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Microbiology Week 7 presented by Amanda Arceo
Microbiology
Week 7
presented by Amanda Arceo
Epidemiology • Keyword Concepts • • • infection and disease epidemiology nosocomial infections •
Epidemiology
Keyword Concepts
infection and disease
epidemiology
nosocomial infections
Keywords • parasite • infection • disease •
Keywords
parasite
infection
disease
Epidemiology • Keyword Concepts • • • infection and disease epidemiology nosocomial infections • Keywords •

microbial antagonist infectious disease contagious disease pathogenicity virulence epidemiology incidence prevalence nosocomial infections

Epidemiology • Keyword Concepts • • • infection and disease epidemiology nosocomial infections • Keywords •
Epidemiology • Keyword Concepts • • • infection and disease epidemiology nosocomial infections • Keywords •
Host-Microbe Relations
Host-Microbe Relations
• symbiosis: interaction between two different organisms in close proximity • mutualism: both species benefit from
• symbiosis: interaction between two different organisms in
close proximity
mutualism: both species benefit from the interaction
(++)
parasitism: one species benefits while the other is harmed
by the interaction
(+-)
commensalism: one species benefits while the other is not
impacted by the interaction
(+0)
antagonism: both species are harmed by the interaction
(--)
contamination
contamination
• microorganisms are present on an object, may be parasites or non-parasitic microbes • IF a
• microorganisms are present on an object, may be
parasites or non-parasitic microbes
IF a parasite is able to enter the body, it has the
possibility to create an infection
infection = the multiplication of parasitic organisms
inside the host
may or may not lead to disease/change in health
pathogenicity
pathogenicity
• not all pathogens have the same capacity for causing disease • the capacity to produce
• not all pathogens have the same capacity for
causing disease
• the capacity to produce disease is known as
pathogenicity
• the intensity of the disease produced is called
virulence
your body • Your body has about 10 trillion human cells • and around 100 trillion
your body
Your body has about 10
trillion human cells
and around 100 trillion
microbial cells!
Normal Microbiota
Normal Microbiota
• includes the well-established, permanent colonization of microorganism on the body • Two types of normal
• includes the well-established, permanent
colonization of microorganism on the body
• Two types of normal microbiota:
resident
always present
temporary
comes and goes without notice
Where is it found?
Where is it found?
• conjunctiva • nose • mouth • pharynx • skin • large intestine
conjunctiva
nose
mouth
pharynx
skin
large intestine
• rectum • urethra • vagina • *not ALL parts of the body contain normal microbiota
rectum
urethra
• vagina
• *not ALL parts of the body
contain normal microbiota
Opportunists…
Opportunists…
• opportunists will cause disease if conditions are correct: • • • changes in the normal
• opportunists will cause disease if conditions are
correct:
• changes in the normal microflora
immune system failure
introduction to new areas
microbial antagonism
microbial antagonism
• normal microbiota compete with invaders • decrease the chance of infection
• normal microbiota compete with invaders
• decrease the chance of infection
Difference in Disease
Difference in Disease
infectious • caused by pathogens
infectious
caused by pathogens
non-infectious • not caused by pathogens
non-infectious
not caused by pathogens
Difference in Disease
Difference in Disease
Difference in Disease communicable • spread from one host to another contagious • a communicable disease

communicable

spread from one host to another
spread from one
host to another
contagious • a communicable disease that spreads easily
contagious
a communicable
disease that
spreads easily
non-infectious • do not spread host to host but use anther method, such as opportunistic pathogens,
non-infectious
do not spread host
to host but use
anther method,
such as
opportunistic
pathogens, toxin
ingestion,
environmental
exposure, etc.
the disease process
the disease process
• in order to cause disease, a microorganism must first gain entry to the host and
• in order to cause disease, a microorganism must
first gain entry to the host and beat the immune
system in order to establish colonization
• virulence factors are structural or physiological
characteristics that aid a microorganism in causing
an infection
• adherence (attachment) to a host cell is the first step
• most bacteria utilize adhesins, proteins that exist on
external structures that help them recognize and
attach to host cells
the disease process
the disease process
• once attached, the degree of invasiveness, ability to invade the tissues, is related to the
• once attached, the degree of invasiveness, ability to
invade the tissues, is related to the virulence factor
of the specific pathogen
few enzymes produced can greatly aid in this process
coagulase
accelerates blood clotting, walling off the bacteria from the
immune system
streotpkinase
dissolves blood clots, allowing the organism to spread
other issues…
other issues…
• some diseases aren’t caused by the bacteria, rather by the toxins produced by the bacteria
• some diseases aren’t caused by the bacteria, rather
by the toxins produced by the bacteria
Endotoxins
lipopolysaccharide complexes created by gram negative
bacteria
large dose needed to cause disease
Exotoxins
often enzymes produced by gram-positive bacteria
small dose can produce very serious disease
ex: Clostridium botulinum can kill a human who puts
contaminated food into their mouth briefly before spitting it
out.

