a small number of modes are required.
2. AMSES is also recommended in cases where: 1) A low number of eigenvalues are
requested but the model consists of more than a million degrees of freedom, and/or; 2)
The upper bound (V2) is specified or the number of modes (ND) is greater than 50 on the
EIGRL entry. In such cases, it is likely that Lanczos runs are slower than AMSES runs.
3. For optimization runs, if accuracy of the eigenvector is important, normal modes analysis
with AMSES can be run first and then Lanczos can be run with precise lower and upper
bounds to check the AMSES run for accuracy. The AMSES upper bound can then be
adjusted to achieve acceptable accuracy of the desired eigenvectors. Now, AMSES can be
used for all optimization runs in this analysis.
4. The AMSES solution is much faster for flexible body generation and modal solutions with
many residual vectors.
5. AMSES should be used cautiously in situations with very large RBE3s (i.e., if the RBE3 is
connected to 1/4th of the structure). It may be better to eliminate such RBE3s.
6. AMSES solution speeds depend on the number of eigenvector degrees of freedom (DOF)
to be calculated. DISP=ALL will cause the entire eigenvector to be calculated and the
speedup will not be large. However, if results for only a few DOF are required (typical for
NVH analysis), AMSES can be up to 100 times faster than Lanczos. To improve AMSES run
times, it is recommended to request results only for the required DOF.

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7. For an AMSES run with V1, V2 and ND specified on the EIGRA entry, AMSES calculates all
the modes up to the specified V2 (upper bound) regardless of the value of ND. Then ND
number of requested modes is output. Therefore, reducing ND by keeping the upper
bound (V2) the same will not significantly improve the AMSES run times, the upper bound
must also be correspondingly reduced to prevent the extraction of extra modes.
8. AMSES is also useful in checking for model irregularities. AMSES can be used to print the
list of grids associated with a massless mechanism or a singularity.

Parameters Affecting AMSES


AMSES controls the accuracy and the cost of a solution with the parameter AMPFFACT. The
optimal value of AMPFFACT for typical NVH analysis, 5.0, has been established through
extensive testing. AMPFFACT is set on the EIGRA and CMSMETH data.
In case of predominately solid models, such as engine blocks, AMPFACT should be set to 10.0.
PARAM,RBMEIG can be used to adjust the upper limit on eigenvalues associated with rigid
body modes. The default upper limit is 1.0 (equivalent to a natural frequency of 0.16 Hz) if
PARAM,RBMEIG is not included in the deck.

Residual Vector Calculations


When the AMSES eigensolver is used, residual vectors for each of the following are
calculated:
USET U6 data
Frequency Response Dynamic Loads
Transient Response Dynamic Loads
Damping DOF from CBUSH, CDAMPi or CVISC data
One Residual Vector is calculated for each USET U6 degree of freedom, each DAREA degree of
freedom, and each damping degree of freedom associated with the CBUSH, CDAMPi and
CVISC data.
The Residual Vector calculations are controlled by the Solution Control data RESVEC. To
control Residual Vector calculations with AMSES, the following commands can be used:
Use RESVEC=NO to turn off Residual Vector calculations with AMSES
Use RESVEC(NODAMP)=YES to turn off Residual Vectors associated with Damping DOF.
If the center of a large RBE3 is loaded, a residual vector will be created that includes
terms for each of the independent DOF. If this number is large, say over 500, the
AMSES run time will increase dramatically. For large loaded RBE3 it is recommended to
use the RBE3 UM data to make the center GRID independent.

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Modeling Techniques
The Modeling Techniques section provides an overview of the following:
Parts and Instances
Subcase Specific Modeling
Direct Matrix Input
Flexible Body Generation
Poroelastic Materials
Elements and Materials
Loads and Boundary Conditions
Virtual Fluid Mass
Modeling Errors

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Parts and Instances


Introduction
The Parts and Instances functionality can be used to combine independently created
substructures (or, parts) into a single model. This feature allows you greater flexibility in the
creation of a finite element model. By following a few simple numbering requirements, you
can define independent substructures which in turn can be easily combined into a final bigger
model using simple translational and rotational transformations. Explicit instancing of parts
can be achieved, as explained in the Instances section. This functionality is available for all
analysis solution sequences and is currently not supported for optimization runs. OptiStructMulti-body Dynamics (OS-MBD) and Geometric Nonlinear Analysis are not supported.
Motivation
There are various advantages to defining a large finite element model as a combination of
substructures or parts:
1. Model complexity is reduced as the structure is segregated into manageable substructures
which are interconnected using simple transformations.
2. Individual part modules can be locally updated without having to make cascading edits to
the entire structure.