clinically important

exotoxins
exotoxins
• hemolysins • lyse blood cells and partially or completely break down hemoglobin • these have
hemolysins
lyse blood cells and partially or completely break down
hemoglobin
these have different appearances on blood agar plates and can
be used to differentiate between different species of
microorganisms.
leukoccidins
damage white blood cells; particularly the phagocytic white
blood cells
neurotoxins
acts on nervous system
enterotoxins
acts on your gut
Important terms
Important terms
• acute disease • develops rapidly and runs its course quickly • chronic disease • develops
• acute disease
develops rapidly and runs its course quickly
• chronic disease
develops slowly, usually less severe, persists for a
long-time
• subacute disease
between acute and chronic
• latent disease
there is a period of inactivity between outbreaks
important terms
important terms

local infection
local infection
confined to a specific area of the body
confined to a specific area of the body

focal infection
focal infection
confined to a specific area but the pathogens, or their toxins, can spread to other areas
confined to a specific area but the pathogens, or their toxins, can spread to other areas

systemic infection
systemic infection
affects most of the body with the pathogens widely distributed
affects most of the body with the pathogens widely distributed
• primary infection • initial infection by a pathogen • secondary infection • • occurs when
primary infection
initial infection by a pathogen
secondary infection
occurs when another pathogen causes disease after a primary infection, usually due to a
weakened immune system.
This is considered a superinfection if the disease results from the loss of microbial antagonism.
subclinical infection
do not have a syndrome associated with the disease, so the individual never knows they were
sick, but the immune response still occurs giving immunity
Four stages of infection
Four stages of infection
• Incubation period • • Prodromal phase • vague symptoms •
• Incubation period
• Prodromal phase
vague symptoms
no signs or symptoms
no signs or symptoms
Four stages of infection • Incubation period • • Prodromal phase • vague symptoms • no

Invasive/Declining Phase

•
Four stages of infection • Incubation period • • Prodromal phase • vague symptoms • no

invasive: most severe signs and symptoms decline: declining signs and symptoms

Four stages of infection • Incubation period • • Prodromal phase • vague symptoms • no
Four stages of infection • Incubation period • • Prodromal phase • vague symptoms • no
Four stages of infection • Incubation period • • Prodromal phase • vague symptoms • no

Convalescence period

turn to p. 415, figure 14.9
turn to p. 415, figure 14.9
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
• the study of frequency and spread of diseases in a population • etiology is the
the study of frequency and spread of diseases in a population
etiology is the study of what causes infectious diseases
the incidence of a disease is the number of new cases that occur during a
specific period of time
the prevalence of a disease is the total number of cases of a disease over
a set period of time
incidence is used to study the spread of a disease where prevalence
measures how seriously the disease impacts the population
morbidity rate is the number of individuals affected by a disease during a
set period
mortality rate is the number of deaths due to the disease during a set
period
epidemiology
epidemiology
• diseases in a population are evaluated based on the geographic area affected and the degree
• diseases in a population are evaluated based on the
geographic area affected and the degree of harm, then
classified into one of several categories
endemic is always present in the population at low numbers
epidemic is when a disease has a sudden increase in
incidence in a certain population
pandemic is when an epidemic goes worldwide
sporadic diseases occur randomly and unpredictably
common-source outbreak is an epidemic that arises from
contact with a contaminated substance
(p. 426-428)
epidemiology
epidemiology
• collecting frequency data is the basis of epidemiologic study • descriptive epidemiology looks at the
collecting frequency data is the basis of epidemiologic study
descriptive epidemiology looks at the physical aspect of an existing
disease and its spread by recording number of cases, segments of
population affected, and location/time period of the cases.
This is what the CDC does to find the source of a salmonella outbreak.
Analytical study focuses on cause-effect relationships investigating where
individuals had been and what they had done versus a control group.
Florence Nightengale used analytical study to examine the rates of
typhoid in general population versus soldiers in the east.
Experimental studies are designed to test a hypothesis about treating.
This is the most common way drug studies are run utilizing a placebo in a
double-blind set up so that nobody in the room with the drug knows if it it’s
really the drug or a placebo that they’re taking.
infection sites and transmission • the sites a pathogen can enter the body are called portals
infection sites and
transmission
• the sites a pathogen can enter the body are called
portals of entry
skin
• mucous
• membranes of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital
systems
any opening to the outside of the body
infection sites and transmission • Pathogens may be introduced via: • tissue damage such as bites,
infection sites and
transmission
• Pathogens may be introduced via:
tissue damage such as bites, burns injections and
wounds
some viruses can cross the placental barrier
• portal of entry varies by pathogen species, some can
only utilize one while others are capable of utilizing
multiple
Then what?
Then what?
• Getting inside is only part of the battle… • after a pathogen survives the immune
• Getting inside is only part of the battle…
• after a pathogen survives the immune system to become
a disease, it must be passed on to another host to
ensure survival.
• Portals of exit often involve bodily fluids or feces:
coughing, sneezing, saliva, urine, semen, blood, breast
milk
• the method by which the pathogen is passed host to host
is known as the mode of disease transmission
p. 435
nosocomial infection
nosocomial infection
• is acquired from a hospital or other medical facility • 10% of all patients in
• is acquired from a hospital or other medical facility
10% of all patients in the US will acquire a
nosocomial infection
• one of the leading causes of death in the U.S.
nosocomial infection
nosocomial infection
• can be exogenous, caused by organisms that enter the patient from the environment or endogenous
• can be exogenous, caused by organisms that enter
the patient from the environment or endogenous
which are caused by opportunists among the
patient’s normal microbiota.
• Patients in hospitals have a much greater
susceptibility to pathogens due to the fact that they
are a compromised host (p. 451)

Sites of nosocomial

infection
infection
• Most frequentleast frequent • • • urinary tract surgical wounds respiratory tract • skin •
• Most frequentleast frequent
urinary tract
surgical wounds
respiratory tract
skin
blood
GI tract
CNS
Prevention?
Prevention?
• Universal Precautions (created by CDC) • all hospitals must monitor nosocomial infection and have prevention
• Universal Precautions (created by CDC)
• all hospitals must monitor nosocomial infection and
have prevention and treatment plans in place