Figure 1: Illustration depicting a model created as a combination of multiple parts (substructures)

3. Each substructure can be independently developed in a modular environment and later


assembled into a single structure. This allows various departments working on a project
to focus on independent modules while following a few simple numbering requirements.
Numbering Requirements
In this implementation, specific ID control for grid points and elements (including rigid
elements) is not required. Refer to ID Resolution Guidelines for a detailed explanation of part
numbering and how this influences the various other data entries in the model. The following
simple numbering requirements should be enforced for any solver deck containing multiple
parts:

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1. Entities which are part specific, like grid points and elements, are numbered by part
based local numbering.
2. Global entities such as properties, materials, loads and boundary conditions are defined in
the global numbering system.
3. The individual parts forming the total structure can be combined without any changes in
format if the numbering requirements (1) and (2) are met.

Parts
A part can be visualized as an independent entity which is connected to a global structure
during assembly (The global structure is also considered to be a part). Each part can be
defined as a section of the entire finite element model that is used for a specific purpose. For
example, a door of an automobile can be defined as a part and multiple instances of this part
can be instantiated (refer to Instances for a detailed explanation of part instancing) to save
time during modeling.
Definition
A part is included in the global structure between BEGIN and END bulk data entries
potentially using the INCLUDE entry. The INCLUDE entry accepts a string that references the
file name (filename.fem) of a specific part. Parts are defined as separate solver decks and
could be included within the same working directory. Multiple INCLUDE entries can be used
within a single set of BEGIN and END entries to add multiple sections of a single part (refer
to Instances for a detailed explanation of part instancing). A part can also be split between
separate BEGIN and END entries with the same part name.
Format
BEGIN and END bulk data entries mark the start and end of the definition of a part in the
global structure. A part is defined as a separate file which is included in the global structure
using the INCLUDE bulk data entry (The entire solver deck of the part can also be inserted
between the BEGIN and END entries, instead of using the INCLUDE entry).
The format used to include a part in a global structure is as follows:
BEGIN, FEMODEL, name
INCLUDE filename.fem
END, FEMODEL, name
The second field of the BEGIN entry should be set to FEMODEL and the third field should
contain the name of the part. This part name will be used to define fully qualified references
to local entries within the part from anywhere in the model. All part names in the model
should be unique. Part names are not case sensitive and should start with a letter. They can
contain letters, digits, and underscores, only. filename.fem follows standard requirements
for INCLUDE, that is, it can refer to a local file or contain the full path. No other BEGIN or
END entries are allowed between BEGIN and END. All bulk data entries should be located
between BEGIN, FEMODEL and END, FEMODEL. A full model consists of several parts. One
part is designated as global. The other parts can be moved to arbitrary locations using the
INSTNCE bulk data entry and connected to each other using connector elements or CONNECT
bulk data entries.

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Local and Global Entries


Local entries, as their name suggests, are data entries that can be defined locally within a
specific part. Local entries are currently limited to the following (refer to the Appendix for a
list of all local entries).
Grid Point Definition
GRID Bulk Data Entry
Rigid Elements
RROD Bulk Data Entry
RBAR Bulk Data Entry
RBE1 Bulk Data Entry
RBE2 Bulk Data Entry
Elements
CHEXA Bulk Data Entry
CQUAD Bulk Data Entry
CBUSH Bulk Data Entry
and so on
All other data entries are considered global and should be defined in the global structure.
Even if they are located within BEGIN END entries in a different part, they are still
interpreted as if they are in the global part. Some global data entries can reference local data
entries (see above list) using fully qualified references.

Fully Qualified References


The same ID number can be used for non-unique local data entries defined in multiple parts.
Such IDs cannot be referenced by entries in the global structure without the use of fully
qualified references. Fully qualified references contain information about both the local data
entry and its corresponding part.
Numeric Reference

Fully Qualified Reference

A numeric reference on a local entry References a local entry defined


references another local entity within within any part.
the same part, or a global entity. A
numeric reference can be used to
reference a global entry only if
another entry of the same type and
with the same ID does not exist
within the current part.
A numeric reference on a global entry A fully qualified reference can be
references an entity within the global used to reference an entry when
part only.
another entry of the same type and
with the same ID exists within the
model.

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Numeric Reference

Fully Qualified Reference

Format: A <number> equal to the


set ID of a non-local entry that is to
be referenced is input in the
corresponding field(s) of the
referencing entry.

Format: This is similar to the format


of a numeric reference. The
difference is that
<PartName.number> is input in the
corresponding field(s) of the
referencing entry. The PartName is
the name specified on the BEGIN
entry for the part that contains the
referenced entry.

Example:

Example:

RBE2, 16, 9, 123, 10

RBE2, 16, door.9, 123,


bpillar.1

This connects grid points 9 and 10


located in the same part as the RBE2 This connects grid points 9 and 10
located in part door and part
entry (RBE2 is a local entry).
bpillar, respectively.
CHEXA, 5, 9,
This RBE2 entry can be located in
This references global material 9
any part.
irrespective of where the MAT#, 9
entry is located (Currently, all
Material entries are global entries).

ID Resolution Guidelines
The following guidelines can be used to implement proper ID resolution in a model containing
multiple parts and instances.
1. Each part can be included only once within a specific set of BEGIN and END bulk data
entries. Inclusion of multiple copies of a single part is known as instancing (refer to
Instances).
2. All references to properties and materials are resolved in a standard way. These entities
are global and should be defined only once anywhere in the model.
3. Subcase information and I/O options entries are also handled similarly. These entries
refer only to numeric ID of entries in the global part (for example, SPC = 5 will expect
SPCADD, 5 or SPC, 5 within the global part). SPCs, MPCs, SPCADD and MPCADD are
local entries and they allow fully qualified referencing of local entries anywhere in the
model. SPCADD, MPCADD entries in parts are allowed but will not be used in the solution
as they cannot be activated by subcase selectors.
4. Fully qualified references are allowed in some data entries (refer to the latest OptiStruct
Reference Guide to check if a data entry accepts fully qualified references). Not all entries
and not all fields within these entries allow fully qualified references.
5. This generalized syntax is allowed in all four bulk formats fixed small field, fixed large
field, free and free large field. As fully qualified references are usually longer than 8
characters, free formats are more useful for this purpose.

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6. As a general practice, all data entries using fully qualified references are placed inside the
global part. This is not mandatory.
7. The own ID of each data entry (usually the second field after the card name) cannot be a
fully qualified reference.
8. As explained previously, for local entries, their own IDs within a particular part cannot be
equal. Whereas, similar data entries can be the same own ID if they are defined in
different parts. In such cases they are completely independent entities and their IDs are
resolved by using fully qualified references. The same rules apply to set IDs, for example,
in SPCs or MPCs the same SID in different parts represent completely independent
entities.
9. Any reference to a global entry must be a numeric reference regardless of whether it is
being referred to from a global or a local part.
10. A fully qualified reference (if allowed) is resolved to a specific instance defined by part
name and ID within that part.
11. If a local entry contains a numeric reference (instead of a fully qualified reference),
OptiStruct resolves the reference to a local entry within the same part. If the part does
not contain an entry (of the required type) with the ID equal to the numeric reference,
OptiStruct looks in the global part for a possible match. If the entry is not available in the
global part also, then the program errors out, regardless of whether the required entry
(with same ID) is available locally in a different part. For example:
This entry is located in local part grip:
RBE2, 15, 5, 123, 7, 8
Grid points 1,3,5 are included in part grip
Grid points 1,3,5,7,8 are included in local part frame
Grid points 3,5,7 are included in global part racquet
In the above example, on the RBE2 element, grid point 5 refers to grid grip.5, grid point
7 refers to racquet.8 and grid point results in an error.
12. OptiStruct allows repetition of some global data entries, even if only unique IDs are
allowed, only if the content of such cards is identical (for example, material and property
entries).

Logical Sets
The SET bulk data entry can be used in the global part to reference SETs defined within
different parts. These SET entries in the global part can contain fully qualified references to
part-specific SET data only if logical operators (OPERATOR field on the SET entry) are used.
For example:
The following SET entry exists in part A:
BEGIN, FEMODEL, A
SET, 29, ELEM, LIST
15 THRU 30

END, FEMODEL, A

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Referencing SET, 29 in the global part G:


BEGIN, FEMODEL, G
SET, 78, ELEM, OR
A.29

END, FEMODEL, G
This process can be used to reference local sets in the global part on entries which do not
support fully-qualified referencing of local sets (like, output entries). For example:
The following SET entry exists in part A:
BEGIN, FEMODEL, A
SET, 3, GRID, LIST
15 THRU 30

END, FEMODEL, A
In the global part G:
Incorrect
BEGIN, FEMODEL,